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1. Poulos C, Cheng L, Zhang S, Gersell DJ, Ulbright TM: Analysis of ovarian teratomas for isochromosome 12p: evidence supporting a dual histogenetic pathway for teratomatous elements. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jun;19(6):766-71
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  • Teratomas are the most common germ cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary and include several types with a range of clinical behavior.
  • As in testicular teratomas, they may be benign, malignant or a component of a mixed GCT.
  • In the testis, data support separate pathogeneses for prepubertal and postpubertal teratomas, with derivation of the former from a nontransformed germ cell and the latter from differentiation of a nonteratomatous, malignant GCT.
  • Six mixed GCTs of the ovary occurred in patients 4-33 years of age; all had teratomatous and yolk sac tumor components and three also contained foci of embryonal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16547466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Nistal M, García-Cabezas MA, Castello MC, De Miguel MP, Regadera J: Age-related epididymis-like intratesticular structures: benign lesions of Wolffian origin that can be misdiagnosed as testicular tumors. J Androl; 2006 Jan-Feb;27(1):79-85
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  • [Title] Age-related epididymis-like intratesticular structures: benign lesions of Wolffian origin that can be misdiagnosed as testicular tumors.
  • The ELITSs are distinct from atrophic seminiferous tubules with a Sertoli cell-only pattern and from the benign glandular teratomatous component of an involution of a malignant testicular germ cell tumor, the so-called burn-out germ cell tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16400082.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-3635
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Soh HC, Russell P, Dalrymple C: Benign mixed tumour of the vulva. Pathology; 2005 Oct;37(5):389-92
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  • [Title] Benign mixed tumour of the vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bartholin's Glands. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Treatment Outcome. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 16194854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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4. Gabeau-Lacet D, Grant E, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Yock T, Tarbell NJ: Sellar abnormalities in female first-degree relatives. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2008 Feb;110(2):202-6
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  • Each of these cases was diagnosed and managed differently, illustrating the relative importance of radiographic imaging, tumor markers and histopathologic examination in the diagnosis and treatment of intracranial disease.
  • One daughter was treated presumptively for germinoma based on characteristic radiographic studies and slightly elevated tumor marker.
  • The other daughter's lesion exhibited radiographic characteristics concerning for pituitary macroadenoma but with slightly elevated germ cell tumor marker, raising the suspicion for germinoma.
  • Biopsy of the intrasellar mass revealed only proteinaceous material and normal anterior pituitary, consistent with cyst content without evidence of neoplasm.
  • At least two of the patients had benign cysts.

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  • (PMID = 18035480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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5. Swamy GG, Satyanarayana N: Clinicopathological analysis of ovarian tumors--a study on five years samples. Nepal Med Coll J; 2010 Dec;12(4):221-3
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  • Among 120 cases, majority 86 (71.6%) were benign, but alarming number 30 (25.0%) were malignant, remaining 4 cases were borderline.
  • The commonest benign tumor was serous cyst adenoma, while; the commonest malignant tumors were granulosa cell tumor and endometrial carcinoma.
  • Epithelial tumors were commonest variety of ovarian tumors followed by germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Epithelium / surgery. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21744762.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nepal Med Coll J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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6. Khonsari RH: [Jaw tumors of embryonic origin]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 2009 Sep;110(4):214-6
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  • The term jaw tumor of embryonic origin includes vestiges of organogenetic processes, hamartomas, teratomas, and blastemal tumors.
  • Oral cavity teratomas are almost always mature and thus benign and encapsulated.
  • It can be immediate postbirth tumor removal when neonatal respiratory distress can be managed by the anesthesiologist, or an EXIT (ex utero intrapartum) procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Jaw Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19647282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1776-257X
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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7. Mannisto S, Butzow R, Salonen J, Leminen A, Heikinheimo O, Heikinheimo M: Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6, and their potential downstream effectors in ovarian germ cell tumors. Tumour Biol; 2005 Sep-Oct;26(5):265-73
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  • [Title] Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6, and their potential downstream effectors in ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors (GCTs) are histologically heterogeneous neoplasms originating from activated germ cells, the oocyte stem cells.
  • These rare tumors often contain many different tissues mixed together, and malignant components are occasionally hidden within benign tissues thus complicating the diagnosis.
  • The reasons for the variable differentiation of germ cells are still largely unknown.
  • The fact that GATA-6 and HNF-4 are expressed exclusively in endodermal tissues indicates that these transcription factors play a role in the differentiation of germ cells towards the endodermal phenotype.
  • Analysis of the nuclear transcription factors in tumor tissue could serve as a new informative diagnostic tool for ovarian GCTs.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / physiopathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Child. Female. GATA4 Transcription Factor. GATA6 Transcription Factor. Gene Expression Profiling. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4. Humans. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Phosphoproteins / biosynthesis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16110260.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 protein, human; 0 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Transcription Factors
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8. Liddle AD, Anderson DR, Mishra PK: Intrapericardial teratoma presenting in fetal life: intrauterine diagnosis and neonatal management. Congenit Heart Dis; 2008 Nov-Dec;3(6):449-51
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  • Intrapericardial teratoma is a rare and often fatal germ-cell tumor of neonates.
  • It is usually histologically benign but may cause death in utero by hydrops fetalis or by pericardial tamponade in the early days of life.

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  • (PMID = 19037988.001).
  • [ISSN] 1747-0803
  • [Journal-full-title] Congenital heart disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Congenit Heart Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Ben Temime R, Chachial A, Attial L, Ghodbanel I, Makhloufl T, Koubaal A, Kourda N, Ben Jilani S, Dammak T, El May A, Rahal K: 46 XY pure gonadal dysgenesis with gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma. Tunis Med; 2008 Jul;86(7):710-3
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  • The tumor that usually develops in Swyer syndrome is gonadoblastoma.
  • Although gonadoblastoma is considered benign, the risk of malignant germ cell tumor development is high.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is to stress on the risk of occurrence of malignant germ cell tumors on these dysgenesic gonads.


10. Agrawal M, Uppin MS, Patibandla MR, Bhattacharjee S, Panigrahi MK, Saradhi V, Rani JY, Purohit AK, Challa S: Teratomas in central nervous system: a clinico-morphological study with review of literature. Neurol India; 2010 Nov-Dec;58(6):841-6
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  • Histopathology is diagnostic; most of the lesions are benign.
  • Of these, 11 were mature cystic teratomas; and 1 case each, of teratoma with malignant transformation, terato-carcinoma and mixed germ cell tumor (immature teratoma with germinoma).
  • Radiologically, contrast enhancement with predominantly solid component was suggestive of malignancy or an aggressive tumor.
  • Excision was curative or provided symptomatic relief in most cases; terato-carcinoma and mixed germ cell tumor patients needed adjuvant radiotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 21150046.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
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11. Dong Z, Yang Z, Li Y, Min P, Zhang X: [Extra-organic primary tumor in pelvis: correlation of multi-detector row computed tomography, anatomy and pathology]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;26(1):75-9
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  • [Title] [Extra-organic primary tumor in pelvis: correlation of multi-detector row computed tomography, anatomy and pathology].
  • The majority of entities in these 2 pouches were germ cell tumors (3/5 cases, 60.0%).
  • The majority entities of these 10 cases were germ cell tumors (7/10 cases, 70.0%).
  • The fatty element occurred in 7 masses, including 4 cases of teratoma, 1 case of malignant teratoma, 1 case of mixed germ cell tumor, and 1 case of liposarcoma.
  • MDCT with multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) could more clearly reveal the anatomic location of the extra-organic primary tumor in pelvis, could unveil the tumor's relationship with its surrounding organs, and could help to differentiate benign tumors from malignant tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19334559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-5515
  • [Journal-full-title] Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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12. Wolff EF, Hughes M, Merino MJ, Reynolds JC, Davis JL, Cochran CS, Celi FS: Expression of benign and malignant thyroid tissue in ovarian teratomas and the importance of multimodal management as illustrated by a BRAF-positive follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):981-7
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  • [Title] Expression of benign and malignant thyroid tissue in ovarian teratomas and the importance of multimodal management as illustrated by a BRAF-positive follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common type of ovarian germ cell tumor is the teratoma.
  • Thyroid tissue, both benign and malignant, may be a component of an ovarian teratoma.
  • SUMMARY: Malignant thyroid tissue is often difficult to distinguish from benign thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas.
  • Postoperatively, tumor tissue should be referred to pathologists experienced with differentiating benign from malignant struma ovarii.
  • The tumor was found to be BRAF mutation positive (K601E).


13. Rabban JT, Crawford B, Chen LM, Powell CB, Zaloudek CJ: Transitional cell metaplasia of fallopian tube fimbriae: a potential mimic of early tubal carcinoma in risk reduction salpingo-oophorectomies from women With BRCA mutations. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Jan;33(1):111-9
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  • [Title] Transitional cell metaplasia of fallopian tube fimbriae: a potential mimic of early tubal carcinoma in risk reduction salpingo-oophorectomies from women With BRCA mutations.
  • Transitional cell metaplasia is a benign epithelial alteration that is a common finding in the serosa of the tube but is underrecognized in the tubal fimbriae, where it may mimic tubal intraepithelial carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to define the incidence, morphology, immunophenotype, and distribution of transitional cell metaplasia of the fimbriae in RRSO specimens from 96 women with BRCA germline mutations and to compare these features to those of tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in this cohort.
  • Transitional cell metaplasia of the fimbriae was present in 26% of all RRSO specimens.
  • Median tumor size was 2.7 mm (range: 1 to 11 mm).
  • The key criteria distinguishing transitional cell metaplasia from tubal intraepithelial carcinoma were uniform cell size and shape, normal nucleus:cytoplasm ratios, lack of nuclear atypia, presence of nuclear grooves, lack of mitoses, and absence of p53 expression or increased staining for MIB-1.
  • No particular clinical variables (BRCA 1 vs. BRCA 2 mutation, parity, personal history of breast cancer, prior abdomino-pelvic surgery, or intraoperative findings) or benign pathologic alterations in the RRSO specimens were associated with the presence of transitional cell metaplasia of the fimbriae.
  • This study demonstrates that transitional cell metaplasia of the fimbriae is a common benign finding in RRSO specimens that should not be confused with the much less common finding of tubal intraepithelial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genes, BRCA1. Genes, BRCA2. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Ovariectomy. Risk Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


14. Brems H, Park C, Maertens O, Pemov A, Messiaen L, Upadhyaya M, Claes K, Beert E, Peeters K, Mautner V, Sloan JL, Yao L, Lee CC, Sciot R, De Smet L, Legius E, Stewart DR: Glomus tumors in neurofibromatosis type 1: genetic, functional, and clinical evidence of a novel association. Cancer Res; 2009 Sep 15;69(18):7393-401
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  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common disorder that arises secondary to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene NF1.
  • Glomus tumors are small, benign but painful tumors that originate from the glomus body, a thermoregulatory shunt concentrated in the fingers and toes.
  • In 12 NF1-associated glomus tumors, we used cell culture and laser capture microdissection to isolate DNA.
  • Genetic analysis showed germ line and somatic NF1 mutations in seven tumors.
  • Glomus tumors of the fingers or toes should be considered as part of the tumor spectrum of NF1.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor / genetics. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / biosynthesis. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Female. Fibroblasts / metabolism. Fibroblasts / physiology. Gene Dosage. Gene Silencing. Genes, Neurofibromatosis 1. Humans. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Skin / cytology. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult. ras Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19738042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HG200329-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ACTA2 protein, human; 0 / Actins; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS135382; NLM/ PMC2747722
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15. Gonzalez M, Krueger T, Schaefer SC, Ris HB, Perentes JY: Asymptomatic intrapericardial mature teratoma. Ann Thorac Surg; 2010 Jun;89(6):e46-7
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  • Benign mature teratomas are the most common type of germ cell tumors that arise in the anterior mediastinum.
  • Intrapericardial teratomas are a rare manifestation of this tumor type, which are generally diagnosed during infancy because of the heart compression symptoms they produce.

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  • [Copyright] 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20494011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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16. Gwin K, Mariño-Enríquez A, Martel M, Reyes-Múgica M: Sclerosing stromal tumor: an important differential diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms in childhood and adolescence. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2009 Sep-Oct;12(5):366-70
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  • [Title] Sclerosing stromal tumor: an important differential diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms in childhood and adolescence.
  • Sclerosing stromal tumors are an uncommon type of benign ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • Although the usual age of presentation is in the 2nd and 3rd decades, sclerosing stromal tumor can occur in adolescence or premenarchal girls.
  • Imaging studies frequently reveal solid or complex cystic adnexal masses with marked vascularity raising concern for germ cell tumors and, especially in the absence of elevated tumor markers, surface epithelial neoplasms.
  • The differential diagnosis of a benign sclerosing stromal tumor is seldom entertained.

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  • (PMID = 19071970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Denayer E, Devriendt K, de Ravel T, Van Buggenhout G, Smeets E, Francois I, Sznajer Y, Craen M, Leventopoulos G, Mutesa L, Vandecasseye W, Massa G, Kayserili H, Sciot R, Fryns JP, Legius E: Tumor spectrum in children with Noonan syndrome and SOS1 or RAF1 mutations. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2010 Mar;49(3):242-52
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  • [Title] Tumor spectrum in children with Noonan syndrome and SOS1 or RAF1 mutations.
  • One was classified as a rare benign variant and the other remains unclassified.
  • Three patients with SOS1 mutations presented with tumors (embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, Sertoli cell testis tumor, and granular cell tumors of the skin).
  • One patient with a RAF1 mutation had a lesion suggestive for a giant cell tumor.
  • This is the first report describing different tumor types in NS patients with germ line SOS1 mutations.


18. Beeker A, Boven E, Lefesvre P, Golding R, van Groeningen CJ: Retroperitoneal mature teratoma after orchidectomy for a stage IB pure embryonal testicular carcinoma. Int J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb;13(1):71-3
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  • Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis stage I will relapse in approximately 30% of patients in the first year after orchidectomy.
  • Our patient had an unusual case of metastasis formation of benign histology of a previously removed highly malignant primary tumor confined to the testis.

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  • [Cites] World J Urol. 2001 Apr;19(2):76-81 [11374321.001]
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  • (PMID = 18307023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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19. Mukherjee J, Kamnasaran D, Balasubramaniam A, Radovanovic I, Zadeh G, Kiehl TR, Guha A: Human schwannomas express activated platelet-derived growth factor receptors and c-kit and are growth inhibited by Gleevec (Imatinib Mesylate). Cancer Res; 2009 Jun 15;69(12):5099-107
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  • Schwannomas, although benign, can be fatal or give rise to significant morbidity due to an unpredictable growth rate.
  • These risks are further amplified in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), a germ line predisposition syndrome characterized by multiple schwannomas, underlying the need for biological targeted therapies.
  • Gleevec (STI571, imatinib mesylate), in addition to the bcr-abl oncogene in chronic myelogenous leukemia, inhibits c-kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling, thereby expanding its use to several malignant and benign human diseases.
  • Using the human NF2-null HEI-193 schwannoma cell line, Gleevec inhibited schwannoma viability, proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth, as well as induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50) 5-10 micromol/L).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Division / drug effects. Neurilemmoma / metabolism. Piperazines / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Pyrimidines / pharmacology. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Benzamides. Blotting, Western. Cell Cycle. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19509233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
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20. Jha R, Karki S: Histological pattern of ovarian tumors and their age distribution. Nepal Med Coll J; 2008 Jun;10(2):81-5
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  • A female's risk at birth of having ovarian tumor sometime in her life is 6-7%.
  • Relative frequency of ovarian tumor is different for western and Asian countries.
  • One hundred and thirty five of these tumors (83.9%) were benign and 16.1% (26/161) were malignant.
  • Surface epithelial tumors were most common (52.2%) followed by germ cell tumors (42.2%).
  • Mature cystic teratoma was commonest benign tumor (48.2%).
  • Serous adenocarcinoma was commonest malignant tumor (46.2%).
  • For all age groups, benign tumors were more common than malignant ones.
  • In 1st two decades, germ cell tumors were more common than other tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18828427.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nepal Med Coll J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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21. Fakhr IM, Khalil el-SA, El-Baradie TS, Shaalan MA, Shalaby LM, Nassif SL, Farahat IG: The role of surgical management in pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs), NCI case series. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2008 Mar;20(1):70-9
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  • [Title] The role of surgical management in pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs), NCI case series.
  • PURPOSE: To review the experience of a tertiary referral center in pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) in the last 8 years and to investigate the impact of surgery and site of disease on prognosis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the cases of pediatric germ cell tumors at National Cancer Institute over an 8 years period.
  • One patient with benign GCT was excluded during analysis of the results.
  • Yolk sac tumor and malignant teratoma were the commonest histologic subtypes in our series.
  • CONCLUSION: The initial surgical approach to malignant GCTs at all sites should be complete resection when possible; the morbidity of extensive surgical resection should be weighed carefully against the good tumor control with chemotherapy.
  • The site of primary disease plays a role in the prognosis of pediatric germ cell tumors with the extragonadal pelvic tumors being the worst regarding resectability.
  • Good tumor response can be achieved with surgery and chemotherapy even for advanced stage and metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19847284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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22. Tomas D, Lenicek T, Tuckar N, Puljiz Z, Ledinsky M, Kruslin B: Primary ovarian leiomyoma associated with endometriotic cyst presenting with symptoms of acute appendicitis: a case report. Diagn Pathol; 2009;4:25
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  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian leiomyoma is a rare benign tumor that accounts for 0.5 to 1% of all benign ovarian tumors.
  • It probably arises from smooth muscle cells in the ovarian hilar blood vessels but there are other possible origins including cells in the ovarian ligament, smooth muscle cells or multipotential cells in the ovarian stroma, undifferentiated germ cells, or cortical smooth muscle metaplasia.
  • Additionally, smooth muscle metaplasia of endometriotic stroma, smooth muscle present in mature cystic teratomas, and smooth muscle in the walls of mucinous cystic tumor may explain their occurrence in the ovary in some cases.
  • Upon laparotomy, there was a solid, oval left-sided ovarian tumor located behind the uterus.
  • The tumor was sent to the pathology department.
  • In our case, the tumor probably arose from smooth muscle cells derived from myofibroblasts that originate from metaplastic ovarian stromal cells present in the rim of the endometriotic cyst.
  • Despite its rarity, ovarian leiomyoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian spindle cell tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19642987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2724421
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23. Tucci G, Muzi MG, Nigro C, Cadeddu F, Amabile D, Servadei F, Farinon AM: Dermoid cyst of the pancreas: presentation and management. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:85
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  • BACKGROUND: Dermoid cyst of the pancreas is a benign, well-differentiated, extremely rare germ cell neoplasm.
  • Computerized Tomography (CT) showed a 5 cm cystic tumor arising from pancreatic tail and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) suggested a tumor extension to the middle side of the stomach without defined margins.
  • CONCLUSION: Given the benign nature of the dermoid cyst, surgical resection most likely represents the definitive treatment and cure.

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  • (PMID = 17683548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20070828
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24. Kumamoto H, Ohki K, Ooya K: Expression of p63 and p73 in ameloblastomas. J Oral Pathol Med; 2005 Apr;34(4):220-6
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  • METHODS: Tissue specimens of nine tooth germs and 48 benign and five malignant ameloblastomas were examined by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the expression of p63 and p73.
  • RESULTS: Immunoreactivity for p63 and p73 was evident in epithelial cells neighboring the basement membrane in developing and neoplastic odontogenic tissues. p63 expression in desmoplastic ameloblastomas was significantly higher than in acanthomatous and granular cell ameloblastomas, and ameloblastic carcinomas showed higher p63 expression than metastasizing ameloblastomas. p73 expression was significantly higher in plexiform ameloblastomas than in follicular ameloblastomas, and basal cell ameloblastomas showed higher p73 expression than granular cell ameloblastomas. mRNA transcripts for Delta Np63 and TAp73 were detected in all developing and neoplastic odontogenic tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Ameloblastoma / genetics. Apoptosis / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Phosphoproteins / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Basement Membrane / metabolism. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Cell Proliferation. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tooth Germ / metabolism. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15752257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0904-2512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / tumor suppressor protein p73
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25. Shi Y, Liu Z, Peng Z, Liu H, Yang K, Yao X: The diagnosis and treatment of Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol; 2008 Dec;48(6):596-600
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  • RESULTS: Patients typically presented with abnormal uterine bleeding, pain in the lower abdomen, enlargement of the uterus, a mass in the uterine cavity and/or a cervical neoplasm.
  • Microscopically, the glands were lined by benign or atypical glandular epithelium, together with sarcomatous stromal cells which showed characteristic structures of 'periglandular cuff' of increased cellularity and 'intraglandular polypoid projections'.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / diagnosis. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


26. Scolozzi P, Marret N, Bouzourene H, Luthi F, Bauer J, Jaques B, Lombardi T: Mixed testicular germ cell tumor presenting as metastatic pure choriocarcinoma involving the maxillary gingiva. J Oral Pathol Med; 2006 Oct;35(9):579-81
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  • [Title] Mixed testicular germ cell tumor presenting as metastatic pure choriocarcinoma involving the maxillary gingiva.
  • Because of their unremarkable clinical appearance, they can be difficult to distinguish from more common gingival hyperplastic or reactive lesions, such as pyogenic granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, and peripheral ossifying granuloma.
  • We are reporting here an unusual case of a 36-year-old man with a mixed testicular germ cell tumor presenting as a metastatic pure choriocarcinoma involving the maxillary gingiva, extending from the first left premolar to the left second maxillary molar, mimicking a 'benign looking' gingival mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Gingival Neoplasms / secondary. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16968241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0904-2512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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27. McCarthy JD, Erickson KM, Smith YR, Quint EH: Premenarchal ovarian torsion and elevated CA-125. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2010 Feb;23(1):e47-50
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  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumors are the most common gynecologic malignancy occurring in childhood, with germ cell tumors being most frequent.
  • Tumor markers are an integral part of the work-up and may guide management.
  • Other tumor markers were normal.
  • This benign finding allowed attempting a conservative ovary-sparing approach during the surgery even in the presence of a highly elevated CA-125.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 19589703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD059353-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / L50 HD059353-01
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS130831; NLM/ PMC2818042
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28. Litten JB, Tomlinson GE: Liver tumors in children. Oncologist; 2008 Jul;13(7):812-20
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  • The embryonal tumor, hepatoblastoma, accounts for two thirds of malignant liver tumors in children.
  • Other liver malignancies in children include hepatocellular carcinoma, sarcomas, germ cell tumors, and rhabdoid tumors.
  • Benign tumors of the liver in children include vascular tumors, hamartomas, and adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 18644850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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29. Merchant A, Stewart RW: Sacrococcygeal yolk sac tumor presenting as subcutaneous fluid collection initially treated as abscess. South Med J; 2010 Oct;103(10):1068-70
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  • [Title] Sacrococcygeal yolk sac tumor presenting as subcutaneous fluid collection initially treated as abscess.
  • Malignant extragonadal germ cell tumors, though more common in infants and children, are rare.
  • We report a case of an 11-month-old female with sacrococcygeal extragonadal yolk sac tumor manifesting as a draining subcutaneous nodule after initial treatment as an abscess.
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors can present with external manifestations confusingly similar to other more benign soft tissue conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Abscess / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Sacrococcygeal Region

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  • (PMID = 20818302.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-8243
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Miller JS, Lee TK, Epstein JI, Ulbright TM: The utility of microscopic findings and immunohistochemistry in the classification of necrotic testicular tumors: a study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Sep;33(9):1293-8
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  • The submitting pathologists favored benign processes in 4 cases, Leydig cell tumor in 1, and lymphoma in 1.
  • Mean tumor size was 19 mm (range 7-53).
  • The combination of histologic features, immunostains and, in 1 case, serum AFP permitted classification of 8 tumors (4 seminomas, 3 embryonal carcinomas, 1 yolk sac tumor).
  • OCT4 stained 1 unclassifiable tumor, which lacked other specific markers.
  • We did not find placental alkaline phosphatase, AFP, and S100 stains useful, although S100 did highlight tumor "ghost" cells in 1 case.
  • Other features in most cases included intratubular germ cell neoplasia (6/11), tubular atrophy/hyalinization (10/11), tumor "ghost" cells (10/11), scar (9/11), and inflammation (10/11).
  • Of the 5 patients with available follow-up, 3 were free of disease at 1, 5, and 8 years after orchiectomy (2 necrotic seminomas and 1 germ cell tumor, unclassified).
  • One patient with yolk sac tumor (age 63 y) developed widespread metastases after 15 months and died of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / classification. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / classification. Seminoma / classification. Testicular Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, CD30 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Keratins / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / analysis. Orchiectomy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Young Adult. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19461507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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31. Riethdorf S, Reimers N, Assmann V, Kornfeld JW, Terracciano L, Sauter G, Pantel K: High incidence of EMMPRIN expression in human tumors. Int J Cancer; 2006 Oct 15;119(8):1800-10
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  • Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer expressed by tumor cells stimulates peritumoral fibroblasts to produce matrix metalloproteinases, thus contributing to tumor invasion and metastasis.
  • EMMPRIN expression was detected immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies MEM-M6/1 and HIM6 and tissue microarrays with 2,348 and 608 tissue samples from 129 distinct tumor types and 76 different normal tissues, respectively.
  • EMMPRIN expression was found in 112 of 129 tumor entities analyzed with malignant tumors being EMMPRIN positive more frequently than benign tumors.
  • A remarkable heterogeneity in EMMPRIN expression between tumor entities was observed.
  • Among others, squamous-cell carcinomas (60-100%), pancreatic (87%), chromophobic kidney (83%), hepatocellular (83%) or medullary breast (83%) adenocarcinomas as well as glioblastoma multiforme (79%) presented with a particular high incidence of EMMPRIN expression.
  • There were a limited number of EMMPRIN-positive normal cell types including proliferatively active and differentiating epithelial cells, germ cells, myocardial cells in the left heart ventricle or vascular endothelial cells of the brain.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carbohydrate Metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Protein Isoforms / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16721788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 136894-56-9 / Antigens, CD147
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32. De Backer A, Madern GC, Oosterhuis JW, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, Hazebroek FW: Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Apr;46(4):459-64
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  • [Title] Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian germ cell tumors are rare in childhood.
  • The aim of this study is to review clinical presentation, management, and outcome in a two-center series of girls with ovarian germ cell tumor.
  • PROCEDURE: The records of 66 patients (median age 9 years) with histologically proven ovarian germ cell tumor (either benign or malignant), treated over a 44-year-span, were reviewed.
  • Sixteen patients had an emergency operation for tumor torsion.
  • Surgical removal of the tumor with or without the ovary and/or adnex was the sole treatment in 55 patients, chemotherapy was administered in 10 and radiotherapy + chemotherapy in one.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With a recurrence rate of 4.5% and a mortality rate of 3%, this series confirms the excellent prognosis for girls with ovarian germ cell tumor (GCT).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16206211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Khalid M, Malik N, Salauddin MA, Rashid M: Concomitant bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts. Saudi Med J; 2008 Jun;29(6):907-9
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  • Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a rare benign germ cell tumor, comprising 1-2% of all resected benign testicular masses.
  • The fact that they are completely benign makes them amenable to treatment by local excision, thereby saving patient from orchidectomy.

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  • (PMID = 18521477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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34. Spurlock G, Knight SJ, Thomas N, Kiehl TR, Guha A, Upadhyaya M: Molecular evolution of a neurofibroma to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in an NF1 patient: correlation between histopathological, clinical and molecular findings. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec;136(12):1869-80
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  • [Title] Molecular evolution of a neurofibroma to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in an NF1 patient: correlation between histopathological, clinical and molecular findings.
  • OBJECTIVE: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients have a 13% risk of developing a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST).
  • Many MPNSTs are histopathologically complex, with regions exhibiting features of the original benign plexiform neurofibroma (PNF), of an atypical PNF, or of MPNST showing varying degrees of de-differentiation.
  • This study analyzed the genetic alterations associated with this pathological heterogeneity in order to identify the genetic processes involved in transformation from a benign to an aggressive malignant tumor.
  • METHODS: A histological and molecular analysis of a single MPNST tumor that was subdivided into three histopathologically distinct regions, a benign PNF (region 1), an atypical PNF (region 2), and a high-grade MPNST (region 3), was carried out.
  • Tumor DNA from each region was analyzed in conjunction with the patient's lymphocyte DNA.
  • The NF1-associated LOH analysis found that LOH increased in the three tumor areas, with 9, 42, and 97% LOH evident in regions 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
  • Additional genetic changes, including losses of TP53, RB1, CDKN2A, and of several oncogenes and cell-cycle genes, were found only in the malignant MPNST (region 3).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Base Sequence. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. DNA Mutational Analysis. Disease Progression. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Molecular Sequence Data


35. Cheng L, Zhang S, MacLennan GT, Poulos CK, Sung MT, Beck SD, Foster RS: Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of chromosome 12p abnormalities is useful for distinguishing epidermoid cysts of the testis from pure mature teratoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Oct 1;12(19):5668-72
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  • PURPOSE: The distinction of epidermoid cyst of the testis from teratoma is of critical importance because the former is benign and the latter is a malignant tumor that may have associated metastasis of either teratomatous or non-teratomatous germ cell tumor types.
  • Chromosome 12p abnormalities are seen in the vast majority of testicular germ cell tumors of adults and are present in all histologic subtypes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Interphase. Karyotyping. Male. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17020968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Sturgeon CM, Duffy MJ, Stenman UH, Lilja H, Brünner N, Chan DW, Babaian R, Bast RC Jr, Dowell B, Esteva FJ, Haglund C, Harbeck N, Hayes DF, Holten-Andersen M, Klee GG, Lamerz R, Looijenga LH, Molina R, Nielsen HJ, Rittenhouse H, Semjonow A, Shih IeM, Sibley P, Sölétormos G, Stephan C, Sokoll L, Hoffman BR, Diamandis EP, National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry laboratory medicine practice guidelines for use of tumor markers in testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancers. Clin Chem; 2008 Dec;54(12):e11-79
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  • [Title] National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry laboratory medicine practice guidelines for use of tumor markers in testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: Updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for the use of tumor markers in the clinic have been developed.
  • METHODS: Published reports relevant to use of tumor markers for 5 cancer sites--testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian--were critically reviewed.
  • RESULTS: For testicular cancer, alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase are recommended for diagnosis/case finding, staging, prognosis determination, recurrence detection, and therapy monitoring. alpha-Fetoprotein is also recommended for differential diagnosis of nonseminomatous and seminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • Free PSA measurement data are useful for distinguishing malignant from benign prostatic disease when total PSA is <10 microg/L.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of these recommendations should encourage optimal use of tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Clinical Laboratory Techniques. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis


37. Connolly SS, D'Arcy FT, Bredin HC, Callaghan J, Corcoran MO: Value of frozen section analysis with suspected testicular malignancy. Urology; 2006 Jan;67(1):162-5
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  • The exclusion criteria included lesions of paratesticular origin, size greater than 5 cm, and the known presence of elevated tumor markers or metastatic disease.
  • RESULTS: Eighty men underwent FSA, facilitating the diagnosis of germ cell malignancy in 51 (54.3%) of the 94 new cases encountered during this period.
  • Malignancy was reported by FSA in 52 patients (65.0%), but was later revised in 3 to benign Leydig cell tumor after orchiectomy.
  • Also, 2 of 27 specimens reported as benign by FSA were revised to malignant after analysis of paraffin-embedded tissue from the biopsies.
  • FSA was reported as "suspicious" (intratubular germ cell neoplasia with necrosis) in 1 patient, in whom orchiectomy was performed and malignancy confirmed.
  • Of 13 lesions 1 cm or less, 10 (76.9%) were benign.

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  • (PMID = 16413354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Antón L, Pérez-Etchepare E, Soriano D, Gómez M, Barrientos G, Tracchia R: [Testicular tumors: wide spectrum in our short casuistics]. Cir Pediatr; 2010 Oct;23(4):222-4
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  • The pathology determines the specific cell.
  • We report seven cases, three germ cell tumors: a Yolk sac tumor in a child of 18 months and two mature teratomas in children between 2 and 11 years presenting as a painless testicular mass without other symptoms.
  • Testis-sparing surgery in Leydig cell tumor and resection of the paratesticular mass was performed through scrotal.
  • The Yolk sac tumor requiring chemotherapy with good outcome.
  • Many are benign and can be treated with preservation of the testis.

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  • (PMID = 21520554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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39. Datiashvili RO, Izadi K, Centurion SA, Lambert WC, Scarpidis U: Malignant melanocytic trichoblastoma. Ann Plast Surg; 2006 Feb;56(2):208-10
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  • Trichoblastoma is an uncommon benign cutaneous neoplasm of the hair germ cell.
  • The pigmented variety of the tumor is rare.
  • We are presenting a case report of a 47-year-old patient with malignant trichoblastoma containing melanin deposits and propose to define this variety of the tumor as a separate entity: malignant melanocytic trichoblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 16432335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-7043
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Melanins
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40. Leseur J, Trivin F, Dupont-Bière E, Boucher E, Kerbrat P, Raoul JL: [Hemoperitoneum secondary to spontaneous rupture of metastatic liver of a testicular germ cell tumor]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Dec;31(12):1150-2
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  • [Title] [Hemoperitoneum secondary to spontaneous rupture of metastatic liver of a testicular germ cell tumor].
  • We report a case of hemoperitoneum secondary to a spontaneous rupture of liver metastases of a testicular germ cell cancer.
  • In clinical practice, some aetiologies must be considered in case of spontaneous hemoperitoneum, mainly rupture of liver tumors: hepatocellular carcinoma or unfrequently benign tumors; the rupture of a metastase is very uncommon.

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  • (PMID = 18176377.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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41. Van Cauwelaert Rojas R, Ruiz-Tagle Phillips D, Meneses Ciuffardi M, Carrasco Troncoso AM, Aguirre Aguirre C: [Three cases of unusual non-germ cell tumors of the testicle]. Actas Urol Esp; 2007 Sep;31(8):923-7
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  • [Title] [Three cases of unusual non-germ cell tumors of the testicle].
  • By describing 3 clinical cases of unusual testicular non germinal tumors, including an adenoma of the rete testis, an undifferenciated sex cord tumor and a mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis, we make a literature review of the unusual testicular tumors and testicular apendix, including their incidence and management.
  • Also and as one of our conclusions, we expose the importance of the intraoperatory biopsy in the testicular cancer surgery, because even if it is infrecuent, the presence of this rare testicular tumors, in which if they are proven to be benign, the testicular unit could be preserved and the radical orquiectomy could be avoided.

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  • (PMID = 18020219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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42. Derouiche A, Ouni A, Kourda N, Hentati H, Ben Slama MR, Chebil M: Cystic nephroma in the adult: pathological aspects and therapeutic implications. Pathologica; 2007 Dec;99(6):446-9
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  • Cystic nephroma is a benign renal neoplasm.
  • The differential diagnoses of Cystic nephroma are recently described mixed epithelial and stromal tumours of the kidney and cystic renal cell carcinoma.
  • The Authors report three cases of Cystic nephroma and illustrate the clinical, radiological and histological features of this renal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cystadenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Echinococcosis / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Nephrectomy. Wilms Tumor / classification. Wilms Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18416340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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43. Nakajima J: [Surgical therapy for elderly patients with mediastinal neoplasms except for thymic epithelial tumors]. Kyobu Geka; 2005 Jul;58(8 Suppl):745-50
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  • Two of them had malignant neoplasms (a germ cell tumor and a malignant fibrous histiocytoma).
  • A 76-year-old patient with a malignant germ cell tumor had undergone reexploration because of persistent air leakage from the bronchopleural fistula.
  • Surgical procedures were practically performed to determine the pathological diagnosis or to treat the patients with pathologically benign neoplasms because of diverse biological behaviors of these mediastinal tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Humans. Male. Postoperative Care. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thoracoscopy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16097630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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44. Zynger DL, Dimov ND, Luan C, Teh BT, Yang XJ: Glypican 3: a novel marker in testicular germ cell tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Dec;30(12):1570-5
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  • [Title] Glypican 3: a novel marker in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • Glypican 3 (GPC3), a membrane-bound heparin sulfate proteoglycan, may play a role in promoting embryonic cell growth and differentiation.
  • However, the presence of the GPC3 protein in germ cell tumors has never been investigated.
  • The purpose of the study was to investigate the GPC3 expression in various histologic components of testicular germ cell tumors using immunohistochemistry and to assess its possible utility as a diagnostic marker.
  • All yolk sac tumor (24/24) and choriocarcinoma (7/7) components were immunoreactive for GPC3, whereas only 38% of teratomas with immature elements and 8% of embryonal carcinomas expressed GPC3.
  • There was no immunoreactivity in benign testicular tissue, intratubular germ cell neoplasia, seminomas (0/42), or teratomas with mature elements (0/20).
  • We conclude that the oncofetal protein GPC3 is a novel immunohistochemical marker in testicular germ cell tumors with differential expression in defined histologic subtypes.
  • Our findings suggest a possible role of GPC3 in tumor cell differentiation.
  • Furthermore, GPC immunostaining may be useful in the pathologic diagnosis of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, particularly yolk sac tumor, and choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Glypicans / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17122513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GPC3 protein, human; 0 / Glypicans
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45. Grichnik JM: Melanoma, nevogenesis, and stem cell biology. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Oct;128(10):2365-80
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  • [Title] Melanoma, nevogenesis, and stem cell biology.
  • It is now well established that a subpopulation of tumor stem cells (TSCs) are present within cancer tissues.
  • This suggests that tumors evolve from stem cells; however, the exact cell of tumor origin, the potential role of dedifferentiation, and the role of plasticity in tumor development are largely unknown.
  • The developmental biology of melanocytes is relatively well understood, the cells pigment as they differentiate making them easy to identify, and benign and malignant tumors develop on the skin surface allowing direct observation of growth features, early detection, and removal.
  • These TSCs have access to embryologic developmental programs, including the capacity to differentiate along multiple cell lineages.
  • For example, melanomas can activate germ-cell pathways with major implications for TSC self-renewal through the activation of telomerase and genomic instability through the collision of meiotic and mitotic pathways (meiomitosis).
  • The TSC model is still evolving, but the existence of TSCs has significant ramifications for tumor development, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of melanoma and other cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation. Cell Lineage. Cell Proliferation. Genomic Instability. Humans. Meiosis. Melanocytes / pathology


46. Ciotti P, Garuti A, Gulli R, Ballestrero A, Bellone E, Mandich P: Germline mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau gene in Italian patients. Eur J Med Genet; 2009 Sep-Oct;52(5):311-4
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  • von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL) is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome predisposing to a variety of malignant and benign tumours, most frequently retinal, cerebellar, and spinal hemangioblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and pancreatic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes. Germ-Line Mutation. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19464396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0849
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Med Genet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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47. Venizelos ID, Tatsiou ZA, Roussos D, Karagiannis V: A case of sebaceous carcinoma arising within a benign ovarian cystic teratoma. Onkologie; 2009 Jun;32(6):353-5
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  • [Title] A case of sebaceous carcinoma arising within a benign ovarian cystic teratoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Mature cystic teratoma, also known as dermoid cyst, is the most common germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Malignant change in a component of a mature ovarian teratoma is rare, occurring in less than 2% of cases, with squamous cell carcinoma corresponding to 80% of such neoplasms.
  • Abdominal and pelvic ultrasound as well as computed tomography demonstrated a heterogenic tumor of the right ovary.
  • Histological examination of the tumor showed features of a well-differentiated sebaceous carcinoma arising within a mature cystic teratoma.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19521124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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48. Schmidt D, Kommoss F: [Teratoma of the ovary. Clinical and pathological differences between mature and immature teratomas]. Pathologe; 2007 May;28(3):203-8
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  • Teratomas are the most frequent germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • Mature teratomas are benign tumors, which are most often composed of derivatives of two or three germ cell layers.
  • Only in rare cases is the transition into a malignant tumor observed (most often squamous cell carcinoma).
  • Histologically, this tumor component can be identified as neurotubules or rosettes.
  • In childhood cases, foci of yolk sac tumor (YST) must be looked for, since this determines the prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 17396268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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49. Treiyer A, Blanc G, Stark E, Haben B, Treiyer E, Steffens J: Prepubertal testicular tumors: frequently overlooked. J Pediatr Urol; 2007 Dec;3(6):480-3
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  • RESULTS: Of 15 primary testicular tumors, eight (53%) were germ-cell tumors (three teratomas, two yolk sac tumors, one seminoma, one embryonic carcinoma and one choriocarcinoma), four (27%) tumor-like lesions (epidermoid cysts), two (13%) gonadal stromal tumors (a Leydig and a Sertoli cell tumor), and one (7%) gonadoblastoma with gonadal dysgenesis.
  • All boys were presented with a painless scrotal mass and four (27%) of them with elevated tumor markers.
  • At a mean 4-year follow-up no patient has presented with recurrent tumor in the residual or contralateral testicle.
  • Postoperative physical examination and scrotal ultrasound were obtained in 14 patients at a median follow-up of 48.2 months, and there was no evidence of tumor progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Benign teratoma and epidermoid cysts were the most common prepubertal testicular tumors.
  • Any suspicion of a testicular tumor warrants an inguinal approach to prevent scrotal violation of the tumor.
  • Our limited experience with testis-sparing procedures supports the current trends that organ-confined surgery should be performed for benign lesions such as teratoma, Leydig cell tumor and epidermoid cysts based on frozen biopsy findings.

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  • (PMID = 18947799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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50. López Almaraz R, Villafruela Alvarez C, Rodríguez Luis J, Doménech Martínez E: [Neonatal neoplasms: a single-centre experience]. An Pediatr (Barc); 2006 Dec;65(6):529-35
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  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant tumors are uncommon in the neonatal period and benign tumors may have malignant potential.
  • The variables analyzed were the percentage of neonatal neoplasms among the total number of cancer cases in children aged less than 14 years, their incidence among all the newborns in our hospital, sex, year of diagnosis, age at clinical diagnosis, the presence or absence of prenatal diagnosis, type of tumor (histologic diagnosis), association with syndromes or other congenital anomalies, treatment, and long-term outcome.
  • Histologic diagnoses were neuroblastoma (n = 5; 31.2 %), teratoma/ germ cell tumor (n = 4; 25 %), soft tissue sarcoma (one fibrosarcoma of the thigh and two hemangiopericytoma of the back and heart; 18.8 %), and one case each of mesoblastic nephroma, cerebral tumor (ependymoblastoma), melanoma (associated with giant congenital melanocytic nevi), and acute leukemia (associated with Down syndrome).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The neoplasms most frequently diagnosed in the neonatal period were solid tumors, mainly neuroblastoma and teratomas/germ cell tumors; 12.5 % were associated with syndromes or congenital anomalies.

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  • [CommentIn] An Pediatr (Barc). 2007 Jul;67(1):85-6 [17663916.001]
  • (PMID = 17194321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1695-4033
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de pediatría (Barcelona, Spain : 2003)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Pediatr (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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51. Camparo P, Durand X, Avances C, Culine S, Segui B, Rigaud J, Membres du GELU-Groupe d'Etude des Lésions Urologiques, Membres du CCAFU: [Histological features and principles of treating testicle tumors in the elderly subject]. Prog Urol; 2009 Nov;19 Suppl 3:S142-6
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  • Germ cell tumors, mainly seminomas, represent less than 20% cases.
  • Therapy do not differ from young adults germ cell tumors.
  • Sex cord stromal tumors, mesenchymal benign tumors, sarcomas and metastasis represent approximately 10% of cases each.
  • The one of metastasis depends on primitive tumor (prostatic or pulmonary adenocarcinoma or melanoma mainly).
  • Spermatocytic seminoma is a rare and benign tumor, if no sarcomatous component is observed.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20123499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Investigator] Choudat L; Priollet BC; Comperat E; Sibony M; Vassiliu V; Verkarre V; Allory Y; Ferlicot S; Molinié V; Denoux Y; Sautet A; Lesourd A; Trillet M; Petit T; Aillet G; Vieillefond A; Boccon-Gibod L
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52. Leiserowitz GS: Managing ovarian masses during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv; 2006 Jul;61(7):463-70
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  • The etiologies of ovarian masses are reflective of the patient's age; and, therefore, benign entities such as functional ovarian cysts, benign cystic teratomas, and serous cystadenomas predominate.
  • In the unusual cases when cancer is present, they are typically germ cell and borderline ovarian tumors, and are commonly low stage and low grade.
  • Morphologic criteria more accurately identify benign cysts compared with malignant tumors.
  • Tumor markers are used primarily to monitor disease status after treatment rather than establish the ovarian tumor diagnosis as a result of lack of specificity, because several markers can be elevated inherent to the pregnancy itself (eg, CA-125, beta-hCG).
  • The extent of surgery depends on the intraoperative diagnosis of a benign versus a malignant tumor.
  • Conservative surgery is appropriate for benign masses and borderline ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity


53. Xu Y, Wang J, Peng Y, Zeng J: CT characteristics of primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Sep;75(3):321-8
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  • Retroperitoneal neoplasms are either mesodermal, neurogenic, germ cell ectodermal or lymphatic in origin.
  • Neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, benign teratoma and lymphoma are the common retroperitoneal neoplasms.
  • In children, lipoblastoma is the most common lipomatous tumor in the retroperitoneum.
  • The percentage of visible fat in tumor varies depending on the cellular composition of the lesion.
  • In conclusion, making a final histological diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor base on CT features is not often possible; however, CT can help to develop a differential diagnosis and determine the size and extent of the retroperitoneal neoplasms.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20591598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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54. Saito M, Yuasa T, Nanjo H, Tsuchiya N, Satoh S, Habuchi T: A case of testicular angiomyolipoma. Int J Urol; 2008 Feb;15(2):185-7
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  • The majority of testicular tumors are germ cell tumors, which are the most prevalent solid malignancies in young adult males.
  • Non-germ cell tumors of the testis are rare.
  • A 22-year-old male underwent left orchiectomy under a diagnosis of testicular tumor.
  • The tumor demonstrated neither cytological atypia nor widespread mitotic activity.
  • In addition, the tumor cells showed intense expression of CD34 and smooth muscle actin, whereas HMB-45 was entirely negative.
  • Although the true cellular origin and its clinical implications remain unknown, pathological and immunohistochemical studies strongly indicated benign testicular AML with a non-germ cell origin.

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  • (PMID = 18269463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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55. Hinz S, Magheli A, Weikert S, Schulze W, Krause H, Schrader M, Miller K, Kempkensteffen C: Deregulation of EZH2 expression in human spermatogenic disorders and testicular germ cell tumors. World J Urol; 2010 Oct;28(5):631-5
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  • [Title] Deregulation of EZH2 expression in human spermatogenic disorders and testicular germ cell tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) is an epigenetic transcriptional repressor involved in cell cycle control and cell fate decisions.
  • Since these processes play key roles during intact spermatogenesis, deregulation of EZH2 expression may contribute to the development and progression of benign and malignant testicular diseases.
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the expression profile of EZH2 in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) and spermatogenic defects.
  • EZH2 tumor levels were not related to the histological TGCT subtype or clinical tumor stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Down-Regulation / physiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / metabolism. Spermatogenesis / physiology. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20043168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-8726
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  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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56. Behtash N, Karimi Zarchi M: Placental site trophoblastic tumor. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Jan;134(1):1-6
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare neoplasm that rises from intermediate trophoblasts and commonly presents with low and variable concentration of HCG immunoactivity in serum, which can be difficult to differentiate from early stage choriocarcinoma/gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) or quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • There is a wide clinical spectrum of presentation and behavior ranging from a benign condition to an aggressive disease with fatal outcome.
  • Nontrophoblastic malignancies such as germ cell tumors or other tumors secreting low HCG must also be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17701427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1335
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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57. Ueno S, Hirakawa H, Matsuda H, Tei E, Kaneko A, Ohta Y, Kajiwara H: A case of neonatal mature teratoma transformed to malignancy in the neck extending to the mouth floor. Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2009 Dec;34(4):130-4
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  • Puncture and marsupialisation of the cyst could not relieve her symptom and the tumor was resected in three occasions and was diagnosed as mature teratoma without malignant component.
  • Biopsied specimen demonstrated the mass to be germ cell tumor with embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumor component.
  • Head and neck teratomas in children are mostly benign amenable to curative excision but its rarity and site and size of the tumor make its treatment challenging.
  • There exists a relationship between the age at diagnosis and outcome of a patient with teratoma and head and neck teratomas in neonate are mostly benign but should be removed completely as soon as the patient condition is stabilized to reduce the risk of malignant change.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Mouth Floor / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / secondary. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21319013.001).
  • [ISSN] 2185-2243
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tokai journal of experimental and clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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58. Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Deschildre C, Mauduit C, Berger G, Mejean-Lebreton F, Bouvier R, Droz JP, Fénichel P, Benahmed M: Expression of galectin-3 in gonads and gonadal sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors. Oncol Rep; 2006 Aug;16(2):335-40
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  • [Title] Expression of galectin-3 in gonads and gonadal sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors.
  • The aim of our study was to investigate galectin-3 mRNA and protein expression in normal ovaries and testes as well as in a variety of 51 gonadal sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors, and two testicular seminomatous and non-seminomatous cell lines, using either real-time PCR or immunohistochemistry.
  • In human ovaries, galectin-3 is absent from granulosa cells, as well as from granulosa cell and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, and is not a useful marker in distinguishing granulosa cell from Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
  • In malignant testicular Sertoli cell tumors, the expression of galectin-3 is down-regulated while, in benign Leydig cell tumors, this expression is maintained, indicating the possible implication of this gene in the development of more aggressive testicular sex cord stromal tumors.
  • In contrast to sex cord stromal tumors, galectin-3 expression is up-regulated in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • By real-time PCR, we demonstrated a significant elevation of the galectin-3 mRNA level in non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors and cell line as compared to normal testes and seminomas (p=0.0432 and p=0.0247, respectively), indicating the possible role of this gene in the non-seminomatous differentiation of germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Sertoli Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16820912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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59. Uglialoro AD, Beebe KS, Hameed M, Benevenia J: A rare case of intraosseous benign notochordal cell tumor of the coccyx. Orthopedics; 2009 Jun;32(6):445
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  • [Title] A rare case of intraosseous benign notochordal cell tumor of the coccyx.
  • An excisional biopsy revealed benign notochord cell tumor.
  • Due to the rarity of intraosseous benign notochordal cell tumors, it is essential to document and review this type of tumor.
  • Only 2 benign notochordal cell tumors involving the coccyx have been previously reported, both of which presented with the same clinical symptoms of chronic coccydynia as our patient, likely due to the location of the involved lesion.
  • The other leading diagnosis in our patient was chordoma, a malignant and locally aggressive neoplasm that is important to consider and exclude.
  • Although chordomas have been well characterized in the surgery, pathology, and radiology literature, the benign notochordal cell tumor is a relative newcomer.
  • [MeSH-major] Coccyx / surgery. Low Back Pain / etiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19634813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Ylisaukko-oja SK, Cybulski C, Lehtonen R, Kiuru M, Matyjasik J, Szymañska A, Szymañska-Pasternak J, Dyrskjot L, Butzow R, Orntoft TF, Launonen V, Lubiñski J, Aaltonen LA: Germline fumarate hydratase mutations in patients with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma. Eur J Hum Genet; 2006 Jul;14(7):880-3
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  • Germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene were recently shown to predispose to the dominantly inherited syndrome, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC).
  • HLRCC is characterized by benign leiomyomas of the skin and the uterus, renal cell carcinoma, and uterine leiomyosarcoma.
  • The aim of this study was to identify new families with FH mutations, and to further examine the tumor spectrum associated with FH mutations.
  • These results suggest that benign ovarian tumors may be associated with HLRCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Mucinous / genetics. Fumarate Hydratase / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / genetics. Female. Genes, Dominant. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Leiomyoma / genetics. Male. Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16639410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-4813
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of human genetics : EJHG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 4.2.1.2 / Fumarate Hydratase
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61. Kumamoto H, Ooya K: Immunohistochemical detection of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase and angiopoietins in ameloblastic tumors. J Oral Pathol Med; 2006 Nov;35(10):606-12
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase and angiopoietins in ameloblastic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the roles of angiogenic factors in the development and progression of odontogenic tumors, expression of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase (PD-ECGF/TP) and of angiopoietins in ameloblastic tumors as well as in tooth germs.
  • Granular cell ameloblastomas showed PD-ECGF/TP reactivity in granular neoplastic cells as well as in stromal cells.
  • Immunoreactivity for angiopoietin-1 and -2 was detected predominantly in odontogenic epithelial cells near the basement membrane in tooth germs and in benign and malignant ameloblastic tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Expression of PD-ECGF/TP and angiopoietin-1 and -2 in tooth germs and ameloblastic tumors suggests that these angiogenic factors participate in tooth development and odontogenic tumor progression by regulating angiogenesis.
  • Altered expression of PD-ECGF/TP and angiopoietins in ameloblastic tumors may be involved in oncogenesis, malignant potential, and tumor cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Stromal Cells / chemistry. Stromal Cells / enzymology. Tooth Germ / chemistry. Tooth Germ / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 17032393.001).
  • [ISSN] 0904-2512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ANGPT1 protein, human; 0 / Angiopoietin-1; 0 / Angiopoietin-2; EC 2.4.2.4 / Thymidine Phosphorylase
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62. You YN, Leibovitch BC, Que FG: Hepatic metastasectomy for testicular germ cell tumors: is it worth it? J Gastrointest Surg; 2009 Apr;13(4):595-601
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  • [Title] Hepatic metastasectomy for testicular germ cell tumors: is it worth it?
  • BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy is highly effective for metastatic germ cell tumor (GCT), but experience with resection of hepatic metastases from GCT is limited.
  • Hepatic histology included: necrosis (33%), viable tumor (27%), mature teratoma (13%), and benign histology (27%).
  • Concomitant resection of extrahepatic disease (14 patients, 93%) found necrosis (53%), mature teratoma (27%), and viable tumor (13%).
  • At 8.2 years (mean) from resection, 11 patients (73%) were alive: five with no evidence of disease, two with elevated tumor marker only, and four with gross disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19190967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4626
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
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63. Cofield KR 3rd, Cantley LK, Geisinger KR, Zagoria RJ, Perrier ND: Adrenocortical carcinoma arising from a long-standing adrenal mass. Mayo Clin Proc; 2005 Feb;80(2):264-6
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  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor with a dismal prognosis.
  • In stark contrast, benign incidental adrenal lesions are detected commonly on routine abdominal imaging.
  • We report a case of a 74-year-old man with a history of germ cell testicular carcinoma who presented with a 4.8-cm left adrenal lesion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15704782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-6196
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Xian W, Miron A, Roh M, Semmel DR, Yassin Y, Garber J, Oliva E, Goodman A, Mehra K, Berkowitz RS, Crum CP, Quade BJ: The Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS): a model for the initiation of p53 signatures in the distal Fallopian tube. J Pathol; 2010 Jan;220(1):17-23
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  • A candidate early precursor to pelvic serous cancer, the 'p53 signature', is commonly found in the benign mucosa of the distal Fallopian tube and harbours p53 mutations and evidence of DNA damage.
  • We examined tubes from women with pre-existing (germ-line) mutations in p53 [Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS)] for evidence of this precursor.

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  • (PMID = 19834951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA124688; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA124688-02S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R21CA124688-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA10500
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS184416; NLM/ PMC2841524
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65. Alotaibi MO, Navarro OM: Imaging of ovarian teratomas in children: a 9-year review. Can Assoc Radiol J; 2010 Feb;61(1):23-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: Germ cell tumours are the most common ovarian neoplasms in childhood and, of these, teratomas, whether mature or immature, are the most frequently found.
  • Mature teratoma is a benign tumour, whereas the immature type, although also benign, has a more aggressive course, with a propensity to recurrence.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / radiography. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / ultrasonography. Female. Humans

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19931379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0846-5371
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Association of Radiologists journal = Journal l'Association canadienne des radiologistes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Assoc Radiol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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66. Harms D, Zahn S, Göbel U, Schneider DT: Pathology and molecular biology of teratomas in childhood and adolescence. Klin Padiatr; 2006 Nov-Dec;218(6):296-302
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  • The biologic behaviour of teratomas depends on various interdependent clinical and epidemiologic variables such as the age at diagnosis, sex, tumor site, histology which all correlate to different cytogenetic and molecular biologic aberrations.
  • Thus, testicular teratomas of infancy are generally benign.
  • In contrast, postpubertal testicular teratomas can present as clinically malignant tumors and may show complex cytogenetic aberrations such as the isochromosome 12p, which is pathognomonic of malignant germ cell tumors.
  • Notably, teratomas of both age groups show an at least partial erasure of the genomic imprinting, correlating with their origin from primordial germ cells.
  • The Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry includes 541 teratoma specimens, and among these, the most frequent tumor sites (in descending order) are: the sacrococcygeal region (33.8 %), the ovaries (31.2 %) and the testes (10.5 %).
  • The WHO classification of germ cell tumors distinguishes mature and immature teratomas as well as teratomas with malignant transformation.
  • The frequency of additional microscopic foci of malignant yolk sac tumor correlates with the grade of immaturity.
  • In sacrococcygeal teratomas, the yolk sac tumor microfoci may give rise to a malignant relapse after incomplete resection.
  • Here, molecular genetic analysis has demonstrated the origin of the somatic malignancy from a malignant transformation within the germ cell tumor with retention of the cytogenetic changes characteristic of malignant germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Deletion. Cytogenetic Analysis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / epidemiology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Heterozygote. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Ovary / pathology. Puberty. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17080330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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67. Tangjitgamol S, Hanprasertpong J, Manusirivithaya S, Wootipoom V, Thavaramara T, Buhachat R: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: clinico-pathological presentation and survival outcomes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2010;89(2):182-9
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  • [Title] Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: clinico-pathological presentation and survival outcomes.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinico-pathological features, treatment, survival, and prognostic factors of patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • POPULATION: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumor patients treated between January 1996 and December 2007.
  • Patients with malignant tumors arising from benign cystic teratoma were excluded.
  • Only preoperative tumor marker elevation was a significant poor prognostic factor for PFS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors have a good prognosis with conservative surgical treatment.
  • Elevated preoperative serum tumor markers are a poor prognostic factor for PFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Young Adult. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19961281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0412
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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68. Hoekzema R, Zonneveld IM, van der Wal AC: Type 2 segmental glomangiomas. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(1):8
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  • Glomangiomas of the skin, currently named glomuvenous malformations (GVMs), are benign vascular lesions composed of thin-walled distorted blood vessels, surrounded by variable rows of glomus cells.
  • Glomuvenous malformations occur after both alleles of the gene encoding for glomulin, a molecule involved in smooth muscle cell differentiation, are hit by a loss-of-function mutation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Glomus Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Myocytes, Smooth Muscle / pathology. Thigh. Thorax. Wrist

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  • (PMID = 20137750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / GLMN protein, human
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69. Tinelli A, Vergara D, Martignago R, Leo G, Pisanò M, Malvasi A: An outlook on ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors: focus on genomic and proteomic findings. Curr Genomics; 2009 Jun;10(4):240-9
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  • Ovarian tumors can be classified on the basis of the cells of origin in epithelial, stromal and germ cell tumors.
  • Epithelial ovarian tumors display great histological heterogeneity and can be further subdivided into benign, intermediate or borderline, and invasive tumors.
  • In this review, the current state of knowledge about the genoproteomic and potential clinical value of gene expression profiling in ovarian cancer and ovarian borderline tumors is discussed, focusing on three main areas: distinguishing normal ovarian tissue from ovarian cancers and borderline tumors, identifying different genotypes of ovarian tissue and identifying proteins linked to cancer or tumor development.
  • By these targets, authors focus on the use of novel molecules, developed on the proteomics and genomics researches, as potential protein biomarkers in the management of ovarian cancer or borderline tumor, overlooking on current state of the art and on future perspectives of researches.

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  • (PMID = 19949545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] Current genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2709935
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ovarian cancer / borderline ovarian tumors / genomics / markers / oncogenes. / proteomics
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70. De Backer A, Madern GC, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, Oosterhuis JW, Hazebroek FW: Mediastinal germ cell tumors: clinical aspects and outcomes in 7 children. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Oct;16(5):318-22
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  • [Title] Mediastinal germ cell tumors: clinical aspects and outcomes in 7 children.
  • BACKGROUND: Mediastinal germ cell tumors presenting during childhood are extremely rare.
  • This paper reports on the clinical presentations, method(s) of treatment, complications, results and outcomes in a series of children with mediastinal germ cell tumors.
  • METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 7 children treated between 1971 and 2001 for mediastinal germ cell tumor was carried out.
  • Four patients had histologically benign tumors (mature teratoma).
  • Their sole treatment consisted of complete surgical excision of the tumor and (part of) the thymus using either median sternotomy or left-sided thoracotomy.
  • Malignant tumors were observed in three patients (1 yolk sac tumor, 1 choriocarcinoma and 1 malignant teratoma).
  • The patient with yolk sac tumor survived; he is now in remission, 4 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both this study and the literature review testify to the extreme rarity of mediastinal germ cell tumors in childhood.
  • Children with this type of tumor usually are severely symptomatic.
  • Histologically benign tumors carry an excellent prognosis provided surgical excision is complete.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17160775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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71. Thomas L, Kluwe L, Chuzhanova N, Mautner V, Upadhyaya M: Analysis of NF1 somatic mutations in cutaneous neurofibromas from patients with high tumor burden. Neurogenetics; 2010 Oct;11(4):391-400
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  • [Title] Analysis of NF1 somatic mutations in cutaneous neurofibromas from patients with high tumor burden.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1, (NF1) is a complex, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by benign and malignant tumors which result from NF1 gene mutations.
  • These modifying loci may include deficiencies in mismatch repair genes and elements involved in cell cycle regulation (TP53, RB1, and CDKN2A).
  • We have analyzed the somatic mutations in 89 cutaneous neurofibromas derived from three unrelated NF1 patients with high tumor burden, by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis of the NF1, TP53, RB1, and CDKN2A genes, by assessing microsatellite instability (MSI), by direct sequencing of the NF1, TP53, and several mismatch repair (MMR) genes and by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification of the NF1 and TP53 genes.
  • Each mutation was distinct demonstrating the independent origin of each tumor.
  • LOH of markers flanking the RB1 gene was also found in one tumor but no CDKN2A mutations were detected.
  • The identification of LOH involving TP53 and RB1 loci is a novel finding in benign cutaneous neurofibromas possibly demonstrating an alternative underlying molecular mechanism associated with the development of these benign tumors from this cohort of patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Computational Biology / methods. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Genes, p53. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Retinoblastoma Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20358387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-6753
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurogenetics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein
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72. Waldmann J, Bartsch DK, Kann PH, Fendrich V, Rothmund M, Langer P: Adrenal involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: results of 7 years prospective screening. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2007 Jul;392(4):437-43
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  • Age at diagnosis of MEN-1, type of adrenal tumor, genotype, therapy, and clinical characteristics have been analyzed.
  • Median tumor size was 12 mm (5-40 mm).
  • Tumor size smaller than 10 mm was observed in 11 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: MEN-1-associated adrenal tumors are mostly small, benign, and nonfunctioning and much more common than previously reported.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. DNA Mutational Analysis. Endosonography. Female. Genotype. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Prevalence. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17235589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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73. Singalavanija S, Limpongsanurak W: Cutaneous mastocytosis in Thai children. J Med Assoc Thai; 2008 Oct;91 Suppl 3:S143-6
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  • Most of the children were healthy, except the one who had germ cell ovarian tumor Skin biopsies were performed in all cases and revealed mast cells infiltrate in the dermis.
  • Oral mast cell stabilizers were given in 6 patients (12%) and topical corticosteroids in 15 patients (30%).
  • CONCLUSION: Cutaneous mastocytosis is a benign disease in children without systemic involvement.

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  • (PMID = 19253510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Histamine Antagonists; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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74. Yao L, Schiavi F, Cascon A, Qin Y, Inglada-Pérez L, King EE, Toledo RA, Ercolino T, Rapizzi E, Ricketts CJ, Mori L, Giacchè M, Mendola A, Taschin E, Boaretto F, Loli P, Iacobone M, Rossi GP, Biondi B, Lima-Junior JV, Kater CE, Bex M, Vikkula M, Grossman AB, Gruber SB, Barontini M, Persu A, Castellano M, Toledo SP, Maher ER, Mannelli M, Opocher G, Robledo M, Dahia PL: Spectrum and prevalence of FP/TMEM127 gene mutations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. JAMA; 2010 Dec 15;304(23):2611-9
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  • We recently identified germline mutations of the novel transmembrane-encoding gene FP/TMEM127 in familial and sporadic pheochromocytomas consistent with a tumor suppressor effect.
  • The most common presentation was that of a single benign adrenal tumor in patients older than 40 years.
  • Expression of 5 novel FP/TMEM127 mutations in cell lines revealed diffuse localization of the mutant proteins in contrast with the discrete multiorganelle distribution of wild-type TMEM127.

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  • (PMID = 21156949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 P30 CA465920; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01AG19316; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P30 AG013319; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA54174; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / TMEM127 protein, human
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75. Las Heras F, Pritzker KP, Colgan TJ: Chordoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: a case report. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(6):467-71
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  • Mature cystic teratoma of the ovary (MCTO) is the most common type of ovarian teratoma and also the most frequent tumor originating from germ cells.
  • It is usually diagnosed in early adulthood and, by definition, is composed of well-differentiated tissues, which originate from all three germ cell layers.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy arising in these otherwise benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Chordoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Chromosomes, Human, X. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Keratins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Mosaicism. Mucin-1 / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17418959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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76. Brown AB, Mahmood U, Cortes ML, Tang Y, Dai G, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Prabhakar S, Leishear K, Onda H, Kwiatkowski D, Weissleder R, Breakefield X: Magnetic resonance imaging and characterization of spontaneous lesions in a transgenic mouse model of tuberous sclerosis as a model for endothelial cell-based transgene delivery. Hum Gene Ther; 2005 Dec;16(12):1367-76
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging and characterization of spontaneous lesions in a transgenic mouse model of tuberous sclerosis as a model for endothelial cell-based transgene delivery.
  • Benign hamartomas develop in multiple organs, believed to be caused by somatic mutation in addition to germ line mutation to cause loss of both alleles of either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor gene, with resultant dysregulated growth due to loss of hamartin or tuberin function, respectively.
  • MRI detected 100% of the renal lesions (cystadenomas, renal cell carcinomas) and 75% of the hepatic lesions (hemangiosarcomas), later identified by histology.
  • Cell-mediated gene delivery was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of renal, hepatic, and lung lesions after intravenous delivery of MS1 mouse endothelial cells, transduced to express an enhanced form of green fluorescent protein (EGFP).
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Transfer Techniques. Genetic Therapy / methods. Tuberous Sclerosis / pathology. Tuberous Sclerosis / therapy. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / pathology. Cell Line. Disease Models, Animal. Endothelial Cells. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics. Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Transduction, Genetic. Transgenes

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  • (PMID = 16390268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-0342
  • [Journal-full-title] Human gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Gene Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA69246; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS24279; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA86355; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R24 CA92782
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; 4JG2LF96VF / tuberous sclerosis complex 2 protein
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77. Song JY, Chen KY, Kim SY, Kim MR, Ryu KS, Cha JH, Kang CS, MacLaughlin DT, Kim JH: The expression of Müllerian inhibiting substance/anti-Müllerian hormone type II receptor protein and mRNA in benign, borderline and malignant ovarian neoplasia. Int J Oncol; 2009 Jun;34(6):1583-91
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  • [Title] The expression of Müllerian inhibiting substance/anti-Müllerian hormone type II receptor protein and mRNA in benign, borderline and malignant ovarian neoplasia.
  • There was no significant difference in expression intensity between MIS/AMHRII protein and mRNA on all ovarian samples whether benign or malignant.
  • MIS/AMHRII protein and mRNA were weakly expressed on 45.45% of benign ovarian tumors.
  • Among malignant ovarian tumors, sex cord stromal tumors showed the highest expression rate and the strongest intensity of MIS/AMHRII protein and mRNA followed by germ cell tumor and epithelial ovarian tumor.
  • MIS/AMHRII and MIS/AMHRII mRNA demonstrate significantly variable expression among different ovarian tumor types.
  • Non-epithelial cell tumors show higher expression than those of epithelial cell tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19424576.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Peptide; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / anti-Mullerian hormone receptor; 80497-65-0 / Anti-Mullerian Hormone
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78. Dalloul M, Sherer DM, Gorelick C, Serur E, Zinn H, Sanmugarajah J, Zigalo A, Abulafia O: Transient bilateral ovarian enlargement associated with large retroperitoneal lymphoma. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Feb;29(2):236-8
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  • Bilateral ovarian enlargement may reflect benign or malignant processes of the ovary.
  • Benign causes of ovarian enlargement include luteomas, tumors such as mature cystic teratomas, fibrothecomas, cystadenomas and rare conditions including capillary hemangioma and massive edema of the ovaries.
  • Ovarian malignancies include epithelial, stromal and germ-cell tumors.
  • Subsequent computerized tomography (CT) imaging depicted a large retroperitoneal tumor, CT-guided biopsy of which revealed diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
  • The patient responded well to chemotherapy with significant shrinkage of the tumor, and reappearance of normal findings on ovarian sonography.
  • This case demonstrates that bilaterally enlarged ovaries may be the first clinical evidence of a large retroperitoneal tumor and that in such cases CT imaging may be warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17252529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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79. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Title] Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.
  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • In 2 cases, the tumor was associated with a mature cystic teratoma; one of them also containing an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • A single case was associated with a benign ovarian cyst.
  • NSCNEC represented anywhere from 10% to 90% of the ovarian tumor.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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80. Pavlakis K, Messini I, Vrekoussis T, Yiannou P, Panoskaltsis T, Voulgaris Z: Intraoperative assessment of epithelial and non-epithelial ovarian tumors: a 7-year review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(6):657-60
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  • RESULTS: The sensitivity of frozen section diagnosis for benign, borderline and malignant epithelial tumors was 98.82%, 98.97% and 87.66% and the specificity 98.01%, 97.06% and 100%, respectively.
  • All non teratomatous sex cord/stromal and germ cell tumors were correctly diagnosed while a diagnostic discrepancy was observed in teratomatous tumors.
  • Nevertheless, care should be taken for large tumors measuring > 20 cm in diameter, particularly when the intraoperative diagnosis reveals an epithelial borderline tumor or a teratomatous tumor with an extensive neural component.

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  • (PMID = 20099498.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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81. Salemi M, Calogero AE, Vicari E, Migliore E, Zaccarello G, Cosentino A, Amore M, Tricoli D, Castiglione R, Bosco P, Rappazzo G: A high percentage of skin melanoma cells expresses SPANX proteins. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Apr;31(2):182-6
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  • The expression of SPANX (sperm protein associated with the nucleus in the X chromosome) gene family has been reported in many tumors, such as melanoma, myeloma, glioblastoma, breast carcinoma, ovarian cancer, testicular germ cell tumors, and hematological malignancies.
  • The expression of SPANX proteins was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in normal skin (n = 12), melanomas (n = 21), and benign nevi (n = 10), using a polyclonal antibody raised in our laboratory.
  • Benign nevi had an intermediate number of cells expressing SPANX proteins (25% +/- 8.5%), which resulted significantly higher than normal skin cells and significantly lower than skin melanoma cells.
  • In melanoma cells, the labeling was mostly nuclear, sometimes incomplete or limited to the perinuclear wall, even if cytoplasmic staining was also seen in SPANX-positive tumor cells.

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  • (PMID = 19318807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Epitopes; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SPANXA1 protein, human
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82. Sajadi KP, Dalton RR, Brown JA: Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis. Adv Urol; 2009;:624173
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  • [Title] Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.
  • The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis.
  • Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign.
  • This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 19125206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-6369
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2612754
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83. Wilson C, Idziaszczyk S, Parry L, Guy C, Griffiths DF, Lazda E, Bayne RA, Smith AJ, Sampson JR, Cheadle JP: A mouse model of tuberous sclerosis 1 showing background specific early post-natal mortality and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Hum Mol Genet; 2005 Jul 1;14(13):1839-50
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  • [Title] A mouse model of tuberous sclerosis 1 showing background specific early post-natal mortality and metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in either the TSC1 or the TSC2 genes and characterized by the development of benign hamartomatous growths in multiple organ systems.
  • We have inactivated Tsc1 in the mouse germ line by gene targeting in ES cells and confirmed that the mutant allele (Tsc1-) has a recessive embryonic lethal phenotype.
  • Eighty percent (16/20) of Tsc1+/- mice on a Balb/c background exhibited solid renal cell carcinomas (RCC) by 15-18 months and in 41%, RCCs were > or = 5 mm, resulting in grossly deformed kidneys.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Tuberous Sclerosis / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


84. Salem F, Rosenblum MK, Jhanwar SC, Kancherla P, Ghossein RA, Carlson DL: Teratocarcinosarcoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: report of 3 cases with assessment for chromosome 12p status. Hum Pathol; 2008 Apr;39(4):605-9
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  • Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS) is a rare malignant neoplasm with 63 reported cases to date.
  • Two SNTCSs from the archives of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and one submitted from St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center were evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization for amplification of chromosome12p, an event usually associated with the genesis of bona fide germ cell neoplasms (including mediastinal and testicular teratomas).
  • Microscopic examination revealed admixed epithelial and mesenchymal elements in all 3 cases; benign squamous and glandular epithelium and neuroepithelial tissue were identified, the squamous epithelium demonstrating "fetal-like" cytoplasmic clearing.
  • A malignant germ cell component was not identified in any of the cases.
  • Our findings suggest that 12p amplification, if it occurs at all in this setting, is exceptional and that SNTCS is a somatic-type neoplasm exhibiting divergent differentiation rather than a germ cell tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18284932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Ghander C, Lussato D, Conte Devolx B, Mundler O, Taïeb D: Incidental diagnosis of struma ovarii after thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer: functional imaging studies and follow-up. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Aug;102(2):378-80
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  • BACKGROUND: Struma ovarii is a rare ovarian germ-cell tumor containing thyroid tissue.
  • Histopathological analysis revealed a benign struma ovarii.


86. Stremmel C, Passlick B: [Surgery of mediastinal tumors]. Chirurg; 2008 Jan;79(1):9-10, 12-7
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  • Thymomas, lymphomas, and germ cell tumors are the most frequent lesions of the anterior mediastinum, whereas endodermal (bronchogenic) cysts and lymphomas are the most frequent lesions of the middle mediastinum.
  • Depending on tumor location, mediastinoscopy, mediastinotomy, and thoracoscopy are the preferred diagnostic methods.
  • The importance of surgical treatment of germ cell tumors is determined by a negative concentration of beta-HCG and alpha-fetoprotein and in cases of residual tumor after chemotherapy.
  • Ninety-eight percent of neurogenic tumors in adults are benign and usually resected via thoracoscopy or thoracotomy, depending on location and size.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / surgery. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Child. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Mediastinoscopy. Mediastinum / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiography. Thoracoscopy. Thoracotomy

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  • (PMID = 18058077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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87. Hermsen MA, Sevilla MA, Llorente JL, Weiss MM, Grimbergen A, Allonca E, Garcia-Inclán C, Balbín M, Suárez C: Relevance of germline mutation screening in both familial and sporadic head and neck paraganglioma for early diagnosis and clinical management. Cell Oncol; 2010 Jan 1;32(4):275-83
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  • BACKGROUND: Head and neck paraganglioma (PGL) are benign tumors that can cause important direct or surgery induced morbidity.
  • Results were correlated to clinical characteristics including gender, age, tumor localization and multifocality.
  • The surgical approach was evaluated in terms of tumor origin, sequelae and subsequent evolution.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Early Detection of Cancer / methods. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Predictive Value of Tests. Sex Factors. Spain

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  • (PMID = 20208144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-8606
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular oncology : the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4619289
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88. Carmignani L, Morabito A, Gadda F, Bozzini G, Rocco F, Colpi GM: Prognostic parameters in adult impalpable ultrasonographic lesions of the testicle. J Urol; 2005 Sep;174(3):1035-8
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  • Histologically 15 of the lesions were Leydig cell tumors (31%), 12 (25%) seminomas, 7 (14.5%) nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, 2 (4.5%) Sertoli cell tumors, 12 (25%) benign forms (fibrosis, infarct, lipoma, mesothelial hyperplasia, adenomatoid tumor).
  • Dimension was particularly related to germ cell tumors (for dimensions between 16 and 32 mm relative risk ratio [RRR] = 13.97, p=0.0449).
  • In particular an interesting correlation was found between the dimensions of the lesion and the malignant pathology and between Leydig cell tumor and infertility.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infertility, Male / mortality. Infertility, Male / pathology. Infertility, Male / ultrasonography. Logistic Models. Male. Mathematical Computing. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / ultrasonography. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk. Statistics as Topic. Survival Rate. Task Performance and Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16094042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Stanwell P, Russell P, Carter J, Pather S, Heintze S, Mountford C: Evaluation of ovarian tumors by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at three Tesla. Invest Radiol; 2008 Oct;43(10):745-51
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  • Magnetic resonance spectral findings were correlated with the detailed pathology reports obtained after resection of each tumor.
  • RESULTS: Pathology revealed 7 patients with malignant surface epithelial-stromal tumors, 3 patients with germ cell tumors, 3 patients with benign serous cystadenomas, and 1 patient with a non-neoplastic endometrioma.
  • Resonances attributable to choline-containing compounds and Cr were recorded in all malignant tumors and some of the benign tumors.
  • When detected, a choline/Cr integral ratio of greater than 3 was found to indicate that a tumor was malignant in nature, whereas a choline/Cr integral ratio less than 1.5 was found to indicate that a tumor was benign in nature.

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  • (PMID = 18791417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0210
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Maertens O, Brems H, Vandesompele J, De Raedt T, Heyns I, Rosenbaum T, De Schepper S, De Paepe A, Mortier G, Janssens S, Speleman F, Legius E, Messiaen L: Comprehensive NF1 screening on cultured Schwann cells from neurofibromas. Hum Mutat; 2006 Oct;27(10):1030-40
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  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is mainly characterized by the occurrence of benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors or neurofibromas.
  • Furthermore, our data strongly suggest that the acquired second hit underlies reduced NF1 expression in Schwann cell cultures.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Carrier Proteins / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. DNA Repair / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / genetics. Neurofibroma / genetics. Neurofibroma / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Sequence Deletion. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16941471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-1004
  • [Journal-full-title] Human mutation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Mutat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / G-T mismatch-binding protein; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Neurofibromin 1; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein
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91. Tansel T, Onursal E, Dayloğlu E, Başaran M, Sungur Z, Qamci E, Yilmazbayhan D, Eker R, Ertuğrul T: Childhood mediastinal masses in infants and children. Turk J Pediatr; 2006 Jan-Mar;48(1):8-12
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  • There were 24 benign (64.8%) and 13 malignant (35.2%) tumors.
  • The cases were lymphoma (27%), neurogenic tumors (21.6%), cystic lesions (18.9%), germ cell tumors (13.5%), thymic lesions (10.8%) and cardiac tumors (8.1%).
  • Complete and partial resections of the tumor were the surgical procedures performed in 24 patients (64.8%) and 3 patients (8.1%), respectively.
  • The three patients with a malignant tumor, in whom the entire mass could not be removed, received chemotherapy and radiation after surgery.

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  • (PMID = 16562779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4301
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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92. Yu DK, Joo YH, Cho KH: Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):6-8
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  • Trichoblastoma is a rare, benign tumor that differentiates toward the hair germ, the embryonic precursor of a hair follicle.
  • An immunohistochemical study showed that the neoplasm, or areas in it, stained positive for low molecular cytokeratin, high molecular cytokeratin, EMA, S-100, and GCDFP-15.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • (PMID = 15677969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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93. Tellechea O, Reis JP: Trichogerminoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jul;31(5):480-3
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  • A case of distinctive benign follicular neoplasm previously reported under the designation of trichogerminoma is described.
  • The lesion had the characteristics of hair germ tumors; however, most lobules depicted a distinctive pattern of rounded nests of concentrically arranged clear cells.
  • This neoplasm and the other tumors with hair germ differentiation such as trichoblastoma and panfolliculoma seem to represent the same spectrum of hair follicle neoplasms only distinguishable by their degree of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19542926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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94. Vranic S, Caughron SK, Djuricic S, Bilalovic N, Zaman S, Suljevic I, Lydiatt WM, Emanuel J, Gatalica Z: Hamartomas, teratomas and teratocarcinosarcomas of the head and neck: Report of 3 new cases with clinico-pathologic correlation, cytogenetic analysis, and review of the literature. BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord; 2008;8:8
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  • BACKGROUND: Germ-cell tumors (GCT) are a histologically and biologically diverse group of neoplasms which primarily occur in the gonads but also develop at different extragonadal sites in the midline of the body.
  • METHODS: We describe here two new cases of multilineage tumors including sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma [SNTCS], and congenital oronasopharyngeal teratoma (epignathus) and compare their features with those of a new case of a rare salivary gland anlage tumor [SGAT], an entity for which the pathogenesis is unclear (i.e. hamartoma versus neoplasm).
  • Both cytogenetic abnormalities are characteristically present in malignant germ cell tumors providing for the first time evidence that this rare tumor type indeed might represent a variant of a germ cell neoplasm.
  • The SGAT and epignathus carried no such cytogenetic abnormalities, in keeping with their limited and benign biologic potential.
  • Malignant tumors of germ cell origins are more likely to affect adults with insidious symptom development, while benign tumors can nevertheless cause dramatic clinical symptoms which, under certain circumstances, can be fatal.

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  • (PMID = 19025657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6815
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC ear, nose, and throat disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2611960
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95. Güney M, Oral B, Demir F, Ozsoy M, Kapucuoğlu N: Mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from the gastrointestinal epithelium in benign cystic teratoma of the ovary--case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(3):304-6
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  • [Title] Mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from the gastrointestinal epithelium in benign cystic teratoma of the ovary--case report.
  • Benign cystic teratoma of the ovary (BCTO) is the most common ovarian germ cell tumor occurring predominantly in early adulthood.
  • Most benign cystic teratomas with malignant transformations are squamous cell carcinomas with just 6.8% being adenocarcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 16800267.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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96. Umekawa T, Tabata T, Tanida K, Yoshimura K, Sagawa N: Growing teratoma syndrome as an unusual cause of gliomatosis peritonei: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Dec;99(3):761-3
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  • BACKGROUND: Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is defined as enlarging peritoneal implants that occur during or after chemotherapy for malignant germ cell tumors, but are histologically mature teratomas without any malignant components.
  • GTS is a synonym for "chemotherapeutic retroconversion", i.e., conversion from a metastatic immature teratoma to a mature tumor by chemotherapy.
  • Gliomatosis peritonei (GP) is a rare condition associated with ovarian teratomas of any grade, in which benign glial implants develop on the peritoneal surface.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Present case supported by review of the literatures suggests that GTS can be a part of GP, because both GTS and GP are associated with benign peritoneal glial implants regardless of grade of malignancy of their original tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16125758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Gurumurthy S, Hezel AF, Sahin E, Berger JH, Bosenberg MW, Bardeesy N: LKB1 deficiency sensitizes mice to carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. Cancer Res; 2008 Jan 1;68(1):55-63
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  • Lkb1 is a central regulator of cell polarity and energy metabolism through its capacity to activate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related family of protein kinases.
  • Germ line-inactivating mutation of Lkb1 leads to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, which is characterized by benign hamartomas and a susceptibility to malignant epithelial tumors.
  • The basis for Lkb1-dependent tumor suppression is not defined.
  • Lkb1(+/-) mice are highly prone to DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin and lung.
  • Confirming a cell autonomous tumor suppressor role of Lkb1, mice with epidermal-specific Lkb1 deletion are also susceptible to DMBA-induced SCC and develop spontaneous SCC with long latency.
  • Restoration of wild-type Lkb1 causes senescence in tumor-derived cell lines, a process that can be partially bypassed by inactivation of the Rb pathway, but not by inactivation of p53 or AMPK.
  • Our data indicate that Lkb1 is a potent suppressor of carcinogen-induced skin and lung cancers and that downstream targets beyond the AMPK-mTOR pathway are likely mediators of Lkb1-dependent tumor suppression.


98. Kline RC, Bazzett-Matabele LB: Adnexal masses and malignancies of importance to the colorectal surgeon. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2010 Jun;23(2):63-71
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  • In this article, the authors review both benign and malignant ovarian masses, as the colorectal surgeon who encounters an adnexal mass at the time of surgery should be aware of the steps necessary for surgical staging and optimal tumor resection.Ovarian tumors-most of which are benign-are divided into three major categories, in order of frequency: epithelial, germ cell, and sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Nonneoplastic conditions of the ovary that may present as adnexal masses include the following, according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification: pregnancy luteoma, hyperplasia of ovarian stroma, hyperthecosis, massive edema, solitary follicle cysts and corpus luteal cysts, multiple follicle cysts, and endometriosis.Epithelial ovarian tumors arise from the surface epithelium and can be benign or malignant.
  • Histologic types are serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, or Brenner.
  • Germ cell tumors are more likely to appear in females under 20 years, accounting for 70% of ovarian tumors in this age group.
  • Teratomas are the most common germ cell tumors.
  • The more common sex cord-stromal tumors include granulosa stromal cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, and gynandroblastomas.Surgical staging and optimal tumor resection are also addressed, with a focus on epithelial malignancies, as they are the most relevant to colorectal surgeons.

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  • (PMID = 21629623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2967325
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adnexal masses / ovarian cancer / ovarian cysts
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99. Passman C, Urban D, Klemm K, Lockhart M, Kenney P, Kolettis P: Testicular lesions other than germ cell tumours: feasibility of testis-sparing surgery. BJU Int; 2009 Feb;103(4):488-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Testicular lesions other than germ cell tumours: feasibility of testis-sparing surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review all non-germ-cell testicular lesions presenting at our institution and to determine the feasibility of testis-sparing surgery for these patients.
  • Patients with atrophy, germ cell tumours, infection or torsion were excluded.
  • The study comprised men who had radical orchidectomy for suspected germ-cell tumour but had other final pathology, and those where testis-sparing surgery was attempted for a presumed benign lesion.
  • The lesions could be categorized as inflammatory (three hyalinized fibrosis, two sarcoidosis, one chronic inflammation), cystic (one epidermoid cyst, one unilocular cyst), benign neoplasms (two adenomatoid tumours, one Leydig cell tumour, one capillary haemangioma) or malignant neoplasms (one lymphoma).
  • In the other five, testis-sparing surgery was not attempted because the preoperative impression was that of a germ cell tumour.
  • CONCLUSION: Testis-sparing surgery might be possible if there is significant suspicion of a benign lesion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Feasibility Studies. Humans. Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Leydig Cell Tumor / ultrasonography. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18793303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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100. Kaur H, Bagga R, Saha SC, Gainder S, Srinivasan R, Adhya AK, Dhaliwal LK: Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary presenting with pleural effusion and ascites. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Feb;14(1):78-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary presenting with pleural effusion and ascites.
  • Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is a rare tumor, and the majority (90%) are reported in the prepubertal or under-30-year age group, in contrast to the adult type, which is more common in the fifth decade.
  • Being solid tumors, they may be associated with ascites and pleural effusion (Meigs' syndrome), which resolve after surgical removal of the tumor.
  • Tumor markers for GCT are still investigational (inhibin) and of not much use in making a preoperative diagnosis, unlike in the case of germ cell tumors.
  • In the present patient, because of the association of Meigs' syndrome, a preoperative diagnosis of benign tumors such as fibroma/thecoma was also considered.
  • We report this rare tumor with an aim of reviewing the diagnosis and management from the reported literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascites / etiology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Meigs Syndrome / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19225930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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