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1. Petrescu A, Berdan G, Hulea I, Gaitanidis R, Ambert V, Jinga V, Popescu M, Andrei F, Niculescu L: Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor - a new case report. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2007;48(4):437-42
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  • [Title] Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor - a new case report.
  • Renal inflammatory pseudotumor is uncommon, benign tumor that has been classified into separate group but there is a risk that this lesion could be misdiagnosed.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and sonography revealed a tumor of the right mediorenal parenchyma, 2.5 cm in diameter.
  • The patient underwent right nephroureterectomy under the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma.
  • Fragments of the tumor were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, included in paraffin, and the sections were stained with HE, VG and immunohistochemically with vimentin (VIM), MNF116, SyN, smooth muscle actin (ACT), desmin, CD68, S100, HMB45, and CD117.
  • The pathologic diagnosis was renal inflammatory pseudotumor, raising the problem of differential diagnosis, as the clinical and imagistic aspects are similar to those of a renal carcinoma and the problem in establishing a preoperative correct diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 18060198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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2. Xiao GQ, Burstein DE, Miller LK, Unger PD: Nephrogenic adenoma: immunohistochemical evaluation for its etiology and differentiation from prostatic adenocarcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jun;130(6):805-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONTEXT: Nephrogenic adenoma is a rare benign lesion of the urinary tract.
  • More recent investigation has pointed to a renal tubular cause.
  • OBJECTIVE: To elucidate a possible histogenic relationship between nephrogenic adenoma and renal tubules, and also to evaluate the role of immunohistochemistry in the diagnostic distinction between nephrogenic adenoma and prostate carcinoma.
  • DESIGN: Immunohistochemical studies were performed for P504S, prostate-specific antigen, CD10, p63, and epithelial membrane antigen on 9 cases of nephrogenic adenoma, 10 cases of normal renal parenchyma, and 10 cases of prostatic tissue, both benign and malignant.
  • RESULTS: Nephrogenic adenoma shares the same immunohistochemical profile as distal renal tubules: both are positive for P504S and epithelial membrane antigen and negative for p63, CD10, and prostate-specific antigen.
  • CONCLUSION: These findings provide supporting evidence that nephrogenic adenoma is derived from distal renal tubules.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Mucin-1 / analysis. Racemases and Epimerases / analysis. Urothelium / chemistry. Urothelium / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16740031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucin-1; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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3. Thyavihally YB, Tongaonkar HB, Desai SB: Benign mixed epithelial stromal tumor of the renal pelvis with exophytic growth: case report. Int Semin Surg Oncol; 2005 Sep 9;2:18
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  • [Title] Benign mixed epithelial stromal tumor of the renal pelvis with exophytic growth: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor (MEST) is a distinctive benign composite neoplasm of the kidney predominantly seen in females mostly in the perimenopausal period.
  • Although these tumors are known to arise from renal pelvis, our case was distinct in that it had no intrapelvic component growing in exophytic fashion.
  • On exploration, the mass was arising from the inferior and anterior aspect of left renal pelvis, and was attached to it with a narrow pedicle.
  • There was no adherence or attachment to the renal parenchyma.
  • Microscopically, the tumor was composed of large collagenized areas containing bundles of spindle cells and several 'microcysts' lined by cuboidal epithelium suggestive of a benign mixed epithelial stromal tumor.
  • Commonly, it arises from the renal parenchyma and pelvis and nephrectomy is advocated to manage these tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: MEST is a distinctive benign tumor of the kidney that should be distinguished from other renal neoplasms.
  • MEST arising from the renal pelvis and growing exophytically is a rare entity.

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  • [Cites] Lancet Oncol. 2004 Dec;5(12):747-9 [15581546.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2000 Jul;24(7):958-70 [10895818.001]
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  • (PMID = 16150156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7800
  • [Journal-full-title] International seminars in surgical oncology : ISSO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1215508
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4. Fujita M, Uehara M, Tei N, Shimizu K, Imazu T, Meguro N, Kiyohara H, Adachi S: [An unusual case of cystic nephroma protruding into the renal pelvis]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2010 Oct;56(10):577-80
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  • [Title] [An unusual case of cystic nephroma protruding into the renal pelvis].
  • Cystic nephroma is a relatively rare and benign renal lesion of uncertain etiology.
  • Approximately 200 cases have been described, but only a few cases of cystic nephroma with prominent renal pelvis involvement have been reported.
  • Here, we report an unusual case of cystic nephroma that protruded into the renal pelvis.
  • A 45-year-old woman hospitalized because of a right renal mass detected on clinical examination.
  • The diagnosis of a malignant or benign lesion was not clear.
  • Macroscopic examination revealed that the giant lesion originated from the upper renal pelvis and extended into the renal pelvis.
  • In general, this tumor arises from the renal parenchyma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the fifth case report on cystic nephroma with prominent renal pelvis involvement.

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  • (PMID = 21063163.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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5. Sountoulides P, Zachos I, Paschalidis K, Asouhidou I, Fotiadou A, Bantis A, Palasopoulou M, Podimatas T: Massive hematuria due to a congenital renal arteriovenous malformation mimicking a renal pelvis tumor: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:144
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  • [Title] Massive hematuria due to a congenital renal arteriovenous malformation mimicking a renal pelvis tumor: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Congenital renal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are very rare benign lesions.
  • Contemporary treatment consists of transcatheter selective arterial embolization which leads to resolution of the hematuria whilst preserving renal parenchyma.
  • CT scan revealed a filling defect caused by a soft tissue mass in the renal pelvis, which initially led to the suspicion of a transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the upper tract, in view of the patient's age and smoking habits.
  • However a subsequent retrograde study could not depict any filling defect in the renal pelvis.
  • Selective right renal arteriography confirmed the presence of a renal AVM by demonstrating abnormal arterial communication with a vein with early visualization of the venous system.
  • In the case presented, a congenital renal AVM proved to be the cause of massive upper tract hematuria and flank pain in spite of the initial evidence indicating the likely diagnosis of a renal pelvis tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18457585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2390576
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6. Koo HJ, Lee DH, Kim IY: Renal hilar control during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: to clamp or not to clamp. J Endourol; 2010 Aug;24(8):1283-7
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  • [Title] Renal hilar control during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: to clamp or not to clamp.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To decrease intraoperative and perioperative morbidity that is associated with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN), clamping of the renal hilum has been advocated.
  • It has been suggested, however, that renal hilar control is not necessary in all patients.
  • We compared the perioperative and pathologic results of 21 consecutive patients who underwent LPN with or without renal hilar clamping at our institution.
  • Renal hilar control was deemed necessary if the depth of tumor invasion was greater than 50% of the renal parenchyma on CT or MRI.
  • RESULTS: The mean tumor size was 2.6 cm (range 0.8-4.2 cm) in the nonclamped group and 2.3 cm (range 1.5-3 cm) in the clamped group.
  • In the nonclamped group, 7 of the 11 procedures were for benign tumors while only 2 of the 10 lesions in the clamped group were benign.
  • Tumors that need cross-clamping of the renal hilum were more likely to be malignant.

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  • (PMID = 20629571.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Kruck S, Bedke J, Hennenlotter J, Ohneseit PA, Kuehs U, Senger E, Sievert KD, Stenzl A: Activation of mTOR in renal cell carcinoma is due to increased phosphorylation rather than protein overexpression. Oncol Rep; 2010 Jan;23(1):159-63
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  • [Title] Activation of mTOR in renal cell carcinoma is due to increased phosphorylation rather than protein overexpression.
  • The aim of the present pilot study was to determine mTOR expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to evaluate mTOR activation and phosphorylation at Ser2448.
  • Tissue microarray immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of tumor and benign tissue from 10 patients subjected to tumor nephrectomy were investigated.
  • Ratios of tumor versus benign tissue were calculated and compared by the Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis test.
  • Immunohistochemical expressions of mTOR and p-mTOR were 49 and 40% in benign renal parenchyma, whereas it was 20 and 42% in tumor tissue.
  • Ratios of tumor versus benign tissue revealed a reduction to 0.44 for mTOR and corresponding elevation to 1.29 for p-mTOR (p<0.05).
  • The rate of p-mTOR to mTOR was 1.19 in benign, whereas it was 5.30 in tumor tissue.
  • Western blot densitometry detected lower expressions of mTOR in tumor compared to benign tissues.
  • Ratio of p-mTOR to mTOR were significantly different in benign versus tumor tissue (0.86 vs. 1.37; p<0.04).
  • The observation that RCC specimens exhibit higher levels of p-mTOR in RCC compared to benign renal parenchyma indicate the role of mTOR phosphorylation in RCC tumor development and progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19956876.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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8. Yoshida S, Masuda H, Ishii C, Saito K, Kawakami S, Kihara K: Initial experience of functional imaging of upper urinary tract neoplasm by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Int J Urol; 2008 Feb;15(2):140-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Initial experience of functional imaging of upper urinary tract neoplasm by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.
  • With conventional imaging, seven were diagnosed as having renal pelvic tumors and two were highly suspected of having UUT UC.
  • These nine patients were diagnosed histopathologically as having renal pelvic UC by subsequent operation.
  • The last patient was confirmed as experiencing benign stenosis.
  • The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of renal parenchyma, dilated collecting system, and tumor were calculated.
  • The case of benign stenosis had negative DW MRI.
  • The median (range) ADC value of the tumor (0.803 [0.412-0.958] x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) was significantly lower than those of the dilated collecting system (2.19 [1.42-2.40] x 10(-3)) and renal parenchyma (1.28 [0.922-1.45] x 10(-3), respectively (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01).

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  • (PMID = 18269448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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9. Bouhafs A, Cherradi N, Lamaalmi N, Belkacem R, Barahioui M: An unusual case of multilocular cystic nephroma with prominent renal pelvis involvement. Int J Urol; 2006 Apr;13(4):436-8
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  • [Title] An unusual case of multilocular cystic nephroma with prominent renal pelvis involvement.
  • Multilocular cystic nephroma (MCN) is a relatively rare, benign tumor of uncertain etiology.
  • It typically arises from the renal parenchyma and is often treated with nephrectomy.
  • We report a case of MCN with unusual prominent renal pelvis extension.
  • A multilocular cystic lesion was found in the removed specimen, which had a direct tumor extension into the renal pelvis.
  • The tumor extension into the renal pelvis has been found in very few reports.
  • This growth pattern might be one of the characteristics of this benign renal tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16734866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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10. Merseburger AS, Hennenlotter J, Simon P, Kruck S, Koch E, Horstmann M, Kuehs U, Küfer R, Stenzl A, Kuczyk MA: Membranous expression and prognostic implications of epidermal growth factor receptor protein in human renal cell cancer. Anticancer Res; 2005 May-Jun;25(3B):1901-7
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  • [Title] Membranous expression and prognostic implications of epidermal growth factor receptor protein in human renal cell cancer.
  • Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine EGFR expression in clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC) to evaluate its prognostic relevance for the clinical course of the disease.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: EGFR protein expression, detected by immunohistochemistry and tissue microarray analysis (TMA), was investigated in a cohort of 149 randomly selected patients subjected to tumor nephrectomy for RCC.
  • RESULTS: The tumor cells preferably exhibited a homogeneous membrane-bound reactivity for EGFR; EGFR overexpression was detected in 70 (47%) of the primary tumor specimens, but in only 12 (9%) of the benign tissue samples (p<0.0001; Fisher's t-test).
  • Tumor-associated EGFR staining was stratified into three groups: I: low staining score (n=75, 50%); II: intense expression (n=56, 38%); and III: strong overexpression (n = 18, 12%).
  • CONCLUSION: The observation that primary RCC specimens exhibit EGFR at higher levels when compared with benign renal parenchyma indicates its role in tumor development and progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16158924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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11. Richter M, Meyer W, Küster J, Middel P: Exophytic benign mixed epithelial stromal tumour of the kidney: case report of a rare tumour entity. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:16
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  • [Title] Exophytic benign mixed epithelial stromal tumour of the kidney: case report of a rare tumour entity.
  • BACKGROUND: Mixed epithelial and stromal tumour (MEST) represents a recently described benign composite neoplasm of the kidney, which predominantly affects perimenopausal females.
  • Most tumours are benign, although rare malignant cases have been observed.
  • Surgical exploration showed a tumour arising from the lower anterior hilus of the left kidney.
  • The tumour could be excised by preserving the kidney.
  • By intraoperative frozen section the tumour showed characteristic features of MEST with epithelial-covered cysts embedded in an "ovarian-like" stroma.
  • Additional immunohistochemistry investigations showed expression for hormone receptors by the stromal component of the tumour.
  • Commonly, the tumour arises from the renal parenchyma or pelvis.
  • The tumour is composed of an admixture of cystic and sometimes more solid areas.
  • CONCLUSION: MEST represents a distinctive benign tumour entity of the kidney, which affects perimenopausal woman.
  • The tumour should be distinguished from other cystic renal neoplasms.
  • By imaging studies it is difficult to distinguish between a benign or malignant nature of the tumour.
  • Thus, intraoperative frozen section is necessary for conservative surgery, since the overall prognosis is favourable and renal function can be preserved in most cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelial Cells / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20193076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2842239
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100609
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12. Lim SD, Stallcup W, Lefkove B, Govindarajan B, Au KS, Northrup H, Lang D, Fisher DE, Patel A, Amin MB, Arbiser JL: Expression of the neural stem cell markers NG2 and L1 in human angiomyolipoma: are angiomyolipomas neoplasms of stem cells? Mol Med; 2007 Mar-Apr;13(3-4):160-5
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  • Angiomyolipomas are benign tumors of the kidney which express phenotypes of smooth muscle, fat, and melanocytes.
  • These tumors appear with increased frequency in the autosomal dominant disorder tuberous sclerosis and are the leading cause of morbidity in adults with tuberous sclerosis.
  • While benign, these tumors are capable of provoking life threatening hemorrhage and replacement of the kidney parenchyma, resulting in renal failure.
  • Immunohistochemistry of human angiomyolipoma specimens revealed uniform staining of tumor cells, while renal cell carcinomas revealed positivity only of angiogenic vessels.

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  • (PMID = 17592550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-1551
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P30 AR 42687; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR050727; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P30 AR042687; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01AR 47901; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR 050727; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR047901
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1892760
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13. Derchi LE, Grenier N, Heinz-Peer G, Dogra V, Franco F, Rollandi GA, Deminiere C: Imaging of renal leiomyomas. Acta Radiol; 2008 Sep;49(7):833-8
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  • [Title] Imaging of renal leiomyomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Renal leiomyomas are rare benign tumors of the kidney which can be found at autopsy as small capsular nodules in about 5% of cases.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed the imaging findings observed in eight patients with pathologically proven asymptomatic renal leiomyomas discovered during studies performed for reasons unrelated to the kidney.
  • Six were at the periphery of the kidney, compressed its outer surface, but did not cause disruption of the cortex; two involved the renal cortex.
  • A cleavage plane between the tumor and the kidney was revealed at CT and/or ultrasonography in three of the cases located at the periphery.
  • At CT, they were slightly hyperdense before contrast medium injection; all were hypodense to the renal cortex after contrast medium.
  • CONCLUSION: There are some imaging findings that can help to suggest the diagnosis of renal leiomyomas.
  • First, their density: all tumors examined before contrast were hyperdense to the kidney, with density similar to that of muscles, and all had lower enhancement than the adjacent renal parenchyma.
  • Second, the location and margins of the tumors: most were peripheral, without involvement of the renal cortex and with well-defined margins.
  • Although not pathognomonic for a renal leiomyoma, the combination of these findings should include leiomyoma in the list of differential diagnoses.

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  • (PMID = 19143066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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14. Cardillo MR, Ippoliti F: Interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and heat shock protein-90 expression in renal epithelial neoplasias and surrounding normal-appearing renal parenchyma. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2007 Jan-Mar;20(1):37-46
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  • [Title] Interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and heat shock protein-90 expression in renal epithelial neoplasias and surrounding normal-appearing renal parenchyma.
  • Cytokines, notably the interleukins IL-6 and IL-10, have an important role in the development and progression of renal-cell carcinomas, acting in the host-tumor interaction and in tumor bulk.
  • To define the roles of the cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 and HSP-90 in the progression of renal-cell carcinoma we analyzed immunohistochemical expression of these proteins in human renal-cell carcinomas from 95 total nephrectomies.
  • IL-6, IL-10 and HSP-90 proteins were more strongly expressed in epithelium and stroma of the renal tumoral compartment than in adjacent normal peritumoral tissue.
  • The percentage of cells expressing IL-6, IL-10 and HSP-90 immunoreactivity was higher in benign epithelial tumors, than in normal peritumoral tissue, but lower than in renal-cell carcinomas.
  • Whereas HSP-90 immunoreactivity seemed higher in more aggressive histological phenotypes (collecting-duct carcinoma) of renal-cell carcinomas, IL-10 protein levels were higher in more advanced TNM stage (pT3) tumors.
  • Our observation suggests that IL-6 and IL-10 and HSP-90 may be useful markers associated with the development and progression of renal-cell carcinomas and have independent functional roles in this malignant condition.

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  • (PMID = 17346426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-6; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10
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15. Jung SJ, Shen SS, Tran T, Jun SY, Truong L, Ayala AG, Ro JY: Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of kidney with malignant transformation: report of two cases and review of literature. Hum Pathol; 2008 Mar;39(3):463-8
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  • [Title] Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of kidney with malignant transformation: report of two cases and review of literature.
  • We present 2 cases of mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney with sarcomatous transformation.
  • The resected tumor involved the right renal parenchyma, measuring 13.0 x 8.0 x 4.0 cm, and extended to perirenal adipose tissue.
  • The tumor measured 6.0 x 5.5 x 4.0 cm, with an intact capsule at the upper pole.
  • Sections of both tumors revealed benign and malignant components.
  • The benign component consisted of multilocular cysts and fibrous stroma with a focally ovarian stromalike component.
  • We report 2 additional cases of sarcomatous transformation in mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18261632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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16. Hinz S, Weikert S, Magheli A, Hoffmann M, Engers R, Miller K, Kempkensteffen C: Expression profile of the polycomb group protein enhancer of Zeste homologue 2 and its prognostic relevance in renal cell carcinoma. J Urol; 2009 Dec;182(6):2920-5
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  • [Title] Expression profile of the polycomb group protein enhancer of Zeste homologue 2 and its prognostic relevance in renal cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: EZH2 increases the proliferation rate and apoptosis resistance of renal cell carcinoma cell lines.
  • To date its clinical impact on the outcome in patients with renal cell carcinoma is not known.
  • To our knowledge this is the first study of the association of EZH2 expression with histopathological features and disease outcomes in a large cohort of patients who underwent surgery for renal cell carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was done to quantify EZH2 expression in malignant and adjacent benign renal tissue from a cohort of 119 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • The impact of EZH2 expression on clinicopathological tumor features and outcome was investigated.
  • RESULTS: EZH2 was over expressed in renal cell carcinoma compared to adjacent benign renal parenchyma (median 57.02, range 0 to 368.11 vs 0, range 0 to 280.87, p <0.001).
  • EZH2 expression was not associated with histopathological tumor features and patient characteristics.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data support a role of EZH2 expression for renal cell carcinoma tumorigenesis rather than tumor progression.
  • Contrary to previous EZH2 findings in cases of various human malignancies, high tumor EZH2 levels appear to indicate less aggressive tumor phenotypes with a favorable prognosis in renal cell carcinoma cases.
  • Our findings suggest that EZH2 provides not only a potential therapeutic target, but also a molecular parameter for outcome prediction in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19846140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.1.1.43 / EZH2 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.43 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 2
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17. Horstmann M, Merseburger AS, von der Heyde E, Serth J, Wegener G, Mengel M, Feil G, Hennenlotter J, Nagele U, Anastasiadis A, Bokemeyer C, Stenzl A, Kuczyk M: Correlation of bFGF expression in renal cell cancer with clinical and histopathological features by tissue microarray analysis and measurement of serum levels. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2005 Nov;131(11):715-22
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  • [Title] Correlation of bFGF expression in renal cell cancer with clinical and histopathological features by tissue microarray analysis and measurement of serum levels.
  • The prognostic value of bFGF for surgically treated renal cell cancer (RCC) patients was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the tissue microarray technique (TMA).
  • Additionally, preoperative serum bFGF levels were correlated to tumour stage and the presence of metastases at initial diagnosis.
  • Serum levels of bFGF were measured by ELISA in 39 healthy volunteers, in 37 patients with benign urologic diseases and in 74 RCC patients, 26 of whom revealed lymph node or distant metastases. bFGF expression as detected by IHC was investigated in 777 tissue cores from 259 different RCC patients [median follow-up: 138 (36-240) months].
  • Eighty eight patients died from tumour progression.
  • For each patient, the TMA slides contained a tissue core from the primary tumour, its invasion front and the normal renal parenchyma. bFGF serum levels were higher in RCC patients vs healthy volunteers (P<0.01) and vs patients with benign urologic diseases (P<0.01).
  • Not the expression of bFGF in the primary tumour but in its invasion front reflects the aggressiveness of RCC, hereby indicating a different biological potential within both areas.
  • The value of bFGF serum levels as indicators of systemic tumour dissemination remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Protein Array Analysis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16080018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
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18. Jaff A, Molinié V, Mellot F, Guth A, Lebret T, Scherrer A: Evaluation of imaging-guided fine-needle percutaneous biopsy of renal masses. Eur Radiol; 2005 Aug;15(8):1721-6
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  • [Title] Evaluation of imaging-guided fine-needle percutaneous biopsy of renal masses.
  • To evaluate the utility of imaging-guided fine-needle percutaneous biopsy of renal masses, we conducted a prospective analysis of our imaging-guided procedures from January 1999 to February 2003.
  • The mean tumor size was 33 mm.
  • Biopsy findings were positive for malignancy in 31 cases; histologic diagnoses included renal cell carcinoma (n=23), transitional cell carcinoma (n=5), and metastasis (n=3).
  • Biopsy revealed 15 benign diagnoses: oncocytoma (n=6), hemorrhagic renal cyst (n=3), chronic nephritis (n=3), angiomyolipoma (n=2), and mycotic renal abscess (n=1).
  • The average follow-up period for patients with benign diagnoses was 16 months.
  • Biopsy results showed normal renal parenchyma in eight of 54 procedures, all of which had recuperated by subsequent biopsies.
  • Imaging-guided percutaneous core biopsy is a safe and accurate method for the evaluation of renal masses.

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  • (PMID = 15627185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Yen TH, Chen Y, Fu JF, Weng CH, Tian YC, Hung CC, Lin JL, Yang CW: Proliferation of myofibroblasts in the stroma of renal oncocytoma. Cell Prolif; 2010 Jun;43(3):287-96
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  • [Title] Proliferation of myofibroblasts in the stroma of renal oncocytoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: Myofibroblasts are a vital component of stroma of many malignant neoplasms, but it is not yet established whether stromal myofibroblasts also exist in benign tumours such as oncocytoma of the kidney.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis of 16 renal oncocytomas diagnosed at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, has been performed.
  • RESULTS: Renal oncocytomas were composed of oncocytes, large cells with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, arranged mostly in sheets, in tubulocystic or combined pattern.
  • MIB-1 and active caspase 3 indices were low, but higher in tumour than in surrounding non-tumour parenchyma (MIB-1: 0.93 +/- 0.09 versus 0.46 +/- 0.07, P < 0.001 and active caspase 3: 0.76 +/- 0.08 versus 0.41 +/- 0.09, P < 0.001).
  • Wnt/beta-catenin signalling was not implicated in this neoplasm, as there was no loss of E-cadherin membranous localization or expression of intranuclear beta-catenin in the cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Renal oncocytomas were composed of two independent compartments: benign oncocytes and pronounced fibrotic stroma, which consisted of proliferating myofibroblasts (SMA- and MIB-1-positive) which were associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (periodic acid Schiff-component, collagen I-, collagen III- and fibronectin-positive, and desmin- and human caldesmon-negative).
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Extracellular Matrix / metabolism. Extracellular Matrix / pathology. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Myoblasts / metabolism. Myoblasts / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20412129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2184
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell proliferation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Prolif.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins
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20. Sydor A, Sulowicz W, Stompór T, Plezia B, Wrona A, Okon K: Two consecutive cases of renal oncocytomatosis in a single-center experience. Clin Nephrol; 2009 Apr;71(4):433-40
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  • [Title] Two consecutive cases of renal oncocytomatosis in a single-center experience.
  • Renal oncocytoma is a rare finding and represents the small percentage of all kidney tumors.
  • This kind of tumor is benign and diagnosed accidentally (on autopsy or during nephrectomy performed for other reasons).
  • On rare occasions, truly multiple tumors are seen, affecting the entire renal parenchyma; this condition is called oncocytosis or oncocytomatosis.

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  • (PMID = 19356377.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0430
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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21. Boybeyi O, Karnak I, Orhan D, Ciftci AO, Tanyel FC, Kale G, Senocak ME: Cystic nephroma and localized renal cystic disease in children: diagnostic clues and management. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Nov;43(11):1985-9
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  • [Title] Cystic nephroma and localized renal cystic disease in children: diagnostic clues and management.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cystic nephroma (CN) and localized renal cystic disease (LRCD) are rare benign renal entities that can occur in children.
  • The age, sex, family history of renal cystic disease, presenting symptoms, physical examination findings, diagnostic radiologic imaging used, operative findings, details of the surgical procedure, histopathologic features, and outcomes were evaluated.
  • The presenting symptoms were palpable mass in patients with CN and urinary tract infection in the patient with LRCD without impairment of renal function.
  • Nephrectomy should be reserved for CN, which totally replaces the parenchyma.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Diseases, Cystic / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18970929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Roy C, Gengler L, Sauer B, Lang H: [Role of contrast enhanced US in the evaluation of renal tumors]. J Radiol; 2008 Nov;89(11 Pt 1):1735-44
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  • [Title] [Role of contrast enhanced US in the evaluation of renal tumors].
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of contrast enhanced US in the characterization of renal tumors.
  • Eighty-six renal tumors (33 solid, 53 cystic) underwent contrast enhanced US after indeterminate CT/MRI (67 lesions) or US (19 lesions).
  • Lesions included: 19 renal cell carcinomas (4 conventional, 14 papillary, 1 tubulocystic), 5 oncocytomas, 3 metastases, 6 pseudomasses, and 53 cystic lesions including 6 malignant tumors.
  • The specificity for distinguishing solid benign from solid malignant tumor was 100% based on the presence of hypoechogenicity relative to normal renal parenchyma on delayed imaging.
  • CONCLUSION: Contrast enhanced US is easily performed in clinical practice and allows improved characterization of some renal tumors compared to other cross sectional imaging techniques.

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  • (PMID = 19106830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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23. Gottardo F, Liu CG, Ferracin M, Calin GA, Fassan M, Bassi P, Sevignani C, Byrne D, Negrini M, Pagano F, Gomella LG, Croce CM, Baffa R: Micro-RNA profiling in kidney and bladder cancers. Urol Oncol; 2007 Sep-Oct;25(5):387-92
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  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 27 kidney specimens (20 carcinomas, 4 benign renal tumors, and 3 normal parenchyma) and 27 bladder specimens (25 urothelial carcinomas and 2 normal mucosa) were included in the study.
  • RESULTS: A set of 4 human micro-RNAs (miR-28, miR-185, miR-27, and let-7f-2) were found significantly up-regulated in renal cell carcinoma (P < 0.05) compared to normal kidney.
  • Of the kidney cancers studied, there was no differential micro-RNA expression across various stages, whereas with increasing tumor-nodes-metastasis staging in bladder cancer, miR-26b showed a moderate decreasing trend (P = 0.082).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling / instrumentation. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. MicroRNAs / isolation & purification. Microarray Analysis / instrumentation. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17826655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MicroRNAs
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24. Al-Ahmadie HA, Yilmaz A, Olgac S, Reuter VE: Glomus tumor of the kidney: a report of 3 cases involving renal parenchyma and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):585-91
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  • [Title] Glomus tumor of the kidney: a report of 3 cases involving renal parenchyma and review of the literature.
  • Glomus tumor is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm affecting the subcutaneous tissue of the distal extremities in the majority of cases.
  • We report 3 cases of the glomus tumor family in the kidney, a solid glomus tumor, a glomangioma, and a glomangiomyoma.
  • All 3 tumors involved the renal parenchyma and occurred in 3 men aged 36, 81, and 48 years, respectively.
  • All 3 tumors were immunoreactive for actin and negative for desmin and S100 and only 1 tumor expressed CD34 in tumor cells.
  • To date, all 3 tumors have followed a benign course without evidence of recurrence or metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17414106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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25. Zhang B, Zhang J, Huang HZ, Chen WL, Tao Q, Zeng DL, Zhang LT, Xu JH: Inhibition of ameloblastoma invasion in vitro and in vivo by inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 activity. J Oral Pathol Med; 2009 Oct;38(9):731-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor characterized by local invasiveness and most of its local recurrences clinically result from local invasion.
  • In vitro, the invasive activity of tumor cells was assayed in transwell cell culture chamber.
  • In vivo, bilateral subrenal capsule xenograft transplantation of ameloblastoma was performed in 10 nude mice and the invasion of ameloblastoma into the renal parenchyma was observed.
  • Accordingly, potential of in vitro cell invasion, adhesion and in vivo tumor invasion were also significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / physiology. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Transplantation. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19473446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0714
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 127497-59-0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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26. Bensalah K, Tuncel A, Peshwani D, Zeltser I, Liu H, Cadeddu J: Optical reflectance spectroscopy to differentiate renal tumor from normal parenchyma. J Urol; 2008 May;179(5):2010-3
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  • [Title] Optical reflectance spectroscopy to differentiate renal tumor from normal parenchyma.
  • PURPOSE: Optical spectroscopy has been evaluated as an innovative technique for the ex vivo study of renal and prostate tumors.
  • In this pilot study we assessed the ability of optical reflectance spectroscopy to reliably differentiate tumor and normal tissue in renal specimens.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January to April 2007 we completed optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements at several standardized tumor and normal parenchymal locations immediately after kidney tumor removal.
  • The slopes of the optical reflectance spectroscopy curves were compared, and the correlation between tumor and normal parenchyma reflectance was assessed.
  • Histology was malignant in 15 cases (clear cell in 14 and papillary in 1) and benign in 6 cases of oncocytoma.
  • Overall we found a significant difference between the average optical reflectance spectroscopy slopes of tumor and normal parenchyma (p = 0.03).
  • In individual radical nephrectomy specimens optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements at different locations in the tumor showed an excellent correlation (r = 0.968).
  • Normal parenchymal measurements also correlated well (r = 0.88), although there was poor correlation between tumor and nontumor tissue in the specimen (r = 0.07).
  • In the partial nephrectomy subset we also found a close correlation among measurements made on the normal parenchymal margin of the tumor (r = 0.94) except in 1 case of a positive margin (oncocytoma), in which the measurement from the positive margin site did not correlate with that of the adjacent parenchymal margin (r = 0.48).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Optical reflectance spectroscopy can help distinguish tumor from normal renal tissue in specimens immediately removed at surgery.

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  • (PMID = 18355850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Ramírez Fernández JC, Mohamed ZM, Casado Varela J, Salinas Casado J, Wert Ortega R, García-Cabezas MA: Renal capsule leiomyoma: case report. Arch Esp Urol; 2010 Nov;63(9):808-11
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  • [Title] Renal capsule leiomyoma: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: We present a case of leiomyoma of the renal capsule in a 49 year-old woman that was detected incidentally during an abdominal study for gastroesophageal reflux.
  • We discuss the clinical, radiological and pathological diagnosis of renal leiomyoma as well as its treatment alternatives.
  • The mass was in continuity with the renal capsule and compressed slightly the renal parenchyma without damaging it.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Renal leiomyomas are unfrequent benign tumors that should be suspected in young and middle aged women showing asymptomatic, well delimited and hypoechoic renal tumors with soft tissue density in CT scans.
  • When vascular structures are not involved by the tumor, a conservative surgical intervention could be the first therapeutic option.
  • Microscopically, renal leiomyomas are low-grade fusocellular tumors showing a smooth muscle immunohistochemical profile.

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  • (PMID = 21098906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-8260
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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28. Quicios Dorado C, Allona Almagro A: [Renal angiomyolipoma causing inferior vena cava thrombus and secondary Budd-Chiari's syndrome]. Arch Esp Urol; 2008 Apr;61(3):435-9
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  • [Title] [Renal angiomyolipoma causing inferior vena cava thrombus and secondary Budd-Chiari's syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Angiomiolipoma renal causante de trombo en cava y síndrome de Budd-Chiari secundario.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report one case of renal angiomyolipoma with three characteristics: renal sinus origin, inferior vena cava tumor thrombus reaching the right atrium and Budd-Chiari syndrome.
  • RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Renal angiomyolipoma is a benign mesenchymal tumor.
  • It is an uncommon tumor (2-6.4% of all kidney tumors), with a female predominance.
  • Angiomyolipoma most often originate from the renal parenchyma but they can rarely originate from the renal sinus.
  • They can involve the renal vein, the inferior vena cava and even the right atrium as a tumor thrombus.
  • Angiomyolipoma commonly present as an incidental finding on radiographic studies, but the clinical presentation varies from flank pain to fatal pulmonary tumor embolism.
  • Because of the risk of potentially fatal cardiopulmonary embolism and death, surgical treatment (radical nephrectomy plus tumor thrombectomy) of these lesions is indicated even when they are asymptomatic.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Heart Atria / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 18581683.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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