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Items 1 to 52 of about 52
1. Kumar BS, Gopal M, Talwar A, Ramesh M: Diffuse neurofibroma of the scalp presenting as circumscribed alopecic patch. Int J Trichology; 2010 Jan;2(1):60-2
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  • [Title] Diffuse neurofibroma of the scalp presenting as circumscribed alopecic patch.
  • Neurofibroma is a benign tumor of the peripheral nerve sheath characterized by proliferation of Schwann cells, perineural cells and endoneurial fibroblasts.
  • Diffuse neurofibroma is an ill-defined infiltrative lesion and tends to involve the skin and subcutaneous tissues.
  • It produces localized thickening and induration of the skin.
  • We present a case of a 12-year-old boy who had a diffuse neurofibroma on the scalp since the age of 2 years.

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  • (PMID = 21188030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-9241
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of trichology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Trichology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3002418
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Alopecia Areata / diffuse neurofibroma / scalp
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2. Nishi SP, Brey NV, Sanchez RL: Dermal nodular fasciitis: three case reports of the head and neck and literature review. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 May;33(5):378-82
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  • Nodular fasciitis is a benign reactive myofibroblastic proliferative process of unknown etiology.
  • The condition is self-limited, and proper diagnosis is essential to avoid unnecessary aggressive treatment.
  • Diagnosis is often a challenge because it may be confused with a malignant tumor due to its aggressive clinical behavior and histological features.
  • Immunohistochemical staining can be a useful tool to aid in the diagnosis.
  • We report three additional cases of dermal nodular fasciitis occurring on the left cheek, base of the scalp, and right medial canthus.
  • [MeSH-major] Fasciitis / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16640547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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3. Yu DK, Joo YH, Cho KH: Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):6-8
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  • Trichoblastoma is a rare, benign tumor that differentiates toward the hair germ, the embryonic precursor of a hair follicle.
  • We report a case of a trichoblastoma, which had developed on the scalp as a solitary 1-cm nodule 3 years ago.
  • An immunohistochemical study showed that the neoplasm, or areas in it, stained positive for low molecular cytokeratin, high molecular cytokeratin, EMA, S-100, and GCDFP-15.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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4. Zheng JW, Wang YA, Zhou GY, Zhu HG, Ye WM, Zhang ZY: [Head and neck hemangiomas: how and when to treat]. Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue; 2007 Aug;16(4):337-42
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  • Hemangiomas are common benign vascular tumors of infancy characterized by a proliferative growth phase followed by very slow inevitable regression (involutive phase) between one to ten years of age, about 60% to 70% of the lesions are found in the head and neck region.
  • For larger and deeper hemangiomas up to a depth of 2.0 cm, percutaneous interstitial Nd:YAG laser treatment may be preferred, because it may decrease possible cutaneous skin damage and more effectively reduce bulky, deep lesion. (5) Topical application of imiquimoid and intratumoral injection of steroids or bleomycin can be used in selected patients with rapidly growing hemangioma. (6) The indication for a primary operation is rare and limited to large hemangiomas in the eyelid or hemangiomas on the scalp.
  • A successful treatment of hemangiomas should be individualized and based on the size of the tumor, the localization, and the therapies available.

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  • (PMID = 17924011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1006-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] Shanghai kou qiang yi xue = Shanghai journal of stomatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; English Abstract
  • [Publication-country] China
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5. Kim YH, Lee YK, Choi KW, Lee CY, Kim KH: A Case of Trichilemmal Carcinoma Treated with Mohs Micrographic Surgery. Ann Dermatol; 2008 Sep;20(3):157-61
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  • Trichilemmal carcinoma is a cutaneous adnexal tumor originating from the outer root sheath of hair follicle, and it was first described by Headington in 1976.
  • Clinically, it usually occurs as an asymptomatic solitary papule, nodule or mass on the face or scalp.
  • This neoplasm is a malignant counterpart of trichilemmoma, and it has been reported in the literature as trichilemmal carcinoma, tricholemmal carcinoma, malignant trichilemmoma, and tricholemmocarcinoma.
  • Although histologically, trichilemmal carcinoma frequently has maliganant features, it has a relatively benign clinical behavior.
  • We think Mohs micrographic surgery is a useful treatment modality in trichilemmal carcinoma because the final skin defect is smaller than a wide excision.

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  • (PMID = 27303183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1013-9087
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4903970
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Mohs micrographic surgery / Trichilemmal carcinoma
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6. Driss M, Bacha D, Mrad K, Charfi L, Abbes I, Sassi S, Sallemi R, Ben Romdhane K: [Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor]. Ann Pathol; 2007 Oct;27(5):373-5
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  • [Title] [Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] La tumeur trichilemmale proliférante maligne.
  • Proliferating trichilemmal tumor (PTT) is a rare distinctive lesion that usually occurs in the scalp of elderly women.
  • We report a case of a malignant PTT on the scalp in 44-year-old man.
  • Clinical features and histological criteria for diagnosis of malignant versus benign PTT are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18185473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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7. Breiting L, Christensen L, Dahlstrøm K, Breiting V, Winther JF: Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a population-based study. Int J Dermatol; 2008 Mar;47(3):242-5
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  • [Title] Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a population-based study.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin (PMCS) is a rare malignant tumor deriving from the sweat glands.
  • It is typically located on the head and is often mistaken for a metastasis from a more common primary tumor of the breast or gastrointestinal tract.
  • Seven cases were found on the scalp or neck, five on the eyelids, two on the face, and one on the trunk.
  • CONCLUSION: PMCS is a rare, slow-growing tumor which rarely metastasizes and is associated with low mortality.
  • However, the precise number may be higher, since PMCS is an indolent tumor, which may be mistaken for a benign tumor and thus not always examined histologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18289323.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Battistella M, Peltre B, Cribier B: Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Oct;37(10):1057-63
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  • [Title] Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Trichoblastomas (TBs) are benign follicular tumors that can present either as solitary nodule or as multiple facial papules.
  • Only one case of sporadic TB in a composite tumor has been reported, arising in an apocrine poroma.
  • We report the association of TB and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm in six patients.
  • Lesions were localized on the face and scalp in four of six patients.
  • It was often positive in the associated neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSION: TB can be associated with benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm in composite tumors.
  • Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Seborrheic / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Diseases / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19615018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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9. Vazmitel M, Michal M, Mukensnabl P, Kazakov DV: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum with sebaceous differentiation in an intradermal tubular apocrine component. Report of a case. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):51-3
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  • Syringocystadenoma papilliferum is a benign tumor most commonly located on the scalp or face, and it often arises within a nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Scalp / pathology


10. Stinehelfer SE, Woosley JT, Losken HW, Morrell DS: Benign fibrous histiocytoma with osteoclast-like giant cells in an infant. Pediatr Dermatol; 2007 Sep-Oct;24(5):E47-50
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  • [Title] Benign fibrous histiocytoma with osteoclast-like giant cells in an infant.
  • Benign fibrous histiocytoma is a common soft tissue tumor that usually occurs in adults and is relatively rare in childhood.
  • This report describes a 7-month-old Caucasian boy with an enlarging firm congenital nodule on his occipital scalp.
  • Histologic analysis revealed a benign fibrous histiocytoma with osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • Benign fibrous histiocytoma with osteoclast-like giant cells is a rare histologic variant.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cells / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Osteoclasts / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Infant. Male. Scalp / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17958780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Asilian A, Tamizifar B: Aggressive and neglected basal cell carcinoma. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Nov;31(11 Pt 1):1468-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cutaneous malignancy and usually has a benign coarse.
  • Rarely, examples of aggressive and neglected types of this tumor are seen.
  • RESULTS: The patient had a large, infected ulcer on his scalp.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cranial Nerve Diseases / pathology. Cranial Nerve Diseases / radiography. Cranial Nerves / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Scalp / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16416624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Alix T, Labbé D, Caquant L, Comoz F, Compère JF, Bénateau H: [Management of whole-scalp tumour: the Poncet-Spiegler cylindroma or turban tumour]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 2009 Apr;110(2):109-12
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  • [Title] [Management of whole-scalp tumour: the Poncet-Spiegler cylindroma or turban tumour].
  • [Transliterated title] Le cylindrome de Poncet-Spiegler étendu du cuir chevelu ou tumeur en turban: prise en charge chirurgicale.
  • INTRODUCTION: The Poncet-Spiegler cylindroma (PSC) is a benign annexal cutaneous tumor which preferentially develops on the scalp, neck, or forehead.
  • When the scalp is completely involved, it presents as a "turban tumor".
  • Treatment is surgery and may be difficult when the tumor is extended.
  • We report the management of turban tumor.
  • OBSERVATION: A 25 year-old female patient was first treated by partial scalp nodule exeresis and histology documented a PSC.
  • The treatment was a complete scalp exeresis and secondary reconstruction with a skin graft.
  • In case of turban tumor, total scalp exeresis and secondary reconstruction with a skin graft is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Scalp / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Esthetics. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Skin Transplantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 19328506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1776-257X
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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13. Chetty R, Perez-Ordonez B, Gilbert R, Pagedar NA, Waldron J, Ghazarian D: Spiradenocarcinoma arising from a spiradenocylindroma: unusual case with lymphoepithelioma-like areas. J Cutan Med Surg; 2009 Jul-Aug;13(4):215-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Hybrid skin adnexal tumors are common, and spiradenocylindroma is well described.
  • OBJECTIVE: However, malignant transformation in this setting is infrequent, especially resemblance to lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of skin, which is not associated with Epstein-Barr virus.
  • METHODS: A 65-year-old female presented with ataxia and a skin nodule composed of a hybrid adnexal tumor (spiradenoma and cylindroma) that transitioned into an undifferentiated carcinoma with attendant lymphocytes and plasma cells.
  • The tumor was Epstein-Barr encoded RNAs (EBER) negative by in situ hybridization.
  • No evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation was seen in the tumor, despite the patient having symptoms of paraneoplastic ataxia that improved after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: This case highlights the transition of a benign hybrid tumor (spiradenocylindroma) into a spiradenocarcinoma that resembled lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neck. Scalp

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  • (PMID = 19706230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1203-4754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Gildea JH, Lillehei KO, Golitz LE, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK: Benign cylindroma causing transcalvarial invasion in a patient with familial cylindromatosis. Clin Neuropathol; 2007 May-Jun;26(3):125-30
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  • [Title] Benign cylindroma causing transcalvarial invasion in a patient with familial cylindromatosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of scalp cylindroma without features of malignancy invading through the skull and dura, and producing massive intracranial extension.
  • Tumors of epidermis and epidermal appendages rarely show bony invasion, but invasive tendency in some tumor types has been associated with increased TP53 expression.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: Patient with familial cyindromatosis (Brooke-Spiegler syndrome) who had undergone numerous previous surgical excisions over the past 30 years of his scalp cylindromas.
  • Light microscopic and immunohistochemical characterization of resected tumor, with TP53 immunostaining in the invasive tumor was compared with that seen in five other cutaneous, non-invasive cylindromas.
  • RESULTS: Tumor showed no increase in mitotic rate or increased immunostaining for TP53.
  • While an uncommon occurrence, both benign and malignant cylindromas have the capacity to invade bone, particularly in patients with the familial syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skull / pathology


15. Scholz IM, Nümann A, Froster UG, Helmbold P, Enk AH, Näher H: New mutation in the CYLD gene within a family with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2010 Feb;8(2):99-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Brooke-Spiegler syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant disease characterized by multiple skin appendage tumors caused by various mutations in the CYLD gene on chromosome 16q12-q13.
  • In addition, there may be malignant transformation of the generally benign tumors, so that a timely diagnosis is essential for appropriate monitoring and therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Facial Neoplasms / genetics. Frameshift Mutation. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / genetics. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16 / genetics. Exons / genetics. Female. Genes, Dominant / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nose Neoplasms / genetics. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Phenotype. Skin / pathology. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 20151946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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16. Baykal C, Buyukbabani N, Yazganoglu KD, Saglik E: [Tumors associated with nevus sebaceous]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2006 Jan;4(1):28-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Nevus sebaceus (NS) is a congenital hamartomatous lesion, usually involving the scalp or the face.
  • Various benign and malignant neoplasms can develop in association with NS, the most common being trichoblastoma, syringocystadenoma papilliferum, viral warts and basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined the clinical and histopathological records of 15 NS cases with an associated tumor which were diagnosed between 1996 and 2004.
  • RESULTS: All cases were adults and 3 of them had more than one tumor.
  • Six cases had BCC, which is a higher incidence of malignant tumor association with NS, than that reported in last years.
  • Trichoblastoma was observed in 3 cases and was the most common benign tumor in our series.
  • CONCLUSION: Clinical features are not sufficient enough to make an exact diagnosis of benign or malignant secondary tumors.
  • Though prophylactic excision for NS is done less in last years, especially adult patients should closely be followed for any new changes evoking tumor development on this congenital lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Nevus / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Scalp / pathology. Skin / pathology


17. Deutsch J, Trick D, Delank KW: [Giant scalp mass]. HNO; 2010 Dec;58(12):1204-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Giant scalp mass].
  • [Transliterated title] Monströser Tumor der Kopfhaut.
  • A 55-year-old man was referred to our department with bleeding from a painless tumor located at the left parietal region of the head which had been progressively growing for a period of 2 years.
  • The partly livid and ulcerated surface of the tumor was interspersed with light-yellow chalky material.
  • Histopathological examination led to the diagnosis of a giant pilomatricoma.
  • Pilomatricoma is a rare, benign skin neoplasm that originates from hair matrix cells and is most frequently located in the head and neck region.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 1961 Apr;83:606-18 [13700704.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998 Aug;39(2 Pt 1):191-5 [9704827.001]
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  • (PMID = 20577705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Tokuyama W, Mikami T, Masuzawa M, Okayasu I: Autocrine and paracrine roles of VEGF/VEGFR-2 and VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling in angiosarcomas of the scalp and face. Hum Pathol; 2010 Mar;41(3):407-14
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  • [Title] Autocrine and paracrine roles of VEGF/VEGFR-2 and VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling in angiosarcomas of the scalp and face.
  • Angiosarcoma of the skin is an extremely rare malignant tumor of vascular origin that usually arises in the scalp and face of elderly persons.
  • To clarify its characteristic features and cell cycle kinetics, we quantitatively evaluated the expression of cell cycle-related molecules and vascular endothelial growth factors using immunohistochemical staining, for comparison with 2 benign vascular tumors of the skin, the capillary hemangioma and the cavernous hemangioma.
  • These results suggest that not only VEGFR-2-mediated signal but also VEGFR-3-mediated signal may contribute to proliferation of vascular tumor cells as autocrine and paracrine signaling factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / metabolism. Hemangiosarcoma / metabolism. Scalp / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3 / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19913279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3
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19. Yoo KH, Kim BJ, Rho YK, Lee JW, Kim YJ, Kim MN, Song KY: A case of diffuse neurofibroma of the scalp. Ann Dermatol; 2009 Feb;21(1):46-8
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  • [Title] A case of diffuse neurofibroma of the scalp.
  • A neurofibroma is a benign tumor of the peripheral nerve sheath characterized by proliferation of Schwann cells, perineural cells, and endoneurial fibroblasts.
  • Neurofibromas can involve any site on the body skin.
  • It involves the skin and subcutaneous tissue in a plaque-like fashion on the head and neck regions.
  • We present a case of a 10-year-old boy who had a diffuse neurofibroma on the scalp.

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  • [Cites] Histopathology. 1988 Aug;13(2):181-9 [3169686.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Dermatopathol. 1994 Oct;16(5):486-95 [7528474.001]
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  • (PMID = 20548855.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2883368
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Diffuse neurofibroma / Scalp
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20. Anolik R, Firoz B, Walters RF, Meehan SA, Tsou HC, Whitlow M, Wainwright B: Proliferating trichilemmal cyst with focal calcification. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(10):25
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  • A 64-year-old man presented with a superficial, well-demarcated, skin-colored tumor on the left posterior scalp that measured 4 x 5 x 6 cm.
  • The tumor was nearly hairless, rubbery, non-tender, and mobile over the underlying subcutaneous tissues.
  • Complete excision is recommended for all benign proliferating variants owing to their potential for locally aggressive behavior and malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcinosis / diagnosis. Epidermal Cyst / diagnosis. Scalp Dermatoses / diagnosis


21. Mannan AA, Mirza K: Proliferating trichilemmal tumor in the chest wall: report of a rare case. Gulf J Oncolog; 2008 Jul;(4):63-5
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  • [Title] Proliferating trichilemmal tumor in the chest wall: report of a rare case.
  • Proliferating trichilemmal tumor (PTT) is an uncommon, usually benign lesion that usually arises on the scalp of elderly women.
  • The lesion bears close morphologic resemblance to squamous cell carcinoma at the microscopic level, making correct histologic diagnosis extremely important.
  • We present a case of PTT occurring on the chest wall of a 75-years-old man to highlight the significance of recognizing this unusual tumor at an uncommon location and discuss points of differentiation from squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Thoracic Wall / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 20084778.001).
  • [ISSN] 2078-2101
  • [Journal-full-title] The Gulf journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gulf J Oncolog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kuwait
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22. Lucas DR: Angiosarcoma, radiation-associated angiosarcoma, and atypical vascular lesion. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Nov;133(11):1804-9
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  • Most are sporadic, presenting as cutaneous tumors in the scalp/face of elderly patients.
  • Radiation-associated angiosarcoma typically presents as a cutaneous tumor several years posttherapy.
  • Atypical vascular lesion refers to a small, usually lymphatic-type vascular proliferation in radiated skin.
  • Although most atypical vascular lesions pursue a benign course, they recur and very rarely progress to angiosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Skin / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 19886715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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23. Pastor N, Bañuls J, Betlloch I, Pascual JC, Blanes M: [Fast-growing tumor on the scalp of a 78-year-old woman]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2005 Jun;96(5):323-4
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  • [Title] [Fast-growing tumor on the scalp of a 78-year-old woman].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumoración de rápido crecimiento en el cuero cabelludo de una mujer de 78 años.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16476398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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24. Tierney E, Ochoa MT, Rudkin G, Soriano TT: Mohs' micrographic surgery of a proliferating trichilemmal tumor in a young black man. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Mar;31(3):359-63
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  • [Title] Mohs' micrographic surgery of a proliferating trichilemmal tumor in a young black man.
  • BACKGROUND: Proliferating trichilemmal tumor is an uncommon tumor of the follicular isthmus of the hair follicle.
  • It usually presents as a solitary nodule on the scalp of older white women.
  • Although these lesions typically behave in a benign fashion, recurrences and metastasis after local excision have been reported.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of a proliferating trichilemmal tumor in a young black man, which was excised using Mohs' micrographic surgery.
  • RESULTS: Mohs' micrographic surgery demonstrated an irregular extension of the tumor beyond a 1 cm surgical margin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Proliferating trichilemmal tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous neoplasms on the scalp in persons of any age (with the possible exception of infants and children), sex, or race.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / surgery. Hair Follicle. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15841643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Estrada-Chavez G, Vega-Memije ME, Lacy-Niebla RM, Toussaint-Caire S: Scalp metastases of a renal cell carcinoma. Skinmed; 2006 May-Jun;5(3):148-50
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  • [Title] Scalp metastases of a renal cell carcinoma.
  • An 80-year-old man presented with a localized tumor of the right occipital scalp.
  • The tumor was a 1-cm, bright red-purple, ulcerated, and crusted exophytic nodule on a smooth base (Figure 1).
  • It was extirpated with the clinical diagnosis of pyogenic granuloma vs. renal metastasis to the scalp.
  • The patient's medical history included a transurethral prostatic resection 3 years earlier and, 1 year later, a right nephrectomy for a 2-kg kidney tumor verbally reported as "benign."
  • The histopathologic diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma was supported by immunohistochemistry with positive epithelial membrane antigen staining (Figure 4).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis


26. Abada RL, Kadiri F, Tawfik N, Benchakroun N, Bouchbika Z, Chekkoury AI, Benchakroun Y, Benider A: [Multiple metastases of a mandibular ameloblastoma]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 2005 Jun;106(3):177-80
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  • INTRODUCTION: Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumor which can be locally aggressive and invasive.
  • Metastases are rare but possible and must be considered as a malignant form of the tumor.
  • Five months later, new metastases developed on the scalp and three months later a voluminous metastasis involving the right hemiface extended to the base of the skull.
  • DISCUSSION: The absence of any histological sign of malignity in the primary tumor and in the metastases, as observed in our patient, is remarkable.
  • Metastases to the scalp have never been described.
  • Progression is very slow, like for the primary tumor.
  • Several factors predictive of metastasis have been described: female gender, age at onset of primary tumor (2nd to 3rd decade) and multiple local recurrences.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / secondary. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Zygoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15976707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1768
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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27. Wygledowska-Kania M, Kamińska-Winciorek G, Krauze E, Brzezińska-Wcisło L, Kajor M: Multifocal type of pilomatrixoma. Adv Med Sci; 2007;52:251-3
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  • Pilomatrixoma is a benign skin neoplasm that arises from hair follicle matrix cells.
  • The skin lesion occurs usually as a solitary tumor and the multifocal types are very rare.
  • Skin changes can be described as a firm to hard, non-painful, oval-shaped tumor that is covered by normal skin.
  • It commonly occurs on a scalp, face, neck and rarely back and extremities.
  • The first skin lesion appeared on the left arm 6 years ago.
  • Histopathological test has proved the clinical diagnosis of pilomatrixoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cicatrix / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Inflammation. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18217427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1896-1126
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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28. Kuklani RM, Glavin FL, Bhattacharyya I: Malignant cylindroma of the scalp arising in a setting of multiple cylindromatosis: a case report. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Dec;3(4):315-9
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  • [Title] Malignant cylindroma of the scalp arising in a setting of multiple cylindromatosis: a case report.
  • An unusual case of malignant cylindroma of the scalp arising in a 79-year-old white female with multiple cylindromatosis is presented.
  • The tumor apparently arose from a cylindroma and had features of spiradenoma.
  • Multiple cylindromatosis is an uncommon hereditary autosomal dominant disease, which is characterized by multiple skin adnexal tumors like cylindromas and trichoepitheliomas and occasional spiradenomas.
  • Cylindroma is an uncommon benign tumor, which originates from skin appendages and is most commonly found on the scalp and face with a strong predilection for middle-aged and elderly females.
  • Although cylindromas are usually benign neoplasms, carcinoma arising in such neoplasms is rare with only sporadic reports in literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20596852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2811564
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29. Wang X, Yang J, Yang W: Multiple proliferating trichilemmal tumors in a middle-aged yellow man. Tumori; 2010 Mar-Apr;96(2):349-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Proliferating trichilemmal tumor (PTT) is a rare but morphologically distinctive tumor.
  • It usually occurs on the scalp of elderly women, characterized by frequent local recurrence.
  • We present the case of a 47-year-old yellow man with a 20-year history of multiple benign tumors in a number of anatomic areas.
  • The case is unusual for the sex and age of the patient and the tumor locations.
  • Moreover, this report illustrates a rare tumor which can be diagnostically challenging.
  • The differentiation between a benign or malignant process in these lesions can sometimes be difficult.
  • Careful clinical and histological assessment is necessary for an accurate diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20572599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Chaichamnan K, Satayasoontorn K, Puttanupaab S, Attainsee A: Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumors with CD34 expression. J Med Assoc Thai; 2010 Nov;93 Suppl 6:S28-34
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  • Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumors (MPTT) are rare neoplasm arising from outer root sheath of hair follicle, the diagnosis of which is base essentially on histological features resulting in occasionally misdiagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In difficult cases, however evaluation of additional parameters may be needed to differentiate benign proliferating trichilemmal tumor from MPTT or differentiate PTT and MPTT from squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The contrast p53 and Ki-67 expression pattern in MPTT and PTT may be helpful in the diagnosis of MPTT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21280514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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31. Lotfi S, Ghalamkarpour F, Rahimi H, Kani ZA, Yousefi M, Qaisari M: An ulcerated tumor in an infant. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(4):9
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  • [Title] An ulcerated tumor in an infant.
  • Cutaneous leiomyoma is a benign dermal tumor of smooth muscle.
  • A five-month-old boy presented to our clinic with a progressively enlarging mass on his occipital scalp.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical studies, which were compatible with leiomyoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Ulcer / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20409416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Weinstein A, Nouri K, Bassiri-Tehrani S, Flores F, Jimenez G: Muir-Torre syndrome: a case of this uncommon entity. Int J Dermatol; 2006 Mar;45(3):311-3
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  • On physical examination, in addition to scars from a radical mastectomy and midline abdominal laparotomy, four skin lesions were noted: two on the scalp, one on the tragus, and one on the mid-back.
  • The first lesion on the vertex of the scalp was a yellow-brown waxy papule measuring 0.6 x 0.5 cm.
  • The second lesion on the frontal scalp measured 0.8 x 0.6 cm and was red-brown with a pearly appearance and some central hyperkeratosis.
  • The tragus lesion was similar in appearance to that on the frontal scalp.
  • The lesions on the scalp and mid-back revealed lobules of sebaceous cells in the dermis with a minority of surrounding basaloid cells, consistent with a diagnosis of sebaceous adenoma (Fig. 1).
  • Although the lesion on the frontal scalp also showed sebaceous differentiation, there were a greater number of basaloid cells, some with hyperchromatic nuclei and mitotic figures; this was consistent with a diagnosis of sebaceous epithelioma (Fig. 2).
  • No further treatment was required for these benign sebaceous tumors, but their presence defined our patient's condition as Muir-Torre syndrome.
  • Mohs' micrographic surgery was performed on the tragus BCC and the margins were tumor free in one stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / complications. Colonic Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications


33. Cooper JZ, Newman SR, Scott GA, Brown MD: Metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma (cutaneous malignant histiocytoma): report of five cases. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Feb;31(2):221-5; discussion 225
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an unusual malignant fibrohistiocytic tumor of sun-damaged skin.
  • When first described, it was felt to be a reactive tumor of low malignant potential.
  • More recently, it has been shown to be a tumor of intermediate malignant potential.
  • LN-2 staining may be a useful marker in identifying more aggressive tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Face / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Scalp / pathology. Upper Extremity / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15762219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Kazakov DV, Soukup R, Mukensnabl P, Boudova L, Michal M: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: report of a case with combined lesions containing cylindromatous, spiradenomatous, trichoblastomatous, and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):27-33
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  • We report a patient in whom 11 lesions were removed from the scalp and face for various reasons over a period of 3 years.
  • The histopathological survey revealed a plethora of benign adnexal neoplasms showing apocrine, follicular, and sebaceous differentiation occurring independently and conjointly.
  • By far the most common composite tumor was spiradenocylindroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / surgery. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Diseases / surgery. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Sebaceous Glands / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 15677973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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35. Stefanato CM, Robson A, Calonje JE: The histopathologic spectrum of regression in atypical fibroxanthoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Mar;37(3):310-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) with prominent fibrosis, sclerosis and hyalinization, and near-total tumor regression is rare.
  • METHODS: Eight cases of AFX presenting with fibrosis were reviewed as to their tumor architecture, the degree and pattern of fibrosis and the associated inflammatory cell infiltrate.
  • Advanced fibrosis (6/8 cases) was associated with lamellar sclerosis, keloidal features, hyalinization and with near-total tumor replacement.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fibrosis with prominent sclerosis and hyalinization replacing the tumor is rare in AFX.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cheek / pathology. Female. Fibrosis / pathology. Humans. Keloid / pathology. Male. Scalp / pathology


36. Bansal C, Sinkre P, Stewart D, Cockerell CJ: Two cases of cytokeratin positivity in atypical fibroxanthoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Jun;60(6):716-7
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  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Keratins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Facial Neoplasms / metabolism. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [Cites] J Cutan Pathol. 1997 Mar;24(3):176-82 [9085154.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Dermatopathol. 2003 Feb;25(1):1-5 [12544091.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 1993 Dec;17(12):1199-209 [8238729.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 1985 Jun;121(6):753-5 [3890760.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1973 Jun;31(6):1541-52 [4709969.001]
  • (PMID = 17483246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1955050
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37. Hafezi-Bakhtiari S, Al-Habeeb A, Ghazarian D: Benign mixed tumor of the skin, hypercellular variant: a case report. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Sep;37(9):e46-9
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  • [Title] Benign mixed tumor of the skin, hypercellular variant: a case report.
  • A 71-year-old man presented with a slowly growing 2.0x2.0x1.0 cm scalp lesion that was surgically removed.
  • Microscopic examination showed a well-circumscribed dermally located tumor composed of ductal elements lined by double to multiple cell layers of bland cuboidal inner cells and elongated spindled outer cells with areas showing cribriform and solid growth patterns.
  • The overall morphology and immunohistochemical profile are that of a benign cutanoues mixed tumor (chondroid syringoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Epidermal Cyst / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Scalp

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  • (PMID = 19614993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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38. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Rütten A, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Jun;27(3):195-203
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  • The cases included 6 men and 1 woman, with their ages at the diagnosis ranging from 43 to 87 years (median age, 59).
  • Locations were the scalp (n = 6) and forearm (n = 1).
  • Although the neoplasm appeared benign architecturally, the presence of cytologic atypia qualified 2 tumors as low-grade carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrastructure. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15900121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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39. Scheinfeld N: Review of scalp alopecia due to a clinically unapparent or minimally apparent neoplasm (SACUMAN). Acta Derm Venereol; 2006;86(5):387-92
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  • [Title] Review of scalp alopecia due to a clinically unapparent or minimally apparent neoplasm (SACUMAN).
  • Neoplastic cells, both malignant and benign, local occurring and metastatic, can cause alopecia of the scalp.
  • However, the infiltration of neoplastic cells is sometimes not florid; a condition known as "scalp alopecia due to a clinically unapparent or minimally apparent neoplasm" (SACUMAN).
  • The most common neoplasm in which an uncomplicated, minimally or unapparent scalp alopecia occurs and no infiltrate of cancer is suspected is metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • Other causes include squamous and basal cell carcinomas, angiosarcoma, gastric carcinoma, placental site tromphoblastic tumor, and mycosis fungoides.
  • In conclusion, neoplasms causing cicatricial alopecia of the scalp are very rare, so generalizations from the limited number of case reports are of uncertain importance.
  • Moreover, it is likely that many cases of neoplasms causing cicatricial alopecia of the scalp are diagnosed as inflammatory alopecia and not neoplasms, thus depriving us of a full accounting and understanding of this entity.
  • Dermatologists must be aware that in rare cases a bland scalp alopecia can represent a new or recurring, local or metastatic neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Alopecia / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Cicatrix / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Keloid / complications. Keloid / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Scalp / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16983449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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40. Siddha M, Budrukkar A, Shet T, Deshpande M, Basu A, Patil N, Bhalavat R: Malignant pilar tumor of the scalp: a case report and review of literature. J Cancer Res Ther; 2007 Oct-Dec;3(4):240-3
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  • [Title] Malignant pilar tumor of the scalp: a case report and review of literature.
  • Pilar tumor is a rare neoplasm arising from the external root sheath of the hair follicle and is most commonly observed on the scalp.
  • These tumors are largely benign, often cystic, and are characterized by trichilemmal keratinization.
  • In this report, we present a case of malignant pilar tumor of the scalp with multiple nodal metastases at presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / secondary. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18270401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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41. Luzar B, Calonje E: Morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of atypical fibroxanthoma with a special emphasis on potential diagnostic pitfalls: a review. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Mar;37(3):301-9
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  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Histological features analyzed in 66 AFXs were: ulceration, morphological variants, growth pattern, location in the skin and vascular/perineural invasion.
  • All developed on sun damaged skin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A diagnosis of AFX is still made by exclusion of other malignant neoplasms with similar morphology.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Arm / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibrosis / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Scalp / pathology. Sex Factors


42. Stepanova A, Marsch WC, Stadie V: [A rare low-grade malignant scalp tumor. Atypical fibroxanthoma]. Hautarzt; 2005 Jul;56(7):679-82
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  • [Title] [A rare low-grade malignant scalp tumor. Atypical fibroxanthoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Seltener niedrig-maligner Tumor der Kopfhaut. Atypisches Fibroxanthom.
  • A 79-year-old patient presented with an asymptomatic scalp tumor which had grown over the past 9 months.
  • Based on clinical, histological and immunohistochemical staining, we made the diagnosis of an atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX).
  • AFX is a rare tumor, but important in the differential diagnosis of other scalp tumors.
  • AFX is a low-grade malignant tumor and most cases behave in a benign fashion.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 1993 Dec;17(12):1199-209 [8238729.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2002 Jan;26(1):35-46 [11756767.001]
  • [Cites] Br J Dermatol. 2000 Sep;143(3):618-20 [10971340.001]
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  • (PMID = 15726303.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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43. Seyhan T, Borman H, Bal N: Malignant eccrine spiradenoma of the scalp. J Craniofac Surg; 2008 Nov;19(6):1608-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant eccrine spiradenoma of the scalp.
  • Malignant eccrine spiradenoma is a rare neoplasm generally arising from long-standing benign eccrine spiradenomas; it is rarely seen on the scalp.
  • A 27-year-old woman with a malignant eccrine spiradenoma of the scalp, which had occurred 8 months after the inadequate excision of a benign eccrine spiradenoma, was treated at our hospital.
  • The tumor with its large subcutaneous extension and the outer table of the cranium were removed.
  • A split-thickness skin graft was applied on the exposed inner table.
  • At 24 months' follow-up, there has been no tumor recurrence.
  • We report a case of a malignant eccrine spiradenoma of the scalp with cranial involvement that arose from an inadequately removed, long-standing, benign eccrine spiradenoma in a young patient.
  • Also, we review the existing literature on malignant eccrine spiradenoma of the scalp.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alopecia / diagnosis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Transplantation


44. Eloy-Garcia Carrasco C, Benguigui Benadiva J, Martinez Garcia S, Sanz Trelles A, Palacios S: Atypical primary carcinoid tumour of the skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Sep;33 Suppl 2:32-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical primary carcinoid tumour of the skin.
  • We present a new case of a primary carcinoid tumour of the skin.
  • The patient was a 58-year-old woman with a 1-year history of a mass on the scalp.
  • Literature review showed this to be only the seventh case of primary carcinoid tumour of the skin.
  • Although the number of cases is too small to draw definitive conclusions, information to date suggests that this type of tumour can be expected to have a benign behaviour, despite the presence in some cases of criteria suggestive of uncertainty, such as the presence of mitosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16972951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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45. Wright NA, Thomas CG, Calame A, Cockerell CJ: Granular cell atypical fibroxanthoma: case report and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Mar;37(3):380-5
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  • We present a case of granular cell atypical fibroxanthoma of the scalp.
  • The neoplasm occurred as a tender nodule on the frontal scalp of an 82-year-old Caucasian man.
  • We discuss the differential diagnosis and review the previously reported cases of this rare variant of atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Scalp / metabolism. Scalp / pathology. Scalp / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19341433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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46. Trindade F, Haro R, Requena L: Giant angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia on the chest. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Apr;36(4):493-6
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  • This rare benign process occurs with a female predominance.
  • Approximately 85% of the lesions occur in the skin of the head and neck; most of them are around the ear or on the forehead or scalp.
  • Whether angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia represents a benign neoplasm or an unusual reaction to varied stimuli, including trauma, the etiology remains unclear.
  • The lesion is benign but may be persistent and is difficult to eradicate.
  • We report on a case of a 58-year-old Caucasian man who presented a purplish pink dome-shaped tumor of size up to 8 cm in diameter located on the chest.

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  • (PMID = 19278439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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47. Tellechea O, Reis JP: Trichogerminoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jul;31(5):480-3
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  • A case of distinctive benign follicular neoplasm previously reported under the designation of trichogerminoma is described.
  • A 45-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic nodule on the scalp since 3 years.
  • This neoplasm and the other tumors with hair germ differentiation such as trichoblastoma and panfolliculoma seem to represent the same spectrum of hair follicle neoplasms only distinguishable by their degree of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Scalp / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19542926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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48. Nakai N, Takenaka H, Kishimoto S: Atypical fibroxanthoma on a bald scalp. J Dermatol; 2005 Oct;32(10):848-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma on a bald scalp.
  • We present the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of an atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) on the bald scalp of an 81-year-old French man who had worked at a private high school in Japan as a janitor for over 40 years.
  • The AFX was completely resected, and the patient has not had tumor recurrence or metastasis for over four postoperative years.
  • This case therefore provides further support to the theory that AFX displays a clinically benign course, even though it is essentially a malignant tumor histologically located in the dermis.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Scalp Dermatoses / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Alopecia / complications. Head and Neck Neoplasms / complications. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Male. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16361741.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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49. Zaraa I, Zeglaoui F, Fazaa B, Ezzine N, Elfekih N, Zermani R, Ben Jilani S, Kamoun MR: [Brooke-Spiegler syndrome]. Tunis Med; 2006 Sep;84(9):578-80
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  • [Transliterated title] Syndrome de brooke-Spiegler.
  • In the first case: a 31 years-old woman, with multiple trichoepitheliomas involving in the naso-genal areas, with multiple cylindromas of the scalp.
  • No neoplastic tumor was identified.
  • Brooke Spiegler syndrome is usually a benign disease, but patients with this syndrome should be explored for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17263207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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50. Fukushima S, Kageshita T, Wakasugi S, Matsushita S, Kaguchi A, Ishihara T, Ono T: Giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the scalp. J Dermatol; 2006 Dec;33(12):865-8
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  • [Title] Giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the scalp.
  • Herein, we describe a rare case of giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the head in a 38-year-old Japanese man.
  • The tumor measured 210 mm at its largest diameter and was ulcerated, hemorrhagic, multilocular and non-mobile.
  • It should be noted that the patient stubbornly refused to see a doctor for a long time, resulting in the extreme growth of the tumor.
  • Post-mortem skin biopsy revealed features of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.
  • We propose that the expressions of Ki67 and p16 should be checked for all lesions of peripheral nerve sheath tumor for distinguishing benign from malignant forms.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Fatal Outcome. Hemorrhage / pathology. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Skin Ulcer / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17169091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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51. Reid-Nicholson M, Iyengar P, Friedlander MA, Lin O: Fine needle aspiration biopsy of primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2006 May-Jun;50(3):317-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration biopsy of primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin is a rare neoplasm of sweat gland origin.
  • CASE: A 78-year-old woman presented with a 3-cm left scalp mass at an outside institution.
  • Following incomplete excision, multiple subcentimeter nodules developed in the skin adjacent to the biopsy site.
  • Clinical examination and extensive radiographic studies did not reveal primary disease elsewhere, thus supporting a diagnosis of primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin.
  • At the time of wide excision of the residual tumor, sentinel lymph node biopsy revealed a single focus of micrometastasis.
  • The patient declined adjuvant therapy and was disease free 6 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Cutaneous mucinous carcinoma is a tumor characterized by bland histocytologic features and abundant extracellular pools of mucin.
  • Numerous benign and malignant mucin-producing primary and secondary mimics exist, and immunohistochemistry offers limited benefits in differentiating them.
  • Cytologic diagnosis of primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin is possible; however, correlation of clinical, radiologic and pathologic features is necessary to arrive at an accurate diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Scalp. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16780028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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52. Kitajima K, Imanaka K, Hashimoto K, Hayashi M, Kuwata Y, Sugimura K: Magnetic resonance imaging findings of proliferating trichilemmal tumor. Neuroradiology; 2005 Jun;47(6):406-10
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging findings of proliferating trichilemmal tumor.
  • We report the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of proliferative trichilemmal tumor (PTT), a rare benign tumor of the scalp.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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