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6. Li T, Ghishan FK, Bai L: Molecular physiology of vesicular glutamate transporters in the digestive system. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Mar 28;11(12):1731-6
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  • Recently, it has been demonstrated that glutamate signaling is also functional in peripheral neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and occurs in sites of pituitary, adrenal, pineal glands, bone, GI tract, pancreas, skin, and testis.

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  • (PMID = 15793854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK033209; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK063142; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01-DK063142; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01-DK33209
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic; 0 / Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / SLC17A6 protein, human; 0 / SLC17A7 protein, human; 0 / SLC17A8 protein, human; 0 / Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 1; 0 / Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2; 0 / Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 61
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4305864
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7. De Haro L, Janknecht R: Cloning of the murine ER71 gene (Etsrp71) and initial characterization of its promoter. Genomics; 2005 Apr;85(4):493-502
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  • The ER71 protein belongs to the ETS transcription factor family and is testis-specifically expressed in adult mice.

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  • (PMID = 15780752.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-7543
  • [Journal-full-title] Genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY805222
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ER71 protein, mouse; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Sp1 Transcription Factor; 0 / Transcription Factors
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8. El Atat R, Derouiche A, Kourda N, Hammami A, Chebil M, Ben Jilani S, Ayed M: Segmental infarction of the testis: an exceptional complication of diabetes microangiopathy. Int J Impot Res; 2007 Nov-Dec;19(6):615-6
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  • [Title] Segmental infarction of the testis: an exceptional complication of diabetes microangiopathy.
  • We report a case of segmental infarction of the testis in a 55-year-old man.
  • The patient presented with a 2-month history of testicular pain and was found clinically and sonographically to have a testicular tumour.
  • We propose diabetes microangiopathy as a localization and aetiology of segmental testicular infarction.
  • A possible testicular sparing procedure through an inguinal approach may be considered in cases of testicular masses for which the clinical and imaging findings are suggestive of focal testicular infarction.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetic Angiopathies / complications. Diabetic Angiopathies / pathology. Infarction / complications. Infarction / pathology. Testicular Diseases / complications. Testicular Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17851583.001).
  • [ISSN] 0955-9930
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of impotence research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Impot. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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9. Denes FT, Saito FJ, Silva FA, Giron AM, Machado M, Srougi M: Laparoscopic diagnosis and treatment of nonpalpable testis. Int Braz J Urol; 2008 May-Jun;34(3):329-34; discussion 335
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic diagnosis and treatment of nonpalpable testis.
  • INTRODUCTION: Treatment of the cryptorchid testicle is justified due to the increased risk of infertility and malignancy as well as the risk of testicular trauma and psychological stigma on patients and their parents.
  • In these cases, the videolaparoscopic technique is a useful alternative method for diagnosis and treatment.
  • Furthermore, the laparoscopic orchiopexy presents excellent results in terms of diagnosis and therapy of the impalpable testis, which is why this technique has been routinely incorporated in our Department.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryptorchidism / diagnosis. Cryptorchidism / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18601763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-5538
  • [Journal-full-title] International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Braz J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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10. Lee WC, Park SB, Lee JH, Jang JC, Choi HJ, Park S, Moon KH: Sonographic findings in a case of scrotal lymphangioma in a 68-year-old male. J Clin Ultrasound; 2009 Sep;37(7):428-30
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  • Lymphangiomas are benign tumors resulting from a congenital lymphatic malformation in infant and children.
  • Gray-scale sonography revealed multiseptated, hypoechoic mass abutting the upper pole of the normal right testis.
  • Surgical excision was performed and the histopathologic diagnosis was a cystic lymphangioma.
  • In conclusion when multiseptated cystic scrotal mass was discovered in an elderly patient, scrotal lymphangioma should be included in differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Lymphangioma, Cystic / diagnosis. Scrotum / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19455691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0096
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Hassan A, El-Mogy S, Mostafa T: Triorchidism: a case report and review of similar conditions. Andrologia; 2008 Aug;40(4):265-9
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  • Scrotal examination revealed two discrete ovoid nontender, firm, mobile lumps with testicular sensation in the right side of the scrotum.
  • It demonstrated similar echo texture and vascular flow in both right-sided testicles although smaller in size than the left testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Infertility, Male / diagnosis. Oligospermia / diagnosis. Testis / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 18727738.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0272
  • [Journal-full-title] Andrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Andrologia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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12. Mykhalchenko VG, Minchenko DO, Tsuchihara K, Moenner M, Komisarenko SV, Bikfalvi A, Esumi H, Minchenko OH: Expression of mouse 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 mRNA alternative splice variants in hypoxia. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999); 2008 Jan-Feb;80(1):19-25
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  • Several new alternative splice variants of PFKFB-3 mRNA were identified in the lung, testis, brain and skeletal muscle.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Brain / enzymology. Isoenzymes / genetics. Lung / enzymology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Molecular Sequence Data. Muscle, Skeletal / enzymology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Testis / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 18710022.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ukraïnsʹkyĭ biokhimichnyĭ z︠h︡urnal (1999 )
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.1.105 / Phosphofructokinase-2
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13. Wright A, Reiley WW, Chang M, Jin W, Lee AJ, Zhang M, Sun SC: Regulation of early wave of germ cell apoptosis and spermatogenesis by deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD. Dev Cell; 2007 Nov;13(5):705-16
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  • Interestingly, the loss of CYLD in testicular cells leads to activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and aberrant expression of antiapoptotic genes.
  • These findings establish CYLD as a pivotal deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) that regulates germ cell apoptosis and spermatogenesis and suggest an essential role for CYLD in controlling the RIP1/NF-kappaB signaling axis in testis.

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  • [CommentIn] Dev Cell. 2007 Nov;13(5):601-3 [17981127.001]
  • (PMID = 17981138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI057555; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI064639; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA94922
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GTPase-Activating Proteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Ralbp1 protein, mouse; EC 3.1.2.15 / CYLD protein, mouse; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases
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4. Bertelloni S, Maggio MC, Federico G, Baroncelli G, Hiort O: 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency: a rare endocrine cause of male-to-female sex reversal. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2006 Sep;22(9):488-94
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  • Mutated genes encode an abnormal enzyme with absent or reduced ability to convert Delta4-androstenedione to testosterone in the testis.
  • Such individuals are usually raised as females and diagnosis is made at puberty, when they show virilization.
  • Correct diagnosis is mandatory to optimize treatment and follow-up.
  • In the present paper we report the clinical history, endocrine evaluation and molecular genetics of a prepubertal girl affected by 17beta-HSD3 deficiency, in whom an erroneous diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome was made.

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  • (PMID = 17071532.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-3590
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; EC 1.1.- / 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.- / 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3
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15. Mizuno Y, Sumi Y, Nachi S, Ito Y, Marui T, Saji S, Matsutomo H: A case of a large retroperitoneal liposarcoma presenting as an incarcerated inguinal hernia. Hernia; 2006 Oct;10(5):439-42
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  • Preoperative computed tomography revealed an intraabdominal huge mass, and a clinical diagnosis of liposarcoma.
  • Physical findings except for the inguinal mass and laboratory examination, including tumor markers (CEA, CA19-9), were within normal range.
  • Intraoperatively, the mass was incarcerated in the inguinal canal and involved the left testis.
  • We performed a radical tumor resection, including a left orchiectomy.
  • Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a well-differentiated liposarcoma, and originated from retroperitoneum.
  • [MeSH-major] Hernia, Inguinal / etiology. Liposarcoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16924396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1265-4906
  • [Journal-full-title] Hernia : the journal of hernias and abdominal wall surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hernia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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16. Blottner S, Schön J, Jewgenow K: Seasonally activated spermatogenesis is correlated with increased testicular production of testosterone and epidermal growth factor in mink (Mustela vison). Theriogenology; 2006 Oct;66(6-7):1593-8
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  • [Title] Seasonally activated spermatogenesis is correlated with increased testicular production of testosterone and epidermal growth factor in mink (Mustela vison).
  • Seasonal changes in spermatogenesis were studied with respect to testicular production of both testosterone and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in mink.
  • The testes were collected in November (n = 15; testis recrudescence), February (n = 15; before breeding season), March (n = 14; breeding season), and May (n = 11; testis involution) and the following parameters of testicular activity were quantified: testicular mass, number of testicular spermatozoa, percentages of haploid, diploid, and tetraploid (G2/M-phase) cells and content of testosterone and EGF.
  • Testis mass, spermatogenic activity, and the production of both testosterone and EGF were maximal in March, but were not significantly different from the levels in February.
  • The correlation between testis weight and sperm per testis was r = 0.825 (P < 0.001).
  • Testosterone and EGF levels were correlated to each other (r = 0.78; P < 0.001) and had significant positive correlations to testis mass, number of sperm and proportion of haploid cells; and negative correlations to percentages of mitotic cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Mink / physiology. Spermatogenesis / physiology. Testis / physiology. Testosterone / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16481033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] Theriogenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Theriogenology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor
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17. Yi M, Hong N, Li Z, Yan Y, Wang D, Zhao H, Hong Y: Medaka fish stem cells and their applications. Sci China Life Sci; 2010 Apr;53(4):426-34
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  • Specifically, medaka has given rise to the first embryonic stem (ES) cells besides the mouse, the first adult testis-derived male stem cells spermatogonia capable of test-tube sperm production, and most recently, even haploid ES cells capable of producing Holly, a semi-cloned fertile female medaka from a mosaic oocyte created by microinjecting a haploid ES cell nucleus directly into a normal oocyte.

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  • (PMID = 20596908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1869-1889
  • [Journal-full-title] Science China. Life sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sci China Life Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
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18. Nualart F, Los Angeles García M, Medina RA, Owen GI: Glucose transporters in sex steroid hormone related cancer. Curr Vasc Pharmacol; 2009 Oct;7(4):534-48
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  • This review concentrates on GLUT transporter expression in both normal and cancerous classical sex-steroid hormone tissues (i.e. breast, uterus, ovary, testis and prostate, among others).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative / metabolism. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / metabolism. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19485886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-6212
  • [Journal-full-title] Current vascular pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Vasc Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone
  • [Number-of-references] 190
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19. Takaoka E, Yamaguchi K, Tominaga T: Cavernous hemangioma of the testis: a case report and review of the literature. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Jun;53(6):405-7
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  • [Title] Cavernous hemangioma of the testis: a case report and review of the literature.
  • A 73-year-old man consulted our hospital with a painless intra-scrotal mass in the left testis.
  • Scrotal ultrasonography demonstrated left testis with a heterogeneous texture.
  • A diagnosis of probable testicular malignancy was made, and a left radical orchiectomy was performed.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was testicular cavernous hemangioma.
  • To our knowledge, only 19 cases of cavernous hemangioma of the testis have been reported in the literature so far.
  • Although this is a rare tumor, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of testicular tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17628940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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20. Wagener A, Blottner S, Göritz F, Streich WJ, Fickel J: Circannual changes in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the testis of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Anim Reprod Sci; 2010 Feb;117(3-4):275-8
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  • [Title] Circannual changes in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the testis of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).
  • Adult roe deer males show seasonal cycles of testicular growth and involution.
  • The exact timing of these cycles requires endocrine regulation and local testicular control by autocrine/paracrine factors.
  • Recent findings suggest that the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) might have effects on both vascular and germinative cells in testis.
  • Thus, we studied the expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in roe deer testis using quantitative RT-PCR.
  • The results suggested that VEGF may directly affect the regulation of spermatogenesis but may not be involved predominantly in testicular microvasculature as initially expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Deer / genetics. Seasons. Testis / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19541435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2232
  • [Journal-full-title] Animal reproduction science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anim. Reprod. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.2.1.12 / Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating)
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21. Sorourian M, Betrán E: Turnover and lineage-specific broadening of the transcription start site in a testis-specific retrogene. Fly (Austin); 2010 Jan-Mar;4(1):3-11
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  • [Title] Turnover and lineage-specific broadening of the transcription start site in a testis-specific retrogene.
  • Made of a core particle (20S) and regulatory caps (19S), proteasomal proteins are encoded by at least 33 genes, of which 12 have been shown to have testis-specific isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster.
  • It is present in the D. melanogaster subgroup and was previously shown to be testis-specific in D. melanogaster.
  • Here, we show its testis-specific transcription in all D. melanogaster subgroup species.
  • We determined that the region driving testis expression in D. melanogaster is not far from the coding region (within 272 bp upstream of the ATG).

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  • (PMID = 20160503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-6942
  • [Journal-full-title] Fly
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fly (Austin)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM071813-05; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM071813; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM071813; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM071813-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / enhanced green fluorescent protein; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 3.4.25.1 / Pros28.1B protein, Drosophila; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS178348; NLM/ PMC2855778
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22. Díez-Torre A, Silván U, Díaz-Núñez M, Aréchaga J: The role of microenvironment in testicular germ cell tumors. Cancer Biol Ther; 2010 Sep 15;10(6):529-36
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  • [Title] The role of microenvironment in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most frequent malignancies in adolescents and young adults.
  • Among them, seminomatous and non-seminomatous tumors have carcinoma in situ of the testis (CIS) as a common precursor lesion.
  • The aim of this review is to analyze the potential role of testicular microenvironmental factors, such as hypoxia and stroma cell-derived factors, in the acquisition by TGCT cells of an aggressive phenotype and the importance of these factors as potential therapeutic targets.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Microenvironment

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  • (PMID = 20855948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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23. Malki S, Nef S, Notarnicola C, Thevenet L, Gasca S, Méjean C, Berta P, Poulat F, Boizet-Bonhoure B: Prostaglandin D2 induces nuclear import of the sex-determining factor SOX9 via its cAMP-PKA phosphorylation. EMBO J; 2005 May 18;24(10):1798-809
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  • During mammalian gonadal development, nuclear import/export of the transcription factor SOX9 is a critical step of the Sry-initiated testis-determining cascade.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cells, Cultured. Female. Male. Mice. Organ Culture Techniques. Ovary / embryology. Ovary / enzymology. Ovary / metabolism. Phosphorylation. Protein Transport / physiology. SOX9 Transcription Factor. Testis / embryology. Testis / enzymology. Testis / metabolism


24. Kamigaito T, Nishizawa S, Nakayama T, Okaneya T, Suzuki K, Morita T: [Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging in the management of the nonpalpable testis]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Feb;54(2):107-9
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  • [Title] [Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging in the management of the nonpalpable testis].
  • We evaluated the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the preoperative study in the management of the nonpalpable testis.
  • From 1997 to 2005, a total of 41 MRI was performed for the patients with nonpalpable testis and 42 testes were evaluated.
  • Five testes were identified in the abdomen and one was disclosed to be vanishing testis.
  • Thirteen patients had a diagnosis of vanishing testis.
  • The sensitivity and the specificity of our MRI studies in predicting the presence of nonpalpable testis were 85.7% and 92.9%, respectively.
  • Enlarged lymph node could be misdiagnosed as abdominal testis.
  • MRI is informative regarding the testis location and useful for limiting the area of surgical exploration.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryptorchidism / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18323167.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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25. Kumar GS, Vijayalakshmi B, Salimath PV: Effect of bitter gourd and spent turmeric on constituents of glycosaminoglycans in different tissues in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biochem; 2006 Jun;286(1-2):53-8
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  • Bitter gourd and spent turmeric at 10% level were tested for their efficacy on glycosaminoglycan metabolism in various tissues viz., liver, spleen, lungs, heart and testis in control, diabetic and treated rats.
  • The contents of sulfated GAGs decreased in all the tissues and the decrease was more prominent in heart and testis.
  • Decrease in total sugar content was maximum in testis.
  • Amino sugar content decreased considerably in testis (38%) and lungs (15%).
  • The content of uronic acid also decreased in testis (33%) besides heart (29%) and liver (25%).
  • Sulfate groups in GAGs perform pivotal functions in many biological events and decrease in sulfate content was significant in heart (40%), testis (37%) and liver (37%).
  • HS, CS were present in heart, DS/CS was observed in testis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Sugars / analysis. Animals. Carbohydrates / analysis. Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate / methods. Heart / drug effects. Liver / drug effects. Liver / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Lung / drug effects. Lung / metabolism. Lung / pathology. Male. Myocardium / metabolism. Myocardium / pathology. Organ Size / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Spleen / drug effects. Spleen / metabolism. Spleen / pathology. Sulfates / analysis. Testis / drug effects. Testis / metabolism. Testis / pathology. Uronic Acids / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16532259.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Sugars; 0 / Carbohydrates; 0 / Glycosaminoglycans; 0 / Plant Preparations; 0 / Sulfates; 0 / Uronic Acids
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26. Anahara R, Toyama Y, Mori C: Review of the histological effects of the anti-androgen, flutamide, on mouse testis. Reprod Toxicol; 2008 Feb;25(2):139-43
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  • [Title] Review of the histological effects of the anti-androgen, flutamide, on mouse testis.
  • This is a mini-review summarizing recent findings on the effect of flutamide (FLUT), an anti-androgenic toxicant, on the mouse testis, particularly on the ectoplasmic specialization (ES) in the testis.
  • The present review summarizes the abnormal histological changes produced in the mouse testis by FLUT.
  • In addition, we outline the effect of FLUT on the expression of cortactin, an actin-binding protein, in the mouse testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Flutamide / toxicity. Testis / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18243649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-6238
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cortactin; 0 / Cttn protein, mouse; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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27. Kudo K, Wakamatsu K, Nishimura S, Tabata S: Gustducin is expressed in the taste buds of the chicken. Anim Sci J; 2010 Dec;81(6):666-72
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  • Expression of this sequence was not detected in the brain, heart, liver, pancreas, intestine, kidney and testis of the chicken.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
  • (PMID = 21108686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1740-0929
  • [Journal-full-title] Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaihō
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anim. Sci. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 147979-21-3 / gustducin; 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 3.6.1.- / Transducin
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28. Wong A: Testing the effects of mating system variation on rates of molecular evolution in primates. Evolution; 2010 Sep;64(9):2779-85
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  • Rates of nonsynonymous substitution are higher for testis-specific genes along the chimpanzee lineage in comparison to the human lineage, consistent with expectations.

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  • (PMID = 20497215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Evolution
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Suresh B, Ramakrishna S, Lee HJ, Choi JH, Kim JY, Ahn WS, Baek KH: K48- and K63-linked polyubiquitination of deubiquitinating enzyme USP44. Cell Biol Int; 2010 Aug;34(8):799-808
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  • RT-PCR (reverse-transcription PCR) analysis showed high levels of detection of USP44 mRNA in testis, spleen, lung, stomach and ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Endopeptidases / metabolism. Lysine / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism. Ubiquitination

  • Gene Ontology. gene/protein/disease-specific - Gene Ontology annotations from this paper .
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  • (PMID = 20402667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8355
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell biology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Biol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 3.4.- / Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.- / USP44 protein, mouse; EC 3.4.99- / Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases; K3Z4F929H6 / Lysine
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30. Wu PF, Chiang TA, Chen MT, Lee CP, Chen PH, Ko AM, Yang KJ, Chang PY, Ke DS, Ko YC: A characterization of the antioxidant enzyme activity and reproductive toxicity in male rats following sub-chronic exposure to areca nut extracts. J Hazard Mater; 2010 Jun 15;178(1-3):541-6
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  • Such effects reflect that ANE administration resulted in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress in the testis, cauda epididymis, and sperm of male rats.

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  • [Copyright] Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20202746.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3336
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hazardous materials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hazard. Mater.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Sialic Acids; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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31. Hong Y, Wang J, Zhang P, Yang S, Song K, Yu F, Liu W: Histopathological and gene expression analysis of mice exposed to diethylstilbestrol. Toxicol Mech Methods; 2010 Mar;20(3):105-11
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  • The estrogenic compound diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been widely studied to understand its potential involvement in endocrine function and carcinogenesis.
  • This study examined the influence of DES on adult mice by histopathological analysis and studied the gene expression changes using mRNA differential display.
  • Pathological changes in the mice following DES exposure included testicular atrophy, ovarian and hepatic fibrosis, and reduced numbers of mature oocytes and spermatogenic cells.
  • To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying these effects, we used mRNA differential display to analyze changes in gene expression following DES exposure.
  • In total, 20 genes were differentially expressed in liver, kidney, ovary, uterus, and testis.
  • The study provides evidence that DES has an acute effect on gene expression.
  • The results may facilitate the discovery of the genotoxic mechanism of DES and allow one to discover new DES-responsive genes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinogens / toxicity. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Kidney / drug effects. Kidney / metabolism. Liver / drug effects. Liver / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Male. Mice. Ovary / metabolism. Ovary / pathology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Seminiferous Epithelium / drug effects. Seminiferous Epithelium / pathology. Testis / drug effects. Testis / metabolism. Testis / pathology. Toxicity Tests. Uterus / drug effects. Uterus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20163289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6524
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology mechanisms and methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Mech. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Estrogens, Non-Steroidal; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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32. Maywood ES, Chahad-Ehlers S, Garabette ML, Pritchard C, Underhill P, Greenfield A, Ebling FJ, Akhtar RA, Kyriacou CP, Hastings MH, Reddy AB: Differential testicular gene expression in seasonal fertility. J Biol Rhythms; 2009 Apr;24(2):114-25
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  • [Title] Differential testicular gene expression in seasonal fertility.
  • Recently, there has been an expansion in the knowledge of the genes associated with particular stages of normal, physiological testicular development and pubertal activation.
  • What has been lacking, however, is an understanding of those genes that are involved in specifically regulating sperm production, rather than in maturation and elaboration of the testis as an organ.
  • Using gene expression microarrays and in situ hybridization in hamsters and genetically infertile mice, the authors have identified a variety of known and novel factors involved in reversible, transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational control of testicular function, as well those involved in cell division and macromolecular metabolism.
  • [MeSH-major] Fertility / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation. Seasons. Testis / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19346449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7304
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biological rhythms
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Rhythms
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105170643; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / ; United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / S09882; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 083643; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U142684167; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / WT083643MA
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3398136; NLM/ UKMS49074
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33. Li X, Sun L, Jin Y: Identification of karyopherin-alpha 2 as an Oct4 associated protein. J Genet Genomics; 2008 Dec;35(12):723-8
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  • From the human testis cDNA library, we identified a strong interaction between OCT4 and karyopherin-alpha 2 (KPNA-2).

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  • (PMID = 19103427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-8527
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Genet Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / alpha Karyopherins; 0 / karyopherin alpha 2
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34. Takeshita H, Chiba K, Kitayama S, Noro A: [Two cases of intrascrotal tumors complicated acute scrotum]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Sep;99(6):698-702
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  • Testicular torsion was suspected, and surgical exploration was performed.
  • Testicular torsion was suspected, and manual detorsion relieved the pain effectively.
  • The left testis was stony hard on palpation, and intraoperative ultrasound revealed a mosaic echo pattern.
  • A testicular tumor was highly suspected and left high orchiectomy was performed.
  • Torsion of a testicular tumor was diagnosed.
  • Although these 2 cases are extremely rare, they should be considered for the differential diagnosis of acute scrotum.
  • [MeSH-major] Scrotum. Seminoma / complications. Spermatic Cord Torsion / complications. Spermatocele / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy

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  • (PMID = 18939453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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35. Wang X, Desai N, Hu YP, Price SM, Abate-Shen C, Shen MM: Mouse Fem1b interacts with the Nkx3.1 homeoprotein and is required for proper male secondary sexual development. Dev Dyn; 2008 Oct;237(10):2963-72
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  • In mice, the Fem1b and Nkx3.1 genes encode proteins that interact in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays, and are co-expressed in the prostate and testis of neonatal mice.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 18816836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8388
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Dyn.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA076501-11; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115985; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115985; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA67501; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA076501-11; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA076501
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Fem1b protein, mouse; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Nkx3-1 protein, mouse; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS69842; NLM/ PMC2779857
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36. Zampieri N, Zamboni C, Ghidini A, Borruto F, Camoglio FS: Prenatal sonographic evaluation of male genitalia development. Minerva Ginecol; 2008 Aug;60(4):317-21
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  • The number of the scans performed in relation to the gestational age from week 11 to week 14 improves the ability to assign the male gender and to report the penile length (P<0.05); the earliest observations of descend testis were at 24 weeks.
  • The bilateral observation of testicular descend was at 31 weeks in 98% of fetuses.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Fetus. Gestational Age. Humans. Italy. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Penis / ultrasonography. Pregnancy. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sex Determination Analysis / methods. Testis / ultrasonography. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18560347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4784
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva ginecologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Ginecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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37. Menegozzo M, Izzo F, Canfora ML, Petronzio MF, Menegozzo S: [Activity of the Campania Register of Mesothelioma from July 2003 to October 2007]. G Ital Med Lav Ergon; 2007 Jul-Sep;29(3 Suppl):642-4
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  • [Transliterated title] Attività del Registro Mesoteliomi della Campania dal luglio 2003 all'ottobre 2007.
  • By means of a recognition identification network, COR Campania identified 492 cases of malignant mesothelioma (pleura, pericardium, peritoneum and tunica vaginalis of the testis) diagnosed between 1996-2007.

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  • (PMID = 18409884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-7830
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di medicina del lavoro ed ergonomia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Med Lav Ergon
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1332-21-4 / Asbestos
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38. Kobayashi T, Kajiura-Kobayashi H, Guan G, Nagahama Y: Sexual dimorphic expression of DMRT1 and Sox9a during gonadal differentiation and hormone-induced sex reversal in the teleost fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Dev Dyn; 2008 Jan;237(1):297-306
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  • On the other hand, Sox9a did not show sexual dimorphism before the appearance of sex differences in histogenesis and was not expressed in the efferent duct in the testis.
  • These results suggest that tDMRT1 is a superior testicular differentiation marker in tilapia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgens / pharmacology. Animals. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Female. High Mobility Group Proteins / genetics. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Ovary / drug effects. Ovary / growth & development. Ovary / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. SOX9 Transcription Factor. Sex Differentiation / drug effects. Sex Differentiation / genetics. Testis / drug effects. Testis / growth & development. Testis / metabolism. Time Factors. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18095345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8388
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Dyn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / DMRT1 protein; 0 / Fish Proteins; 0 / High Mobility Group Proteins; 0 / Hormones; 0 / SOX9 Transcription Factor; 0 / Transcription Factors
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39. Cobellis G, Cacciola G, Chioccarelli T, Izzo G, Meccariello R, Pierantoni R, Fasano S: Estrogen regulation of the male reproductive tract in the frog, Rana esculenta: a role in Fra-1 activation in peritubular myoid cells and in sperm release. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2008 Feb 1;155(3):838-46
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  • We show here that pituitary hormones increased the number of peritubular myoid cells (PMCs) expressing Fra-1 and induced testicular morphological changes related to sperm release.
  • In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that 17beta-Estradiol acted directly on the testis to switch-on Fra-1 in PMCs.

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  • (PMID = 18061183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6480
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / Tissue Extracts; 0 / fos-related antigen 1; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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40. García MC, López M, Alvarez CV, Casanueva F, Tena-Sempere M, Diéguez C: Role of ghrelin in reproduction. Reproduction; 2007 Mar;133(3):531-40
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  • In addition, experimental data showing that ghrelin and/or its receptor are expressed in normal human ovary and testis as well as in human ovarian and testicular tumors raise the possibility that the ghrelin system may be involved in the control of cell proliferation in these tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Energy Metabolism. Female. Ghrelin. Gonadotropins / metabolism. Humans. Male. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovary / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17379649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reproduction
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Gonadotropins; 0 / Peptide Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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41. Membrez M, Hummler E, Beermann F, Haefliger JA, Savioz R, Pedrazzini T, Thorens B: GLUT8 is dispensable for embryonic development but influences hippocampal neurogenesis and heart function. Mol Cell Biol; 2006 Jun;26(11):4268-76
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  • GLUT8 is a glucose transporter isoform expressed at high levels in testis; at intermediate levels in the brain, including the hippocampus; and at lower levels in the heart and several other tissues.

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  • (PMID = 16705176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-7306
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexins; 0 / Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Slc2a8 protein, mouse; 0 / Sodium Channels; 0 / connexin 45; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1489108
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42. Nagai K, Tadano-Aritomi K, Niimura Y, Ishizuka I: Development and application of a system for seminolipid metabolism using mouse seminiferous tubules. Glycoconj J; 2010 Jan;27(1):181-7
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  • A convenient tool for studying metabolism of seminolipid in testis was developed by using mouse isolated seminiferous tubules prepared by collagenase treatment.
  • In contrast, pretreatment of the testis in vivo under the same condition (44 degrees C for 10 min) did not decrease the seminolipid turnover rate in the isolated seminiferous tubules.
  • The newly developed system could provide useful basic data for further analyses of seminolipid metabolism in the testis.

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  • (PMID = 19582571.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-4986
  • [Journal-full-title] Glycoconjugate journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glycoconj. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycolipids; 0 / Sulfates; 0 / Tissue Extracts; 0 / seminolipid; EC 2.8.2.- / Sulfotransferases; EC 2.8.2.11 / galactosylceramide sulfotransferase
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43. Ferrara D, Izzo G, Liguori L, d'Istria M, Aniello F, Minucci S: Evidence for the involvement of prothymosin alpha in the spermatogenesis of the frog Rana esculenta. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol; 2009 Jan 1;311(1):1-10
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  • Recently, the isolation of a cDNA encoding for PTMA from the testis of the frog Rana esculenta has been reported: ptma transcript is highly expressed throughout the frog reproductive cycle, peaking in September/October, in concomitance with the germ cell maturation; it is specifically localized in the cytoplasm of primary and secondary spermatocytes and, at a lower level, in the interstitial compartment, in Leydig cells.In this article we support the involvement of PTMA in the meiotic phases of frog spermatogenesis.
  • The expression of ptma mRNA increases in the testis of frogs treated with the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate, which blocks the II meiotic division and induces an increase in SPC cysts; on the contrary, it highly decreases in the testis of animals kept at 4 degrees C and treated with human corionic gonadotropin, in concomitance with the induced block of spermatogenesis and the disappearance of meiotic cells in the tubules.

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  • [Copyright] 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 18752262.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-5223
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Ecological genetics and physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / prothymosin alpha; 4KM2BN5JHF / Cyproterone Acetate; 61512-21-8 / Thymosin
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44. Pereira ML, Garcia e Costa F: The blood-testis barrier as a target of some chemotherapeutic agents. Chemotherapy; 2007;53(6):446-8
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  • [Title] The blood-testis barrier as a target of some chemotherapeutic agents.
  • BACKGROUND: Some chemotherapeutic agents induce testicular damage, thereby affecting fertility potential.
  • Two metal-based antineoplastic complexes, titanocene dichloride and budotitane, were used to demonstrate their effects on the blood-testis barrier (BTB).
  • METHODS: Male mice were treated in vivo with the two titanium compounds and fragments of seminiferous tubules were isolated, closed at both ends, and then incubated in vitro with horseradish peroxidase for 10 and 15 min to test the permeability of the BTB at the ultrastructural level.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Blood-Testis Barrier / drug effects. Organometallic Compounds / pharmacology. Testis / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17957098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9794
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chemotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; D1JT611TNE / Titanium; DV05VZD83V / diethoxy-(1-phenyl-1,3-butanedionato)titanium (IV); EC 1.11.1.- / Horseradish Peroxidase; MJE0547U1U / titanocene dichloride
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45. Schlessinger D, Garcia-Ortiz JE, Forabosco A, Uda M, Crisponi L, Pelosi E: Determination and stability of gonadal sex. J Androl; 2010 Jan-Feb;31(1):16-25
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  • In the soma, ablation of Foxl2 or the independently expressed gene Wnt4 (likely downstream of Rspo1) can produce partial testis differentiation in XX mice, and the double knockout results in the formation of tubules and spermatogonia.
  • This indicates that at least 2 autonomous ovarian pathways are required to antagonize testis differentiation in females, a finding that is being increasingly corroborated by studies in goats and nonmammalian vertebrates.
  • In recent expression profiling of mouse ovaries that lack Foxl2 alone or in combination with Wnt4 or Kit/c-Kit, we found that following Foxl2 loss, early testis genes (including the downstream effector of Sry, Sox9) and several novel ovarian genes were consistently dysregulated during embryo-fetal development.
  • [MeSH-major] Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism. Ovary / embryology. Sex Determination Processes. Testis / embryology

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  • (PMID = 19875493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-4640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 AG000647-11
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Foxl2 protein, mouse; 0 / SOX9 Transcription Factor; 0 / Sox9 protein, mouse
  • [Number-of-references] 52
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS196662; NLM/ PMC2882171
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46. Juan ME, Maijó M, Planas JM: Quantification of trans-resveratrol and its metabolites in rat plasma and tissues by HPLC. J Pharm Biomed Anal; 2010 Jan 20;51(2):391-8
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  • Consequently the aim of the present study was to develop a methodology of extraction and quantification of trans-resveratrol and its metabolites in plasma, brain, testis, liver, lungs and kidney by HPLC.
  • The precision (% R.S.D.) ranged from 3.7% in testis to 13.2% in lungs.
  • The limits of detection ranged from 5.5 nM in testis to 11.2 nM in kidney.

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  • (PMID = 19406597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-264X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Biomed Anal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Stilbenes; Q369O8926L / resveratrol
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47. Schulz RW, de França LR, Lareyre JJ, Le Gac F, Chiarini-Garcia H, Nobrega RH, Miura T: Spermatogenesis in fish. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2010 Feb 1;165(3):390-411
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  • We characterise morphologically the different germ cell stages with particular attention for the spermatogonial generations, including the stem cells and their specific capacity to colonise a recipient's testis after transplantation.
  • We then discuss gene expression patterns associated with testis maturation.
  • Information is reviewed on the effects of progestin, androgens, and estrogens on global testicular gene expression patterns (microarray analysis), and on the molecular mechanisms by which steroids regulate specific candidate genes (identified by subtractive hybridization approaches) during early stages of testis maturation.
  • [MeSH-major] Fishes / physiology. Spermatogenesis / physiology. Testis / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [ErratumIn] Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010 May 15;167(1):179. LeGac, Florence [corrected to Le Gac, Florence]
  • (PMID = 19348807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6840
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 211
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48. Sharma S, Qian F, Keitz B, Driscoll D, Scanlan MJ, Skipper J, Rodabaugh K, Lele S, Old LJ, Odunsi K: A-kinase anchoring protein 3 messenger RNA expression correlates with poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Oct;99(1):183-8
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  • OBJECTIVES: Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are expressed in tumors but not normal tissues except the testis and could be targets for vaccine therapy in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
  • METHODS: One step RT-PCR was performed with RNA from normal and ovarian cancer cell lines and 74 epithelial ovarian tumor tissues.
  • AKAP-3 was expressed in normal testis, but not in other normal tissues.
  • AKAP-3 expression significantly correlated with increased likelihood of residual tumor (P = 0.005), but no increase in the likelihood of recurrence or persistent disease (P = 0.06).
  • Since AKAP-3 demonstrates tumor-restricted expression and appears to be associated with worse overall survival, it could represent an attractive target for antigen-specific immunotherapy in EOC.
  • [MeSH-minor] A Kinase Anchor Proteins. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16005946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / A Kinase Anchor Proteins; 0 / AKAP3 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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49. Holsberger DR, Kiesewetter SE, Cooke PS: Regulation of neonatal Sertoli cell development by thyroid hormone receptor alpha1. Biol Reprod; 2005 Sep;73(3):396-403
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  • We determined the relative roles of TRalpha1 and TRbeta1 in the thyroid hormone effect on testicular development and Sertoli cell proliferation using Thra knockout (TRalphaKO), Thrb knockout (TRbetaKO), and wild-type (WT) mice.
  • In untreated adult TRalphaKO mice, Sertoli cell number, testis weight, and daily sperm production were increased or trended toward an increase, but the increase in magnitude was smaller than that seen in WT mice following neonatal hypothyroidism.
  • Conversely, in TRbetaKO mice, Sertoli cell number, testis weight, and daily sperm production were similar to those in untreated WT mice.
  • In addition, Sertoli cell number and testis weight in adult WT and TRbetaKO mice showed comparable increases following hypothyroidism.
  • Our results show that TRalphaKO mice have testicular effects similar to those seen in WT mice following neonatal hypothyroidism and that TRbetaKO mice, but not TRalphaKO mice, have normal Sertoli cell responsiveness to T3.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cell Proliferation. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / physiology. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Signal Transduction. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15858214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / C06 RR16515; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES11590; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32 HD07028
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cdkn1b protein, mouse; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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50. Peled N, Oton AB, Hirsch FR, Bunn P: MAGE A3 antigen-specific cancer immunotherapeutic. Immunotherapy; 2009 Jan;1(1):19-25
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  • MAGE A3 is a tumor-specific shared antigen that is frequently expressed in lung cancer and melanoma, as well as in few other tumors.
  • Its level is associated with disease burden and with prognosis, while normal tissues do not express it, except the testis and the placenta.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Cancer Vaccines. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Immunotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Disease Progression. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 20635969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-7448
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / MAGEA3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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51. Papanikolaou NA: Rational targeting in acute promyelocytic leukemia. In Vivo; 2010 Jan-Feb;24(1):21-7
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  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (ARL) is characterized by the nearly homogeneous expression of the fusion oncogenic protein PML-RARalpha and the testis-specific cyclin A1 protein, which are implicated in its pathogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Humans


52. Okada FK, Stumpp T, Miraglia SM: Carnitine reduces testicular damage in rats treated with etoposide in the prepubertal phase. Cell Tissue Res; 2009 Aug;337(2):269-80
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  • [Title] Carnitine reduces testicular damage in rats treated with etoposide in the prepubertal phase.
  • Administration of etoposide during the prepubertal phase causes diturbances in several testicular morphometric parameters and in Sertoli cells.
  • Our results suggest that carnitine partially protects the testis against damage caused by etoposide, although the mechanism by which it happens remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Carnitine / pharmacology. Cytoprotection. Etoposide / adverse effects. Testis / drug effects. Vitamin B Complex / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19444474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0878
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell and tissue research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Tissue Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 12001-76-2 / Vitamin B Complex; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; S7UI8SM58A / Carnitine
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53. Antonangeli F, Giampietri C, Petrungaro S, Filippini A, Ziparo E: Expression profile of a 400-bp Stra8 promoter region during spermatogenesis. Microsc Res Tech; 2009 Nov;72(11):816-22
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  • In this study, a detailed analysis of the EGFP expression pattern in the testis was carried out, showing that the transgene was expressed in meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells and not in undifferentiated germ cells.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19378319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0029
  • [Journal-full-title] Microscopy research and technique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Microsc. Res. Tech.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Stra8 protein, mouse; 0 / enhanced green fluorescent protein; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins
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54. Shefi S, Levron J, Nadu A, Raviv G: Male infertility associated with adult dominant polycystic kidney disease: a case series. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Sep;280(3):457-60
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Infertile men diagnosed to have ADPKD were evaluated by clinical characteristics including testis volume, as well as serum hormone levels, semen analysis, and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) because of low volume ejaculate.
  • [MeSH-major] Infertility, Male / complications. Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant / complications. Testis / pathology


55. Ferlin A, Foresta C: Insulin-like factor 3: a novel circulating hormone of testicular origin in humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2005 May;1041:497-505
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  • [Title] Insulin-like factor 3: a novel circulating hormone of testicular origin in humans.
  • Insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) affects testicular descent.
  • We used a novel radioimmunoassay kit to measure INSL3 concentrations in the serum of normal men and those with different testicular pathologies.
  • We demonstrate that INSL3 circulates in adult men and is almost exclusively of testicular origin.
  • Subjects with severe testicular damage (infertility) produce small amounts of INSL3, and concentrations of this hormone seem to reflect the functional status of the Leydig cells.
  • Analysis of men treated with different combinations of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis suggests that the production of INSL3 is related to the luteinizing hormone.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulin / blood. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15956751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; 0 / Leydig insulin-like protein; 0 / Proteins
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56. Ma J, Zhang YQ, Wang ZR, Sun L: [Expression of Smad1 and Smad5 in the testis of infertile rats with kidney-yang deficiency]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2005 Jan;11(1):17-21
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  • [Title] [Expression of Smad1 and Smad5 in the testis of infertile rats with kidney-yang deficiency].
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the expression of Smad1 and Smad5 in the testis of infertile rats with adenine-modeled kidney-yang deficiency and the pathological mechanism of infertility with kidney-yang deficiency, attempting to obtain experimental evidence for the prevention and treatment of male infertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Infertility, Male / metabolism. Smad1 Protein / biosynthesis. Smad5 Protein / biosynthesis. Testis / metabolism. Yang Deficiency / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15704675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Smad1 Protein; 0 / Smad5 Protein
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57. Purdue MP, Devesa SS, Sigurdson AJ, McGlynn KA: International patterns and trends in testis cancer incidence. Int J Cancer; 2005 Jul 10;115(5):822-7
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  • [Title] International patterns and trends in testis cancer incidence.
  • Although the incidence of testis cancer has risen markedly in many Western populations over the past half-century, it is not clear whether rates in other populations also have increased.
  • To clarify this issue, we examined testis cancer incidence rates over the 25-year time period of 1973-1997 for selected populations around the world.
  • Testis cancer rates rose between 1973 and 1997 in most populations worldwide, although the increases were strongest and most consistent among populations of European ancestry.
  • The increases in testis cancer remain unexplained, although changes in the prevalence of important risk factors for this disease may be responsible.
  • [MeSH-major] Global Health. Registries / statistics & numerical data. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Published 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15704170.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Hyenne V, Harf JC, Latz M, Maro B, Wolfrum U, Simmler MC: Vezatin, a ubiquitous protein of adherens cell-cell junctions, is exclusively expressed in germ cells in mouse testis. Reproduction; 2007 Mar;133(3):563-74
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  • [Title] Vezatin, a ubiquitous protein of adherens cell-cell junctions, is exclusively expressed in germ cells in mouse testis.
  • In the male reproductive organs of mammals, the formation of spermatozoa takes place during two successive phases: differentiation (in the testis) and maturation (in the epididymis).

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  • (PMID = 17379651.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reproduction
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / vezatin protein, mouse
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59. Khole V, Wakle M: A testis specific auto-antigen TSA70 belongs to Odf2/Cenexin family. Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl; 2007;63:159-71
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  • [Title] A testis specific auto-antigen TSA70 belongs to Odf2/Cenexin family.
  • The occlusion of testicular outflow following vasectomy leads to autoimmunity which is characterised by the production of antisperm antibodies.
  • All the monoclonal antibodies were found to react with testicular proteins.
  • One of the antibodies, D5E5 was then used for immunochemical characterisation of its cognate antigen that was found to be a testis specific autoantigen of - 70 kDa, termed TSA70.
  • These characterisation studies suggest that TSA70 is a conserved, testis specific sperm autoantigen with a definitive physiological role in reproduction.

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  • (PMID = 17566271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1747-3403
  • [Journal-full-title] Society of Reproduction and Fertility supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Contraceptive Agents, Male; 0 / Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Odf2 protein, mouse; 0 / testis-specific antigen 70, mouse
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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60. Khalid M, Malik N, Salauddin MA, Rashid M: Concomitant bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts. Saudi Med J; 2008 Jun;29(6):907-9
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  • [Title] Concomitant bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts.
  • Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a rare benign germ cell tumor, comprising 1-2% of all resected benign testicular masses.
  • However, bilateral occurrence is very rare and to the best of our knowledge, there are only 3 previous reports of bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts.
  • The fact that they are completely benign makes them amenable to treatment by local excision, thereby saving patient from orchidectomy.
  • We present here, a case of bilateral epidermoid cyst in which characteristic ultrasound (US) findings allowed testis-sparing enucleation instead of radical orchiectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermal Cyst / ultrasonography. Testicular Diseases / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18521477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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61. To H, Hutson J, Taylor R: Persistent mesonephric duct found at laparoscopy for impalpable testis. J Pediatr Urol; 2007 Apr;3(2):142-4
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  • [Title] Persistent mesonephric duct found at laparoscopy for impalpable testis.
  • Laparoscopy is an increasingly popular choice for treatment of the impalpable testis.
  • We present a case of a 1-year-old boy who presented with an impalpable right testis and absent right kidney, and at laparoscopy was found to have a persistent mesonephric duct.

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  • (PMID = 18947720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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62. Sarkar O, Mathur PP: Adjudin-mediated germ cell depletion alters the anti-oxidant status of adult rat testis. Mol Reprod Dev; 2009 Jan;76(1):31-7
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  • [Title] Adjudin-mediated germ cell depletion alters the anti-oxidant status of adult rat testis.
  • Although studies have shown the contraceptive potential of Adjudin, much is not known about its action in the testis.
  • In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of Adjudin on the oxidative status of mammalian testis.
  • These results show that there is an induction of oxidative stress accompanying adherens junction restructuring which suggests a role for reactive oxygen species in the regulation of these testicular junctions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / physiology. Antioxidants / metabolism. Germ Cells / drug effects. Germ Cells / metabolism. Hydrazines / pharmacology. Indazoles / pharmacology. Testis / drug effects. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18449895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2795
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular reproduction and development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Reprod. Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)indazole-3-carbohydrazide; 0 / Androgen-Binding Protein; 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Hydrazines; 0 / Indazoles
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63. Sharma A, Singh P: Detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult male acquired CNS gene expression characteristics using a Drosophila systems model. PLoS One; 2009;4(6):e5763
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  • Next, we generated microarray expression profiles of adult testis from F(0) and F(1) males.
  • Further surprising, clustering of CNS and testis profiles and matching of differentially expressed genes in them provided evidence of a spermatogenic mechanism in the transgenerational effect observed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cluster Analysis. Cohort Studies. Crosses, Genetic. Drosophila melanogaster. Epigenesis, Genetic. Female. Humans. Male. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Pentylenetetrazole / pharmacology. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19503609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WM5Z385K7T / Pentylenetetrazole
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2685453
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64. Han ZD, He HC, Bi XC, Qin WJ, Dai QS, Zou J, Ye YK, Liang YX, Zeng GH, Zhu G, Chen ZN, Zhong WD: Expression and clinical significance of CD147 in genitourinary carcinomas. J Surg Res; 2010 May 15;160(2):260-7
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  • BACKGROUND: CD147/extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) expressed by tumor cells stimulates peri-tumorous fibroblasts to produce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), thus contributing to tumor invasion and metastasis.
  • METHODS: CD147/EMMPRIN expression in 52 patients with renal carcinoma, 58 patients with bladder carcinoma, 101 patients with prostate carcinoma, 17 patients of penis carcinoma, and 17 patients of testis carcinoma were examined by immunostaining on paraffin-embedded tumor specimens using monoclonal antibodies.
  • Positive expression was shown in 42 of 52 (80.77%) of the patients with renal carcinoma, 41 of 58 (70.69%) of the patients with bladder carcinoma, 67 of 101 (66.34%) of the patients with prostate carcinoma, 16 of 17 (94.12%) of the patients with penis carcinoma and testis carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD147 / genetics. Antigens, CD147 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Urogenital Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Division / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / mortality. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Penile Neoplasms / metabolism. Penile Neoplasms / mortality. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. RNA, Small Interfering. Risk Factors. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / mortality. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19286191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BSG protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 136894-56-9 / Antigens, CD147
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65. Wang SM, Peng RY, Gao YB, Ma JJ, Chen HY, Zhou HM, Hu WH, Zhang DT, Wang DW: [Pathological study of testicular injury induced by high power microwave radiation in rats]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2006 Jun;12(6):486-9, 495
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Pathological study of testicular injury induced by high power microwave radiation in rats].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the pathological characteristics and the dynamic change regularity of the testis induced by high power microwave (HPM) radiation.
  • METHODS: One hundred and sixty-five male Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 3, 10, 30 and 100 mW/cm2 HPM radiation for five minutes, and changes of testicular morphology and teratogenic ratio of epididymal spermatozoa were observed through light microscope and electron microscope at 6 h, 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90 d after radiation.
  • RESULTS: Injury of testicular spermatogenic cells in rats might be induced by 3 to approximately 100 mW/cm2 HPM radiation, and the main pathological changes were degeneration, necrosis, shedding of spermatogenic cells, formation of multinuclear giant cells, decrease or loss of sperm and interstitial edema.
  • And the severity of pathological changes of the testis increased with power density.
  • CONCLUSION: HPM radiation may cause injury of testicular spermatogenic cells in rats, which has a positive correlation to radiation dosage and time.
  • [MeSH-major] Microwaves. Spermatozoa / pathology. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16833183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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66. Porter KL, Shetty G, Shuttlesworth GA, Weng CC, Huhtaniemi I, Pakarinen P, Meistrich ML: Estrogen enhances recovery from radiation-induced spermatogonial arrest in rat testes. J Androl; 2009 Jul-Aug;30(4):440-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • However, E2 addition further reduced ITT from 7 ng/g testis, observed with GnRH antagonist to 3 ng/g testis, so decreased ITT levels might have contributed to recovery.
  • These results indicate that there was an effect of E2 on spermatogonial differentiation because of an additional direct action on the testis that is unrelated to its suppression of testosterone or gonadotropins.
  • [MeSH-major] Estradiol / pharmacology. Spermatogenesis / drug effects. Testis / drug effects. Testis / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 19136390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-4640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16672; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES-08075; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA-77050; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32 HD-007324
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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67. Duru FI, Noronha CC, Akinwande AI, Okanlawon AO: Effects of torsion, detorsion and melatonin on testicular malondialdehyde level. West Afr J Med; 2007 Oct-Dec;26(4):312-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of torsion, detorsion and melatonin on testicular malondialdehyde level.
  • BACKGROUND: Unilateral testicular torsion is a cause of bilateral testicular damage, which has ischaemic and reperfusion components.
  • Three groups were subjected to right sided testicular torsion by twisting the testes 720 degrees counterclockwise for one, three and five hours; three groups were subjected to de-torsion following torsion lasting one, three and five hours; three groups were treated with intra-peritoneal melatonin (1 mg/kg) before torsion lasting one, three and five hours, and three groups were treated with intra-peritoneal melatonin before de-torsion following torsion lasting one, three and five hours.
  • RESULTS: The MDA level was significantly higher in ipsilateral torted testis than the control testis in all groups (P < 0.05), with the levels increasing with the duration of torsion.
  • Melatonin did not significantly affect the MDA level in the ipsilateral testis if administered before torsion, but significantly reduced the level if administered before detorsion.
  • CONCLUSION: Malondialdehyde levels are altered in the both testes following unilateral testicular torsion-detorsion injuries.

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  • (PMID = 18705433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0189-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] West African journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] West Afr J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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68. Wang B, Schneider SN, Dragin N, Girijashanker K, Dalton TP, He L, Miller ML, Stringer KF, Soleimani M, Richardson DD, Nebert DW: Enhanced cadmium-induced testicular necrosis and renal proximal tubule damage caused by gene-dose increase in a Slc39a8-transgenic mouse line. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol; 2007 Apr;292(4):C1523-35
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  • [Title] Enhanced cadmium-induced testicular necrosis and renal proximal tubule damage caused by gene-dose increase in a Slc39a8-transgenic mouse line.
  • Resistance to cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular necrosis is an autosomal recessive trait defined as the Cdm locus.
  • In situ hybridization revealed that endothelial cells of the testis vasculature express high ZIP8 levels in two sensitive inbred mouse strains and negligible amounts in two resistant strains.
  • The BTZIP8-3 line, having three copies of the 129/SvJ Slc39a8 gene inserted into the Cd-resistant C57BL/6J genome (having its normal two copies of the Slc39a8 gene), showed tissue-specific ZIP8 mRNA expression similar to wild-type mice, mainly in lung, testis, and kidney.
  • The ZIP8 mRNA and protein localized especially to endothelial cells of the testis vasculature in BTZIP8-3 mice.
  • Cd treatment reversed Cd resistance (seen in nontransgenic littermates) to Cd sensitivity in BTZIP8-3 mice; reversal of the testicular necrosis phenotype confirms that Slc39a8 is unequivocally the Cdm locus.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute Kidney Injury / genetics. Cadmium / toxicity. Cation Transport Proteins / genetics. Gene Dosage. Kidney Tubules, Proximal / drug effects. Testis / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17108009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6143
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Cell physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES-06096; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK-062809; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES-010416
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cation Transport Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Slc39a8 protein, mouse; 00BH33GNGH / Cadmium
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69. Cattaneo F, Pasini ME, Intra J, Matsumoto M, Briani F, Hoshi M, Perotti ME: Identification and expression analysis of Drosophila melanogaster genes encoding beta-hexosaminidases of the sperm plasma membrane. Glycobiology; 2006 Sep;16(9):786-800
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  • Although none of the genes was testis-specific, fdl was highly and preferentially expressed in the testis, whereas Hexo1 and Hexo2 showed broader tissue expression.
  • Enzyme assays carried out on testis and on a variety of somatic tissues corroborated the results of gene expression analysis.

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  • (PMID = 16733265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Glycobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glycobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drosophila Proteins; EC 3.2.1.52 / Hexosaminidase A; EC 3.2.1.52 / beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases
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70. Wu JW, Wang RY, Guo QS, Xu C: Expression of the retinoic acid-metabolizing enzymes RALDH2 and CYP26b1 during mouse postnatal testis development. Asian J Androl; 2008 Jul;10(4):569-76
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  • [Title] Expression of the retinoic acid-metabolizing enzymes RALDH2 and CYP26b1 during mouse postnatal testis development.
  • AIM: To study the expression pattern of the retinoic acid metabolizing enzymes RALDH2 and CYP26b1 during mouse postnatal testis development at both mRNA and protein levels.
  • Testicular localization of RALDH2 and CYP26b1 during mouse postnatal development was examined using immunohistochemistry assay.
  • Cyp26b1 transcripts and CYP26b1 protein did not change significantly during mouse postnatal testis development.
  • Robust expression of RALDH2 was restricted in round spermatids in the adult mouse testis.
  • In the developing and adult testis, CYP26b1 protein was confined to the peritubular myoepithelial cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldehyde Oxidoreductases / metabolism. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism. Testis / growth & development. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18478160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-682X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 1.14.14.1 / retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase; EC 1.2.- / Aldehyde Oxidoreductases; EC 1.2.1.36 / RALDH2 protein, mouse
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71. Iwasaki T, Ishii H, Otani S, Oka H, Amemiya Y, Iwata A, Umeki K, Shirai R, Kishi K, Tokimatsu I, Hiramatsu K, Kadota J: [Sarcoidosis with epididymal and testicular lesions: case report and a review of the literature]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Jul;47(7):631-5
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  • [Title] [Sarcoidosis with epididymal and testicular lesions: case report and a review of the literature].
  • The resected and biopsied specimens of the epididymis and testis demonstrated numerous noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas but no evidence of neoplasm.
  • A review of the Japanese literature found most cases to be associated with a history of painless scrotal swelling with chest roentgenogram findings of stage I or II, while also indicating it was important to perform biopsy or surgically resect any epididymal and testicular lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / pathology. Sarcoidosis / pathology. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19637807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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72. Han C, Choi E, Park I, Lee B, Jin S, Kim DH, Nishimura H, Cho C: Comprehensive analysis of reproductive ADAMs: relationship of ADAM4 and ADAM6 with an ADAM complex required for fertilization in mice. Biol Reprod; 2009 May;80(5):1001-8
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  • Furthermore, we obtained a result showing complex formation of ADAM6 with ADAM2 and ADAM3 in testis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibody Specificity. Female. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred ICR. Mice, Knockout. Multiprotein Complexes. Protein Processing, Post-Translational. Sperm Maturation / physiology. Spermatogenesis / physiology. Spermatozoa / physiology. Testis / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19129510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Multiprotein Complexes; EC 3.4.24.- / ADAM Proteins; EC 3.4.24.- / Adam3 protein, mouse; EC 3.4.24.- / Adam4 protein, mouse; EC 3.4.24.- / fertilin
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73. Wang J, Cook G, Frank J, Dina R, Livni N, Lynn J, Fleming W, Seckl MJ: Case report: PET/CT, a cautionary tale. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:147
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  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a patient with a germ cell tumour of the testis, who underwent a PET/CT scan to detect the site of relapse with a view to surgical removal.
  • However, the PET/CT scan mislocalised the tumour site to be within the T2 vertebral body.
  • A subsequent endoscopic ultrasound scan however showed the tumour to be anterior to the vertebral body, which was confirmed at surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17683560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1950887
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74. Lin CY, Jwo SC, Lin CC: Primary testicular actinomycosis mimicking metastatic tumor. Int J Urol; 2005 May;12(5):519-21
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  • [Title] Primary testicular actinomycosis mimicking metastatic tumor.
  • We report a rare case of right primary testicular actinomycosis presenting as multiple testicular lesions mimicking a metastatic tumor in a 71-year-old patient with gastric adenocarcinoma.
  • Preoperative diagnosis is difficult.
  • The enlarged and inflamed testis was removed by orchiectomy and testicular actinomycosis was diagnosed after pathological examination.
  • We illustrate this case, though it is rare, to alert pathologists and clinicians to the possible occurrence of primary testicular actinomycosis mimicking metastatic lesions in a cancer patient.
  • We also reviewed the published literature and found that the treatment of choice for testicular actinomycosis was orchiectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Actinomycosis / diagnosis. Orchitis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Actinomyces / isolation & purification. Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Orchiectomy. Stomach Neoplasms / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testis / microbiology. Testis / pathology. Testis / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15948759.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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75. Liu JL: Intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase in Drosophila. J Genet Genomics; 2010 May;37(5):281-96
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  • I find that cytoophidia are present in all major cell types in the ovary and exist in a wide range of tissues such as brain, gut, trachea, testis, accessory gland, salivary gland and lymph gland.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology and the Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20513629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-8527
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Genet Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U137788471; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 65-47-4 / Cytidine Triphosphate; EC 6.3.- / Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases; EC 6.3.4.2 / CTP synthetase
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81. Liggins AP, Cooper CD, Lawrie CH, Brown PJ, Collins GP, Hatton CS, Pulford K, Banham AH: MORC4, a novel member of the MORC family, is highly expressed in a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Br J Haematol; 2007 Aug;138(4):479-86
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  • MORC4 mRNA is widely expressed at low levels in normal tissues, showing highest expression levels in placenta and testis. mRNA levels were increased in non-germinal centre-derived DLBCL and Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines, compared with germinal centre-derived DLBCL cell lines and normal B cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / genetics. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] B-Lymphocytes / metabolism. Base Sequence. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Placenta / metabolism. Pregnancy. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Alignment. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17608765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MORC4 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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82. Mogulkoc R, Baltaci AK, Oztekin E, Ozturk A, Sivrikaya A: Short-term thyroxine administration leads to lipid peroxidation in renal and testicular tissues of rats with hypothyroidism. Acta Biol Hung; 2005;56(3-4):225-32
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  • [Title] Short-term thyroxine administration leads to lipid peroxidation in renal and testicular tissues of rats with hypothyroidism.
  • The aim of the present study was to examine how experimental hypothyroidism and additional short-term high-dose thyroxine administration (one-week) affected lipid peroxidation in renal and testicular tissues of rats.
  • Both malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels were lower in renal and testicular tissues of the hypothyroidism group than the control and hypothyroidism + thyroxine administration groups and the levels in hypothyroidism + thyroxine administration group were higher than those in the control and hypothyroidism groups (p < 0.001).
  • Results of the study demonstrate that hypothyroidism reduced oxidant stress in kidney and testis tissues, but short-term, high-dose thyroxine administration in addition to hypothyroidism increased oxidant stress in the same tissues of rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypothyroidism. Kidney / metabolism. Lipid Peroxidation. Testis / metabolism. Thyroxine

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  • (PMID = 16196198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0236-5383
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta biologica Hungarica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta. Biol. Hung.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; 721M9407IY / Propylthiouracil; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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83. Silva FP, Hamamoto R, Nakamura Y, Furukawa Y: WDRPUH, a novel WD-repeat-containing protein, is highly expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma and involved in cell proliferation. Neoplasia; 2005 Apr;7(4):348-55
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  • In an attempt to disclose mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis and discover novel target molecules for the diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), we previously analyzed expression profiles of HCC tissues by means of human cDNA microarray.
  • Among the genes upregulated in tumor tissues compared with their nontumor counterparts, we focused on a novel gene, termed WDRPUH, and characterized its biologic function.
  • Multiple-tissue Northern blot analysis revealed its specific expression in the testis among 16 normal tissues examined.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. BRCA2 Protein / metabolism. Blotting, Northern. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cell Survival. Cloning, Molecular. DNA, Complementary / metabolism. Gene Silencing. HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunoprecipitation. Mass Spectrometry. Mice. Microscopy, Fluorescence. NIH 3T3 Cells. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Plasmids / metabolism. Protein Binding. Protein Structure, Tertiary. RNA / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization. Tissue Distribution. Transfection. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 15967112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8002
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRCA2 Protein; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / WDR16 protein, human; 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 3.6.1.- / Chaperonins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1501145
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84. Darmani H, Al-Hiyasat AS: The resin monomer triethylene glycol dimethacrylate exhibits reproductive toxicity in male mice. Reprod Fertil Dev; 2005;17(4):401-6
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  • Males treated with TEGDMA exhibited a significant reduction in bodyweight, testis weight and the weight of the seminal vesicles and preputial glands.
  • Testicular and epididymal sperm counts, as well as the efficiency of sperm production, were also significantly reduced in TEGDMA-treated males.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Exocrine Glands / anatomy & histology. Exocrine Glands / drug effects. Female. Fertility / physiology. Male. Mice. Organ Size / drug effects. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Rate. Sperm Count. Testis / anatomy & histology. Testis / drug effects. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 15899151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1031-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction, fertility, and development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Fertil. Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Composite Resins; 0 / Polymethacrylic Acids; 109-16-0 / triethylene glycol dimethacrylate; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols
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85. Ross MT, Grafham DV, Coffey AJ, Scherer S, McLay K, Muzny D, Platzer M, Howell GR, Burrows C, Bird CP, Frankish A, Lovell FL, Howe KL, Ashurst JL, Fulton RS, Sudbrak R, Wen G, Jones MC, Hurles ME, Andrews TD, Scott CE, Searle S, Ramser J, Whittaker A, Deadman R, Carter NP, Hunt SE, Chen R, Cree A, Gunaratne P, Havlak P, Hodgson A, Metzker ML, Richards S, Scott G, Steffen D, Sodergren E, Wheeler DA, Worley KC, Ainscough R, Ambrose KD, Ansari-Lari MA, Aradhya S, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Ballabio A, Banerjee R, Barker GE, Barlow KF, Barrett IP, Bates KN, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Beck A, Bethel G, Blechschmidt K, Brady N, Bray-Allen S, Bridgeman AM, Brown AJ, Brown MJ, Bonnin D, Bruford EA, Buhay C, Burch P, Burford D, Burgess J, Burrill W, Burton J, Bye JM, Carder C, Carrel L, Chako J, Chapman JC, Chavez D, Chen E, Chen G, Chen Y, Chen Z, Chinault C, Ciccodicola A, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Clerc-Blankenburg K, Clifford K, Cobley V, Cole CG, Conquer JS, Corby N, Connor RE, David R, Davies J, Davis C, Davis J, Delgado O, Deshazo D, Dhami P, Ding Y, Dinh H, Dodsworth S, Draper H, Dugan-Rocha S, Dunham A, Dunn M, Durbin KJ, Dutta I, Eades T, Ellwood M, Emery-Cohen A, Errington H, Evans KL, Faulkner L, Francis F, Frankland J, Fraser AE, Galgoczy P, Gilbert J, Gill R, Glöckner G, Gregory SG, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gu Y, Gwilliam R, Hamilton C, Hart EA, Hawes A, Heath PD, Heitmann K, Hennig S, Hernandez J, Hinzmann B, Ho S, Hoffs M, Howden PJ, Huckle EJ, Hume J, Hunt PJ, Hunt AR, Isherwood J, Jacob L, Johnson D, Jones S, de Jong PJ, Joseph SS, Keenan S, Kelly S, Kershaw JK, Khan Z, Kioschis P, Klages S, Knights AJ, Kosiura A, Kovar-Smith C, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leversha M, Lewis L, Liu W, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loulseged H, Loveland JE, Lovell JD, Lozado R, Lu J, Lyne R, Ma J, Maheshwari M, Matthews LH, McDowall J, McLaren S, McMurray A, Meidl P, Meitinger T, Milne S, Miner G, Mistry SL, Morgan M, Morris S, Müller I, Mullikin JC, Nguyen N, Nordsiek G, Nyakatura G, O'Dell CN, Okwuonu G, Palmer S, Pandian R, Parker D, Parrish J, Pasternak S, Patel D, Pearce AV, Pearson DM, Pelan SE, Perez L, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Reichwald K, Rhodes S, Ridler KA, Schlessinger D, Schueler MG, Sehra HK, Shaw-Smith C, Shen H, Sheridan EM, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith ML, Sotheran EC, Steingruber HE, Steward CA, Storey R, Swann RM, Swarbreck D, Tabor PE, Taudien S, Taylor T, Teague B, Thomas K, Thorpe A, Timms K, Tracey A, Trevanion S, Tromans AC, d'Urso M, Verduzco D, Villasana D, Waldron L, Wall M, Wang Q, Warren J, Warry GL, Wei X, West A, Whitehead SL, Whiteley MN, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams G, Williams L, Williamson A, Williamson H, Wilming L, Woodmansey RL, Wray PW, Yen J, Zhang J, Zhou J, Zoghbi H, Zorilla S, Buck D, Reinhardt R, Poustka A, Rosenthal A, Lehrach H, Meindl A, Minx PJ, Hillier LW, Willard HF, Wilson RK, Waterston RH, Rice CM, Vaudin M, Coulson A, Nelson DL, Weinstock G, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Gibbs RA, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR: The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome. Nature; 2005 Mar 17;434(7031):325-37
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  • We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Centromere / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Y / genetics. Contig Mapping. Crossing Over, Genetic / genetics. Dosage Compensation, Genetic. Female. Genetic Linkage / genetics. Genetics, Medical. Humans. Male. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics. RNA / genetics. Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid / genetics. Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid. Testis / metabolism


86. Ashley RA, Yu Z, Fung KM, Frimberger D, Kropp BP, Penning TM, Lin HK: Developmental evaluation of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 expression in the cryptorchid testis. Urology; 2010 Jul;76(1):67-72
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  • [Title] Developmental evaluation of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 expression in the cryptorchid testis.
  • METHODS: Surgically excised cryptorchid testes were subjected to hematoxylin-eosin evaluation to review overall testicular pathology.
  • AKR1C3 expression was identified at all ages in fibromyocytes surrounding the testicular tubules.
  • In contrast to the normal adult testis, the pediatric cryptorchid testis reveals AKR1C3 expression in Sertoli cells.
  • Additional studies are warranted to determine the involvement of AKR1C3 in testicular descent and development.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19942269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090744; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01-CA90744; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30-ES013508
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.- / AKR1C3 protein, human; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases
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87. Dahm P, Rosser CJ, McKiernan JM: Quality of care for testis cancer. Urol Oncol; 2009 Jul-Aug;27(4):448-53
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  • [Title] Quality of care for testis cancer.
  • This article explores the delivery of high quality care in patients with testicular cancer.
  • The necessary integration of multiple therapeutic modalities makes testis cancer outcomes highly susceptible to variations in quality of care, which deserves further investigation in well designed population-based studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Medical Oncology / methods. Quality Assurance, Health Care. Quality of Health Care. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Delivery of Health Care. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prognosis. Risk

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  • (PMID = 19573777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2496
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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88. Nakamura N, Mori C, Eddy EM: Molecular complex of three testis-specific isozymes associated with the mouse sperm fibrous sheath: hexokinase 1, phosphofructokinase M, and glutathione S-transferase mu class 5. Biol Reprod; 2010 Mar;82(3):504-15
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  • [Title] Molecular complex of three testis-specific isozymes associated with the mouse sperm fibrous sheath: hexokinase 1, phosphofructokinase M, and glutathione S-transferase mu class 5.
  • This led to the identification of four testis-specific Pfkm splice variants, one that overlapped a variant reported previously (Pfkm_v1) and three that were novel (Pfkm_v2, Pfkm_v3, and Pfkm_v4).
  • They differ from Pfkm transcripts found in somatic cells by encoding a novel 67-amino acid N-terminal extension, the testis-specific region (TSR), producing a spermatogenic cell-specific PFKM variant isozyme (PFKMS).

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  • (PMID = 19889946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-7268
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Macromolecular Substances; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; EC 2.5.1.18 / glutathione S-transferase M5, mouse; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphofructokinase-1, Muscle Type; EC 2.7.1.- / phosphofructokinase-1 subunit, type M; EC 2.7.1.1 / HK1 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.1.1 / Hexokinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2825169
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89. Bayhan GI, Cetinkaya S, Cinar HG, Aycan Z: Testicular adrenal rest tumor in a patient with 11beta-hydroxylase deficient congenital adrenal hyperplasia. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jul;23(7):729-32
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  • [Title] Testicular adrenal rest tumor in a patient with 11beta-hydroxylase deficient congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • In patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, testicular adrenal hyperplasia and tumors can develop.
  • In ultrasonographic evaluation, a hypoechoic mass, 10x10 mm in size, was detected in his left testis at 15 years of age and steroid dose was increased.
  • Almost two years later the tumor completely disappeared with high dose steroid treatment.
  • In conclusion, the monitoring of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with ultrasonography is recommended, especially in puberty, because it is important that testicular adrenal rest hyperplasia should be determined before testicular adrenal rest tumors develop.
  • In this case we observed that small testicular adrenal rest tumors disappeared completely with high dose steroid treatment in nearly two years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Rest Tumor / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology


90. Bai G, Liu Y, Zhang H, Su D, Tao D, Yang Y, Ma Y, Zhang S: Promoter demethylation mediates the expression of ZNF645, a novel cancer/testis gene. BMB Rep; 2010 Jun;43(6):400-6
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  • [Title] Promoter demethylation mediates the expression of ZNF645, a novel cancer/testis gene.
  • Cancer/testis (CT) antigens exhibit highly tissue-restricted expression and are considered promising targets for cancer vaccines.
  • Therefore, we proposed that ZNF645 is a CT gene and activated in human testis and lung cancers by demethylation of its promoter region.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Methylation. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Testis / metabolism. Trans-Activators / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20587329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1976-670X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMB reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMB Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / ZNF645 protein, human
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91. Chen S, Wang J, Liu S, Qin Q, Xiao J, Duan W, Luo K, Liu J, Liu Y: Biological characteristics of an improved triploid crucian carp. Sci China C Life Sci; 2009 Aug;52(8):733-8
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  • In the breeding season, both ovary-like and testis-like gonads of ITCC were unable to produce normal mature gametes.

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  • (PMID = 19727591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1006-9305
  • [Journal-full-title] Science in China. Series C, Life sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sci. China, C, Life Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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92. Hayasaka S, Terada Y, Suzuki K, Murakawa H, Tachibana I, Sankai T, Murakami T, Yaegashi N, Okamura K: Intramanchette transport during primate spermiogenesis: expression of dynein, myosin Va, motor recruiter myosin Va, VIIa-Rab27a/b interacting protein, and Rab27b in the manchette during human and monkey spermiogenesis. Asian J Androl; 2008 Jul;10(4):561-8
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  • RESULTS: Using RT-PCR, we found that dynein, myosin Va, MyRIP and Rab27b were expressed in monkey testis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Adult. Animals. Biological Transport / physiology. Humans. Macaca fascicularis. Male. Myosins / metabolism. Testis / cytology. Testis / metabolism. Transport Vesicles / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18478159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-682X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / MYRIP protein, human; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins; 148971-15-7 / MYO5A protein, human; EC 3.6.1.- / Myosin Type V; EC 3.6.1.- / rab GTP-Binding Proteins; EC 3.6.1.-. / Rab27B protein, human; EC 3.6.4.1 / Myosin Heavy Chains; EC 3.6.4.1 / Myosins; EC 3.6.4.2 / Dyneins
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93. Nishimura N, Araki K, Shinahara W, Nakano Y, Nishimura K, Higashio H, Sasaki T: Interaction of Rab3B with microtubule-binding protein Gas8 in NIH 3T3 cells. Arch Biochem Biophys; 2008 Jun 1;474(1):136-42
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  • Rab3B as well as Gas8 was upregulated in growth-arrested NIH 3T3 cells and enriched in testis and lung with well-developed flagella/cilia.

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  • (PMID = 18396146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0384
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of biochemistry and biophysics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gas8 protein, mouse; 0 / Proteins; EC 3.6.1.- / Rab3b protein, mouse; EC 3.6.5.2 / rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins
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94. Liu G, Xin ZC, Chen L, Tian L, Yuan YM, Song WD, Jiang XJ, Guo YL: Expression and localization of CKLFSF2 in human spermatogenesis. Asian J Androl; 2007 Mar;9(2):189-98
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  • AIM: To investigate the expression and subcellular localization of chemokine-like factor superfamily 2 (CKLFSF2) in human testis and its potential role in spermatogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibody Specificity. COS Cells. Cercopithecus aethiops. Endoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism. Germ Cells / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Infertility, Male / metabolism. MARVEL Domain-Containing Proteins. Male. Meiosis. Microscopy, Confocal. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17334588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-682X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CMTM2 protein, human; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / MARVEL Domain-Containing Proteins
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95. Cheng J, Watkins SC, Walker WH: Testosterone activates mitogen-activated protein kinase via Src kinase and the epidermal growth factor receptor in sertoli cells. Endocrinology; 2007 May;148(5):2066-74
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  • The elucidation of this nonclassical pathway of T action in the testis may provide new targets for the control of male fertility.

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  • (PMID = 17272394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01-HD43143
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.2 / src-Family Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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96. Shen W, Li L, Pan Q, Min L, Dong H, Deng J: Efficient and simple production of transgenic mice and rabbits using the new DMSO-sperm mediated exogenous DNA transfer method. Mol Reprod Dev; 2006 May;73(5):589-94
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  • Mouse sperm could be either directly transfected via injection into testis or cultured in vitro with the plasmed DNA containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) that could be expressed in the embryos and offspring.

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DIMETHYL SULFOXIDE .
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  • [Copyright] Mol. Reprod. Dev. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16450410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-452X
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular reproduction and development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Reprod. Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] YOW8V9698H / Dimethyl Sulfoxide
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97. Krick R, Aschrafi A, Hasgün D, Arnemann J: CK2-dependent C-terminal phosphorylation at T300 directs the nuclear transport of TSPY protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2006 Mar 10;341(2):343-50
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  • TSPY (testis-specific protein, Y-encoded) is a member of the greater SET/NAP family of molecules with various functions, e.g., in chromatin remodeling, regulation of gene expression, and has been implicated to play a role in the malignant development of gonadoblastoma, testicular and prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Base Sequence. Binding Sites. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Chromatin / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA Primers / chemistry. Drosophila. Gene Deletion. Gene Expression Regulation. Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Immunoblotting. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutagenesis. Mutation. Mutation, Missense. Phosphorylation. Protein Structure, Tertiary. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / chemistry. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16426576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Chromatin; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / TSPY1 protein, human; 0 / enhanced green fluorescent protein; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / Casein Kinase II
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98. Ito Y, Okada R, Noriyuki T, Kikuyama S: Cloning and distribution of the bullfrog type 1 and type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor receptors. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2006 May 1;146(3):291-5
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  • CRFR1 mRNA was detected almost exclusively in brain and pituitary, and to a very minor degree in testis, whereas CRFR2 was found in the peripheral tissues as well as in the brain and pituitary.

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  • (PMID = 16384555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6480
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRF receptor type 1; 0 / CRF receptor type 2; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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99. Yoshinaga A, Hayashi T, Ishii N, Ohno R, Watanabe T, Yamada T: Successful cure of dermatomyositis after treatment of nonseminomatous testicular cancer. Int J Urol; 2005 Jun;12(6):593-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful cure of dermatomyositis after treatment of nonseminomatous testicular cancer.
  • Although the association between dermatomyositis and cancer is well recognized, there have been a limited number of reports of dermatomyositis associated with testicular cancer.
  • Physical examination revealed an induration (2 cm x 2 cm) in the left testis and the patient was diagnosed with stage IIIB left testicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Embryonal / complications. Carcinoma, Embryonal / therapy. Dermatomyositis / etiology. Orchiectomy. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy


100. Loebel DA, Tsoi B, Wong N, Tam PP: A conserved noncoding intronic transcript at the mouse Dnm3 locus. Genomics; 2005 Jun;85(6):782-9
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  • We show that expression of the Dnm3 and Dnm3os transcripts overlaps during embryogenesis and in adult tissues, except that Dnm3 is most highly expressed in adult brain and testis and expressed at lower levels in embryos, whereas the antisense transcript is most strongly expressed in embryos and gravid uterus.

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  • (PMID = 15885504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-7543
  • [Journal-full-title] Genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY751519
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Antisense; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Twist Transcription Factor
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