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1. Wei T, Geiser AG, Qian HR, Su C, Helvering LM, Kulkarini NH, Shou J, N'Cho M, Bryant HU, Onyia JE: DNA microarray data integration by ortholog gene analysis reveals potential molecular mechanisms of estrogen-dependent growth of human uterine fibroids. BMC Womens Health; 2007;7:5
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  • BACKGROUND: Uterine fibroids or leiomyoma are a common benign smooth muscle tumor.
  • The tumor growth is well known to be estrogen-dependent.
  • RESULTS: By integrated analysis of three recently published DNA microarray studies with human tissue, thirty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed in the same direction in fibroid compared to adjacent uterine myometrium by at least two research groups.
  • Functional and pathway analyses of the twelve genes suggested multiple molecular mechanisms for estrogen-dependent cell survival and tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Databases, Genetic. Female. Humans. Myometrium / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Rats. Signal Transduction. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Uterus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17407572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6874
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC women's health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Womens Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1852551
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2. Cil AP, Atasoy P, Kara SA: Myometrial involvement of tumor-like cystic endosalpingiosis: a rare entity. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2008 Jul;32(1):106-10
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  • [Title] Myometrial involvement of tumor-like cystic endosalpingiosis: a rare entity.
  • Endosalpingiosis is characterized by the presence of benign glands lined by tubal-type epithelium involving the pelvic and lower abdominal peritoneum and pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes in women.
  • Rarely, cystification can occur, resulting in a neoplasm-like mass associated with clinical manifestations, an intraoperative abnormality, or a striking finding on gross examination.
  • Clinicians should be aware of this type of uterine benign manifestation so as to refrain from overtreatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysts / diagnosis. Myometrium. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Ovarian Cysts / diagnosis. Ovarian Cysts / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18570219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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3. Strissel PL, Swiatek J, Oppelt P, Renner SP, Beckmann MW, Strick R: Transcriptional analysis of steroid hormone receptors in smooth muscle uterine leiomyoma tumors of postmenopausal patients. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2007 Oct;107(1-2):42-7
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  • Smooth muscle tumors are histologically separated into benign leiomyomas and malignant leiomyosarcomas.
  • Uterine leiomyomas represent benign clonal tumors often arising within the smooth muscle tissue of the human uterus.
  • Uterine leiomyomas develop after the start of the menstrual cycle, become symptomatic during middle age, and in most postmenopausal patients tumor regression occurs.
  • Premenopausal leiomyomas are known to express higher levels of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) and progesterone receptor (PGR) than control myometrium, whereas postmenopausal leiomyomas have not been so well characterized molecularly.
  • In this present investigation, ERbeta, ERalpha and PGR gene expression were assessed in leiomyomas and in matched adjacent myometrium from a cohort of 14 postmenopausal patients using semi-quantitative Realtime PCR and RT-PCR.
  • The mean average results showed that ERbeta was 2.5-fold statistically significantly over expressed in postmenopausal leiomyomas compared to patient matched myometrium (p=0.038), whereas ERalpha and PGR were not significantly differently expressed.
  • Quantitation of steroid hormone receptors from benign uterine tumors may be important for a more tailored therapy.
  • In addition, a role for steroid hormones, specifically ERbeta, is discussed in terms of benign tumor regression or tumor maintenance in postmenopausal leiomyomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. Myometrium / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17646097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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4. Guo J, Yang EC, Desouza L, Diehl G, Rodrigues MJ, Romaschin AD, Colgan TJ, Siu KW: A strategy for high-resolution protein identification in surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: calgranulin A and chaperonin 10 as protein markers for endometrial carcinoma. Proteomics; 2005 May;5(7):1953-66
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  • Immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray of 32 samples showed that approximately half of malignant endometrial tissues exhibited positive staining for calgranulin A in the malignant epithelium, while 9 out of 10 benign tissues exhibited negative epithelial staining.
  • No immunostaining occurred in stroma or myometrium.
  • Calgranulin A, in combination with chaperonin 10 and other proteins, may eventually constitute a panel of markers to permit diagnosis and screening of endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Calgranulin A / metabolism. Chaperonin 10 / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15816004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9853
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calgranulin A; 0 / Chaperonin 10
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5. Hossain D, Meiers I, Qian J, MacLennan GT, Bostwick DG: Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia: follow-up study of 18 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Nov;132(11):1729-33
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  • RESULTS: Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia consists of 1 or more ill-defined, uncircumscribed, hyperplastic stromal nodules, with variable numbers of atypical, bizarre giant cells, with vacuolated nuclei, smudged chromatin, and frequent multinucleation infiltrating around benign acini.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia is a rare, benign lesion, composed of degenerative myocytes with atypia that is histologically and clinically reminiscent of benign counterparts in the myometrium, breast, vulva, vagina, and elsewhere.
  • Recognition of this distinctive entity should allow separation from phyllodes tumor and sarcoma of the prostate.
  • The phrase stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential is inappropriate for this benign tumor, and its use is discouraged.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Muscle Cells / metabolism. Muscle Cells / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18976007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Vimentin
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6. Chen X, Zhang X, Zhang S, Lü B: Angioleiomyomas in the bilateral broad ligaments. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):39-43
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  • The right one extended into the uterine myometrium.
  • Immunostaining demonstrated that the tumor cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin, desmin, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor.
  • This rare benign tumor should be differentiated from other mesenchymal neoplasms with prominent blood vessels.

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  • (PMID = 19952939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Mayer A, Hoeckel M, von Wallbrunn A, Horn LC, Wree A, Vaupel P: HIF-mediated hypoxic response is missing in severely hypoxic uterine leiomyomas. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2010;662:399-405
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  • Results from our laboratory have put a question mark on the existence of a direct quantitative relationship between tumor hypoxia and HIF-mediated protein expression in cancers of the uterine cervix.
  • In the present study, this subject has been further explored by the analysis of HIF-related marker expression in a benign tumor entity - uterine leiomyomas - using immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-PCR.
  • Compared with normal myometrium, leiomyomas also show a poorer vascularization.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Hypoxia. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20204822.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1
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8. Horn LC, Dallacker M, Bilek K: [Carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Mullerian tumors) of the uterus. Morphology, pathogenetic aspects and prognostic factors]. Pathologe; 2009 Jul;30(4):292-301
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  • The strongest prognostic factor is tumor stage followed by lymph node metastases, deep myometrial infiltration, involvement of the cervix and tumor size.
  • The main differential diagnoses include uterine sarcomas, adenosarcoma and benign metaplastic change within the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Myometrium / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19495763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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9. Crabtree JS, Jelinsky SA, Harris HA, Choe SE, Cotreau MM, Kimberland ML, Wilson E, Saraf KA, Liu W, McCampbell AS, Dave B, Broaddus RR, Brown EL, Kao W, Skotnicki JS, Abou-Gharbia M, Winneker RC, Walker CL: Comparison of human and rat uterine leiomyomata: identification of a dysregulated mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Cancer Res; 2009 Aug 1;69(15):6171-8
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  • Uterine leiomyomata, or fibroids, are benign tumors of the uterine myometrium that significantly affect up to 30% of reproductive-age women.
  • As a basis for understanding leiomyoma pathogenesis and identifying targets for pharmacotherapy, we conducted transcriptional profiling of leiomyoma and unaffected myometrium from humans and Eker rats, the best characterized preclinical model of leiomyomata.
  • A global comparison of mRNA from leiomyoma versus myometrium in human and rat identified a highly significant overlap of dysregulated gene expression in leiomyomata.
  • Inhibition of mTOR in female Eker rats with the rapamycin analogue WAY-129327 for 2 weeks decreased mTOR signaling and cell proliferation in tumors, and treatment for 4 months significantly decreased tumor incidence, multiplicity, and size.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Myometrium / metabolism. Myometrium / physiology. Protein Array Analysis. Rats. Signal Transduction / drug effects. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases


10. Zhang XL, Zheng RQ, Yang YB, Huang DM, Song Q, Mao YJ, Li YH, Zheng ZJ: The use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in uterine leiomyomas. Chin Med J (Engl); 2010 Nov;123(21):3095-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Ultrasound (US) is a popular method in the diagnosis and treatment of uterine leiomyomas, but the lack of accuracy greatly limits its application.
  • Recently, microbubble enhancement technique affords direct depiction of tumor neovascularity and establishes a more precise vascular map of the tumor.
  • RESULTS: After contrast injection, vessels of macro- and micro-circulation of the myoma first appeared, followed by the normal myometrium and finally the endometrium.
  • The margin of the tumor was depicted clearly.
  • There was no agent perfusion in the benign degenerative or necrotic area.
  • However in sarcomas degeneration, the feeding vessels appeared markedly earlier than those in myometrium.
  • In addition, the tumor exhibited heterogeneous hyperenhancment with no agent perfusion in the center and no membraniform sign was observed in the late phase.

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  • (PMID = 21162962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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11. Scheurig C, Islam T, Zimmermann E, Hamm B, Kroencke TJ: Uterine artery embolization in patients with symptomatic diffuse leiomyomatosis of the uterus. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2008 Feb;19(2 Pt 1):279-84
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed impressive recovery of the myometrium, and the infarcted leiomyomas shrank and were partially expelled.
  • Failure of therapy occurred in one patient with atypical growth of fibroid tumor tissue shortly after embolization, which was suspicious for malignancy.
  • Hysterectomy was performed and pathologic evaluation revealed benign leiomyomatosis.

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  • (PMID = 18341962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-0443
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Leaha C, Opris I, Macé P, Resch B, Sabourin JC: [Cystic adenomatoid tumor of the uterus]. Ann Pathol; 2009 Apr;29(2):134-7
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  • [Title] [Cystic adenomatoid tumor of the uterus].
  • Adenomatoid tumors are benign neoplasms of mesothelial origin, which involve the feminine and masculine genital tracts.
  • Our study presents an adenomatoid tumour, of cystic shape, which enables discussion of the histogenesis of this tumour and enlightenment of differential diagnoses which can at times result in an incorrect malignant diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Calbindin 2. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Myometrium / pathology. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19364588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G
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13. Tamai K, Togashi K, Ito T, Morisawa N, Fujiwara T, Koyama T: MR imaging findings of adenomyosis: correlation with histopathologic features and diagnostic pitfalls. Radiographics; 2005 Jan-Feb;25(1):21-40
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  • Adenomyosis is a nonneoplastic condition, characterized by benign invasion of ectopic endometrium into the myometrium with hyperplasia of adjacent smooth muscle.
  • The common symptoms include dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, and abnormal uterine bleeding, but these do not allow diagnosis.
  • Therefore, imaging plays an important role because establishment of the correct preoperative diagnosis is critical to avoid unnecessary intervention.
  • Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a highly accurate noninvasive modality for diagnosis of adenomyosis, differentiation of adenomyosis from other gynecologic disorders, and planning of appropriate treatment.
  • Furthermore, malignancy occasionally develops in otherwise benign adenomyosis.
  • Pitfalls in diagnosis of adenomyosis include myometrial contractions, leiomyoma, adenomatoid tumor, metastases, endometrial carcinoma, and endometrial stromal sarcoma.
  • Knowledge of the various appearances of adenomyosis and the possible pitfalls in differential diagnosis help guide the determination of appropriate treatment options.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometriosis / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15653584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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14. Abiko K, Baba T, Ogawa M, Mikami Y, Koyama T, Mandai M, Konishi I: Minimal deviation mucinous adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') of the uterine corpus. Pathol Int; 2010 Jan;60(1):42-7
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  • Imaging demonstrated thickened myometrium due to adenomyosis.
  • In some areas endometrial glands of adenomyosis were replaced by benign-looking mucinous metaplasia.
  • HIK1083 and MUC6 immunohistochemistry indicated a gastric phenotype of the tumor, as seen in cases of prototypical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of the cervix.
  • This case provokes a discussion on diagnostic and management strategy, and histogenesis of mucinous neoplasm of the endometrium.


15. Mangioni S, Viganò P, Lattuada D, Abbiati A, Vignali M, Di Blasio AM: Overexpression of the Wnt5b gene in leiomyoma cells: implications for a role of the Wnt signaling pathway in the uterine benign tumor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Sep;90(9):5349-55
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  • [Title] Overexpression of the Wnt5b gene in leiomyoma cells: implications for a role of the Wnt signaling pathway in the uterine benign tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cells, Cultured. Computer Systems. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Myometrium / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Transcription, Genetic. Wnt Proteins

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  • (PMID = 15972578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SFRP1 protein, human; 0 / WNT5B protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins
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16. Zaitseva M, Vollenhoven BJ, Rogers PA: Retinoic acid pathway genes show significantly altered expression in uterine fibroids when compared with normal myometrium. Mol Hum Reprod; 2007 Aug;13(8):577-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retinoic acid pathway genes show significantly altered expression in uterine fibroids when compared with normal myometrium.
  • Fibroids are benign neoplasms of myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMC).
  • Despite being the most common tumor in humans, their etiology is poorly understood.
  • Recent microarray studies have demonstrated that multiple members of the retinoid pathway are differentially expressed between myometrium and fibroids.
  • The aim of this present study was to investigate gene expression of members of the retinoid pathway in matched myometrium and fibroids.
  • An exception to this was ALDH1 protein, which displayed strong staining localized to cells of the connective tissue, presumably fibroblasts, with a striking differential expression pattern between myometrium and fibroids.
  • These results demonstrate that the retinoid pathway is altered in fibroids when compared with normal myometrium and specifically identify ALDH1 in fibroid fibroblasts.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alcohol Dehydrogenase / analysis. Alcohol Dehydrogenase / genetics. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase / analysis. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase / genetics. Female. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase / analysis. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase / genetics. Humans. Isoenzymes / analysis. Isoenzymes / genetics. Middle Aged. Myometrium / chemistry. Myometrium / metabolism. Retinal Dehydrogenase. Retinol-Binding Proteins / analysis. Retinol-Binding Proteins / genetics. Retinol-Binding Proteins, Cellular

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  • (PMID = 17553814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-9947
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular human reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / RBP1 protein, human; 0 / RBP2 protein, human; 0 / Retinol-Binding Proteins; 0 / Retinol-Binding Proteins, Cellular; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; EC 1.1.1.1 / Alcohol Dehydrogenase; EC 1.2.1.- / aldehyde dehydrogenase 1; EC 1.2.1.3 / Aldehyde Dehydrogenase; EC 1.2.1.36 / Retinal Dehydrogenase; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
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17. Tamai K, Koyama T, Saga T, Morisawa N, Fujimoto K, Mikami Y, Togashi K: The utility of diffusion-weighted MR imaging for differentiating uterine sarcomas from benign leiomyomas. Eur Radiol; 2008 Apr;18(4):723-30
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  • [Title] The utility of diffusion-weighted MR imaging for differentiating uterine sarcomas from benign leiomyomas.
  • The usefulness of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the diagnosis of uterine sarcomas was investigated, as well as whether DW images and quantitative measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values can facilitate differentiating uterine sarcomas from benign leiomyomas.
  • MR images including DW images were obtained in 43 surgically treated patients with 58 myometrial tumors, including seven uterine sarcomas (five leiomyosarcomas and two endometrial stromal sarcomas) and 51 benign leiomyomas (43 ordinary leiomyomas, two cellular leiomyomas and six degenerated leiomyomas).
  • Qualitative analysis of non-enhanced and postcontrast MR images and DW images and quantitative measurement of ADC values were performed for each myometrial tumor.
  • The mean ADC value (10(-3) mm(2)/s) of sarcomas was 1.17 +/- 0.15, which was lower than those of the normal myometrium (1.62 +/- 0.11) and degenerated leiomyomas (1.70 +/- 0.11) without any overlap; however, they were overlapped with those of ordinary leiomyomas and cellular leiomyomas.
  • In addition to morphological features on nonenhanced and postcontrast MR sequences, DW imaging and ADC measurement may have a potential ability to differentiate uterine sarcomas from benign leiomyomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17929022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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18. Kim DI, Lee TK, Lim IS, Kim H, Lee YC, Kim CH: Regulation of IGF-I production and proliferation of human leiomyomal smooth muscle cells by Scutellaria barbata D. Don in vitro: isolation of flavonoids of apigenin and luteolin as acting compounds. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2005 Jun 15;205(3):213-24
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  • Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign smooth muscle cell tumor of the myometrium.
  • The expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was measured at the mRNA and protein level in myometrium and leiomyomal cells with and without treatment with a water extract of SB for 3 days.
  • IGF-I mRNA expression was significantly higher in leiomyomal cells than in myometrium cells.
  • The IGF-I protein was more abundant in leiomyomal cells than in myometrium.
  • The results indicated that IGF-I expression is probably associated with a proliferation of leiomyomal cells than myometrium.
  • These data also suggest that SB reduces tumor volume with inducing a concomitant increase in the rate of apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / chemistry. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / isolation & purification. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / physiology. Cell Line. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Down-Regulation / genetics. Drugs, Chinese Herbal / chemistry. Drugs, Chinese Herbal / isolation & purification. Drugs, Chinese Herbal / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Myocytes, Smooth Muscle / drug effects. Myometrium / drug effects. Myometrium / metabolism. Myometrium / pathology. Plant Stems / chemistry. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Water

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  • (PMID = 15922007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 7V515PI7F6 / Apigenin; KUX1ZNC9J2 / Luteolin
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19. Lee TK, Lee YJ, Kim DI, Kim HM, Chang YC, Kim CH: Pharmacological activity in growth inhibition and apoptosis of cultured human leiomyomal cells of tropical plant Scutellaria barbata D. Don (Lamiaceae). Environ Toxicol Pharmacol; 2006 Jan;21(1):70-9
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  • Since uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign smooth muscle cell tumor of the myometrium, we aimed to determine the growth inhibition and the induction of apoptotic cell death brought about by the herb SB in two different leiomyomal cells, named LM-1 and LM-2, and to clarify the mechanism of this apoptosis.

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  • (PMID = 21783641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1382-6689
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental toxicology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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20. Tahlan A, Nanda A, Mohan H: Uterine adenomyoma: a clinicopathologic review of 26 cases and a review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Oct;25(4):361-5
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  • Adenomyoma of the uterus is a circumscribed nodular aggregate of benign endometrial glands surrounded by endometrial stroma with leiomyomatous smooth muscle bordering the endometrial stromal component.
  • It may be located within the myometrium, or it may involve or originate in the endometrium and grow as a polyp.
  • The criterion used for case identification was a circumscribed mass composed of benign endometrial glands with a stromal component consisting of endometrial type stroma surrounded by leiomyomatous smooth muscle.
  • Thirteen patients underwent panhysterectomy; 7, total hysterectomy; 1, subtotal hysterectomy; 4, polypectomy or tumor removal; and 1, curettage.
  • The glands were lined by benign proliferative pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
  • This study highlights the importance of correctly identifying this fairly common entity and helps to distinguish adenomyoma from other similar appearing benign and malignant lesions.

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  • (PMID = 16990713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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21. Hong R, Choi DY, Choi SJ, Lim SC: Multicentric infarcted leiomyoadenomatoid tumor: a case report. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2009;2(1):99-103
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  • [Title] Multicentric infarcted leiomyoadenomatoid tumor: a case report.
  • Adenomatoid tumor is a benign, usually small lesion that may be found within the wall of fallopian tubes or beneath the uterine serosa near the uterine cornu.
  • It is often accompanied by smooth muscle hypertrophy that may obscure the adenomatoid tumor.
  • We herein report a very unusual case of infarcted leiomyoadenomatoid tumor of the uterus and ovary in a 24-year-old woman who presented with severe lower abdominal pain and masses in the uterus and right ovary.
  • Pelvic ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a 5 cm mass in the myometrium and a 4 cm mass in the right ovary.
  • Laparoscopy-assisted transvaginal mass removal was performed under the clinical impression of a uterine leiomyoma and benign ovarian teratoma.
  • The microscopic appearance often suggested the possibility of a malignant neoplasm due to irregular pseudoinfiltration with atypical cuboidal cells and the paucity of a typical adenomatoid tumor due to infarction, and the presence of epithelial-appearing cells in the hypertrophic smooth muscle bundles that mimicked an infiltrating carcinoma for a leiomyoma or myometrium.

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  • (PMID = 18830386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Leiomyoadenomatoid tumor / infarction / ovary / uterus
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22. Coskun A, Ozdemir O, Vardar MA, Kiran G, Arikan D, Ersoz C: A case with diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis and review of the literature. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol; 2008;35(3):227-30
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  • Diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis is a benign and extremely rare condition in which the uterus is symmetrically enlarged as a result of the almost complete replacement of the myometrium by innumerable poorly defined, confluent nodules.
  • Hormonal treatment usually fails to control the symptoms, anemia, or tumor growth after treatment is stopped.

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  • (PMID = 18754301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-6663
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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23. Logani S, Herdman AV, Little JV, Moller KA: Vascular "pseudo invasion" in laparoscopic hysterectomy specimens: a diagnostic pitfall. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):560-5
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  • The fallopian tubes are cauterized to prevent transtubal spread of the tumor.
  • After observing extensive displacement of tumor into small and large blood vessels in 1 case of grade 1, stage 1b endometrial carcinoma, we reviewed slides from 37 hysterectomy specimens (7 for endometrial carcinoma or atypical hyperplasia and 30 for benign conditions) performed laparoscopically between August 2004 and March 2006 at Emory University and Crawford Long Hospitals.
  • We reviewed all slides for the presence or absence of endometrial tumor/tissue in vascular spaces.
  • Tumor within blood vessels was noted in 5 of 7 (71%) cases.
  • In 3 cases, including the case of atypical complex hyperplasia, the number of vessels containing tumor were too numerous to count small and large caliber blood vessels.
  • In the remainder, 1 case had 2 small vessels involved and in the other 7 small vessels showed tumor within vascular lumina.
  • Benign endometrial glands and stromal tissue were noted within vascular spaces in 4 of 30 (13%) hysterectomy specimens removed for benign conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Artifacts. Blood Vessels / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Hysterectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Myometrium / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Catheterization. Female. Georgia. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pressure. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jan;34(1):124-5 [19898230.001]
  • (PMID = 18300797.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Lazaarev AF, Avbalian AM, Bobrov IP, Klimachev VV, Mischenko EV: [Co-adaptation of enzymatic systems of cells and blood supply in smooth muscle tumors of the corpus uteri]. Vopr Onkol; 2008;54(5):606-10
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  • We investigated co-adaptation of enzymatic systems of cells using data on activity of NAD(Ph)-dependent enzymes and AgNOR proteins of vascular endothelium vis-a-vis angiogenesis in benign and malignant smooth muscle tumors of the corpus uteri.
  • Hence, metabolic profile varied in unaltered myometrium and tumor with variable cellular density and peculiar extracellular matrix.

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  • (PMID = 19069475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / nucleolar organizer region associated proteins; 53-59-8 / NADP; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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25. Lattuada D, Viganó P, Mangioni S, Sassone J, Di Francesco S, Vignali M, Di Blasio AM: Accumulation of retinoid X receptor-alpha in uterine leiomyomas is associated with a delayed ligand-dependent proteasome-mediated degradation and an alteration of its transcriptional activity. Mol Endocrinol; 2007 Mar;21(3):602-12
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  • An alteration of the retinoid pathway can influence the development of uterine leiomyomas in animal models, and retinoids have shown efficacy in inhibiting the growth of this benign tumor both in vitro and in vivo.
  • Accordingly, treatment with a specific proteasome inhibitor but not with protease inhibitors strongly inhibited the degradation of full-length RXRalpha in cells deriving from both myometrium and leiomyoma, but the formation of RXRalpha/ubiquitin conjugates was differentially regulated between the two cell types.
  • The ligand to RXRalpha, 9-cis-retinoic acid, induced the receptor breakdown in smooth muscle cells deriving from both normal and tumor tissue, whereas a MAPK-specific inhibitor was able to reduce RXRalpha levels only in leiomyoma cells.

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  • (PMID = 17170071.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Retinoid X Receptor alpha; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
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26. Hever A, Roth RB, Hevezi PA, Lee J, Willhite D, White EC, Marin EM, Herrera R, Acosta HM, Acosta AJ, Zlotnik A: Molecular characterization of human adenomyosis. Mol Hum Reprod; 2006 Dec;12(12):737-48
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  • Adenomyosis is a common gynaecological disorder characterized by the abnormal growth of endometrium into the myometrium and myometrial hypertrophy/hyperplasia.
  • Uterine fibroids are benign neoplasms of the myometrium, and they represent a diagnostic pitfall for adenomyosis.
  • In this study, we have used the genome-wide Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarray platform to compare the gene expression patterns of adenomyosis, uterine fibroids, normal endometrium and myometrium.
  • Supervised cluster analysis based on these probe sets clustered adenomyosis most closely with endometrium and uterine fibroids with myometrium, consistent with the anatomic origin of these two diseases.
  • The Tukey means separation post hoc testing found 2073 probe sets altered between adenomyosis and normal endometrium or myometrium, and 2327 probe sets altered in expression when comparing uterine fibroids with myometrium.
  • Finally, we compared the gene expression profiles of adenomyosis and uterine fibroids and identified 471 differentially expressed probe sets that may represent potential biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of these diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Biomarkers. Biomarkers, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Leiomyoma / genetics. Leiomyoma / metabolism. Myometrium / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Principal Component Analysis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17020905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-9947
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular human reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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27. Christacos NC, Quade BJ, Dal Cin P, Morton CC: Uterine leiomyomata with deletions of Ip represent a distinct cytogenetic subgroup associated with unusual histologic features. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2006 Mar;45(3):304-12
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  • Cytogenetic analysis of uterine leiomyomata (UL) shows that about 40% of these benign tumors have simple, clonal chromosomal rearrangements.
  • Several variants of benign uterine smooth-muscle tumors are defined by histologic phenotypes intermediate between typical UL and LMS, and currently, little is known about their cytogenetic and molecular genetic features.
  • From a subset of more than 800 karyotyped ULs, we identified a group of nine cases exhibiting near-diploid karyotypes with loss of almost the entire short (p) arm of chromosome 1 [i.e., del(1)(p11p36)].
  • Of eight UL for which the histologic diagnosis was known, four were diagnosed as cellular UL; one displayed both hypercellularity and nuclear atypia.
  • RNA from two UL with loss of 1p was profiled using Affymetrix GeneChips, and those profiles were compared to our previously reported smooth-muscle tumor expression profile.
  • The transcriptional profiles of tumors with 1p deletion were more similar to those of leiomyosarcoma than to profiles of myometrium and UL, as determined by hierarchical cluster analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Leiomyosarcoma / genetics. Myometrium / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16320247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA78895; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM0077
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Kalyanasundaram K, Ganesan R, Perunovic B, McCluggage WG: Diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas with no stromal response: report of a series, including cases with cervical and ovarian involvement and emphasis on the potential for misdiagnosis. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;18(2):138-43
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  • Endometrial carcinomas, particularly of endometrioid type, can invade the myometrium or cervix without eliciting a stromal desmoplastic or inflammatory response and have been referred to as diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas.
  • Several of the cases were seen in consultation and the pattern of infiltration raised a number of differential diagnoses, both benign and malignant, depending on the site of tumor involvement, including adenomyosis, adenomyoma, primary endocervical glandular lesions, cervical mesonephric remnants, endometriosis or tuboendometrioid metaplasia, and ovarian cortical inclusion cysts.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Myometrium / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Stromal Cells / pathology


29. Raymond MN, Robin P, De Zen F, Vilain G, Tanfin Z: Differential endothelin receptor expression and function in rat myometrial cells and leiomyoma ELT3 cells. Endocrinology; 2009 Oct;150(10):4766-76
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  • Uterine leiomyoma are the most common benign tumors of the myometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation. Leiomyoma / metabolism. Myometrium / metabolism. Receptor, Endothelin A / metabolism. Receptor, Endothelin B / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA / biosynthesis. Endothelin-1 / metabolism. Endothelin-3 / metabolism. Enzyme Activation. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Female. Iodine Radioisotopes / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Long-Evans. Type C Phospholipases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19628575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7170
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Endothelin-3; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin A; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin B; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.1.4.- / Type C Phospholipases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2754684
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30. Czernobilsky B: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an update. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Apr;27(2):229-35
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  • In the former, the sex cord component constitutes a minor portion of an endometrial stromal neoplasm, whereas in the latter, it is the predominant or exclusive component of a uterine wall lesion composed of a variety of mesenchymal elements.
  • An origin from endometrial stromal cells, adenomyosis, stromal myosis, endometriosis, or multipotential cells within the myometrium was postulated in both groups of tumors.
  • In group 1 tumors, the prognosis depends on the type, grade, and stage of the underlying stromal neoplasm.
  • Group 2 tumors seemed to be benign, although because of the occasional recurrence of these tumors, they should be considered of low-grade malignant potential.
  • Eventually, the abbreviation ESTSCLE, or endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, was given to group 1 tumors, whereas UTROSCT, or uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor, was used for group 2 tumors.
  • Positivity for calretinin and at least for 1 of the other above-mentioned markers may thus confirm the diagnosis of UTROSCT.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18317219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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31. Danielson LS, Menendez S, Attolini CS, Guijarro MV, Bisogna M, Wei J, Socci ND, Levine DA, Michor F, Hernando E: A differentiation-based microRNA signature identifies leiomyosarcoma as a mesenchymal stem cell-related malignancy. Am J Pathol; 2010 Aug;177(2):908-17
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  • Uterine smooth muscle-related neoplasia comprise common well-differentiated benign lesions called leiomyomas (ULM), and rare, highly aggressive and pleomorphic tumors named leiomyosarcomas (ULMS).
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play essential roles in normal cellular development and tissue homeostasis that can be used to accurately subclassify different tumor types.
  • Using multiple computational analyses, we determined that ULMS are more similar to hMSCs as opposed to ULM, which are linked with more mature SMCs and myometrium.

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  • (PMID = 20558575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA138234; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025741; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA138234
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2913343
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32. Gannon BR, Manduch M, Childs TJ: Differential Immunoreactivity of p16 in leiomyosarcomas and leiomyoma variants. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jan;27(1):68-73
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  • Several studies have now examined the cDNA expression profiles of healthy myometrium, leiomyomas (LM), and leiomyosarcomas (LMS).
  • To determine whether the immunohistochemical expression of these proteins could aid in the diagnosis of LMS and LM variants, we constructed a tissue microarray consisting of cases of healthy myometrium (n = 10), LM (not otherwise specified and variants; n = 47), and LMS (n = 8), and then measured the immunoreactivity of each of these proteins.
  • The results of this study confirm the overexpression of p16 in LMS and suggest that p16 can serve as a reliable immunohistochemical marker in distinguishing uterine LMS from LM and its benign variants.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Profiling. Leiomyoma / metabolism. Leiomyoma / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Calmodulin-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-18 / biosynthesis. Middle Aged. Somatomedins / biosynthesis. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18156978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calmodulin-Binding Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Keratin-18; 0 / Somatomedins
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