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1. Badr RE, Walts AE, Chung F, Bose S: BD ProEx C: a sensitive and specific marker of HPV-associated squamous lesions of the cervix. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jun;32(6):899-906
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  • [Title] BD ProEx C: a sensitive and specific marker of HPV-associated squamous lesions of the cervix.
  • BD ProEx C (ProEx C) is a recently developed immunocytochemical assay that targets the expression of topoisomerase II-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein-2, 2 genes shown to be overexpressed in cervical cancers.
  • Recent studies validated this reagent in liquid-based cytology specimens and suggested its usefulness as an adjunct in the diagnosis of challenging cases.
  • This study aims to assess ProEx C expression patterns in benign, atypical, and dysplastic lesions of the cervix and to compare these patterns with p16 and Ki67 expression and with the presence of human papilloma virus DNA as determined by in situ hybridization.
  • ProEx C positivity was limited to the basal layers of the epithelium in 75% of benign cervices.
  • In 92% of high-grade dysplasias [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II and III] strong positive staining for ProEx C involved the lower and upper halves of the epithelium.
  • To summarize, ProEx C is a reliable marker for high-grade CIN that can be applied to tissue sections to confirm the diagnosis of high-grade CIN and to triage cases of atypical squamous metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / virology

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  • (PMID = 18425044.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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2. Walid MS, Heaton RL: Case report of a cervical lipoleiomyoma with an incidentally discovered ovarian granulosa cell tumor - imaging and minimal-invasive surgical procedure. Ger Med Sci; 2010;8:Doc26
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  • [Title] Case report of a cervical lipoleiomyoma with an incidentally discovered ovarian granulosa cell tumor - imaging and minimal-invasive surgical procedure.
  • Uterine lipoleiomyomas are rare benign tumors that mostly affect the uterine corpus.
  • We are reporting the imaging and operative procedure of a very rare case of a large lipoleiomyoma of the uterine cervix combined with an occult adult ovarian granulosa cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21063471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1612-3174
  • [Journal-full-title] German medical science : GMS e-journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ger Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2975263
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; granulosa cell tumor / lipomeiomyoma / total laparoscopic hysterectomy
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3. Abiko K, Baba T, Ogawa M, Mikami Y, Koyama T, Mandai M, Konishi I: Minimal deviation mucinous adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') of the uterine corpus. Pathol Int; 2010 Jan;60(1):42-7
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  • [Title] Minimal deviation mucinous adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') of the uterine corpus.
  • Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus are typically low grade and frequently associated with endometrial hyperplasia and/or ordinary endometrioid adenocarcinoma, but may appear as a heterogeneous group of neoplasms.
  • In some areas endometrial glands of adenomyosis were replaced by benign-looking mucinous metaplasia.
  • The uterine cervix showed no abnormalities.
  • HIK1083 and MUC6 immunohistochemistry indicated a gastric phenotype of the tumor, as seen in cases of prototypical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of the cervix.
  • In summary, mucinous endometrial adenocarcinoma rarely shows features similar to MDA of the cervix.
  • This case provokes a discussion on diagnostic and management strategy, and histogenesis of mucinous neoplasm of the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology


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4. Guyader D, Latournerie M: [Incidental ultrasound finding of a 3 cm liver nodule in a 45-year-old woman taking hormonal substitution after hysterectomy performed for cervix carcinoma]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2009 Oct;33(10-11 Suppl):F60-7
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  • [Title] [Incidental ultrasound finding of a 3 cm liver nodule in a 45-year-old woman taking hormonal substitution after hysterectomy performed for cervix carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Découverte fortuite d'un nodule hépatique de 3cm à l'échographie chez une femme de 45 ans (sous traitement substitutif hormonal après hystérectomie pour cancer du col de l'utérus).
  • In other cases, the etiological diagnosis relies on careful radiological analysis of the pattern of the arterial phase enhancement following contrast medium injection.
  • When there is no early arterial enhancement, a liver biopsy is usually indicated to establish the diagnosis.
  • A strong arterial contrast enhancement pattern is indicative of hepatocellular tumor, benign or malignant.
  • In case of cirrhosis, the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma is the most probable.
  • Contrast enhanced MRI and contrast ultrasound are most useful tools for the diagnosis of nodular regenerative hyperplasia but liver biopsy can be necessary in atypical forms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Liver Cell / ultrasonography. Contrast Media. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / ultrasonography. Hormone Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Humans. Hysterectomy / adverse effects. Incidental Findings. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19766417.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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5. Simionescu C, Georgescu CV, Mărgăritescu C, Niculescu M: Diagnosis problems in a case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2006;47(3):245-9
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  • [Title] Diagnosis problems in a case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • We present the diagnostic problems in a case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • Histopathologic exam of the tumor, made on serial sections, revealed a dense and profound proliferation of the glandular structures that were lined by endocervical type epithelia with minimal cellular and nuclear atypia.
  • The aspect suggested the diagnosis of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma endocervical type; in order to confirm the diagnosis we immunohistochemical investigate the tumor for CEA, CA125, Ki67, ER and PR.
  • We can conclude that all these markers are useful in the diagnosis, excluding the benign endocervical lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


6. Missaoui N, Hmissa S, Frappart L, Trabelsi A, Ben Abdelkader A, Traore C, Mokni M, Yaacoubi MT, Korbi S: p16INK4A overexpression and HPV infection in uterine cervix adenocarcinoma. Virchows Arch; 2006 May;448(5):597-603
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  • [Title] p16INK4A overexpression and HPV infection in uterine cervix adenocarcinoma.
  • Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causally involved in the genesis of cervical carcinomas and their precursors, and there is a strong relationship between the cyclin-dependant kinase inhibitor p16INK4A and HPV infection.
  • This study was carried out to assess the correlations between p16INK4A expression as an early biomarker of the endocervical adenocarcinoma and HPV infection. p16INK4A expression and HPV typing were performed on 46 samples including 5 normal endocervix, 9 benign lesions of the endocervix, 25 endocervical adenocarcinomas, and 7 endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus.
  • No p16INK4A was detected in nine benign endocervical lesions and in five normal endocervix.
  • Few endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus that infiltrate the endocervix exhibited a low immunoreactivity (score 0/15 or 1/15).
  • Our results suggest that p16INK4A is a putative molecular biomarker that consistently discriminates uterine cervix adenocarcinomas from benign lesions and from endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / virology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Tumor Virus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 16496173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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7. Folpe AL, Mentzel T, Lehr HA, Fisher C, Balzer BL, Weiss SW: Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms of soft tissue and gynecologic origin: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Dec;29(12):1558-75
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  • [Title] Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms of soft tissue and gynecologic origin: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases and review of the literature.
  • This family of tumors includes angiomyolipoma (AML), clear cell sugar tumor of the lung (CCST), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), and very rare tumors in other locations.
  • Sites of involvement included the omentum or mesentery (6 cases), uterus (4 cases), pelvic soft tissues (3 cases), abdominal wall (2 cases), uterine cervix (2 cases), and vagina, retroperitoneum, thigh, falciform ligament, scalp, broad ligament, forearm, shoulder, and neck (1 case each).
  • Recurrence and/or metastasis was strongly associated tumor size > median size (8 cm), mitotic activity greater than 1/50 HPF, and necrosis.
  • We conclude that PEComas of soft tissue and gynecologic origin may be classified as "benign," "of uncertain malignant potential," or "malignant."
  • Small PEComas without any worrisome histologic features are most likely benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 16327428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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8. Onuma K, Dabbs DJ, Bhargava R: Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):418-25
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  • [Title] Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium.
  • Mammaglobin (MGB), a secretory protein belonging to the uteroglobin/Clara cell protein family, is a sensitive marker for breast carcinoma, but is also reported to be expressed in the female genital tract and its neoplasms.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) showed either weak (predominantly) or moderate (occasionally) expression in about 40% of the cases in comparison with strong positivity in benign endocervical glandular epithelium.
  • Reduction of MGB staining was seen in transition from benign epithelium to AIS.
  • Most endocervical adenocarcinomas are negative for MGB, in contrast to mostly positive endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas, however, MGB expression alone is not specific enough to distinguish these 2 tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism. Uteroglobin / biosynthesis. Uterus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammaglobin A. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18580321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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9. Susini T, Molino C, Castiglione F, Olivieri S: Masson's vegetant hemangioendothelioma arising in the uterine cervix during pregnancy: a case report. J Womens Health (Larchmt); 2010 Sep;19(9):1759-62
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  • [Title] Masson's vegetant hemangioendothelioma arising in the uterine cervix during pregnancy: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Hemangioendothelioma is a rare benign intravascular tumor that can be confused with other vascular neoplasms.
  • We report the first case of cervical vegetant intravascular hemangioendothelioma (Masson's tumor) arising in a pregnant woman.
  • CASE REPORT: A 40-year-old woman at 15 weeks' gestation developed a voluminous cervical mass and vaginal bleeding.
  • The pathological diagnosis was Masson's tumor or intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia.
  • The tumor showed strong estrogen and progesterone receptor expression.The patient underwent an elective cesarean section at term, giving birth to a healthy baby.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Obstetricians should be aware that Masson's tumor may occasionally arise in the uterine cervix during pregnancy.
  • This benign vascular tumor may display a rapid growth because of the presence of sex steroid receptors.
  • Differential diagnosis should consider a malignant vascular tumor, including Kaposi's sarcoma and angiosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioendothelioma / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, Second


10. Gupta R, Singh S, Nigam S, Khurana N: Benign vascular tumors of female genital tract. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1195-200
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  • [Title] Benign vascular tumors of female genital tract.
  • The vascular tumors occurred most commonly in ovary (six), followed by vulva (two), and one each in cervix and vagina.
  • Clinical diagnoses ranged from cystadenoma in ovarian tumors to endocervical polyp in cervical tumor.
  • Histologically, all were benign vascular neoplasms, ranging from hemangioma (five), lymphangioma (one), lymphangioma circumscriptum (one) to angiomatosis (two) and arteriovenous malformation (one).
  • Vascular lesions of cervix and vulvovaginal region pose special problem during pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Genitalia, Female / blood supply. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Angiomatosis / diagnosis. Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnosis. Female. Genital Diseases, Female / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Humans. Lymphangioma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16803506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Conesa-Zamora P, Doménech-Peris A, Orantes-Casado FJ, Ortiz-Reina S, Sahuquillo-Frías L, Acosta-Ortega J, García-Solano J, Pérez-Guillermo M: Effect of human papillomavirus on cell cycle-related proteins p16, Ki-67, Cyclin D1, p53, and ProEx C in precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma: a tissue microarray study. Am J Clin Pathol; 2009 Sep;132(3):378-90
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  • [Title] Effect of human papillomavirus on cell cycle-related proteins p16, Ki-67, Cyclin D1, p53, and ProEx C in precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma: a tissue microarray study.
  • In-depth study of cell cycle proteins and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping can provide useful information about the malignant potential of precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma (CC).
  • Immunostaining of cell cycle-related proteins (p16, cyclin D1, Ki-67, p53, and ProEx C) was evaluated using tissue microarrays, and HPV genotypes were identified in 144 cervical tissue specimens encompassing normal or benign epithelial lesions, low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL, respectively), and CC.
  • Immunohistochemical assessment of cell cycle proteins may help to distinguish normal and benign conditions of the cervix from precursor lesions of CC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Cycle / physiology. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Tissue Array Analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19687314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / P16 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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12. Darvishian F, Stier EA, Soslow RA, Lin O: Immunoreactivity of p16 in anal cytology specimens: histologic correlation. Cancer; 2006 Feb 25;108(1):66-71
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  • BACKGROUND: Cytology has been proposed as a potential screening tool in the evaluation of squamous anorectal disease in view of the morphologic similarities between anal and cervical squamous lesions.
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that p16 overexpression correlates with the degree of dysplasia in the uterine cervix with promising results.
  • No cell immunoreactive for p16 was found in 15 cases (5 benign cases and 10 cases with either LSIL or HSIL).
  • The sensitivity and specificity of p16 immunoreactivity in the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia or carcinoma were 72% and 71%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16404747.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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13. McCluggage WG, Ganesan R, Hirschowitz L, Miller K, Rollason TP: Ectopic prostatic tissue in the uterine cervix and vagina: report of a series with a detailed immunohistochemical analysis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Feb;30(2):209-15
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  • [Title] Ectopic prostatic tissue in the uterine cervix and vagina: report of a series with a detailed immunohistochemical analysis.
  • We describe 6 cases of ectopic prostatic tissue: 5 involving the cervix and 1 the vagina.
  • The latter is the first reported example of benign prostatic tissue in the vagina.
  • The age of the patients ranged from 21 to 65 years; and in all cases, the prostatic tissue was located within the cervical or vaginal stroma without involvement of the surface.
  • Once the possibility is considered, the diagnosis is easily confirmed using immunohistochemistry, although staining with prostatic markers may be focal and PSA may be negative.
  • Ectopic prostatic tissue in the lower female genital tract is almost certainly a benign condition, based on the morphology, including the presence of a double cell layer, although follow-up of larger numbers of cases is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Prostate. Uterine Diseases / pathology. Vaginal Diseases / pathology


14. Lane BR, Ross JH, Hart WR, Kay R: Müllerian papilloma of the cervix in a child with multiple renal cysts. Urology; 2005 Feb;65(2):388
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  • [Title] Müllerian papilloma of the cervix in a child with multiple renal cysts.
  • At vaginoscopy, a 1-cm frond-like papillary lesion overlying the cervix was identified.
  • The pathologic diagnosis was mullerian papilloma, a rare benign tumor of the vagina and uterine cervix.
  • We report the first patient with both a renal anomaly and mullerian papilloma of the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney / complications. Papilloma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Colposcopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Electrocoagulation. Female. Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Infant. Nephrectomy / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


15. Hayashi T, Horiuchi A, Sano K, Hiraoka N, Kanai Y, Shiozawa T, Tonegawa S, Konishi I: Mice-lacking LMP2, immuno-proteasome subunit, as an animal model of spontaneous uterine leiomyosarcoma. Protein Cell; 2010 Aug;1(8):711-7
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  • [Title] Mice-lacking LMP2, immuno-proteasome subunit, as an animal model of spontaneous uterine leiomyosarcoma.
  • Uterine tumors are the most common type of gynecologic neoplasm.
  • Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is rare, accounting for 2% to 5% of tumors of the uterine body.
  • Uterine LMS develops more often in the muscle tissue layer of the uterine body than in the uterine cervix.
  • The development of gynecologic tumors is often correlated with female hormone secretion; however, the development of uterine LMS is not substantially correlated with hormonal conditions, and the risk factors are not yet known.
  • Radiographic evaluation combined with PET/CT can be useless in the diagnosis and surveillance of uterine LMS.
  • Importantly, a diagnostic biomarker, which distinguishes malignant LMS and benign tumor leiomyoma (LMA) is yet to be established.
  • Accordingly, it is necessary to analyze risk factors associated with uterine LMS in order to establish a method of treatment.
  • LMP2-deficient mice spontaneously develop uterine LMS, with a disease prevalence of ∼40% by 14 months of age.
  • It is therefore of interest whether human uterine LMS shows a loss of LMP2 expression.
  • LMP2 is potentially a diagnostic biomarker for uterine LMS, and gene therapy with LMP2-encording DNA may be a new therapeutic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysteine Endopeptidases / genetics. Leiomyosarcoma / genetics. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Down-Regulation. Female. Gene Deletion. Humans. Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 / biosynthesis. Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 / genetics. Leiomyoma / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Knockout

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  • (PMID = 21203912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1674-8018
  • [Journal-full-title] Protein & cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Protein Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interferon Regulatory Factor-1; 144416-78-4 / LMP-2 protein; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4875197
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16. Brys M, Semczuk A, Rechberger T, Krajewska WM: Expression of erbB-1 and erbB-2 genes in normal and pathological human endometrium. Oncol Rep; 2007 Jul;18(1):261-5
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  • Expression of the erbB-1/erbB-2 genes was measured applying the quantitative RT-PCR technique in 25 uterine carcinomas, 12 normal endometria, a carcinosarcoma and a case of botryoid sarcoma of the uterine cervix.
  • The level of expression appeared to be significantly higher in the malignant tumors as compared to the benign ones for erbB-1 and for erbB-2 (p=0.0001 and p=0.008, respectively).
  • A significant correlation between erbB-1 overexpression and tumor differentiation was found (Spearman rank correlation test, p<0.001).
  • Concomitant erbB-1 and erbB-2 overexpression was detected only in 1 out of 25 (4%) uterine neoplasms. erbB-1 was overexpressed in a sarcoma botryoides of the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrium / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17549377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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17. Ling J, Wiederkehr U, Cabiness S, Shroyer KR, Robinson JP: Application of flow cytometry for biomarker-based cervical cancer cells detection. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Feb;36(2):76-84
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  • [Title] Application of flow cytometry for biomarker-based cervical cancer cells detection.
  • The Pap test used for cervical cancer screening is subjective, labor-intensive, and has relatively low sensitivity and specificity for the detection of underlying clinically significant lesions.
  • The objective of this study is to develop a biomarker/flow cytometry-based approach for cervical cancer screening.
  • Immunofluorescence technology to quantify cervical cell expression of two biomarkers p16(INK4A) and Mcm5 was developed and evaluated by both microscopy and flow cytometry.
  • The capability of using biomarker/flow cytometry approach to detect rare-event dysplastic cells in a large background of benign epithelial and inflammatory cells was evaluated.
  • The results indicate that flow cytometry could detect 0.01% dysplastic cells in a background of normal cervical epithelial cells with the combination of the two biomarkers.
  • Thirty-two clinical specimens were used to test the biomarker/flow cytometry-based approach and the results were compared with the liquid-based cervical cytology.
  • The experiment yielded 100% sensitivity and 93% specificity with reference to the liquid-based cervical cytology.
  • This study indicates the promise of using multi-color fluorescence flow cytometry for biomarker-based cervical cancer screening.
  • This molecular-based, potentially high-throughput and automated method is expected to provide an alternative/auxiliary means of cervical cancer screening.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Flow Cytometry / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. HeLa Cells. Humans. Mass Screening / methods. Sensitivity and Specificity


18. Kedzia W, Goździcka-Józefiak A: [Mechanism of the cancerogenesis in cervix paraepidermal epithelium cells with chronic infection of oncogenic types of human papiloma virus]. Ginekol Pol; 2007 Sep;78(9):701-8
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  • [Title] [Mechanism of the cancerogenesis in cervix paraepidermal epithelium cells with chronic infection of oncogenic types of human papiloma virus].
  • HPV 6 and 11 are frequently associated with benign condylomas, while HPV 16 and 18 are associated with malignant progression and cervical cancer.
  • The role of HPVs 16 and 18 in uterine cervix carcinoma has been well-documented, but their contriobution to carcinogenesis of other neoplasias is still questionable.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / genetics. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Tumor Virus Infections / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


19. Lee WA: Gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype: as a gastric counterpart of adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix. World J Surg Oncol; 2005 May 23;3:28
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  • [Title] Gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype: as a gastric counterpart of adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix.
  • Rarely the structural and cellular atypia of tumor cells is too insignificant to discriminate from benign foveolar epithelium.
  • The resected stomach revealed a huge fungating tumor at the cardia.
  • The cut surface of the tumor was whitish gelatinous.
  • Microscopically the tumor was sharply demarcated from surrounding mucosa and composed of very well formed glandular structures without significant cellular atypia, which invaded into the whole layer of the gastric wall.
  • Tumor glands were occasionally complicated or dilated, and glandular lumina were filled with abundant mucin.
  • Immunohistochemically the tumor cells revealed no overexpression of p53 protein but high Ki-67 labeling index.
  • The tumor cells and intraluminal mucin were diffusely expressed MUC1 and MUC5AC and only focally expressed MUC2.

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  • [Cites] Hum Pathol. 1999 Jul;30(7):826-32 [10414502.001]
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  • (PMID = 15907218.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1180859
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20. Schledermann D, Andersen BT, Bisgaard K, Dohse M, Ejersbo D, Hoelund B, Horal P, Lindh M, Ryd W: Are adjunctive markers useful in routine cervical cancer screening? Application of p16(INK4a) and HPV-PCR on ThinPrep samples with histological follow-up. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Jul;36(7):453-9
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  • [Title] Are adjunctive markers useful in routine cervical cancer screening? Application of p16(INK4a) and HPV-PCR on ThinPrep samples with histological follow-up.
  • The objectives of the study were to evaluate 1) the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of p16(INK4a) as a marker for high-grade cervical lesions, 2) the results of a real-time polymerase chain reaction detecting high-risk human papillomavirus, and 3) the interobserver variability of the p16(INK4a) interpretation.A total of 232 ThinPrep samples were stained for p16(INK4a), and HPV-DNA PCR was performed on 107 specimens with inclusion of both benign and abnormal cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervix Uteri / chemistry. Cervix Uteri / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Histological Techniques. Humans. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Vaginal Smears


21. Hariri J, Øster A: The negative predictive value of p16INK4a to assess the outcome of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 in the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jul;26(3):223-8
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  • [Title] The negative predictive value of p16INK4a to assess the outcome of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 in the uterine cervix.
  • The immunohistochemical expression of p16 in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded histological sections was evaluated in a retrospective study comprising a low-grade group of 100 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, a high-grade group of 50 cases of CIN 2 to 3, and a benign group of 50 cases of normal tissue or benign lesions in the uterine cervix.
  • Positive reaction for p16 was detected in all cases in the high-grade group and in only 3 cases in the benign group.
  • All but one of these p16 negative cases in the low-grade group had a benign or normal outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


22. Li C, Rock KL, Woda BA, Jiang Z, Fraire AE, Dresser K: IMP3 is a novel biomarker for adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: an immunohistochemical study in comparison with p16(INK4a) expression. Mod Pathol; 2007 Feb;20(2):242-7
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  • [Title] IMP3 is a novel biomarker for adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: an immunohistochemical study in comparison with p16(INK4a) expression.
  • Adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix remains a diagnostic challenge in a small proportion of cases.
  • This suggests a need for biomarker that may be of help in establishing the diagnosis.
  • Forty-four samples of adenocarcinoma in situ from 40 patients and 23 control cases of benign uterine cervix were included in this study.
  • In addition to benign endocervical epithelium, 19 of these 23 control cases also showed focal tubal metaplasia.
  • Our findings demonstrate significant expression of insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 and p16(INK4a) in adenocarcinoma in situ as compared to benign endocervical glands, suggesting that expression of these biomarkers may be helpful in the distinction of adenocarcinoma in situ from benign endocervical glands, particularly in difficult borderline cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged


23. Hwang JH, Lee JK, Lee NW, Lee KW: Primary small cell carcinoma of the endometrium: report of a case with immunochemical studies. J Reprod Med; 2010 Jan-Feb;55(1-2):81-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma (SCC) is a well-known tumor that occurs predominantly in the lung.
  • These tumors may also occur in the female genital tract, where it occurs most commonly in the cervix.
  • We report a case of an endometrial tumor that was a combination of an SCC and endometrioid adenocarcinoma with squamous components and that penetrated half of the thickness of the uterine wall.
  • CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemical analyses are helpful in diagnosing and differentiating primary SCC of the endometrium from benign and malignant diseases of the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20337215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Synaptophysin
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24. Sahdev A: Cervical tumors. Semin Ultrasound CT MR; 2010 Oct;31(5):399-413
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  • [Title] Cervical tumors.
  • Imaging the cervix for benign and malignant disease can be achieved using transvaginal ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.
  • The best established role of imaging is in cervical carcinoma where magnetic resonance imaging, CT and increasingly positron emission tomography-CT are the most frequently used imaging modalities.
  • Histopathological diagnosis of cervical disorders cannot be made on the basis of imaging alone but certain imaging features may provide an indication as to the underlying diagnosis.
  • We describe the imaging features of some malignant tumor subtypes in which a preoperative diagnosis may alter management.
  • Benign lesions of the cervix are usually detected incidentally or during investigations for dysfunctional vaginal bleeding.
  • We describe the imaging features of the commonly encountered benign cervical lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cervix Uteri / radiography. Cervix Uteri / radionuclide imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Uterine Cervical Diseases / diagnosis


25. Schlott T, Eiffert H, Bohne W, Landgrebe J, Brunner E, Spielbauer B, Knight B: Chlamydia trachomatis modulates expression of tumor suppressor gene caveolin-1 and oncogene C-myc in the transformation zone of non-neoplastic cervical tissue. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Sep;98(3):409-19
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  • [Title] Chlamydia trachomatis modulates expression of tumor suppressor gene caveolin-1 and oncogene C-myc in the transformation zone of non-neoplastic cervical tissue.
  • OBJECTIVES: The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is frequently found in association with benign proliferative, pre-neoplastic and malignant changes in cervical epithelium.
  • The present study addresses the possible role of C. trachomatis infection of the uterine cervix in modulating human cancer gene expression.
  • Forty specimens of cervix dissected from the transformation zone had previously tested negative for HPV and positive for C. trachomatis by standard DNA PCR (20).
  • The cultures showed a 2-fold decrease in the expression of the gene coding for the tumor suppressor caveolin-1, and increased expression of the oncogene C-myc, a promoter of cervical carcinogenesis.
  • In tissues from the Chlamydia-infected cervical transformation zone, real-time RT-PCR demonstrated a highly significant average 4.7-fold reduction of caveolin-1 mRNA (P < or = 0.0001) and an average 2.1-fold increase in C-myc (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Human ITFgamma-treated fibroblasts as well as non-neoplastic cervical tissues responded to C. trachomatis with a strong down-regulation of caveolin-1 mRNA and a light up-regulation of C-myc mRNA.
  • This study reveals possible mechanisms by which C. trachomatis infection may contribute to neoplastic changes in the transformation of uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Caveolins / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cervix Uteri / microbiology. Chlamydia trachomatis / physiology. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Genes, myc / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / microbiology


26. Conesa-Zamora P, Doménech-Peris A, Ortiz-Reina S, Orantes-Casado FJ, Acosta-Ortega J, García-Solano J, Pérez-Guillermo M: Immunohistochemical evaluation of ProEx C in human papillomavirus-induced lesions of the cervix. J Clin Pathol; 2009 Feb;62(2):159-62
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical evaluation of ProEx C in human papillomavirus-induced lesions of the cervix.
  • AIMS: Considering the sparse information about the clinical utility of the novel immunohistochemical marker ProEx C in histological sections, a decision was taken to study the pattern of ProEx C expression in normal/benign cervical epithelium (N/B), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL), as well as the association of ProEx C expression with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes.
  • METHODS: 100 cervical samples, including 21 N/B cervices, 16 LGSILs, 61 HGSILs and two cervical invasive carcinomas, were obtained from conisation and hysterectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Female. Genotype. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Indicators and Reagents. Papillomaviridae / classification. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Tissue Array Analysis


27. Balci S, Saglam A, Usubutun A: Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the cervix: case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Mar;29(2):181-4
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  • [Title] Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the cervix: case report and review of the literature.
  • Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cervix has 5 subtypes: endocervical, intestinal, signet-ring cell, minimal deviation, and villoglandular.
  • There are only rare reports of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the cervix in the literature.
  • Herein we report a 53-year-old woman with cervical adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cell morphology.
  • DNA extraction from paraffin-embedded tissue revealed the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) type 18, which supports the cervical origin of the tumor.
  • Signet-ring cell morphology can be observed in both benign and malignant lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • Histological features and immunohistochemical profiles are discussed, and a review of signet-ring cell morphology in the uterine cervix is included.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


28. McCluggage WG: Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in cervical pathology. Pathology; 2007 Feb;39(1):97-111
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in cervical pathology.
  • As with biopsies from other sites in the female genital tract, immunohistochemistry is now being increasingly used in cervical pathology as an aid to diagnosis.
  • In this review, I discuss applications of immunohistochemistry in diagnostic cervical pathology with a particular focus on recent developments.
  • Although much of this review focuses on glandular lesions, the value of markers, such as MIB1 and p16, in the assessment of pre-invasive cervical squamous lesions is discussed.
  • In the broad field of cervical glandular lesions, topics covered include: the value of markers such as MIB1, p16 and bcl-2 in distinguishing adenocarcinoma in situ and glandular dysplasia from benign mimics; markers of mesonephric lesions, including CD10; markers of value in the diagnosis of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, such as HIK1083; markers of value in distinguishing metastatic cervical adenocarcinoma in the ovary from primary ovarian endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • Rarely ectopic prostatic tissue occurs in the cervix, which can be confirmed by positive staining with prostatic markers.
  • A panel of markers, comprising oestrogen receptor, vimentin, monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen and p16, is of value in distinguishing between a cervical adenocarcinoma and an endometrial adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type.
  • Markers of use in the diagnosis of cervical neuroendocrine neoplasms, including small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, are discussed.
  • It is stressed that small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas may be negative with most of the commonly used neuroendocrine markers and this does not preclude the diagnosis. p63, a useful marker of squamous neoplasms within the cervix, is of value in distinguishing small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (p63 negative) from small cell squamous carcinoma (p63 positive) and in confirming that a poorly differentiated carcinoma is squamous in type.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17365826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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29. Comunoğlu N, Comunoğlu C, Başsüllü N, Somunkiran A, Calay Z: Müllerian adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth of the cervix: unusual large polypoid mass. Ups J Med Sci; 2007;112(1):67-72
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  • [Title] Müllerian adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth of the cervix: unusual large polypoid mass.
  • Müllerian adenosarcoma (MS) is a rare neoplasm of uterine cervix composed of benign epithelial and malignant stromal components.
  • In this report we present a MASO case, derived from uterine cervix of a 60 year-old-female patient presenting as a cervical polypoid mass, to our knowledge the second case of the English literature.
  • In spite of sarcomatous overgrowth, high mitotic activity and huge tumor size of 12,5 cms, it displayed no myometrial invasion, vascular invasion and heterologous elements.
  • The difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of this entity will be evaluated in this report.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / diagnosis. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


30. Mayer A, Hoeckel M, von Wallbrunn A, Horn LC, Wree A, Vaupel P: HIF-mediated hypoxic response is missing in severely hypoxic uterine leiomyomas. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2010;662:399-405
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  • [Title] HIF-mediated hypoxic response is missing in severely hypoxic uterine leiomyomas.
  • Results from our laboratory have put a question mark on the existence of a direct quantitative relationship between tumor hypoxia and HIF-mediated protein expression in cancers of the uterine cervix.
  • In the present study, this subject has been further explored by the analysis of HIF-related marker expression in a benign tumor entity - uterine leiomyomas - using immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-PCR.
  • [MeSH-major] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. Leiomyoma / metabolism. Leiomyoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Hypoxia. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20204822.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1
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31. O'Neill CJ, McCluggage WG: p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis. Adv Anat Pathol; 2006 Jan;13(1):8-15
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  • [Title] p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis.
  • Diffuse (as opposed to focal) positivity with p16 in the cervix can be regarded as a surrogate marker of the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • In cervical squamous lesions, p16 is positive in most high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and in some cases of low-grade CIN, usually those associated with high-risk HPV. p16 may be useful to identify small focal high-grade CIN lesions, to distinguish some cases of CIN involving immature metaplastic squamous epithelium from immature metaplastic squamous epithelium not involved by CIN and to distinguish high-grade CIN from benign mimics.
  • Most cervical carcinomas of squamous, glandular, and small cell type are p16-positive.
  • In cervical glandular lesions, p16 is useful, as part of a panel, in the distinction between adenocarcinoma in situ (diffusely positive) and benign mimics, including tuboendometrial metaplasia and endometriosis, which are usually p16-negative or focally positive. p16 may be used, in combination with other markers, to distinguish between a cervical adenocarcinoma (diffuse positivity) and an endometrioid-type endometrial adenocarcinoma (negative or focally positive).
  • Some uterine serous carcinomas are diffusely positive.
  • In the vulva, p16 is positive in HPV-associated vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) but negative in VIN not associated with HPV.
  • Similarly, HPV-associated invasive squamous carcinomas are p16-positive, whereas the more common non-HPV-associated neoplasms are largely negative or focally positive.
  • In the uterus, p16 positivity is more common and widespread in leiomyosarcomas than leiomyomas, and this may be a useful aid to diagnosis, although problematic uterine smooth muscle neoplasms have not been extensively studied.
  • Metastatic cervical adenocarcinomas in the ovary are usually diffusely p16-positive, and because these may closely mimic a primary ovarian endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma, this may be a valuable diagnostic aid, although p16 expression in primary ovarian adenocarcinomas of these morphologic subtypes has not been widely investigated.
  • Some ovarian serous carcinomas, similar to their uterine counterparts, are p16-positive.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemistry. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Genes, p16. Genitalia, Female / chemistry. Genitalia, Female / physiopathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. Vulvar Neoplasms / chemistry. Vulvar Neoplasms / classification. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16462152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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32. Nishio S, Tsuda H, Fujiyoshi N, Ota S, Ushijima K, Sasajima Y, Kasamatsu T, Kamura T, Matsubara O: Clinicopathological significance of cervical adenocarcinoma associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(5):331-7
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological significance of cervical adenocarcinoma associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia.
  • Lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) is usually assumed to be a benign tumor-like lesion of the glands of the uterine cervix.
  • However, LEGH has been associated with obvious cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • We microscopically examined the presence or absence of LEGH components in 95 stage Ib cervical adenocarcinomas.
  • The mortality rate of tumor recurrence was 25% (4 of 16) in patients whose tumors had LEGH components, and 21.5% (17 of 79) in those whose tumors had no LEGH components.
  • Early cervical adenocarcinoma was relatively frequently associated with LEGH components.
  • LEGH may be one of the factors related to the development of cervical adenocarcinoma, but adenocarcinoma with LEGH components does not necessarily develop into a highly aggressive "adenoma malignum. "
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19167836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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33. Fleming NA, Hopkins L, de Nanassy J, Senterman M, Black AY: Mullerian adenosarcoma of the cervix in a 10-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Aug;22(4):e45-51
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  • [Title] Mullerian adenosarcoma of the cervix in a 10-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature.
  • Müllerian adenosarcoma is a rare neoplasm usually found in postmenopausal women.
  • It is a biphasic tumor, composed of a benign epithelial component and a malignant stromal component.
  • To date, this neoplasm has been reported in only 16 adolescent girls.
  • At the level of the cervix, there were 3 polypoid gelatinous structures arising from the endocervix and extruding past the exocervix.
  • Hysteroscopic inspection of the uterine cavity did not find any abnormalities.
  • Pathology confirmed a diagnosis of müllerian adenosarcoma originating from the endocervix.
  • Uterine curettings were negative for malignancy.
  • After a thorough evaluation of the available literature, review with the Regional Tumor Board and extensive discussions with the family, a decision was made to perform a radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, upper vaginectomy and preservation of ovaries.
  • CONCLUSION: Müllerian adenosarcoma of the endocervix is a very rare pediatric tumor.
  • Due to the rarity of this tumor in this age group, optimal therapy is uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


34. Sanati S, Huettner P, Ylagan LR: Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):79-87
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  • [Title] Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens.
  • Our purpose was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of ProExC in dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions of the cervix.
  • ProExC had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 89%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively, for distinguishing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion from squamous metaplasia, and 93%, 100%, 100%, and 98%, respectively, for distinguishing adenocarcinoma in situ from reactive benign endocervix.
  • ProExC is a valuable marker for distinguishing dysplastic squamous and endocervical lesions of the cervix from squamous metaplasia in histologic sections.
  • ProExC may eventually be used in conjunction with morphologic and human papillomavirus evaluation for better classification of indeterminate cervical lesions in Papanicolaou smears.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19952938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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35. López-Morales D, Velázquez-Márquez N, Valenzuela O, Santos-López G, Reyes-Leyva J, Vallejo-Ruiz V: Enhanced sialyltransferases transcription in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Invest Clin; 2009 Mar;50(1):45-53
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  • [Title] Enhanced sialyltransferases transcription in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Altered sialylation observed during oncogenic transformation, tumor metastases and invasion, has been associated with enhanced sialyltransferases (STs) transcription.
  • Increased mRNA expression of STs (ST6Gal I, ST3Gal III) has been detected in invasive cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
  • A study of the sialic acid concentration in local tissue of cervix and in serum showed a slight elevation in benign inflammatory lesions and a moderate elevation in severe neoplasia, but to date, altered expression of STs in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia has not yet been evaluated.
  • This study investigates the changes in mRNA expression of three STs (ST6Gal I, ST3Gal III, and ST3Gal IV) in cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN).
  • Alterations of these STs mRNA expression were examined in 35 cervix specimens classified as normal, CIN 1, CIN 2 and CIN 3, by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, mRNA expression of the three STs was enhanced in CIN 1, CIN 2 and CIN 3 with respect to normal tissue, with a significant difference of p < 0.001 (Mann-Whitney U test) for all the enzymes.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / enzymology. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Sialyltransferases / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 19418726.001).
  • [ISSN] 0535-5133
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigación clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Venezuela
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.4.99.- / Sialyltransferases; GZP2782OP0 / N-Acetylneuraminic Acid
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36. Longatto Filho A, Albergaria A, Paredes J, Moreira MA, Milanezi F, Schmitt FC: P-cadherin expression in glandular lesions of the uterine cervix detected by liquid-based cytology. Cytopathology; 2005 Apr;16(2):88-93
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  • [Title] P-cadherin expression in glandular lesions of the uterine cervix detected by liquid-based cytology.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study P-cadherin aberrant expression as a possible marker for cervical adenocarcinomas in cytological samples.
  • METHODS: We studied P-cadherin immunoexpression in liquid-based cervical cytology samples of biopsy-proven cervical lesions.
  • RESULTS: We found a statistically significant correlation between P-cadherin expression and a cytological diagnosis of malignancy, either glandular or squamous (P < 0.0001).
  • None of the 30 benign cases tested showed membrane staining, but three of them displayed an aberrant nuclear P-cadherin expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that P-cadherin can be used to discriminate between malignant and benign cervical cytological specimens, but not to discriminate glandular from squamous lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Cadherins / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15787651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5507
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins
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37. Modlin IM, Shapiro MD, Kidd M: An analysis of rare carcinoid tumors: clarifying these clinical conundrums. World J Surg; 2005 Jan;29(1):92-101
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  • Carcinoid tumors are distinct neuroendocrine neoplasms with characteristic histological, clinical, and biological properties.
  • Tumors with the worst prognosis were those that involved the pancreas (37.5%: 5-year survival) and those in the cervix (12-33%: 3-year survival).
  • The diminution of the likelihood of inadvertently neglecting these often benign, indolent neoplasms that are well known to metastasize if unaddressed would represent an important advance.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15599742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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38. Gong L, Zhang WD, Liu XY, Han XJ, Yao L, Zhu SJ, Lan M, Li YH, Zhang W: Clonal status and clinicopathological observation of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:25
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  • [Title] Clonal status and clinicopathological observation of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of the uterine cervix is defined as an extremely well differentiated variant of cervical adenocarcinoma, with well-formed glands that resemble benign glands but show distinct nuclear anaplasia or evidence of stromal invasion.
  • Thus, MDA is difficult to differentiate from other cervical hyperplastic lesions.
  • Thus, our findings indicate that MDA is a true neoplasm but is not associated with high-risk HPV.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of MDA depends mainly on its clinical manifestations, the pathological feature that MDA glands are located deeper than the lower level of normal endocervical glands, and immunostaining.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Chromosomes, Human, X. Receptors, Androgen / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / analysis. Case-Control Studies. Cell Proliferation. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Mosaicism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Genetic. Predictive Value of Tests. Stromal Cells / pathology


39. Gombos Z, Xu X, Chu CS, Zhang PJ, Acs G: Peritumoral lymphatic vessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor C expression in early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Dec 1;11(23):8364-71
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  • [Title] Peritumoral lymphatic vessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor C expression in early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • PURPOSE: Lymphatic invasion and nodal metastasis plays a major role in the spread of cervical cancer; however, little is known about the mechanisms whereby tumor cells enter the lymphatic system.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined the intra- and peritumoral lymphatic vessel density (LVD) using D2-40 immunohistochemistry in 111 cervical squamous cell carcinomas and correlated them with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression, clinicopathologic tumor features, and outcome.
  • RESULTS: Compared with benign cervix, intratumoral and peritumoral LVD was significantly increased (P < 0.0001).
  • High peritumoral, but not intratumoral, LVD showed significant correlation with high tumor stage, lymphatic invasion, and nodal metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a potential role for VEGF-C in tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis represented by high peritumoral LVD, which may be one of the mechanisms leading to lymphatic invasion and metastatic spread.
  • High peritumoral LVD may be an independent prognostic factor in early-stage cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphangiogenesis. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasms / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Prognosis. Survival Rate


40. Hao H, Tsujimoto M, Tsubamoto H, Komori S, Hirota S: Immunohistochemical phenotype of the urinary bladder endocervicosis: comparison with normal endocervix and well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of uterine cervix. Pathol Int; 2010 Jul;60(7):528-32
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical phenotype of the urinary bladder endocervicosis: comparison with normal endocervix and well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of uterine cervix.
  • Endocervicosis of the urinary bladder is a very rare tumor-like benign lesion.
  • Immunohistochemical phenotype of these glands was compared with three normal uterine endocervices and two cases of well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri. Choristoma / pathology. Urinary Bladder Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adult. Cesarean Section. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Phenotype. Pregnancy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


41. Tahlan A, Nanda A, Mohan H: Uterine adenomyoma: a clinicopathologic review of 26 cases and a review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Oct;25(4):361-5
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  • [Title] Uterine adenomyoma: a clinicopathologic review of 26 cases and a review of the literature.
  • The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of diagnosing uterine adenomyoma and help in differentiating it from other sinister lesions.
  • Adenomyoma of the uterus is a circumscribed nodular aggregate of benign endometrial glands surrounded by endometrial stroma with leiomyomatous smooth muscle bordering the endometrial stromal component.
  • A retrospective analysis of 26 consecutive cases of uterine adenomyomas diagnosed in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Chandigarh from January 1994 to December 2004 was done, and their clinical and histological features were analyzed.
  • The criterion used for case identification was a circumscribed mass composed of benign endometrial glands with a stromal component consisting of endometrial type stroma surrounded by leiomyomatous smooth muscle.
  • Thirteen patients underwent panhysterectomy; 7, total hysterectomy; 1, subtotal hysterectomy; 4, polypectomy or tumor removal; and 1, curettage.
  • Of the 26 cases of adenomyoma, 24 were in the corpus, 1 was in the cervix, and 1 was in the broad ligament.
  • The glands were lined by benign proliferative pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
  • This study highlights the importance of correctly identifying this fairly common entity and helps to distinguish adenomyoma from other similar appearing benign and malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoma. Uterine Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Leiomyoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16990713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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42. Duggal R, Nijhawan R, Aggarwal N, Sikka P: Mullerian adenosarcoma (heterologous) of the cervix with sarcomatous overgrowth: a case report with review of literature. J Gynecol Oncol; 2010 Jun;21(2):125-8
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  • [Title] Mullerian adenosarcoma (heterologous) of the cervix with sarcomatous overgrowth: a case report with review of literature.
  • Mullerian adenosarcoma is a rare biphasic malignant neoplasm of the cervix characterized by an admixture of benign epithelial elements and a malignant sarcomatous stromal component, which may be either homologous or heterologous.
  • In this report we present a case of MASO of uterine cervix with heterologous elements in a 15-year-old unmarried girl presenting with foul smelling menstrual bleeding and passage of fleshy masses.
  • Because MASO with heterologous elements seems to appear at the earliest stages of reproductive lifespan in women, and have an uncertain malignant potential, gynecologists and pathologists should be aware and think about the possibility of this tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20613904.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2895712
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Heterologous / Mullerian adenosarcoma / Sarcomatous overgrowth / Uterine cervix
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43. Akbulut M, Zekioglu O, Terek MC, Ozdemir N: Lipoadenofibroma of the endometrium: a rare variant of benign mullerian mixed tumor. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Sep;278(3):283-6
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  • [Title] Lipoadenofibroma of the endometrium: a rare variant of benign mullerian mixed tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adenofibroma is a form of mixed mesodermal tumor in which epithelial and stromal components are benign, and usually arises in the endometrium of postmenopausal women.
  • CASE: An endometrial polypoid mass measuring 1,5 cm with maximum diameter was found incidentally during total abdominal hysterectomy for keratinizing large cell carcinoma of the cervix in a 60-year-old woman.
  • CONCLUSION: We suggest that uterine adenofibromas with lipomatous areas belong to the family of mixed tumor of Mullerian origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18236054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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44. Park HM, Lee SS, Eom DW, Kang GH, Yi SW, Sohn WS: Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2009 Aug;24(4):767-71
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  • [Title] Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix: a case report.
  • Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix is rare in premenopausal woman.
  • Histological examination revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma directly adjacent to the endometriosis at the uterine cervix, with a transition observed between endometriosis and endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • The patient was diagnosed as having endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix and underwent postoperative chemotherapy.
  • Gynecologists and pathologists should be aware of the difficulties associated with a delay in diagnosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis when the tumor presents as a benign looking endometrioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometriosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Ovariectomy


45. Korach J, Machtinger R, Perri T, Vicus D, Segal J, Fridman E, Ben-Baruch G: Villoglandular papillary adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: a diagnostic challenge. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2009;88(3):355-8
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  • [Title] Villoglandular papillary adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: a diagnostic challenge.
  • Villoglandular papillary adenocarcinoma (VGA) is a rare subtype of cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate the reliability of histological assessment for pre-treatment diagnosis of VGA.
  • Median age at diagnosis was 38.8 years (range 27-65).
  • Of these, only two had been correctly diagnosed preoperatively, while in three, the initial biopsies were benign or pre-malignant.
  • In four patients, the biopsy results had been interpreted as an invasive malignant tumor necessitating hysterectomy.
  • The final histological report on the remaining three patients was invasive cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • We conclude that pre-treatment diagnosis should not be based solely on a simple punch biopsy because of its low rate of diagnostic accuracy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging


46. Wang X, Kumar D, Seidman JD: Uterine lipoleiomyomas: a clinicopathologic study of 50 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Jul;25(3):239-42
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  • [Title] Uterine lipoleiomyomas: a clinicopathologic study of 50 cases.
  • Lipoleiomyoma is an uncommon uterine neoplasm and, although presumed to be benign, has been inadequately studied.
  • Confirming the benign nature of this tumor is important because it can closely resemble well-differentiated liposarcoma.
  • We evaluated 50 consecutive lipoleiomyomas diagnosed at the Washington Hospital Center from 1998 to 2004; 2.1% of patients who had uterine leiomyomas during this period had a lipoleiomyoma.
  • The mean and median tumor size was 4.6 and 2.1 cm, respectively.
  • Forty-three (83%) tumors were located in the uterine corpus, and 7 (13%) were in the cervix.
  • One broad ligament tumor and one retroperitoneal tumor were also studied.
  • There were no recurrences or fatalities related to tumor.
  • Lipoleiomyoma of the uterus seems to have an uneventful clinical course and can now be confidently regarded as benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology


47. Liao SY, Rodgers WH, Kauderer J, Bonfiglio TA, Walker JL, Darcy KM, Carter R, Hatae M, Levine L, Spirtos NM, Stanbridge EJ: Carbonic anhydrase IX and human papillomavirus as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical dysplasia/neoplasia in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study in United States. Int J Cancer; 2009 Nov 15;125(10):2434-40
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  • [Title] Carbonic anhydrase IX and human papillomavirus as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical dysplasia/neoplasia in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study in United States.
  • High-risk human papillomavirus (H-HPV) infection is strongly linked to cervical neoplasia, but its role in detecting glandular lesions (GLs) is unclear.
  • In the cervix, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) is expressed in cervical neoplasia, but rarely in the benign cervix.
  • The diagnostic utility of these biomarkers was evaluated in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC).
  • Of 403 patients, 111 (28%) were positive for significant cervical lesions (SCLs) including CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma.
  • The combination of CA-IX with H-HPV testing does not improve the diagnostic accuracy for cervical neoplasia in women with AGC diagnosis over that of H-HPV testing alone.

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  • (PMID = 19670419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037517-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA027469-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 11479; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA027469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037517; None / None / / U10 CA037517-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37517; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA027469-29
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS137629; NLM/ PMC2779726
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48. Metser U, You J, McSweeney S, Freeman M, Hendler A: Assessment of tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer and elevated carcinoembryonic antigen level: FDG PET/CT versus contrast-enhanced 64-MDCT of the chest and abdomen. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Mar;194(3):766-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessment of tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer and elevated carcinoembryonic antigen level: FDG PET/CT versus contrast-enhanced 64-MDCT of the chest and abdomen.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare FDG PET/CT and contrast-enhanced 64-MDCT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis in the detection of tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer and an elevated level of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis included 50 patients (31 men, 19 women; mean age, 61 years; range, 28-89 years) with 55 clinical events of elevated or increasing CEA level who underwent FDG PET/CT and MDCT for suspected tumor recurrence.
  • Fifty-four of 61 tumor sites suspected as tumor recurrence with any imaging technique were found to be local recurrence or metastatic colorectal cancer at final analysis.
  • The other seven sites were one separate malignant tumor (small lymphocytic lymphoma) and six benign lesions.
  • Diagnosis was based on histopathologic findings (n = 27) or clinical and imaging findings (n = 35) during a median follow-up period of 12 months (range, 6-31 months).
  • One site of tumor recurrence was missed prospectively at both MDCT and PET/CT.
  • In a tumor site-based analysis, the sensitivities of PET/CT and MDCT were 98.1% and 66.7% (p < 0.0001), and the specificities were 75% and 62.5% (p = 0.56).
  • Tumors correctly identified with PET/CT and missed with MDCT were local recurrence in the presacral space (n = 5), metastatic subcentimeter lymph nodes (n = 4), peritoneal deposits (n = 3), and recurrences at the periphery of radiofrequency ablated metastatic lesions of the liver (n = 2) and in the abdominal wall (n = 1), liver (n = 1), and uterine cervix (n = 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / radiography. Colorectal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiography. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Radiography, Abdominal. Radiography, Thoracic. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20173157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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49. Kalyanasundaram K, Ganesan R, Perunovic B, McCluggage WG: Diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas with no stromal response: report of a series, including cases with cervical and ovarian involvement and emphasis on the potential for misdiagnosis. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;18(2):138-43
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  • [Title] Diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas with no stromal response: report of a series, including cases with cervical and ovarian involvement and emphasis on the potential for misdiagnosis.
  • Endometrial carcinomas, particularly of endometrioid type, can invade the myometrium or cervix without eliciting a stromal desmoplastic or inflammatory response and have been referred to as diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas.
  • The neoplasms consisted of 12 endometrioid carcinomas, 1 mixed endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma, and 1 serous carcinoma.
  • Seven cases exhibited cervical stromal involvement and in 2 there was involvement of both ovaries in a similar pattern.
  • Several of the cases were seen in consultation and the pattern of infiltration raised a number of differential diagnoses, both benign and malignant, depending on the site of tumor involvement, including adenomyosis, adenomyoma, primary endocervical glandular lesions, cervical mesonephric remnants, endometriosis or tuboendometrioid metaplasia, and ovarian cortical inclusion cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Myometrium / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Stromal Cells / pathology


50. Bradshaw MJ, Folpe AL, Croghan GA: Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm of the uterine cervix: an unusual tumor in an unusual location. Rare Tumors; 2010;2(4):e56
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  • [Title] Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm of the uterine cervix: an unusual tumor in an unusual location.
  • A 46-year-old woman presented for a second opinion regarding a 3-4 cm mass of the uterine cervix.
  • A prior biopsy had been interpreted as a malignant melanoma of the cervix, resulting in a radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy.
  • This was to be followed by external beam irradiation and immunotherapy; however, given the rarity of this diagnosis, the patient sought a second opinion at our institution.
  • Further review of the pathological material from the hysterectomy revealed a morphologically benign perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm rather than a malignant melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 21234248.001).
  • [ISSN] 2036-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Rare tumors
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rare Tumors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3019591
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; gynecological neoplasms. / immunohistochemistry / melanoma / perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm
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51. Gallardo A, Prat J: Mullerian adenosarcoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 55 cases challenging the existence of adenofibroma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Feb;33(2):278-88
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  • Mullerian adenosarcomas are rare mixed tumors of low malignant potential that occur mainly in the uterus and also in extrauterine locations.
  • Thirty-seven tumors were of the uterine corpus, 11 of the cervix, 4 of the ovary, and 1 each of the fallopian tube, vagina, and Douglas peritoneum.
  • Of 30 tumors of the uterine corpus, 17 were stage IA, 11 stage IB, 1 stage IC, and 1 stage IIIC.
  • Four cervical tumors were stage IB.
  • The tumor of the fallopian tube was stage IC, and the tumors of the vagina and recto-uterine pouch were confined to their site of origin.
  • Most uterine tumors were polypoid masses ranging from 1 to 20 cm (mean: 6.5 cm).
  • Fourteen of 30 uterine tumors (47%) had myometrial invasion that was minimal in 5, involved one-third of the myometrial thickness in 7, and more than 50% in 2.
  • Of 4 cervical tumors, 2 were endocervical polyps, 1 invaded one-third of the cervical wall, and the other invaded its full thickness.
  • Six developed metastases and 5 of them died of tumor.
  • Four had adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth; however, the other 2 patients had typical low-grade adenosarcomas of the uterine corpus and cervix, respectively, exhibiting only mild nuclear atypia of the stromal component and </=2 mitotic figures/10 high power fields.
  • The finding of such cases, which raises the controversy of whether or not adenofibroma exists as a tumor entity, prompted us to make a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of 23 typical adenosarcomas, 8 adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth, and 29 benign and malignant related lesions, including 7 clinically benign adenofibromas.
  • Adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth showed strong immunoreaction for Ki-67 and p53 and loss of CD10 and progesterone receptors immunostaining; in contrast, the immunoreaction for these tumor markers in typical adenosarcomas without sarcomatous overgrowth was similar to that of adenofibromas associated with favorable outcome and other benign lesions such as endometrial polyps and endometriosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / pathology. Adenosarcoma / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Staging. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18941402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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52. Liang J, Mittal KR, Wei JJ, Yee H, Chiriboga L, Shukla P: Utility of p16INK4a, CEA, Ki67, P53 and ER/PR in the differential diagnosis of benign, premalignant, and malignant glandular lesions of the uterine cervix and their relationship with Silverberg scoring system for endocervical glandular lesions. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jan;26(1):71-5
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  • [Title] Utility of p16INK4a, CEA, Ki67, P53 and ER/PR in the differential diagnosis of benign, premalignant, and malignant glandular lesions of the uterine cervix and their relationship with Silverberg scoring system for endocervical glandular lesions.
  • Early detection of premalignant and malignant glandular lesions of the uterine cervix and their distinction from benign mimics is crucial but sometimes difficult.
  • In this study, we investigated utility of expression of p16, CEA, Ki67, p53 and ER/PR in evaluating the benign, premalignant, and malignant glandular lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • A total of 35 cervical cone or LEEP cases were collected including 14 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), 7 endocervical glandular dysplasia (EGD), and 14 benign mimics (BM).
  • There was a loss of ER/PR in cervical AIS, but not in EGD.
  • Our results indicate that the Silverberg scoring system is a useful tool in differential diagnosis of cervical glandular lesions for increased diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement.
  • Most cervical glandular lesions can be differentiated by using a combination of histological scores with a panel of immunomarkers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


53. Qiao X, Bhuiya TA, Spitzer M: Differentiating high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesion from atrophy in postmenopausal women using Ki-67, cyclin E, and p16 immunohistochemical analysis. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2005 Apr;9(2):100-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differentiating high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesion from atrophy in postmenopausal women using Ki-67, cyclin E, and p16 immunohistochemical analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: In postmenopausal women, differentiating high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2,3) from atrophic uterine cervical squamous epithelium histologically may pose a diagnostic challenge.
  • In this study, we compared the staining features of Ki-67, cyclin E, and p16 in cervix specimens from postmenopausal women to distinguish CIN 2,3 from atrophy.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival cervical specimens (4 biopsy, 8 laser cone, and 14 total hysterectomy samples) were selected from 25 women 50 to 80 years of age (mean = 64 years).
  • In coexistent CIN 2,3 and atrophy cases, the three-antibody panel clearly demarcated the transition from benign to neoplastic epithelia.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Atrophy. Cyclin E / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Middle Aged. Postmenopause / metabolism


54. Horn LC, Dallacker M, Bilek K: [Carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Mullerian tumors) of the uterus. Morphology, pathogenetic aspects and prognostic factors]. Pathologe; 2009 Jul;30(4):292-301
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  • [Title] [Carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Mullerian tumors) of the uterus. Morphology, pathogenetic aspects and prognostic factors].
  • [Transliterated title] Karzinosarkome (maligne Müller-Mischtumoren) des Uterus. Morphologie, molekulare Pathogenese und morphologische Prognosefaktoren.
  • The strongest prognostic factor is tumor stage followed by lymph node metastases, deep myometrial infiltration, involvement of the cervix and tumor size.
  • The main differential diagnoses include uterine sarcomas, adenosarcoma and benign metaplastic change within the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Myometrium / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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55. Kohrenhagen N, Voelker HU, Schmidt M, Kapp M, Krockenberger M, Frambach T, Dietl J, Kammerer U: Expression of transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) and p-Akt correlates with the progression of cervical neoplasia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2008 Jun;34(3):293-300
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) and p-Akt correlates with the progression of cervical neoplasia.
  • AIM: It is supposed that increased glycolysis is crucial for the energy supply during tumor progression.
  • Unfortunately, the relevance of glycolysis in cervical neoplasia is unknown, but what is certain is the fact that cervical cancer shows a high expression of glucose membrane transporters, which are necessary for glucose uptake as an energy source.
  • Thus, we were interested in their expression in cervical tissue.
  • METHODS: We examined the expression of TKTL1 and p-Akt in 80 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical specimens: 20 benign cervical tissues, 20 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 20 high-grade intraepithelial lesions, and 20 invasive squamous cell carcinomas (ISCC).
  • RESULTS: Immunhistochemical analyses revealed that the intensity of the expression of TKTL1 and p-Akt increases significantly with an increase in the histopathological grade of cervical tissues.
  • CONCLUSION: The results suggest that both TKTL1 and p-Akt play an important role in the progression of cervical neoplasia, which may be due to their impact on glycolysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Transketolase / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / chemistry. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervix Uteri / chemistry. Female. Glycolysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Paraffin Embedding


56. Bhosale P, Peungjesada S, Devine C, Balachandran A, Iyer R: Role of magnetic resonance imaging as an adjunct to clinical staging in cervical carcinoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2010 Nov-Dec;34(6):855-64
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  • [Title] Role of magnetic resonance imaging as an adjunct to clinical staging in cervical carcinoma.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging depicts the morphological details of the female pelvis and is useful for evaluating both benign and malignant cervical masses.
  • Clinical assessment of the extent of cervical cancer is crucial in determining the optimal treatment strategy, but clinical staging by itself has limitations.
  • The prognosis of cervical cancer is determined not only by stage, but also by nodal status, tumor volume, and depth of invasion, none of which are included in the FIGO guidelines.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging has been described as the most accurate, noninvasive imaging modality in staging cervical carcinoma.
  • This review outlines the magnetic resonance features of normal cervix, primary disease (by stage), and recurrent disease and discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in staging and clinical decision making.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Sensitivity and Specificity


57. Jeong DH, Kim HK, Prince AE, Lee DS, Kim YN, Han J, Kim KT: Plasma proteomic analysis of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. J Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Sep;19(3):173-80
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  • [Title] Plasma proteomic analysis of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare plasma protein expression between patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix and normal controls.
  • METHODS: Plasma samples from patients with benign gynecological disease (normal cervix, n=6) and cervical cancer (SCC, n=6) were subjected to plasma proteomic analysis using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy (MALDI-MS).
  • Western blotting and immunoturbidimetric assay were performed to validate the results of 2-DE.
  • Immunoturbidimetric assay of a larger group confirmed the results of 2-DE and Western blotting, and showed that ceruloplasmin and complement C3 were significantly elevated in the plasma of SCC patients in comparison with controls and patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the uterine cervix.
  • CONCLUSION: Plasma protein expression determined using 2-DE and MALDI-MS will give a chance to identify tumor-specific biomarkers for SCC of the cervix.

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  • (PMID = 19471570.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2676467
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; MALDI-MS / Plasma proteins / Squamous cell carcinoma / Two dimensional gel electrophoresis / Uterine cervical cancer
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58. Manoharan M, Azmi MA, Soosay G, Mould T, Weekes AR: Mullerian adenosarcoma of uterine cervix: report of three cases and review of literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Apr;105(1):256-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mullerian adenosarcoma of uterine cervix: report of three cases and review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterine cervix is a rare tumor seen in young women of reproductive age group.
  • It presents as cervical polyps and is a low-grade malignancy with a tendency for local recurrence.
  • Diagnosis can be difficult since it can easily be mistaken for benign polyps, both clinically and pathologically.
  • CASE: We present three cases of adenosarcoma of the cervix presenting as cervical polyps and review the clinical and pathological features of these tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Adenosarcoma of the cervix should be ruled out especially in women presenting with recurrent cervical polyps.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


59. Kong CS, Balzer BL, Troxell ML, Patterson BK, Longacre TA: p16INK4A immunohistochemistry is superior to HPV in situ hybridization for the detection of high-risk HPV in atypical squamous metaplasia. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jan;31(1):33-43
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  • In situ hybridization (ISH) assays for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and immunohistochemical (IHC) assays for surrogate markers such as p16 can be useful in detecting HR-HPV in cervical dysplasia, but the use of these markers in problematic cervical biopsies has not been well-established.
  • We evaluated 3 chromogenic ISH assays (Ventana INFORM HPVII and HPVIII and DakoCytomation GenPoint) in conjunction with p16 IHC and HPV polymerase chain reaction in a study set consisting of 12 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 16 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 30 benign cervix samples.
  • Because focal strong p16 reactivity was identified in benign squamous epithelium (6.7% cases) and dysplastic epithelium, it was considered an equivocal result and only diffuse strong reactivity was considered to be specific for the presence of HR-HPV.
  • Overall, p16 IHC is considered the best candidate for the initial assessment of cervical biopsies that are histologically indeterminate for dysplasia given its wide availability, comparative ease of interpretation, and high sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Cervix Uteri / virology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Precancerous Conditions. Sensitivity and Specificity


60. Stewart CJ, Little L: Diagnostic value and implications of vimentin expression in normal, reactive and neoplastic endocervical epithelium. Pathology; 2010 Apr;42(3):217-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Sixty-two cervical biopsy specimens including normal endocervical epithelium, tubo-endometrioid metaplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ, stratified mucin producing intraepithelial lesions (SMILE), and invasive adenocarcinomas were stained immunohistochemically for vimentin and for p16 protein, Ki-67 and bcl-2.
  • Twelve cases also included areas of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
  • Usually adenocarcinoma in situ was completely negative and therefore vimentin staining sharply distinguished the benign and neoplastic epithelial elements.
  • Most invasive adenocarcinomas were not stained but focal vimentin immunoreactivity was observed in 7/18 cases, and was restricted to small glands and infiltrating cell clusters at the deep (advancing) tumour margin.
  • Therefore vimentin is a useful additional diagnostic marker in the assessment of problematic cervical glandular lesions.
  • The localised re-expression of vimentin at the deep margin of some endocervical adenocarcinomas may be relevant to the process of tumour progression and invasion in these cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Vimentin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20350213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Vimentin
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61. Wang SS, Dasgupta A, Sherman ME, Walker JL, Gold MA, Zuna R, Sakoda L, Wacholder S, Schiffman M, Baker CC: Towards improved biomarker studies of cervical neoplasia: effects of precolposcopic procedures on gene expression patterns. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2005 Jun;14(2):59-64
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  • [Title] Towards improved biomarker studies of cervical neoplasia: effects of precolposcopic procedures on gene expression patterns.
  • Among tumor sites, cervical cancer offers an ideal model for investigating differences in gene expression associated with transitions from normal to precancer and invasion to cancer.
  • To evaluate the validity of assessing gene expression in cervical tissues acquired in a clinical setting, we investigated whether standard procedures, namely the application of acetic acid and/or Lugol's iodine, employed for the visualization of colposcopically directed biopsies, altered patterns in oligonucleotide (oligo) arrays.
  • We compared microarray profiles from six women, each with three adjacent tissue samples removed from benign hysterectomy specimens and treated as follows: immediately frozen, acetic acid application only, acetic acid, and Lugol's iodine.
  • Upon adjustment for multiple comparisons using both the Holm's and Hochberg's procedures as well as the False Discovery Rate (Benjamini-Hochberg and Benjamini-Yeuketili [BY]), we failed to identify genes differentially expressed and conclude that standard precolposcopic procedures do not substantially affect the overall gene expression patterns in the normal cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / standards. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Colposcopy. Gene Expression Profiling. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


62. Little L, Stewart CJ: Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in normal endocervix and diagnostic value in reactive and neoplastic endocervical lesions. Mod Pathol; 2010 Apr;23(4):611-8
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  • It may be difficult to distinguish reactive glandular lesions from adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix, and although several immunohistochemical markers have established value in this diagnostic setting, none is completely reliable.
  • We have noted that neoplastic endocervical lesions often show loss of nuclear cyclin D1 expression in contrast to benign glandular cells.
  • Therefore, we investigated cyclin D1 staining in a series of 64 cervical biopsy specimens including examples of normal and reactive endocervical epithelium, adenocarcinoma in situ, stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesions, and invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • Thirteen specimens also included a component of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • In contrast, most cases of adenocarcinoma in situ were completely negative and, therefore, cyclin D1 staining distinguished benign from neoplastic epithelial cells.
  • However, focal staining was observed in 10/19 cases and was mainly restricted to cells at the deep tumor margin, or to small infiltrative glands and detached cell clusters within the stroma.
  • In conclusion, cyclin D1 can be included within an immunohistochemical panel to aid in the distinction between reactive cervical glandular lesions and adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 20062011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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63. Marinova P, Rampalova G, Kolnikova S, Orthova S, Ondriasch F: [Endocervical adenocarcinoma--a current diagnostic problem]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2010;49(7):35-41
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  • Adenocarcinomas currently account for 15-20% of all invasive carcinomas of the uterine cervix in developed countries.
  • The tumor is asymptomatic in up to 20% of the cases and is usually discovered as result of abnormal Pap smears.
  • Cytology smears however are relatively ineffective in detecting of the cervical adenocarcinoma and its precursors.
  • The introduction of computer assisted system for screening raises the effectiveness of detecting LSIL and HSIL to 37% and 42% respectively The problem however with the diagnosis of cervical adenocarcinoma remains more complicated even with the introduction of the above mentioned techniques for a number of reasons.
  • In everyday practice the pathologist is faced with the following more important issues surrounding the histologic diagnosis of the cervical adenocarcinoma:.
  • (4) the recognition of benign lesion that may mimic adenocarcinoma;.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Risk Factors


64. Triginelli SA, Silva-Filho AL, Traiman P, Silva FM, Chaves-Dias MC, Oliveira GC, Cunha-Melo JR: Telomerase activity in the vaginal margins of radical hysterectomy in patients with carcinoma of the cervix: correlation with histology and human papillomavirus. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1283-8
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  • [Title] Telomerase activity in the vaginal margins of radical hysterectomy in patients with carcinoma of the cervix: correlation with histology and human papillomavirus.
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate the telomerase activity both in the tumor and in the vaginal margins of radical hysterectomy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix.
  • Thirty-three patients with SCC of the cervix (study group) and 13 patients with uterine myoma (control group) were prospectively studied.
  • Tissue samples were taken from the tumor or cervix, anterior vaginal margin (AVM), and posterior vaginal margin (PVM).
  • The telomerase activity was significantly higher in the tumor than in the benign cervix (P < 0.001).
  • There was no difference in telomerase activity in the AVM and PVM in patients with cervical carcinoma compared to the control group.
  • Telomerase activity is a marker of histologic malignancy in patients with SCC of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / enzymology. Hysterectomy. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Telomerase / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery. Vagina / enzymology. Vaginal Neoplasms / enzymology. Vaginal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA Probes, HPV. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods


65. Missaoui N, Trabelsi A, Hmissa S, Fontanière B, Yacoubi MT, Mokni M, Korbi S, Frappart L: p16INK4A overexpression in precancerous and cancerous lesions of the uterine cervix in Tunisian women. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Aug 15;206(8):550-5
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  • [Title] p16INK4A overexpression in precancerous and cancerous lesions of the uterine cervix in Tunisian women.
  • Uterine cervix cancer is an important public health problem in developing countries.
  • The study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of p16(INK4A) overexpression as a surrogate marker for uterine cervix precancerous lesions and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • We conducted a retrospective study of 87 uterine cervix specimens, including 7 normal tissue samples, 17 benign lesions, 34 precancerous lesions, 22 invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), and 7 adenocarcinomas.
  • No immunoreactivity for p16(INK4A) was detected in normal tissue or benign lesions. p16(INK4A) immunoreactivity was focal in CIN1, whereas strong and diffuse immunoreactivity for p16(INK4A) was uniformly observed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of all CIN2 and 3, as well as in those of invasive SCC and adenocarcinomas.
  • p16(INK4A) overexpression is a useful additional marker for the interpretation of problematic uterine cervical lesions and can help to reduce the variability during evaluation of suspicious biopsies of the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Retrospective Studies. Tunisia


66. Smith KB, Amdur RJ, Yeung AR, Morris CG, Kirwan J, Morgan LS: Postoperative radiotherapy for cervix cancer incidentally discovered after a simple hysterectomy for either benign conditions or noninvasive pathology. Am J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jun;33(3):229-32
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  • [Title] Postoperative radiotherapy for cervix cancer incidentally discovered after a simple hysterectomy for either benign conditions or noninvasive pathology.
  • OBJECTIVE: Report the long-term outcome of patients who received postoperative radiotherapy for incidentally discovered cervix cancer following simple hysterectomy.
  • METHODS: We recorded tumor status, treatment complications, and survival of 25 patients treated at our institution from 1961 to 2004 with postoperative RT for invasive cervix cancer discovered following simple hysterectomy (median follow-up, 17 years).
  • All patients had stage IA2-II squamous cell carcinoma (76%) or adenocarcinoma (24%) of the cervix.
  • No patient died of cervix cancer.
  • The actuarial rate of tumor control and relapse-free survival at 5, 10, and 20 years was 96%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This series demonstrates the price we pay for adding comprehensive radiotherapy to simple hysterectomy for early-stage cervix cancer.
  • (1) Avoid postoperative radiotherapy by aggressively screening patients for invasive disease before performing simple hysterectomy. (2) Raise the threshold for delivering pelvic radiotherapy following simple hysterectomy with an incidental diagnosis of invasive cervix cancer.
  • We recommend vaginal brachytherapy alone in patients with negative postoperative imaging, negative surgical margins, and <10 mm tumor invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Hysterectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Enteritis / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hemangiosarcoma / etiology. Humans. Incidental Findings. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Pulmonary Embolism / etiology. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Diseases / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / etiology


67. Guo DH, Pang SJ, Shen Y: [Atypical endometriosis: a clinicopathologic study of 163 cases]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Nov;43(11):831-4
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  • The pathologic changes of AEM including its glandular epithelium, stroma, background and the conditions coexisting with tumor were observed.
  • Of 172 AEM foci of 163 patients, 168 were in the ovary, and the other 4 were in the fallopian tube, cervix and uterine serosa respectively.
  • AEM associated with tumour was found in 26 cases (15.95%) and among 27 of ovarian AEM, 15 were malignant, 9 borderline and 3 benign.
  • The transformation from AEM to tumor was found in most of the malignant tumors (14/15, 93%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: AEM lesions hold some features of both EM and tumor, which may have a relatively higher potential for tumorigenesis and canceration.
  • The process of damage and repair in EM foci during a long course may play a role in the development of EM into AEM and finally into tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology. Epithelium / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosarcoma / complications. Adenosarcoma / epidemiology. Adenosarcoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Young Adult


68. Rabban JT, McAlhany S, Lerwill MF, Grenert JP, Zaloudek CJ: PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(2):137-46
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  • [Title] PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • Mesonephric remnants of the cervix are vestiges of the embryonic mesonephric system which typically regresses during female development.
  • The differential diagnosis of exuberant mesonephric hyperplasia includes minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix, a tumor with deceptively bland morphology for which no reliable diagnostic biomarkers currently exist.
  • PAX2 encodes a transcription factor necessary in the development of the Wolffian duct system, and the protein is expressed in several tumors of mesonephric origin, including renal cell carcinoma, Wilm tumor, and nephrogenic adenoma.
  • We hypothesized that PAX2 may also be expressed in mesonephric lesions of the cervix and may distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • PAX2 was expressed in normal endocervical glands (including tunnel clusters and Nabothian cysts) (86 of 86), lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (5 of 5), tubal/tuboendometrioid metaplasia (8 of 8), and cervical endometriosis (13 of 14).
  • These results suggest that PAX2 immunoreactivity may be useful to (1) distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, (2) to distinguish lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, and (3) to distinguish endocervical tubal metaplasia or cervical endometriosis from endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Overall, a strong, diffuse nuclear PAX2 expression pattern in a cervical glandular proliferation predicts a benign diagnosis (positive predictive value 90%, negative predictive value 98%; P<0.001); however, PAX2 should not be interpreted in isolation from the architectural and cytologic features of the lesion as it may be expressed in some stage II endometrial adenocarcinomas involving the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Mesonephros / pathology. Mullerian Ducts / pathology. PAX2 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis


69. Haberal A, Cil AP, Gunes M, Cavusoglu D: Papillary adenofibroma of the cervix: a case report. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Aug;26(2):186-7
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  • [Title] Papillary adenofibroma of the cervix: a case report.
  • Adenofibroma is an extremely rare benign biphasic neoplasm that is classified into the mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumor group.
  • It typically affects the endometrium, but may occur in the cervix or in an extrauterine location.
  • Preoperative diagnosis of this tumor is usually difficult.
  • We describe the case of a 55-year-old woman with papillary cervical adenofibroma, which appeared as a cervical mass containing multiple cystic components on transvaginal ultrasound.
  • This lesion appears to be clinically and histologically benign but must be differentiated from malignant lesions of the uterus, particularly from adenosarcoma, which can be suggestive of adenofibroma.
  • Accurate diagnosis of these benign tumors permits appropriate counseling of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / ultrasonography. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / ultrasonography


70. McCluggage WG: Mullerian adenosarcoma of the female genital tract. Adv Anat Pathol; 2010 Mar;17(2):122-9
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  • Mullerian adenosarcoma is an uncommon, but not rare, mixed tumor containing a neoplastic but benign or mildly atypical epithelial element and a sarcomatous, usually low-grade, stromal component.
  • The most common site is the uterine corpus but adenosarcoma also occurs in the cervix and ovary and more rarely in the vagina, fallopian tube, arising from peritoneal surfaces, or outside the female genital tract, for example in the intestine.
  • Most uterine cases have a polypoid gross appearance, sometimes resulting in the formation of multiple polyps.
  • Characteristic histologic features include a low power "phyllodes-like" architecture with leaf-like projections lined by a variety of benign Mullerian type epithelia, sometimes with squamous metaplasia.
  • Using the World Health Organization definition, stromal mitotic activity of 2 or more per 10 high-power fields is required for a diagnosis of adenosarcoma but in practice the diagnosis is made with stromal mitotic activity less than this if the characteristic architecture and cambium layer is present.
  • Uterine adenosarcomas are, in general, low-grade neoplasms capable of local recurrence after polypectomy or hysterectomy and much less commonly distant metastasis.
  • Adenosarcoma may be confused with a variety of lesions and one of the main differential diagnoses is adenofibroma in which the stromal component is, by definition, morphologically benign.
  • Ovarian adenosarcomas are much more likely to exhibit malignant behavior than their uterine counterparts, probably due to the lack of an anatomic barrier to peritoneal dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenofibroma / pathology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Postmenopause. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20179434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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71. Slosar M, Vohra P, Prasad M, Fischer A, Quinlan R, Khan A: Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):149-57
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors.
  • It is highly expressed in carcinomas of the pancreas, stomach, colon, rectum, kidneys, uterine cervix, lung, and ovary.
  • No significant correlation was found between pathologic tumor characteristics and IMP3 expression in differentiated follicular pattern thyroid carcinoma.
  • With 100% specificity and 69% sensitivity for FC as compared to FA and 100% specificity for FVPC, again compared to FA, IMP3 has the potential to be diagnostically useful in differentiating malignant and benign follicular pattern thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19449140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Yao T, Utsunomiya T, Oya M, Nishiyama K, Tsuneyoshi M: Extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr 28;12(16):2510-6
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  • AIM: Minimal deviation carcinoma of the uterine cervix, otherwise known as extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (EWDA), is characterized by its benign microscopic appearance in contrast to its aggressive behavior.
  • METHODS: Clinicopathological features, including pre-operative biopsy diagnosis, were reviewed.
  • The former resembled gastric foveolar epithelium, mucous neck cells or pyloric glands, but their papillary structures were frequently elongated and the tumor cells and their nuclei were slightly larger and more hyperchromatic compared to normal epithelium.
  • CONCLUSION: Unlike minimal deviation carcinoma of the cervix, these findings suggest that EWDA of the stomach is a lesion of low-grade malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin-6. Mucins / analysis. Neprilysin / analysis. Phenotype. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16688795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MUC6 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-6; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4087982
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73. Cimpean AM, Saptefrati L, Ceausu R, Raica M: Characterization of endoglin and Ki-67 expression in endothelial cells from benign and malignant lesions of the uterine cervix. Pathol Int; 2009 Oct;59(10):695-700
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characterization of endoglin and Ki-67 expression in endothelial cells from benign and malignant lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • CD105 is a more specific marker of activated endothelial cells from tumor vessels and Ki-67 is used to assess the proliferation status of both tumor and endothelial cells.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the status of endothelial cells using CD105 and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry in benign and malignant lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • Double stain for CD105/Ki-67 in benign and malignant lesions of the uterine cervix showed that these two markers had divergent expression on endothelial cells from associated tumor blood vessels dependent on lesion type and proliferation status of tumor cells.
  • Absence of CD105/Ki-67 coexpression in endothelial cells was correlated with histopathology of the uterine cervix lesions and tumor proliferative status.
  • The present findings suggest that CD105 expression is an early event, specific for premalignant lesions of the uterine cervix, while endothelial proliferation assessed on Ki-67 combined with the lack of CD105 expression is often associated with invasive cervical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Metaplasia. Neovascularization, Pathologic

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cervical Cancer.
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .
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  • (PMID = 19788614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ENG protein, human; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface
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74. Bagga R, Keepanasseril A, Srinivasan R, Dey P, Gainder S, Saha SC, Dhaliwal LK, Patel F: Adenosarcoma of the uterine cervix with heterologous elements: a case report and review of literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2010 Apr;281(4):669-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenosarcoma of the uterine cervix with heterologous elements: a case report and review of literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adenosarcoma of the uterus is a rare tumor composed of benign epithelial and malignant stromal components, usually encountered in young women.
  • Till date, more than 100 cases of mullerian adenosarcoma of the cervix with homologous elements have been reported.
  • However, only 15 cases of mullerian adenosarcoma of the cervix with heterologous elements are reported.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe a case of mullerian adenosarcoma with heterologous elements of rhabdomyosarcoma and benign cartilage presenting as a cervical polyp in a young girl.
  • CONCLUSION: Cervical adenosarcomas are rare tumors that may appear in reproductive age.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


75. Hollowell ML, Goulart RA, Gang DL, Otis CN, Prior J, Sachs BF, Pantanowitz L: Cytologic features of müllerian papilloma of the cervix: mimic of malignancy. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Sep;35(9):607-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytologic features of müllerian papilloma of the cervix: mimic of malignancy.
  • Müllerian papilloma is a rare benign tumor of the cervix and/or vagina that occurs predominantly in young children.
  • The cytologic features of benign müllerian papilloma have never been described.
  • We report for the first time, to our knowledge, the cytologic findings of a benign müllerian papilloma from the vaginal fluid specimen of a 15-mo-old girl using touch prep, ThinPrep, and cell block preparations.
  • The deceptive cytologic features of a cellular specimen with complex papillary fronds composed of overlapping and crowded small hyperchromatic cells, with a high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio, and feathering in this case resembled a malignant neoplasm.
  • The clinical findings and cytomorphology of a benign müllerian papilloma can mimic those of malignant lesions of the female lower genital tract such as sarcoma botryoides and adenocarcinoma.
  • An awareness of this entity and its potential to mimic these more aggressive neoplasms is essential for accurate diagnosis and to avoid over-treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Papilloma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology






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