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1. Song JY, Chen KY, Kim SY, Kim MR, Ryu KS, Cha JH, Kang CS, MacLaughlin DT, Kim JH: The expression of Müllerian inhibiting substance/anti-Müllerian hormone type II receptor protein and mRNA in benign, borderline and malignant ovarian neoplasia. Int J Oncol; 2009 Jun;34(6):1583-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The expression of Müllerian inhibiting substance/anti-Müllerian hormone type II receptor protein and mRNA in benign, borderline and malignant ovarian neoplasia.
  • There was no significant difference in expression intensity between MIS/AMHRII protein and mRNA on all ovarian samples whether benign or malignant.
  • MIS/AMHRII protein and mRNA were weakly expressed on 45.45% of benign ovarian tumors.
  • Among malignant ovarian tumors, sex cord stromal tumors showed the highest expression rate and the strongest intensity of MIS/AMHRII protein and mRNA followed by germ cell tumor and epithelial ovarian tumor.
  • MIS/AMHRII and MIS/AMHRII mRNA demonstrate significantly variable expression among different ovarian tumor types.
  • Non-epithelial cell tumors show higher expression than those of epithelial cell tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19424576.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Peptide; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / anti-Mullerian hormone receptor; 80497-65-0 / Anti-Mullerian Hormone
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2. Schultz KA, Sencer SF, Messinger Y, Neglia JP, Steiner ME: Pediatric ovarian tumors: a review of 67 cases. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Feb;44(2):167-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Thirty patients had benign tumors.
  • Thirty-seven patients had malignant tumors: 11 immature teratomas, seven malignant mixed germ cell tumors, seven juvenile granulosa cell tumors, five dysgerminomas, two endodermal sinus tumors, two serous papillary cystadenocarcinomas, one small cell carcinoma, one anaplastic sex-cord tumor, and one undifferentiated sarcoma.
  • Torsion was seen more often in patients with benign tumors (23 vs. 8%); two patients had both torsion and acute appendicitis.
  • The neoplasm was an incidental finding in 12 patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Aberrations. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 15490488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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3. Trousse D, Avaro JP: [Mediastinal tumors: introduction]. Rev Pneumol Clin; 2010 Feb;66(1):3-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mediastinal masses represent a group of heterogeneous histological type cell.
  • A definite diagnosis is essential leading to an adequate prompt therapeutic strategy when either benign disease or aggressive malignant tumor is conceivable.
  • However the specific diagnosis could be complex and requires histological confirmation by an experienced pathologist after examination of large biopsies of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / pathology. Goiter / surgery. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / surgery. Mediastinoscopy. Mediastinum / pathology. Mediastinum / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Thoracotomy. Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymoma / pathology. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Video Recording. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20207291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0761-8417
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de pneumologie clinique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Pneumol Clin
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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4. De Moura J, Kavalec FL, Doghman M, Rosati R, Custodio G, Lalli E, Cavallari GM, Santa Maria J, Figueiredo BC: Heterozygous TP53stop146/R72P fibroblasts from a Li-Fraumeni syndrome patient with impaired response to DNA damage. Int J Oncol; 2010 Apr;36(4):983-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In order to investigate the disruption of the p53 function in a patient presenting this mutation and the TP53Arg72Pro polymorphism who had so far suffered five malignant tumors and a benign meningioma, we tested her fibroblasts in response to DNA damage by evaluating the proliferation rate, apoptosis, and disruption of the TP53 pathway.
  • The proband's heterozygous fibroblasts were not as efficient as control fibroblasts or those of her mother, who carried only the TP53Arg72Pro polymorphism, in causing cell arrest and cell death after DNA damage, which was correlated with diminished TP21 protein levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Codon, Nonsense. DNA Damage. Fibroblasts / metabolism. Germ-Line Mutation. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Apoptosis. Cell Cycle. Cell Proliferation. Cells, Cultured. Codon, Terminator. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Etoposide / pharmacology. Female. Genotype. Heterozygote. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Phenotype. Polymorphism, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 20198344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2423
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Codon, Nonsense; 0 / Codon, Terminator; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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5. Oliveira RM, Verreschi IT, Lipay MV, Eça LP, Guedes AD, Bianco B: Y chromosome in Turner syndrome: review of the literature. Sao Paulo Med J; 2009 Nov;127(6):373-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The other cases present mosaicism, with a 45,X cell line accompanied by one or more other cell lines with a complete or structurally abnormal X or Y chromosome.
  • Even though gonadoblastoma is a benign tumor, it can undergo transformation into invasive dysgerminoma in 60% of the cases, and also into other, malignant forms of germ cell tumors.

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  • (PMID = 20512293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-9460
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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6. Radovanovic I, Dizdarevic K, de Tribolet N, Masic T, Muminagic S: Pineal region tumors--neurosurgical review. Med Arh; 2009;63(3):171-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The treatment for the pineal region tumors depends on tumor histology.
  • For benign pineal tumors (pineocytoma, meningioma, mature teratomas, symptomatic pineal cysts, etc.) radical surgical resection can be curative.
  • Serum and CSF markers contribute to the diagnosis of pineal parenchymal tumors. b-HCG is mainly positive in choriocarcinomas, embryonal carcinomas and mixed germ cell tumors and AFP is expressed by yolk sac tumors, embryonic carcinomas, immature teratomas and mixed germ cell tumors, b-HCG is usually low in germinomas which are often positive for PLAP on immunohistochemistry.

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  • (PMID = 20088167.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicinski arhiv
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Arh
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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7. Litten JB, Tomlinson GE: Liver tumors in children. Oncologist; 2008 Jul;13(7):812-20
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  • The embryonal tumor, hepatoblastoma, accounts for two thirds of malignant liver tumors in children.
  • Other liver malignancies in children include hepatocellular carcinoma, sarcomas, germ cell tumors, and rhabdoid tumors.
  • Benign tumors of the liver in children include vascular tumors, hamartomas, and adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 18644850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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8. Nistal M, García-Cabezas MA, Castello MC, De Miguel MP, Regadera J: Age-related epididymis-like intratesticular structures: benign lesions of Wolffian origin that can be misdiagnosed as testicular tumors. J Androl; 2006 Jan-Feb;27(1):79-85
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  • [Title] Age-related epididymis-like intratesticular structures: benign lesions of Wolffian origin that can be misdiagnosed as testicular tumors.
  • The ELITSs are distinct from atrophic seminiferous tubules with a Sertoli cell-only pattern and from the benign glandular teratomatous component of an involution of a malignant testicular germ cell tumor, the so-called burn-out germ cell tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16400082.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-3635
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Zynger DL, Dimov ND, Luan C, Teh BT, Yang XJ: Glypican 3: a novel marker in testicular germ cell tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Dec;30(12):1570-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Glypican 3: a novel marker in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • Glypican 3 (GPC3), a membrane-bound heparin sulfate proteoglycan, may play a role in promoting embryonic cell growth and differentiation.
  • However, the presence of the GPC3 protein in germ cell tumors has never been investigated.
  • The purpose of the study was to investigate the GPC3 expression in various histologic components of testicular germ cell tumors using immunohistochemistry and to assess its possible utility as a diagnostic marker.
  • All yolk sac tumor (24/24) and choriocarcinoma (7/7) components were immunoreactive for GPC3, whereas only 38% of teratomas with immature elements and 8% of embryonal carcinomas expressed GPC3.
  • There was no immunoreactivity in benign testicular tissue, intratubular germ cell neoplasia, seminomas (0/42), or teratomas with mature elements (0/20).
  • We conclude that the oncofetal protein GPC3 is a novel immunohistochemical marker in testicular germ cell tumors with differential expression in defined histologic subtypes.
  • Our findings suggest a possible role of GPC3 in tumor cell differentiation.
  • Furthermore, GPC immunostaining may be useful in the pathologic diagnosis of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, particularly yolk sac tumor, and choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Glypicans / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17122513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GPC3 protein, human; 0 / Glypicans
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10. Gabeau-Lacet D, Grant E, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Yock T, Tarbell NJ: Sellar abnormalities in female first-degree relatives. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2008 Feb;110(2):202-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Each of these cases was diagnosed and managed differently, illustrating the relative importance of radiographic imaging, tumor markers and histopathologic examination in the diagnosis and treatment of intracranial disease.
  • One daughter was treated presumptively for germinoma based on characteristic radiographic studies and slightly elevated tumor marker.
  • The other daughter's lesion exhibited radiographic characteristics concerning for pituitary macroadenoma but with slightly elevated germ cell tumor marker, raising the suspicion for germinoma.
  • Biopsy of the intrasellar mass revealed only proteinaceous material and normal anterior pituitary, consistent with cyst content without evidence of neoplasm.
  • At least two of the patients had benign cysts.

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  • (PMID = 18035480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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11. Nakajima J: [Surgical therapy for elderly patients with mediastinal neoplasms except for thymic epithelial tumors]. Kyobu Geka; 2005 Jul;58(8 Suppl):745-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Two of them had malignant neoplasms (a germ cell tumor and a malignant fibrous histiocytoma).
  • A 76-year-old patient with a malignant germ cell tumor had undergone reexploration because of persistent air leakage from the bronchopleural fistula.
  • Surgical procedures were practically performed to determine the pathological diagnosis or to treat the patients with pathologically benign neoplasms because of diverse biological behaviors of these mediastinal tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Humans. Male. Postoperative Care. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thoracoscopy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16097630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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12. Swamy GG, Satyanarayana N: Clinicopathological analysis of ovarian tumors--a study on five years samples. Nepal Med Coll J; 2010 Dec;12(4):221-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Among 120 cases, majority 86 (71.6%) were benign, but alarming number 30 (25.0%) were malignant, remaining 4 cases were borderline.
  • The commonest benign tumor was serous cyst adenoma, while; the commonest malignant tumors were granulosa cell tumor and endometrial carcinoma.
  • Epithelial tumors were commonest variety of ovarian tumors followed by germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Epithelium / surgery. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21744762.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nepal Med Coll J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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13. Khonsari RH: [Jaw tumors of embryonic origin]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 2009 Sep;110(4):214-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The term jaw tumor of embryonic origin includes vestiges of organogenetic processes, hamartomas, teratomas, and blastemal tumors.
  • Oral cavity teratomas are almost always mature and thus benign and encapsulated.
  • It can be immediate postbirth tumor removal when neonatal respiratory distress can be managed by the anesthesiologist, or an EXIT (ex utero intrapartum) procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Jaw Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19647282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1776-257X
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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14. Liddle AD, Anderson DR, Mishra PK: Intrapericardial teratoma presenting in fetal life: intrauterine diagnosis and neonatal management. Congenit Heart Dis; 2008 Nov-Dec;3(6):449-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Intrapericardial teratoma is a rare and often fatal germ-cell tumor of neonates.
  • It is usually histologically benign but may cause death in utero by hydrops fetalis or by pericardial tamponade in the early days of life.

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  • (PMID = 19037988.001).
  • [ISSN] 1747-0803
  • [Journal-full-title] Congenital heart disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Congenit Heart Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Ben Temime R, Chachial A, Attial L, Ghodbanel I, Makhloufl T, Koubaal A, Kourda N, Ben Jilani S, Dammak T, El May A, Rahal K: 46 XY pure gonadal dysgenesis with gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma. Tunis Med; 2008 Jul;86(7):710-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The tumor that usually develops in Swyer syndrome is gonadoblastoma.
  • Although gonadoblastoma is considered benign, the risk of malignant germ cell tumor development is high.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is to stress on the risk of occurrence of malignant germ cell tumors on these dysgenesic gonads.


16. Agrawal M, Uppin MS, Patibandla MR, Bhattacharjee S, Panigrahi MK, Saradhi V, Rani JY, Purohit AK, Challa S: Teratomas in central nervous system: a clinico-morphological study with review of literature. Neurol India; 2010 Nov-Dec;58(6):841-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Histopathology is diagnostic; most of the lesions are benign.
  • Of these, 11 were mature cystic teratomas; and 1 case each, of teratoma with malignant transformation, terato-carcinoma and mixed germ cell tumor (immature teratoma with germinoma).
  • Radiologically, contrast enhancement with predominantly solid component was suggestive of malignancy or an aggressive tumor.
  • Excision was curative or provided symptomatic relief in most cases; terato-carcinoma and mixed germ cell tumor patients needed adjuvant radiotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 21150046.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
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17. Dong Z, Yang Z, Li Y, Min P, Zhang X: [Extra-organic primary tumor in pelvis: correlation of multi-detector row computed tomography, anatomy and pathology]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;26(1):75-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Extra-organic primary tumor in pelvis: correlation of multi-detector row computed tomography, anatomy and pathology].
  • The majority of entities in these 2 pouches were germ cell tumors (3/5 cases, 60.0%).
  • The majority entities of these 10 cases were germ cell tumors (7/10 cases, 70.0%).
  • The fatty element occurred in 7 masses, including 4 cases of teratoma, 1 case of malignant teratoma, 1 case of mixed germ cell tumor, and 1 case of liposarcoma.
  • MDCT with multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) could more clearly reveal the anatomic location of the extra-organic primary tumor in pelvis, could unveil the tumor's relationship with its surrounding organs, and could help to differentiate benign tumors from malignant tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19334559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-5515
  • [Journal-full-title] Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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18. Albert A, Tarrado X, Montaner A, Cáceres F, Parareda A, Cruz O, Mora J, Morales L: [The role of surgery for lung nodules in pediatric oncology]. Cir Pediatr; 2006 Oct;19(4):228-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The primary pathological diagnoses include: Osteosarcoma n = 17, Ewing's sarcoma n = 14, Rhabdomyosarcoma n = 5, Germ cell tumor n = 4, other sarcomas n = 4, Wilms' tumor n = 3, Neuroblastoma n = 3, Lymphoma n = 2.
  • Among the nine, five showed either normal lung tissue or scarring after tumor necrosis, and four had other benign diagnoses including: reactive inflammatory cells, pleural lymphangioma, mycobacteria infection and inflammatory pseudotumor.

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  • (PMID = 17352112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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19. Vranic S, Caughron SK, Djuricic S, Bilalovic N, Zaman S, Suljevic I, Lydiatt WM, Emanuel J, Gatalica Z: Hamartomas, teratomas and teratocarcinosarcomas of the head and neck: Report of 3 new cases with clinico-pathologic correlation, cytogenetic analysis, and review of the literature. BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord; 2008;8:8
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  • BACKGROUND: Germ-cell tumors (GCT) are a histologically and biologically diverse group of neoplasms which primarily occur in the gonads but also develop at different extragonadal sites in the midline of the body.
  • METHODS: We describe here two new cases of multilineage tumors including sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma [SNTCS], and congenital oronasopharyngeal teratoma (epignathus) and compare their features with those of a new case of a rare salivary gland anlage tumor [SGAT], an entity for which the pathogenesis is unclear (i.e. hamartoma versus neoplasm).
  • Both cytogenetic abnormalities are characteristically present in malignant germ cell tumors providing for the first time evidence that this rare tumor type indeed might represent a variant of a germ cell neoplasm.
  • The SGAT and epignathus carried no such cytogenetic abnormalities, in keeping with their limited and benign biologic potential.
  • Malignant tumors of germ cell origins are more likely to affect adults with insidious symptom development, while benign tumors can nevertheless cause dramatic clinical symptoms which, under certain circumstances, can be fatal.

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  • (PMID = 19025657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6815
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC ear, nose, and throat disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2611960
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20. Brems H, Park C, Maertens O, Pemov A, Messiaen L, Upadhyaya M, Claes K, Beert E, Peeters K, Mautner V, Sloan JL, Yao L, Lee CC, Sciot R, De Smet L, Legius E, Stewart DR: Glomus tumors in neurofibromatosis type 1: genetic, functional, and clinical evidence of a novel association. Cancer Res; 2009 Sep 15;69(18):7393-401
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  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common disorder that arises secondary to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene NF1.
  • Glomus tumors are small, benign but painful tumors that originate from the glomus body, a thermoregulatory shunt concentrated in the fingers and toes.
  • In 12 NF1-associated glomus tumors, we used cell culture and laser capture microdissection to isolate DNA.
  • Genetic analysis showed germ line and somatic NF1 mutations in seven tumors.
  • Glomus tumors of the fingers or toes should be considered as part of the tumor spectrum of NF1.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor / genetics. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / biosynthesis. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Female. Fibroblasts / metabolism. Fibroblasts / physiology. Gene Dosage. Gene Silencing. Genes, Neurofibromatosis 1. Humans. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Skin / cytology. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult. ras Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19738042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HG200329-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ACTA2 protein, human; 0 / Actins; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS135382; NLM/ PMC2747722
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21. Grichnik JM: Melanoma, nevogenesis, and stem cell biology. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Oct;128(10):2365-80
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  • [Title] Melanoma, nevogenesis, and stem cell biology.
  • It is now well established that a subpopulation of tumor stem cells (TSCs) are present within cancer tissues.
  • This suggests that tumors evolve from stem cells; however, the exact cell of tumor origin, the potential role of dedifferentiation, and the role of plasticity in tumor development are largely unknown.
  • The developmental biology of melanocytes is relatively well understood, the cells pigment as they differentiate making them easy to identify, and benign and malignant tumors develop on the skin surface allowing direct observation of growth features, early detection, and removal.
  • These TSCs have access to embryologic developmental programs, including the capacity to differentiate along multiple cell lineages.
  • For example, melanomas can activate germ-cell pathways with major implications for TSC self-renewal through the activation of telomerase and genomic instability through the collision of meiotic and mitotic pathways (meiomitosis).
  • The TSC model is still evolving, but the existence of TSCs has significant ramifications for tumor development, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of melanoma and other cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation. Cell Lineage. Cell Proliferation. Genomic Instability. Humans. Meiosis. Melanocytes / pathology


22. Fakhr IM, Khalil el-SA, El-Baradie TS, Shaalan MA, Shalaby LM, Nassif SL, Farahat IG: The role of surgical management in pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs), NCI case series. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2008 Mar;20(1):70-9
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  • [Title] The role of surgical management in pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs), NCI case series.
  • PURPOSE: To review the experience of a tertiary referral center in pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) in the last 8 years and to investigate the impact of surgery and site of disease on prognosis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the cases of pediatric germ cell tumors at National Cancer Institute over an 8 years period.
  • One patient with benign GCT was excluded during analysis of the results.
  • Yolk sac tumor and malignant teratoma were the commonest histologic subtypes in our series.
  • CONCLUSION: The initial surgical approach to malignant GCTs at all sites should be complete resection when possible; the morbidity of extensive surgical resection should be weighed carefully against the good tumor control with chemotherapy.
  • The site of primary disease plays a role in the prognosis of pediatric germ cell tumors with the extragonadal pelvic tumors being the worst regarding resectability.
  • Good tumor response can be achieved with surgery and chemotherapy even for advanced stage and metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19847284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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23. Kozlov AP: The possible evolutionary role of tumors in the origin of new cell types. Med Hypotheses; 2010 Jan;74(1):177-85
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  • [Title] The possible evolutionary role of tumors in the origin of new cell types.
  • The ability of tumor cells to differentiate in combination with their ability to express genes that are not expressed in normal tissues, may result in the emergence of new cell types in evolution.
  • Genetically or epigenetically predetermined tumors at the early stages of progression, benign tumors, and some tumor-like processes in invertebrates and plants, all of which are modes of excess cell growth which provide evolving multicellular organisms with extra cell masses, are considered as potentially evolutionarily meaningful.
  • The preexisting cell types of multicellular organisms had restricted potential for the expression of newly evolving genes.
  • Multicellular organisms would need excess cell masses for the expression of newly evolving genes.
  • The preexisting cell types cannot provide such excess cell masses because of limitations imposed on the number of possible cell divisions.
  • Tumors could provide the evolving multicellular organisms with the excess cell masses for the expression of newly evolving genes.
  • We suggest that tumors could be a sort of proving ground (or reservoir) for the expression of newly evolving genes that originate in the course of genome evolution in the DNA of germ cells (i.e., not in tumor cells themselves).
  • Tumor cells would differentiate, resulting in a new cell type for the given multicellular species.
  • This cell type would be inherited because of epigenomic mechanisms similar to those in preexisting cell types.
  • Populations of tumor-bearing organisms with genetically or epigenetically programmed tumors could represent the transition between established species of organisms at different stages of progressive evolution.
  • Experimental confirmation of the prediction of the hypothesis of evolution by tumor cells differentiation concerning the expression of evolutionarily new genes and/or silent (neutrally evolving) sequences in tumor cells is presented.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biological Evolution. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Mice. Models, Biological. Models, Genetic. Rhizobium / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19665850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2777
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Scolozzi P, Marret N, Bouzourene H, Luthi F, Bauer J, Jaques B, Lombardi T: Mixed testicular germ cell tumor presenting as metastatic pure choriocarcinoma involving the maxillary gingiva. J Oral Pathol Med; 2006 Oct;35(9):579-81
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  • [Title] Mixed testicular germ cell tumor presenting as metastatic pure choriocarcinoma involving the maxillary gingiva.
  • Because of their unremarkable clinical appearance, they can be difficult to distinguish from more common gingival hyperplastic or reactive lesions, such as pyogenic granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, and peripheral ossifying granuloma.
  • We are reporting here an unusual case of a 36-year-old man with a mixed testicular germ cell tumor presenting as a metastatic pure choriocarcinoma involving the maxillary gingiva, extending from the first left premolar to the left second maxillary molar, mimicking a 'benign looking' gingival mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Gingival Neoplasms / secondary. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16968241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0904-2512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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25. Miller JS, Lee TK, Epstein JI, Ulbright TM: The utility of microscopic findings and immunohistochemistry in the classification of necrotic testicular tumors: a study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Sep;33(9):1293-8
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  • The submitting pathologists favored benign processes in 4 cases, Leydig cell tumor in 1, and lymphoma in 1.
  • Mean tumor size was 19 mm (range 7-53).
  • The combination of histologic features, immunostains and, in 1 case, serum AFP permitted classification of 8 tumors (4 seminomas, 3 embryonal carcinomas, 1 yolk sac tumor).
  • OCT4 stained 1 unclassifiable tumor, which lacked other specific markers.
  • We did not find placental alkaline phosphatase, AFP, and S100 stains useful, although S100 did highlight tumor "ghost" cells in 1 case.
  • Other features in most cases included intratubular germ cell neoplasia (6/11), tubular atrophy/hyalinization (10/11), tumor "ghost" cells (10/11), scar (9/11), and inflammation (10/11).
  • Of the 5 patients with available follow-up, 3 were free of disease at 1, 5, and 8 years after orchiectomy (2 necrotic seminomas and 1 germ cell tumor, unclassified).
  • One patient with yolk sac tumor (age 63 y) developed widespread metastases after 15 months and died of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / classification. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / classification. Seminoma / classification. Testicular Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, CD30 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Keratins / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / analysis. Orchiectomy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Young Adult. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19461507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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26. Bal J, Gabryś MS, Jałocha I: [The role of selected molecular pathways in the pathogenesis of ovarian teratomas]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online); 2009 May 20;63:242-9
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  • From the research point of view--ovarian teratomas, especially mature ones, are an interesting group of germ-cell tumors of the ovary.
  • The WHO classification, which is not simple but includes all tumors that arise from germ cells, emphasizes the complexity of this group.
  • Mature ovarian teratomas are benign germ-cell tumors, but in rare cases, especially when they contain solid elements, peritoneal implants may be present which can stimulate malignant processes.
  • Dermoid cysts, a subtype of ovarian teratomas, arise from totipotential germ cells and may therefore contain elements of all three germ layers, although ectodermal structures usually predominate.
  • Radical surgical treatment is not necessity for this type of tumor because conservative surgery usually brings full recovery.However, they make perfect material for gaining interesting information regarding oocyte maturation and such critical cellular functions as proliferation, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis.There are still no unequivocal conclusions related to the role of mutation in genes which influence the mechanisms involved in control of the cell cycle and which may play important roles in the development of ovarian teratomas.
  • In this review the roles of the Patched/Hedgehog and PI3K/Akt pathways and cyclin D protein in the neoplastic transformations of the germ cells are described.

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  • (PMID = 19502685.001).
  • [ISSN] 1732-2693
  • [Journal-full-title] Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej (Online)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online)
  • [Language] POL
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCNC protein, human; 0 / Cyclin C; 0 / Cyclins; EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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27. Denayer E, Devriendt K, de Ravel T, Van Buggenhout G, Smeets E, Francois I, Sznajer Y, Craen M, Leventopoulos G, Mutesa L, Vandecasseye W, Massa G, Kayserili H, Sciot R, Fryns JP, Legius E: Tumor spectrum in children with Noonan syndrome and SOS1 or RAF1 mutations. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2010 Mar;49(3):242-52
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  • [Title] Tumor spectrum in children with Noonan syndrome and SOS1 or RAF1 mutations.
  • One was classified as a rare benign variant and the other remains unclassified.
  • Three patients with SOS1 mutations presented with tumors (embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, Sertoli cell testis tumor, and granular cell tumors of the skin).
  • One patient with a RAF1 mutation had a lesion suggestive for a giant cell tumor.
  • This is the first report describing different tumor types in NS patients with germ line SOS1 mutations.


28. Schmidt D, Kommoss F: [Teratoma of the ovary. Clinical and pathological differences between mature and immature teratomas]. Pathologe; 2007 May;28(3):203-8
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  • Teratomas are the most frequent germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • Mature teratomas are benign tumors, which are most often composed of derivatives of two or three germ cell layers.
  • Only in rare cases is the transition into a malignant tumor observed (most often squamous cell carcinoma).
  • Histologically, this tumor component can be identified as neurotubules or rosettes.
  • In childhood cases, foci of yolk sac tumor (YST) must be looked for, since this determines the prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 17396268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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29. Kumamoto H, Ooya K: Immunohistochemical detection of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase and angiopoietins in ameloblastic tumors. J Oral Pathol Med; 2006 Nov;35(10):606-12
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase and angiopoietins in ameloblastic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the roles of angiogenic factors in the development and progression of odontogenic tumors, expression of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase (PD-ECGF/TP) and of angiopoietins in ameloblastic tumors as well as in tooth germs.
  • Granular cell ameloblastomas showed PD-ECGF/TP reactivity in granular neoplastic cells as well as in stromal cells.
  • Immunoreactivity for angiopoietin-1 and -2 was detected predominantly in odontogenic epithelial cells near the basement membrane in tooth germs and in benign and malignant ameloblastic tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Expression of PD-ECGF/TP and angiopoietin-1 and -2 in tooth germs and ameloblastic tumors suggests that these angiogenic factors participate in tooth development and odontogenic tumor progression by regulating angiogenesis.
  • Altered expression of PD-ECGF/TP and angiopoietins in ameloblastic tumors may be involved in oncogenesis, malignant potential, and tumor cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Stromal Cells / chemistry. Stromal Cells / enzymology. Tooth Germ / chemistry. Tooth Germ / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 17032393.001).
  • [ISSN] 0904-2512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ANGPT1 protein, human; 0 / Angiopoietin-1; 0 / Angiopoietin-2; EC 2.4.2.4 / Thymidine Phosphorylase
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30. Sotomayor P, Godoy A, Smith GJ, Huss WJ: Oct4A is expressed by a subpopulation of prostate neuroendocrine cells. Prostate; 2009 Mar 1;69(4):401-10
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  • The stem cell properties of self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells and germ cells are regulated by Oct4A, a splice variant of the POU5F1 (Oct3/4) gene, while the function of the alternative splice variant, Oct4B, is unknown.
  • RESULTS: Rare Oct4A expressing cells are present in human benign and malignant prostate glands and the number of Oct4A expressing cells increases in prostate cancers with high Gleason scores.
  • Oct4A expressing cells were non-proliferative, and did not co-express markers of basal epithelial cell or luminal epithelial cell differentiation, or AMACR, a marker of prostate cancer epithelial cells.
  • A subpopulation of the Oct4A expressing cells co-expressed Sox2, an embryonic stem cell marker, but did not express other putative stem cell markers, such as ABCG2, NANOG or CD133.
  • CONCLUSION: The increased number of cells that expressed Oct4A in prostate cancer compared to benign prostate, and in cancers of increasing grade, suggests that Oct4A/Chromogranin A co-expressing cells represent neuroendocrine cells in prostate cancer.

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  • [Copyright] 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 19058139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA077739-050005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA077739-040005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA077739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA077739-050005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA077739-040005
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / Synaptophysin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS197155; NLM/ PMC2865184
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31. Jha R, Karki S: Histological pattern of ovarian tumors and their age distribution. Nepal Med Coll J; 2008 Jun;10(2):81-5
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  • A female's risk at birth of having ovarian tumor sometime in her life is 6-7%.
  • Relative frequency of ovarian tumor is different for western and Asian countries.
  • One hundred and thirty five of these tumors (83.9%) were benign and 16.1% (26/161) were malignant.
  • Surface epithelial tumors were most common (52.2%) followed by germ cell tumors (42.2%).
  • Mature cystic teratoma was commonest benign tumor (48.2%).
  • Serous adenocarcinoma was commonest malignant tumor (46.2%).
  • For all age groups, benign tumors were more common than malignant ones.
  • In 1st two decades, germ cell tumors were more common than other tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18828427.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nepal Med Coll J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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32. Saito M, Yuasa T, Nanjo H, Tsuchiya N, Satoh S, Habuchi T: A case of testicular angiomyolipoma. Int J Urol; 2008 Feb;15(2):185-7
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  • The majority of testicular tumors are germ cell tumors, which are the most prevalent solid malignancies in young adult males.
  • Non-germ cell tumors of the testis are rare.
  • A 22-year-old male underwent left orchiectomy under a diagnosis of testicular tumor.
  • The tumor demonstrated neither cytological atypia nor widespread mitotic activity.
  • In addition, the tumor cells showed intense expression of CD34 and smooth muscle actin, whereas HMB-45 was entirely negative.
  • Although the true cellular origin and its clinical implications remain unknown, pathological and immunohistochemical studies strongly indicated benign testicular AML with a non-germ cell origin.

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  • (PMID = 18269463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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33. Tomas D, Lenicek T, Tuckar N, Puljiz Z, Ledinsky M, Kruslin B: Primary ovarian leiomyoma associated with endometriotic cyst presenting with symptoms of acute appendicitis: a case report. Diagn Pathol; 2009;4:25
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  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian leiomyoma is a rare benign tumor that accounts for 0.5 to 1% of all benign ovarian tumors.
  • It probably arises from smooth muscle cells in the ovarian hilar blood vessels but there are other possible origins including cells in the ovarian ligament, smooth muscle cells or multipotential cells in the ovarian stroma, undifferentiated germ cells, or cortical smooth muscle metaplasia.
  • Additionally, smooth muscle metaplasia of endometriotic stroma, smooth muscle present in mature cystic teratomas, and smooth muscle in the walls of mucinous cystic tumor may explain their occurrence in the ovary in some cases.
  • Upon laparotomy, there was a solid, oval left-sided ovarian tumor located behind the uterus.
  • The tumor was sent to the pathology department.
  • In our case, the tumor probably arose from smooth muscle cells derived from myofibroblasts that originate from metaplastic ovarian stromal cells present in the rim of the endometriotic cyst.
  • Despite its rarity, ovarian leiomyoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian spindle cell tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19642987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2724421
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34. Tucci G, Muzi MG, Nigro C, Cadeddu F, Amabile D, Servadei F, Farinon AM: Dermoid cyst of the pancreas: presentation and management. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:85
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  • BACKGROUND: Dermoid cyst of the pancreas is a benign, well-differentiated, extremely rare germ cell neoplasm.
  • Computerized Tomography (CT) showed a 5 cm cystic tumor arising from pancreatic tail and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) suggested a tumor extension to the middle side of the stomach without defined margins.
  • CONCLUSION: Given the benign nature of the dermoid cyst, surgical resection most likely represents the definitive treatment and cure.

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  • (PMID = 17683548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 31
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1952065
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20070828
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35. Hermsen MA, Sevilla MA, Llorente JL, Weiss MM, Grimbergen A, Allonca E, Garcia-Inclán C, Balbín M, Suárez C: Relevance of germline mutation screening in both familial and sporadic head and neck paraganglioma for early diagnosis and clinical management. Cell Oncol; 2010 Jan 1;32(4):275-83
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  • BACKGROUND: Head and neck paraganglioma (PGL) are benign tumors that can cause important direct or surgery induced morbidity.
  • Results were correlated to clinical characteristics including gender, age, tumor localization and multifocality.
  • The surgical approach was evaluated in terms of tumor origin, sequelae and subsequent evolution.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Early Detection of Cancer / methods. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Predictive Value of Tests. Sex Factors. Spain

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  • (PMID = 20208144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-8606
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular oncology : the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4619289
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36. McCarthy JD, Erickson KM, Smith YR, Quint EH: Premenarchal ovarian torsion and elevated CA-125. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2010 Feb;23(1):e47-50
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  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumors are the most common gynecologic malignancy occurring in childhood, with germ cell tumors being most frequent.
  • Tumor markers are an integral part of the work-up and may guide management.
  • Other tumor markers were normal.
  • This benign finding allowed attempting a conservative ovary-sparing approach during the surgery even in the presence of a highly elevated CA-125.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 19589703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD059353-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / L50 HD059353-01
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS130831; NLM/ PMC2818042
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37. Merchant A, Stewart RW: Sacrococcygeal yolk sac tumor presenting as subcutaneous fluid collection initially treated as abscess. South Med J; 2010 Oct;103(10):1068-70
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  • [Title] Sacrococcygeal yolk sac tumor presenting as subcutaneous fluid collection initially treated as abscess.
  • Malignant extragonadal germ cell tumors, though more common in infants and children, are rare.
  • We report a case of an 11-month-old female with sacrococcygeal extragonadal yolk sac tumor manifesting as a draining subcutaneous nodule after initial treatment as an abscess.
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors can present with external manifestations confusingly similar to other more benign soft tissue conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Abscess / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Sacrococcygeal Region

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  • (PMID = 20818302.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-8243
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Hoekzema R, Zonneveld IM, van der Wal AC: Type 2 segmental glomangiomas. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(1):8
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  • Glomangiomas of the skin, currently named glomuvenous malformations (GVMs), are benign vascular lesions composed of thin-walled distorted blood vessels, surrounded by variable rows of glomus cells.
  • Glomuvenous malformations occur after both alleles of the gene encoding for glomulin, a molecule involved in smooth muscle cell differentiation, are hit by a loss-of-function mutation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Glomus Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Myocytes, Smooth Muscle / pathology. Thigh. Thorax. Wrist

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  • (PMID = 20137750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / GLMN protein, human
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39. Blum B, Benvenisty N: The tumorigenicity of human embryonic stem cells. Adv Cancer Res; 2008;100:133-58
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  • Human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) are the in vitro descendants of the pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) of human blastocyst stage embryos.
  • HESCs can be kept undifferentiated in culture or be differentiated to tissues representing all three germ layers, both in vivo and in vitro.
  • These are benign masses of haphazardly differentiated tissues.
  • We thus conclude with a survey of approaches to evade HESC-induced tumor formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Embryonic Stem Cells / physiology. Teratocarcinoma / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptation, Biological / physiology. Animals. Cell Culture Techniques. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Embryonic Development / genetics. Embryonic Development / physiology. Genetic Diseases, Inborn / pathology. Humans. Models, Biological. Teratoma / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18620095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 128
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40. Riethdorf S, Reimers N, Assmann V, Kornfeld JW, Terracciano L, Sauter G, Pantel K: High incidence of EMMPRIN expression in human tumors. Int J Cancer; 2006 Oct 15;119(8):1800-10
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  • Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer expressed by tumor cells stimulates peritumoral fibroblasts to produce matrix metalloproteinases, thus contributing to tumor invasion and metastasis.
  • EMMPRIN expression was detected immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies MEM-M6/1 and HIM6 and tissue microarrays with 2,348 and 608 tissue samples from 129 distinct tumor types and 76 different normal tissues, respectively.
  • EMMPRIN expression was found in 112 of 129 tumor entities analyzed with malignant tumors being EMMPRIN positive more frequently than benign tumors.
  • A remarkable heterogeneity in EMMPRIN expression between tumor entities was observed.
  • Among others, squamous-cell carcinomas (60-100%), pancreatic (87%), chromophobic kidney (83%), hepatocellular (83%) or medullary breast (83%) adenocarcinomas as well as glioblastoma multiforme (79%) presented with a particular high incidence of EMMPRIN expression.
  • There were a limited number of EMMPRIN-positive normal cell types including proliferatively active and differentiating epithelial cells, germ cells, myocardial cells in the left heart ventricle or vascular endothelial cells of the brain.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carbohydrate Metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Protein Isoforms / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16721788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 136894-56-9 / Antigens, CD147
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41. De Backer A, Madern GC, Oosterhuis JW, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, Hazebroek FW: Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Apr;46(4):459-64
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  • [Title] Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian germ cell tumors are rare in childhood.
  • The aim of this study is to review clinical presentation, management, and outcome in a two-center series of girls with ovarian germ cell tumor.
  • PROCEDURE: The records of 66 patients (median age 9 years) with histologically proven ovarian germ cell tumor (either benign or malignant), treated over a 44-year-span, were reviewed.
  • Sixteen patients had an emergency operation for tumor torsion.
  • Surgical removal of the tumor with or without the ovary and/or adnex was the sole treatment in 55 patients, chemotherapy was administered in 10 and radiotherapy + chemotherapy in one.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With a recurrence rate of 4.5% and a mortality rate of 3%, this series confirms the excellent prognosis for girls with ovarian germ cell tumor (GCT).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16206211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Khalid M, Malik N, Salauddin MA, Rashid M: Concomitant bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts. Saudi Med J; 2008 Jun;29(6):907-9
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  • Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a rare benign germ cell tumor, comprising 1-2% of all resected benign testicular masses.
  • The fact that they are completely benign makes them amenable to treatment by local excision, thereby saving patient from orchidectomy.

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  • (PMID = 18521477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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43. Salemi M, Calogero AE, Vicari E, Migliore E, Zaccarello G, Cosentino A, Amore M, Tricoli D, Castiglione R, Bosco P, Rappazzo G: A high percentage of skin melanoma cells expresses SPANX proteins. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Apr;31(2):182-6
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  • The expression of SPANX (sperm protein associated with the nucleus in the X chromosome) gene family has been reported in many tumors, such as melanoma, myeloma, glioblastoma, breast carcinoma, ovarian cancer, testicular germ cell tumors, and hematological malignancies.
  • The expression of SPANX proteins was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in normal skin (n = 12), melanomas (n = 21), and benign nevi (n = 10), using a polyclonal antibody raised in our laboratory.
  • Benign nevi had an intermediate number of cells expressing SPANX proteins (25% +/- 8.5%), which resulted significantly higher than normal skin cells and significantly lower than skin melanoma cells.
  • In melanoma cells, the labeling was mostly nuclear, sometimes incomplete or limited to the perinuclear wall, even if cytoplasmic staining was also seen in SPANX-positive tumor cells.

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  • (PMID = 19318807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Epitopes; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SPANXA1 protein, human
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44. Spurlock G, Knight SJ, Thomas N, Kiehl TR, Guha A, Upadhyaya M: Molecular evolution of a neurofibroma to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in an NF1 patient: correlation between histopathological, clinical and molecular findings. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec;136(12):1869-80
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  • [Title] Molecular evolution of a neurofibroma to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in an NF1 patient: correlation between histopathological, clinical and molecular findings.
  • OBJECTIVE: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients have a 13% risk of developing a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST).
  • Many MPNSTs are histopathologically complex, with regions exhibiting features of the original benign plexiform neurofibroma (PNF), of an atypical PNF, or of MPNST showing varying degrees of de-differentiation.
  • This study analyzed the genetic alterations associated with this pathological heterogeneity in order to identify the genetic processes involved in transformation from a benign to an aggressive malignant tumor.
  • METHODS: A histological and molecular analysis of a single MPNST tumor that was subdivided into three histopathologically distinct regions, a benign PNF (region 1), an atypical PNF (region 2), and a high-grade MPNST (region 3), was carried out.
  • Tumor DNA from each region was analyzed in conjunction with the patient's lymphocyte DNA.
  • The NF1-associated LOH analysis found that LOH increased in the three tumor areas, with 9, 42, and 97% LOH evident in regions 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
  • Additional genetic changes, including losses of TP53, RB1, CDKN2A, and of several oncogenes and cell-cycle genes, were found only in the malignant MPNST (region 3).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Base Sequence. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. DNA Mutational Analysis. Disease Progression. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Molecular Sequence Data


45. Salem F, Rosenblum MK, Jhanwar SC, Kancherla P, Ghossein RA, Carlson DL: Teratocarcinosarcoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: report of 3 cases with assessment for chromosome 12p status. Hum Pathol; 2008 Apr;39(4):605-9
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  • Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS) is a rare malignant neoplasm with 63 reported cases to date.
  • Two SNTCSs from the archives of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and one submitted from St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center were evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization for amplification of chromosome12p, an event usually associated with the genesis of bona fide germ cell neoplasms (including mediastinal and testicular teratomas).
  • Microscopic examination revealed admixed epithelial and mesenchymal elements in all 3 cases; benign squamous and glandular epithelium and neuroepithelial tissue were identified, the squamous epithelium demonstrating "fetal-like" cytoplasmic clearing.
  • A malignant germ cell component was not identified in any of the cases.
  • Our findings suggest that 12p amplification, if it occurs at all in this setting, is exceptional and that SNTCS is a somatic-type neoplasm exhibiting divergent differentiation rather than a germ cell tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18284932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Singalavanija S, Limpongsanurak W: Cutaneous mastocytosis in Thai children. J Med Assoc Thai; 2008 Oct;91 Suppl 3:S143-6
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  • Most of the children were healthy, except the one who had germ cell ovarian tumor Skin biopsies were performed in all cases and revealed mast cells infiltrate in the dermis.
  • Oral mast cell stabilizers were given in 6 patients (12%) and topical corticosteroids in 15 patients (30%).
  • CONCLUSION: Cutaneous mastocytosis is a benign disease in children without systemic involvement.

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  • (PMID = 19253510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Histamine Antagonists; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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47. Dalloul M, Sherer DM, Gorelick C, Serur E, Zinn H, Sanmugarajah J, Zigalo A, Abulafia O: Transient bilateral ovarian enlargement associated with large retroperitoneal lymphoma. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Feb;29(2):236-8
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  • Bilateral ovarian enlargement may reflect benign or malignant processes of the ovary.
  • Benign causes of ovarian enlargement include luteomas, tumors such as mature cystic teratomas, fibrothecomas, cystadenomas and rare conditions including capillary hemangioma and massive edema of the ovaries.
  • Ovarian malignancies include epithelial, stromal and germ-cell tumors.
  • Subsequent computerized tomography (CT) imaging depicted a large retroperitoneal tumor, CT-guided biopsy of which revealed diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
  • The patient responded well to chemotherapy with significant shrinkage of the tumor, and reappearance of normal findings on ovarian sonography.
  • This case demonstrates that bilaterally enlarged ovaries may be the first clinical evidence of a large retroperitoneal tumor and that in such cases CT imaging may be warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17252529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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48. Sturgeon CM, Duffy MJ, Stenman UH, Lilja H, Brünner N, Chan DW, Babaian R, Bast RC Jr, Dowell B, Esteva FJ, Haglund C, Harbeck N, Hayes DF, Holten-Andersen M, Klee GG, Lamerz R, Looijenga LH, Molina R, Nielsen HJ, Rittenhouse H, Semjonow A, Shih IeM, Sibley P, Sölétormos G, Stephan C, Sokoll L, Hoffman BR, Diamandis EP, National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry laboratory medicine practice guidelines for use of tumor markers in testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancers. Clin Chem; 2008 Dec;54(12):e11-79
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  • [Title] National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry laboratory medicine practice guidelines for use of tumor markers in testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: Updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for the use of tumor markers in the clinic have been developed.
  • METHODS: Published reports relevant to use of tumor markers for 5 cancer sites--testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian--were critically reviewed.
  • RESULTS: For testicular cancer, alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase are recommended for diagnosis/case finding, staging, prognosis determination, recurrence detection, and therapy monitoring. alpha-Fetoprotein is also recommended for differential diagnosis of nonseminomatous and seminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • Free PSA measurement data are useful for distinguishing malignant from benign prostatic disease when total PSA is <10 microg/L.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of these recommendations should encourage optimal use of tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Clinical Laboratory Techniques. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis


49. Connolly SS, D'Arcy FT, Bredin HC, Callaghan J, Corcoran MO: Value of frozen section analysis with suspected testicular malignancy. Urology; 2006 Jan;67(1):162-5
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  • The exclusion criteria included lesions of paratesticular origin, size greater than 5 cm, and the known presence of elevated tumor markers or metastatic disease.
  • RESULTS: Eighty men underwent FSA, facilitating the diagnosis of germ cell malignancy in 51 (54.3%) of the 94 new cases encountered during this period.
  • Malignancy was reported by FSA in 52 patients (65.0%), but was later revised in 3 to benign Leydig cell tumor after orchiectomy.
  • Also, 2 of 27 specimens reported as benign by FSA were revised to malignant after analysis of paraffin-embedded tissue from the biopsies.
  • FSA was reported as "suspicious" (intratubular germ cell neoplasia with necrosis) in 1 patient, in whom orchiectomy was performed and malignancy confirmed.
  • Of 13 lesions 1 cm or less, 10 (76.9%) were benign.

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  • (PMID = 16413354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Camparo P, Durand X, Avances C, Culine S, Segui B, Rigaud J, Membres du GELU-Groupe d'Etude des Lésions Urologiques, Membres du CCAFU: [Histological features and principles of treating testicle tumors in the elderly subject]. Prog Urol; 2009 Nov;19 Suppl 3:S142-6
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  • Germ cell tumors, mainly seminomas, represent less than 20% cases.
  • Therapy do not differ from young adults germ cell tumors.
  • Sex cord stromal tumors, mesenchymal benign tumors, sarcomas and metastasis represent approximately 10% of cases each.
  • The one of metastasis depends on primitive tumor (prostatic or pulmonary adenocarcinoma or melanoma mainly).
  • Spermatocytic seminoma is a rare and benign tumor, if no sarcomatous component is observed.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20123499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Investigator] Choudat L; Priollet BC; Comperat E; Sibony M; Vassiliu V; Verkarre V; Allory Y; Ferlicot S; Molinié V; Denoux Y; Sautet A; Lesourd A; Trillet M; Petit T; Aillet G; Vieillefond A; Boccon-Gibod L
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51. Antón L, Pérez-Etchepare E, Soriano D, Gómez M, Barrientos G, Tracchia R: [Testicular tumors: wide spectrum in our short casuistics]. Cir Pediatr; 2010 Oct;23(4):222-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The pathology determines the specific cell.
  • We report seven cases, three germ cell tumors: a Yolk sac tumor in a child of 18 months and two mature teratomas in children between 2 and 11 years presenting as a painless testicular mass without other symptoms.
  • Testis-sparing surgery in Leydig cell tumor and resection of the paratesticular mass was performed through scrotal.
  • The Yolk sac tumor requiring chemotherapy with good outcome.
  • Many are benign and can be treated with preservation of the testis.

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  • (PMID = 21520554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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52. Datiashvili RO, Izadi K, Centurion SA, Lambert WC, Scarpidis U: Malignant melanocytic trichoblastoma. Ann Plast Surg; 2006 Feb;56(2):208-10
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  • Trichoblastoma is an uncommon benign cutaneous neoplasm of the hair germ cell.
  • The pigmented variety of the tumor is rare.
  • We are presenting a case report of a 47-year-old patient with malignant trichoblastoma containing melanin deposits and propose to define this variety of the tumor as a separate entity: malignant melanocytic trichoblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 16432335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-7043
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Melanins
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53. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.
  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • In 2 cases, the tumor was associated with a mature cystic teratoma; one of them also containing an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • A single case was associated with a benign ovarian cyst.
  • NSCNEC represented anywhere from 10% to 90% of the ovarian tumor.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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54. Mitra A, Jameson C, Barbachano Y, Sanchez L, Kote-Jarai Z, Peock S, Sodha N, Bancroft E, Fletcher A, Cooper C, Easton D, IMPACT Steering Committee and IMPACT and EMBRACE Collaborators, Eeles R, Foster CS: Overexpression of RAD51 occurs in aggressive prostatic cancer. Histopathology; 2009 Dec;55(6):696-704
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  • RAD51 protein expression in the cytoplasm and nuclei of the benign tissues was significantly less than in the malignant tissues (P < 0.001).
  • In all cancers, cytoplasmic expression of RAD51 was more prevalent and associated with higher Gleason score (P < 0.05) irrespective of BRCA mutational status, than its expression in benign tissues (P < 0.001).
  • Although nuclear immunoreactivity was not observed in BRCA-associated cancers with Gleason score < or =7, it was significantly increased in all other groups of prostatic cancers when compared with benign tissues (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: RAD51 protein is strongly expressed in high-grade prostatic cancers, whether sporadic or associated with BRCA germ-line mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] BRCA1 Protein / genetics. BRCA2 Protein / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Rad51 Recombinase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Count. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 20002770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 10118; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A3354; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C5047/A8385
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRCA1 Protein; 0 / BRCA2 Protein; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.7.- / RAD51 protein, human; EC 2.7.7.- / Rad51 Recombinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2856636; NLM/ UKMS28917
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55. Leseur J, Trivin F, Dupont-Bière E, Boucher E, Kerbrat P, Raoul JL: [Hemoperitoneum secondary to spontaneous rupture of metastatic liver of a testicular germ cell tumor]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Dec;31(12):1150-2
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  • [Title] [Hemoperitoneum secondary to spontaneous rupture of metastatic liver of a testicular germ cell tumor].
  • We report a case of hemoperitoneum secondary to a spontaneous rupture of liver metastases of a testicular germ cell cancer.
  • In clinical practice, some aetiologies must be considered in case of spontaneous hemoperitoneum, mainly rupture of liver tumors: hepatocellular carcinoma or unfrequently benign tumors; the rupture of a metastase is very uncommon.

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  • (PMID = 18176377.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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56. Venizelos ID, Tatsiou ZA, Roussos D, Karagiannis V: A case of sebaceous carcinoma arising within a benign ovarian cystic teratoma. Onkologie; 2009 Jun;32(6):353-5
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  • [Title] A case of sebaceous carcinoma arising within a benign ovarian cystic teratoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Mature cystic teratoma, also known as dermoid cyst, is the most common germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Malignant change in a component of a mature ovarian teratoma is rare, occurring in less than 2% of cases, with squamous cell carcinoma corresponding to 80% of such neoplasms.
  • Abdominal and pelvic ultrasound as well as computed tomography demonstrated a heterogenic tumor of the right ovary.
  • Histological examination of the tumor showed features of a well-differentiated sebaceous carcinoma arising within a mature cystic teratoma.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19521124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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57. Haab BB, Porter A, Yue T, Li L, Scheiman J, Anderson MA, Barnes D, Schmidt CM, Feng Z, Simeone DM: Glycosylation variants of mucins and CEACAMs as candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms. Ann Surg; 2010 May;251(5):937-45
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  • RESULTS: The detection of a glycan variant on MUC5AC using the lectin wheat-germ agglutinin discriminated mucin-producing cystic tumors (mucinous cystic neoplasms+intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms) from benign cystic lesions (serous cystadenomas+pseudocysts) with a 78% sensitivity at 80% specificity, and when used in combination with cyst fluid CA 19-9 gave a sensitivity of 87% at 86% specificity.

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  • (PMID = 20395854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA112629; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA122890; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117452; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 1CA117452; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA122890; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 R03 CA 112629-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS484419; NLM/ PMC3713623
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58. Treiyer A, Blanc G, Stark E, Haben B, Treiyer E, Steffens J: Prepubertal testicular tumors: frequently overlooked. J Pediatr Urol; 2007 Dec;3(6):480-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Of 15 primary testicular tumors, eight (53%) were germ-cell tumors (three teratomas, two yolk sac tumors, one seminoma, one embryonic carcinoma and one choriocarcinoma), four (27%) tumor-like lesions (epidermoid cysts), two (13%) gonadal stromal tumors (a Leydig and a Sertoli cell tumor), and one (7%) gonadoblastoma with gonadal dysgenesis.
  • All boys were presented with a painless scrotal mass and four (27%) of them with elevated tumor markers.
  • At a mean 4-year follow-up no patient has presented with recurrent tumor in the residual or contralateral testicle.
  • Postoperative physical examination and scrotal ultrasound were obtained in 14 patients at a median follow-up of 48.2 months, and there was no evidence of tumor progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Benign teratoma and epidermoid cysts were the most common prepubertal testicular tumors.
  • Any suspicion of a testicular tumor warrants an inguinal approach to prevent scrotal violation of the tumor.
  • Our limited experience with testis-sparing procedures supports the current trends that organ-confined surgery should be performed for benign lesions such as teratoma, Leydig cell tumor and epidermoid cysts based on frozen biopsy findings.

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  • (PMID = 18947799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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59. Siekmann AF, Brand M: Distinct tissue-specificity of three zebrafish ext1 genes encoding proteoglycan modifying enzymes and their relationship to somitic Sonic hedgehog signaling. Dev Dyn; 2005 Feb;232(2):498-505
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  • Mutations in EXT1 cause hereditary multiple exostoses (HME), benign outgrowths of the bones, and therefore were classed as tumor suppressors.
  • Both ext1a and ext1b are provided maternally and expressed during gastrulation: ext1a in the neurectoderm and ext1b in the embryonic midline and in the involuting mesendoderm of the germ ring.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15614771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8388
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Dyn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / SHH protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Zebrafish Proteins; 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 2.4.1.- / N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.224 / exostosin-1
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60. Ciotti P, Garuti A, Gulli R, Ballestrero A, Bellone E, Mandich P: Germline mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau gene in Italian patients. Eur J Med Genet; 2009 Sep-Oct;52(5):311-4
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  • von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL) is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome predisposing to a variety of malignant and benign tumours, most frequently retinal, cerebellar, and spinal hemangioblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and pancreatic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes. Germ-Line Mutation. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19464396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0849
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Med Genet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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61. Kesler KA, Wilson JL, Cosgrove JA, Brooks JA, Messiha A, Fineberg NS, Einhorn LH, Brown JW: Surgical salvage therapy for malignant intrathoracic metastases from nonseminomatous germ cell cancer of testicular origin: analysis of a single-institution experience. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2005 Aug;130(2):408-15
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  • [Title] Surgical salvage therapy for malignant intrathoracic metastases from nonseminomatous germ cell cancer of testicular origin: analysis of a single-institution experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by surgical extirpation of residual benign disease represents the usual sequence of curative therapy for metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell cancer of testicular origin.
  • Occasionally, residual disease is malignant in the form of either a persistent nonseminomatous germ cell cancer tumor or degeneration into non-germ cell cancer.
  • METHODS: From 1981 through 2001, 438 patients with nonseminomatous germ cell cancer had operations to remove residual intrathoracic disease after cisplatin-based chemotherapy at Indiana University Hospital.
  • Surgical pathology demonstrated 84 patients with persistent nonseminomatous germ cell cancer tumors, 38 with degeneration into non-germ cell cancer, and 12 with both malignant pathologic categories.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Salvage thoracic surgery to remove malignant metastases from nonseminomatous germ cell cancer tumors of testicular origin can result in long-term survival in select patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy. Thoracic Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


62. López Almaraz R, Villafruela Alvarez C, Rodríguez Luis J, Doménech Martínez E: [Neonatal neoplasms: a single-centre experience]. An Pediatr (Barc); 2006 Dec;65(6):529-35
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  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant tumors are uncommon in the neonatal period and benign tumors may have malignant potential.
  • The variables analyzed were the percentage of neonatal neoplasms among the total number of cancer cases in children aged less than 14 years, their incidence among all the newborns in our hospital, sex, year of diagnosis, age at clinical diagnosis, the presence or absence of prenatal diagnosis, type of tumor (histologic diagnosis), association with syndromes or other congenital anomalies, treatment, and long-term outcome.
  • Histologic diagnoses were neuroblastoma (n = 5; 31.2 %), teratoma/ germ cell tumor (n = 4; 25 %), soft tissue sarcoma (one fibrosarcoma of the thigh and two hemangiopericytoma of the back and heart; 18.8 %), and one case each of mesoblastic nephroma, cerebral tumor (ependymoblastoma), melanoma (associated with giant congenital melanocytic nevi), and acute leukemia (associated with Down syndrome).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The neoplasms most frequently diagnosed in the neonatal period were solid tumors, mainly neuroblastoma and teratomas/germ cell tumors; 12.5 % were associated with syndromes or congenital anomalies.

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  • [CommentIn] An Pediatr (Barc). 2007 Jul;67(1):85-6 [17663916.001]
  • (PMID = 17194321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1695-4033
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de pediatría (Barcelona, Spain : 2003)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Pediatr (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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63. Biesheuvel CJ, Vergouwe Y, Steyerberg EW, Grobbee DE, Moons KG: Polytomous logistic regression analysis could be applied more often in diagnostic research. J Clin Epidemiol; 2008 Feb;61(2):125-34
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  • STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We used data from a study on the diagnosis of residual retroperitoneal mass histology in patients presenting with nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumor.
  • The differential diagnoses include benign tissue, mature teratoma, and viable cancer.
  • The ROC areas for benign tissue, mature teratoma, and viable cancer were similar for both modeling methods, 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.80-0.85) vs. 0.83 (95% CI=0.80-0.85), 0.78 (95% CI=0.75-0.81) vs. 0.78 (95% CI=0.75-0.81), and 0.66 (95% CI=0.61-0.71) vs. 0.64 (95% CI=0.59-0.69), for polytomous and dichotomous regression models, respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Humans. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18177785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0895-4356
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Epidemiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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64. Leiserowitz GS: Managing ovarian masses during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv; 2006 Jul;61(7):463-70
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  • The etiologies of ovarian masses are reflective of the patient's age; and, therefore, benign entities such as functional ovarian cysts, benign cystic teratomas, and serous cystadenomas predominate.
  • In the unusual cases when cancer is present, they are typically germ cell and borderline ovarian tumors, and are commonly low stage and low grade.
  • Morphologic criteria more accurately identify benign cysts compared with malignant tumors.
  • Tumor markers are used primarily to monitor disease status after treatment rather than establish the ovarian tumor diagnosis as a result of lack of specificity, because several markers can be elevated inherent to the pregnancy itself (eg, CA-125, beta-hCG).
  • The extent of surgery depends on the intraoperative diagnosis of a benign versus a malignant tumor.
  • Conservative surgery is appropriate for benign masses and borderline ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity


65. Xu Y, Wang J, Peng Y, Zeng J: CT characteristics of primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Sep;75(3):321-8
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  • Retroperitoneal neoplasms are either mesodermal, neurogenic, germ cell ectodermal or lymphatic in origin.
  • Neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, benign teratoma and lymphoma are the common retroperitoneal neoplasms.
  • In children, lipoblastoma is the most common lipomatous tumor in the retroperitoneum.
  • The percentage of visible fat in tumor varies depending on the cellular composition of the lesion.
  • In conclusion, making a final histological diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor base on CT features is not often possible; however, CT can help to develop a differential diagnosis and determine the size and extent of the retroperitoneal neoplasms.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20591598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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66. Tellechea O, Reis JP: Trichogerminoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jul;31(5):480-3
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  • A case of distinctive benign follicular neoplasm previously reported under the designation of trichogerminoma is described.
  • The lesion had the characteristics of hair germ tumors; however, most lobules depicted a distinctive pattern of rounded nests of concentrically arranged clear cells.
  • This neoplasm and the other tumors with hair germ differentiation such as trichoblastoma and panfolliculoma seem to represent the same spectrum of hair follicle neoplasms only distinguishable by their degree of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19542926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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67. Ulbright TM: Germ cell tumors of the gonads: a selective review emphasizing problems in differential diagnosis, newly appreciated, and controversial issues. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18 Suppl 2:S61-79
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumors of the gonads: a selective review emphasizing problems in differential diagnosis, newly appreciated, and controversial issues.
  • Gonadal germ cell tumors continue to be the cause of diverse, diagnostically challenging issues for the pathologist, and their correct resolution often has major important therapeutic and prognostic implications.
  • Within the teratoma group, there is strong evidence that ovarian and prepubertal testicular teratomas are derived from benign germ cells, a pathogenesis that likely applies also to the rare dermoid cysts and uncommon epidermoid cysts of the testis.
  • In contrast, postpubertal testicular teratomas derive from malignant germ cells, specifically representing differentiation within a preexistent nonteratomatous cancer.
  • As expected, given the foregoing, teratomas in boys are clinically benign, whereas in postpubertal males they are malignant, independent of their degree of immaturity.
  • When uncommon somatic-type malignancies (usually squamous cell carcinoma) occur in mature cystic teratomas of the ovary, this is a de novo form of malignant transformation; similar tumors in the testis, a very rare event, represent overgrowth of teratomatous elements that originated from malignant, nonteratomatous germ cell tumors and, therefore, had previously undergone malignant transformation.
  • Germinomas may have several unusual features in each gonad; these include microcystic arrangements that suggest yolk sac tumor, tubular patterns that mimic Sertoli cell tumor, apparent increased cytological atypia that causes concern for embryonal carcinoma, and prominent syncytiotrophoblast giant cells that suggest choriocarcinoma.
  • A newly recognized aspect of this tumor is the propensity for some to be relatively monomorphic, making them apt to be mistaken for usual seminoma or embryonal carcinoma, although the characteristic polymorphic appearance in some foci, absence of intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type, and immunohistochemical stains should prevent this error.
  • Yolk sac tumor continues to be confused occasionally with clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.
  • The usually younger age of patients with yolk sac tumors helps with the differential considerations with the nongerm cell tumors, as do other clinical and microscopic features and selected immunohistochemical stains.
  • Syncytiotrophoblast cells alone, admixed with other forms of germ cell tumor, still are confused with choriocarcinoma, but this phenomenon, which is much more frequent than choriocarcinoma, lacks the plexiform arrangement of different trophoblast cell types that typifies the latter.
  • Mixed germ cell tumors (which may show almost any combination of components) are common in the testis but rare in the ovary.
  • A separately categorized, rare form of mixed germ cell tumor seen in both gonads is the polyembryoma.
  • It is perhaps the most photogenic of all gonadal germ cell tumors and is also intriguing because of its distinctive, organized arrangement of yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma elements and recapitulation of very early embryonic development, even to the extent of having in its fundamental unit, the embryoid body, a miniature yolk sac, and amniotic cavity.
  • Embryoid bodies are also common as a minor component of many mixed germ cell tumors, particularly in the testis, and the diffuse embryoma is another variant that has a particular arrangement of yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma elements.
  • Regression of gonadal germ cell tumors is a phenomenon restricted to the testis, for unknown reasons.
  • These so-called 'burnt-out' germ cell tumors can be recognized by a distinctive constellation of findings, including sometimes minor foci of residual recognizable germ cell neoplasia, a well-defined zone of scarring (often having residual ghost tubules), associated lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, intratubular calcification and, in about 50%, of in situ germ cell neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15761467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Organic Cation Transport Proteins; 0 / solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 3; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 132
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68. Behtash N, Karimi Zarchi M: Placental site trophoblastic tumor. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Jan;134(1):1-6
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare neoplasm that rises from intermediate trophoblasts and commonly presents with low and variable concentration of HCG immunoactivity in serum, which can be difficult to differentiate from early stage choriocarcinoma/gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) or quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • There is a wide clinical spectrum of presentation and behavior ranging from a benign condition to an aggressive disease with fatal outcome.
  • Nontrophoblastic malignancies such as germ cell tumors or other tumors secreting low HCG must also be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17701427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1335
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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69. Hinz S, Magheli A, Weikert S, Schulze W, Krause H, Schrader M, Miller K, Kempkensteffen C: Deregulation of EZH2 expression in human spermatogenic disorders and testicular germ cell tumors. World J Urol; 2010 Oct;28(5):631-5
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  • [Title] Deregulation of EZH2 expression in human spermatogenic disorders and testicular germ cell tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) is an epigenetic transcriptional repressor involved in cell cycle control and cell fate decisions.
  • Since these processes play key roles during intact spermatogenesis, deregulation of EZH2 expression may contribute to the development and progression of benign and malignant testicular diseases.
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the expression profile of EZH2 in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) and spermatogenic defects.
  • EZH2 tumor levels were not related to the histological TGCT subtype or clinical tumor stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Down-Regulation / physiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / metabolism. Spermatogenesis / physiology. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20043168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-8726
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.1.1.43 / EZH2 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.43 / Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Protein; EC 2.1.1.43 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 2
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70. Bandarchi B, Ma L, Marginean C, Hafezi S, Zubovits J, Rasty G: D2-40, a novel immunohistochemical marker in differentiating dermatofibroma from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Mod Pathol; 2010 Mar;23(3):434-8
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  • D2-40 identifies a 40-kDa O-linked sialoglycoprotein present on a variety of tissues including testicular germ cell tumors as well as lymphatic endothelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Dermatofibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20062007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40; EC 2.3.2.13 / Factor XIIIa
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71. Mitra AV, Jameson C, Barbachano Y, Sodha N, Kote-Jarai Z, Javed A, Bancroft E, Fletcher A, Cooper C, Peock S, IMPACT and EMBRACE Collaborators, Easton D, Eeles R, Foster CS: Elevated expression of Ki-67 identifies aggressive prostate cancers but does not distinguish BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Oncol Rep; 2010 Feb;23(2):299-305
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  • This study was performed to test the hypothesis that enhanced expression of Ki-67, as a surrogate of cell proliferation, is a characteristic feature of prostate cancers occurring in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers.
  • Of the combined sample cohort, 65.7% stained only within malignant tissues while 0.7% stained in both malignant and benign tissues (p<0.001).
  • While all prostate cancers occurring in the presence of BRCA germline mutations are clinically aggressive, their potentially different phenotypes consistently involve maximal rates of cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Germ-Line Mutation. Heterozygote Detection / methods. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 20043088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 10118; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0802851; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C5047/A7357
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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72. Ueno S, Hirakawa H, Matsuda H, Tei E, Kaneko A, Ohta Y, Kajiwara H: A case of neonatal mature teratoma transformed to malignancy in the neck extending to the mouth floor. Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2009 Dec;34(4):130-4
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  • Puncture and marsupialisation of the cyst could not relieve her symptom and the tumor was resected in three occasions and was diagnosed as mature teratoma without malignant component.
  • Biopsied specimen demonstrated the mass to be germ cell tumor with embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumor component.
  • Head and neck teratomas in children are mostly benign amenable to curative excision but its rarity and site and size of the tumor make its treatment challenging.
  • There exists a relationship between the age at diagnosis and outcome of a patient with teratoma and head and neck teratomas in neonate are mostly benign but should be removed completely as soon as the patient condition is stabilized to reduce the risk of malignant change.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Mouth Floor / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / secondary. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21319013.001).
  • [ISSN] 2185-2243
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tokai journal of experimental and clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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73. Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Deschildre C, Mauduit C, Berger G, Mejean-Lebreton F, Bouvier R, Droz JP, Fénichel P, Benahmed M: Expression of galectin-3 in gonads and gonadal sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors. Oncol Rep; 2006 Aug;16(2):335-40
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  • [Title] Expression of galectin-3 in gonads and gonadal sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors.
  • The aim of our study was to investigate galectin-3 mRNA and protein expression in normal ovaries and testes as well as in a variety of 51 gonadal sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors, and two testicular seminomatous and non-seminomatous cell lines, using either real-time PCR or immunohistochemistry.
  • In human ovaries, galectin-3 is absent from granulosa cells, as well as from granulosa cell and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, and is not a useful marker in distinguishing granulosa cell from Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
  • In malignant testicular Sertoli cell tumors, the expression of galectin-3 is down-regulated while, in benign Leydig cell tumors, this expression is maintained, indicating the possible implication of this gene in the development of more aggressive testicular sex cord stromal tumors.
  • In contrast to sex cord stromal tumors, galectin-3 expression is up-regulated in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • By real-time PCR, we demonstrated a significant elevation of the galectin-3 mRNA level in non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors and cell line as compared to normal testes and seminomas (p=0.0432 and p=0.0247, respectively), indicating the possible role of this gene in the non-seminomatous differentiation of germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Sertoli Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16820912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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74. Yu DK, Joo YH, Cho KH: Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):6-8
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  • Trichoblastoma is a rare, benign tumor that differentiates toward the hair germ, the embryonic precursor of a hair follicle.
  • An immunohistochemical study showed that the neoplasm, or areas in it, stained positive for low molecular cytokeratin, high molecular cytokeratin, EMA, S-100, and GCDFP-15.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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75. Murakami T, Sano F, Huang Y, Komiya A, Baba M, Osada Y, Nagashima Y, Kondo K, Nakaigawa N, Miura T, Kubota Y, Yao M, Kishida T: Identification and characterization of Birt-Hogg-Dubé associated renal carcinoma. J Pathol; 2007 Apr;211(5):524-31
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  • The Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) gene is responsible for BHD syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disease, characterized by benign hair follicle tumours, spontaneous pneumothorax and renal neoplasms with diverse histology.
  • The germline-mutated patient suffered from solitary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) but did not have any other BHD manifestations or family history.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cluster Analysis. Eosinophilia / genetics. Eosinophilia / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics. Hair Diseases / genetics. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Pneumothorax / genetics. Pneumothorax / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Syndrome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17323425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FLCN protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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76. Tansel T, Onursal E, Dayloğlu E, Başaran M, Sungur Z, Qamci E, Yilmazbayhan D, Eker R, Ertuğrul T: Childhood mediastinal masses in infants and children. Turk J Pediatr; 2006 Jan-Mar;48(1):8-12
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  • There were 24 benign (64.8%) and 13 malignant (35.2%) tumors.
  • The cases were lymphoma (27%), neurogenic tumors (21.6%), cystic lesions (18.9%), germ cell tumors (13.5%), thymic lesions (10.8%) and cardiac tumors (8.1%).
  • Complete and partial resections of the tumor were the surgical procedures performed in 24 patients (64.8%) and 3 patients (8.1%), respectively.
  • The three patients with a malignant tumor, in whom the entire mass could not be removed, received chemotherapy and radiation after surgery.

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  • (PMID = 16562779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4301
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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77. Ambani SN, Jacobs BL, Perepletchikov AM, Hrebinko RL Jr: Case of a concurrent renal mass and extragonadal retroperitoneal teratoma. Can J Urol; 2009 Apr;16(2):4607-10
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  • The presentation of a synchronous renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and germ cell tumor (GCT) is rare.
  • He underwent a successful right partial nephrectomy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, and the subsequent pathology revealed a stage I clear cell RCC and a retroperitoneal teratoma with a component of benign prostatic tissue.

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  • (PMID = 19364438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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78. Ylisaukko-oja SK, Cybulski C, Lehtonen R, Kiuru M, Matyjasik J, Szymañska A, Szymañska-Pasternak J, Dyrskjot L, Butzow R, Orntoft TF, Launonen V, Lubiñski J, Aaltonen LA: Germline fumarate hydratase mutations in patients with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma. Eur J Hum Genet; 2006 Jul;14(7):880-3
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  • Germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene were recently shown to predispose to the dominantly inherited syndrome, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC).
  • HLRCC is characterized by benign leiomyomas of the skin and the uterus, renal cell carcinoma, and uterine leiomyosarcoma.
  • The aim of this study was to identify new families with FH mutations, and to further examine the tumor spectrum associated with FH mutations.
  • These results suggest that benign ovarian tumors may be associated with HLRCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Mucinous / genetics. Fumarate Hydratase / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / genetics. Female. Genes, Dominant. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Leiomyoma / genetics. Male. Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16639410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-4813
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of human genetics : EJHG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 4.2.1.2 / Fumarate Hydratase
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79. Van Cauwelaert Rojas R, Ruiz-Tagle Phillips D, Meneses Ciuffardi M, Carrasco Troncoso AM, Aguirre Aguirre C: [Three cases of unusual non-germ cell tumors of the testicle]. Actas Urol Esp; 2007 Sep;31(8):923-7
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  • [Title] [Three cases of unusual non-germ cell tumors of the testicle].
  • By describing 3 clinical cases of unusual testicular non germinal tumors, including an adenoma of the rete testis, an undifferenciated sex cord tumor and a mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis, we make a literature review of the unusual testicular tumors and testicular apendix, including their incidence and management.
  • Also and as one of our conclusions, we expose the importance of the intraoperatory biopsy in the testicular cancer surgery, because even if it is infrecuent, the presence of this rare testicular tumors, in which if they are proven to be benign, the testicular unit could be preserved and the radical orquiectomy could be avoided.

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  • (PMID = 18020219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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80. Uglialoro AD, Beebe KS, Hameed M, Benevenia J: A rare case of intraosseous benign notochordal cell tumor of the coccyx. Orthopedics; 2009 Jun;32(6):445
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  • [Title] A rare case of intraosseous benign notochordal cell tumor of the coccyx.
  • An excisional biopsy revealed benign notochord cell tumor.
  • Due to the rarity of intraosseous benign notochordal cell tumors, it is essential to document and review this type of tumor.
  • Only 2 benign notochordal cell tumors involving the coccyx have been previously reported, both of which presented with the same clinical symptoms of chronic coccydynia as our patient, likely due to the location of the involved lesion.
  • The other leading diagnosis in our patient was chordoma, a malignant and locally aggressive neoplasm that is important to consider and exclude.
  • Although chordomas have been well characterized in the surgery, pathology, and radiology literature, the benign notochordal cell tumor is a relative newcomer.
  • [MeSH-major] Coccyx / surgery. Low Back Pain / etiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19634813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Kaur H, Bagga R, Saha SC, Gainder S, Srinivasan R, Adhya AK, Dhaliwal LK: Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary presenting with pleural effusion and ascites. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Feb;14(1):78-81
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  • [Title] Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary presenting with pleural effusion and ascites.
  • Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is a rare tumor, and the majority (90%) are reported in the prepubertal or under-30-year age group, in contrast to the adult type, which is more common in the fifth decade.
  • Being solid tumors, they may be associated with ascites and pleural effusion (Meigs' syndrome), which resolve after surgical removal of the tumor.
  • Tumor markers for GCT are still investigational (inhibin) and of not much use in making a preoperative diagnosis, unlike in the case of germ cell tumors.
  • In the present patient, because of the association of Meigs' syndrome, a preoperative diagnosis of benign tumors such as fibroma/thecoma was also considered.
  • We report this rare tumor with an aim of reviewing the diagnosis and management from the reported literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascites / etiology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Meigs Syndrome / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19225930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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82. Cofield KR 3rd, Cantley LK, Geisinger KR, Zagoria RJ, Perrier ND: Adrenocortical carcinoma arising from a long-standing adrenal mass. Mayo Clin Proc; 2005 Feb;80(2):264-6
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  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor with a dismal prognosis.
  • In stark contrast, benign incidental adrenal lesions are detected commonly on routine abdominal imaging.
  • We report a case of a 74-year-old man with a history of germ cell testicular carcinoma who presented with a 4.8-cm left adrenal lesion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15704782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-6196
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Islam S, Yamout SZ, Gosche JR: Management and outcomes of ovarian masses in children and adolescents. Am Surg; 2008 Nov;74(11):1062-5
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  • Demographic and tumor-specific data were reviewed and analyzed, and a Student's unpaired t test was used where appropriate.
  • Eight masses were malignant (16%) with malignant teratoma, dysgerminoma, and germ cell tumors found.
  • Seventy-four per cent of the benign tumors were teratomas.
  • Most ovarian masses in childhood are benign.
  • Consideration for laparoscopic procedures should be given for the benign lesions.

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  • (PMID = 19062661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Shi Y, Liu Z, Peng Z, Liu H, Yang K, Yao X: The diagnosis and treatment of Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol; 2008 Dec;48(6):596-600
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  • RESULTS: Patients typically presented with abnormal uterine bleeding, pain in the lower abdomen, enlargement of the uterus, a mass in the uterine cavity and/or a cervical neoplasm.
  • Microscopically, the glands were lined by benign or atypical glandular epithelium, together with sarcomatous stromal cells which showed characteristic structures of 'periglandular cuff' of increased cellularity and 'intraglandular polypoid projections'.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / diagnosis. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


85. Alotaibi MO, Navarro OM: Imaging of ovarian teratomas in children: a 9-year review. Can Assoc Radiol J; 2010 Feb;61(1):23-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: Germ cell tumours are the most common ovarian neoplasms in childhood and, of these, teratomas, whether mature or immature, are the most frequently found.
  • Mature teratoma is a benign tumour, whereas the immature type, although also benign, has a more aggressive course, with a propensity to recurrence.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / radiography. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / ultrasonography. Female. Humans

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19931379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0846-5371
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Association of Radiologists journal = Journal l'Association canadienne des radiologistes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Assoc Radiol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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86. Hsiao HH, Liu YC, Tsai HJ, Tsai KB, Cheng YJ, Chou SH, Chong IW, Yang WC, Liu TC, Lin SF: Poor outcomes in patients with primary malignant mediastinal germ-cell tumors. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2005 Dec;21(12):561-5
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  • [Title] Poor outcomes in patients with primary malignant mediastinal germ-cell tumors.
  • Primary mediastinal germ-cell tumors (GCTs) without gonadal involvement are rare and can be divided into benign mature teratoma and malignant seminoma or nonseminoma.
  • We describe our experience of malignant mediastinal GCTs and compare the presentations and outcome with those of benign teratomas.
  • Two patients died, one with extended pulmonary metastasis and the other with relapsed disease and high levels of tumor markers.
  • Compared with the nine cases of benign teratomas, the four malignant GCTs showed overwhelming male dominance, advanced symptoms at presentation, and poor outcome.
  • These cases highlight the important role of disease staging and tumor-marker levels in malignant GCTs, and suggest that new treatment strategies for malignant GCTs await further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16670048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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87. Kim TJ, Lee YS, Song YS, Park CK, Shim SI, Kang CS, Lee KY: Infantile hemangioendothelioma with elevated serum alpha fetoprotein: report of 2 cases with immunohistochemical analysis. Hum Pathol; 2010 May;41(5):763-7
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  • Infantile hemangioendothelioma is the most common benign mesenchymal tumor of the liver presenting during the first 6 months of life.
  • Serum alpha fetoprotein is an important tumor marker for hepatoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and germ cell tumors.
  • We report 2 cases of solitary hepatic infantile hemangioendothelioma and demonstrate immunohistochemically that hepatocytes near or entrapped within the tumor were the source of the increased serum levels of alpha fetoprotein explaining the unusual clinical presentation.

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  • [Copyright] Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Hum Pathol. 2011 Sep;42(9):1369-71; author reply 1371-2 [21839297.001]
  • (PMID = 20153513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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88. Harms D, Zahn S, Göbel U, Schneider DT: Pathology and molecular biology of teratomas in childhood and adolescence. Klin Padiatr; 2006 Nov-Dec;218(6):296-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The biologic behaviour of teratomas depends on various interdependent clinical and epidemiologic variables such as the age at diagnosis, sex, tumor site, histology which all correlate to different cytogenetic and molecular biologic aberrations.
  • Thus, testicular teratomas of infancy are generally benign.
  • In contrast, postpubertal testicular teratomas can present as clinically malignant tumors and may show complex cytogenetic aberrations such as the isochromosome 12p, which is pathognomonic of malignant germ cell tumors.
  • Notably, teratomas of both age groups show an at least partial erasure of the genomic imprinting, correlating with their origin from primordial germ cells.
  • The Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry includes 541 teratoma specimens, and among these, the most frequent tumor sites (in descending order) are: the sacrococcygeal region (33.8 %), the ovaries (31.2 %) and the testes (10.5 %).
  • The WHO classification of germ cell tumors distinguishes mature and immature teratomas as well as teratomas with malignant transformation.
  • The frequency of additional microscopic foci of malignant yolk sac tumor correlates with the grade of immaturity.
  • In sacrococcygeal teratomas, the yolk sac tumor microfoci may give rise to a malignant relapse after incomplete resection.
  • Here, molecular genetic analysis has demonstrated the origin of the somatic malignancy from a malignant transformation within the germ cell tumor with retention of the cytogenetic changes characteristic of malignant germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Deletion. Cytogenetic Analysis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / epidemiology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Heterozygote. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Ovary / pathology. Puberty. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17080330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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89. Tangjitgamol S, Hanprasertpong J, Manusirivithaya S, Wootipoom V, Thavaramara T, Buhachat R: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: clinico-pathological presentation and survival outcomes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2010;89(2):182-9
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  • [Title] Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: clinico-pathological presentation and survival outcomes.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinico-pathological features, treatment, survival, and prognostic factors of patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • POPULATION: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumor patients treated between January 1996 and December 2007.
  • Patients with malignant tumors arising from benign cystic teratoma were excluded.
  • Only preoperative tumor marker elevation was a significant poor prognostic factor for PFS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors have a good prognosis with conservative surgical treatment.
  • Elevated preoperative serum tumor markers are a poor prognostic factor for PFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Young Adult. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19961281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0412
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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90. Derouiche A, Ouni A, Kourda N, Hentati H, Ben Slama MR, Chebil M: Cystic nephroma in the adult: pathological aspects and therapeutic implications. Pathologica; 2007 Dec;99(6):446-9
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  • Cystic nephroma is a benign renal neoplasm.
  • The differential diagnoses of Cystic nephroma are recently described mixed epithelial and stromal tumours of the kidney and cystic renal cell carcinoma.
  • The Authors report three cases of Cystic nephroma and illustrate the clinical, radiological and histological features of this renal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cystadenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Echinococcosis / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Nephrectomy. Wilms Tumor / classification. Wilms Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18416340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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91. Soh HC, Russell P, Dalrymple C: Benign mixed tumour of the vulva. Pathology; 2005 Oct;37(5):389-92
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  • [Title] Benign mixed tumour of the vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bartholin's Glands. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Treatment Outcome. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 16194854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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92. Las Heras F, Pritzker KP, Colgan TJ: Chordoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: a case report. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(6):467-71
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  • Mature cystic teratoma of the ovary (MCTO) is the most common type of ovarian teratoma and also the most frequent tumor originating from germ cells.
  • It is usually diagnosed in early adulthood and, by definition, is composed of well-differentiated tissues, which originate from all three germ cell layers.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy arising in these otherwise benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Chordoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Chromosomes, Human, X. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Keratins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Mosaicism. Mucin-1 / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17418959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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93. Tinelli A, Vergara D, Martignago R, Leo G, Pisanò M, Malvasi A: An outlook on ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors: focus on genomic and proteomic findings. Curr Genomics; 2009 Jun;10(4):240-9
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  • Ovarian tumors can be classified on the basis of the cells of origin in epithelial, stromal and germ cell tumors.
  • Epithelial ovarian tumors display great histological heterogeneity and can be further subdivided into benign, intermediate or borderline, and invasive tumors.
  • In this review, the current state of knowledge about the genoproteomic and potential clinical value of gene expression profiling in ovarian cancer and ovarian borderline tumors is discussed, focusing on three main areas: distinguishing normal ovarian tissue from ovarian cancers and borderline tumors, identifying different genotypes of ovarian tissue and identifying proteins linked to cancer or tumor development.
  • By these targets, authors focus on the use of novel molecules, developed on the proteomics and genomics researches, as potential protein biomarkers in the management of ovarian cancer or borderline tumor, overlooking on current state of the art and on future perspectives of researches.

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  • (PMID = 19949545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] Current genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2709935
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ovarian cancer / borderline ovarian tumors / genomics / markers / oncogenes. / proteomics
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94. De Backer A, Madern GC, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, Oosterhuis JW, Hazebroek FW: Mediastinal germ cell tumors: clinical aspects and outcomes in 7 children. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Oct;16(5):318-22
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  • [Title] Mediastinal germ cell tumors: clinical aspects and outcomes in 7 children.
  • BACKGROUND: Mediastinal germ cell tumors presenting during childhood are extremely rare.
  • This paper reports on the clinical presentations, method(s) of treatment, complications, results and outcomes in a series of children with mediastinal germ cell tumors.
  • METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 7 children treated between 1971 and 2001 for mediastinal germ cell tumor was carried out.
  • Four patients had histologically benign tumors (mature teratoma).
  • Their sole treatment consisted of complete surgical excision of the tumor and (part of) the thymus using either median sternotomy or left-sided thoracotomy.
  • Malignant tumors were observed in three patients (1 yolk sac tumor, 1 choriocarcinoma and 1 malignant teratoma).
  • The patient with yolk sac tumor survived; he is now in remission, 4 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both this study and the literature review testify to the extreme rarity of mediastinal germ cell tumors in childhood.
  • Children with this type of tumor usually are severely symptomatic.
  • Histologically benign tumors carry an excellent prognosis provided surgical excision is complete.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17160775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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95. Thomas L, Kluwe L, Chuzhanova N, Mautner V, Upadhyaya M: Analysis of NF1 somatic mutations in cutaneous neurofibromas from patients with high tumor burden. Neurogenetics; 2010 Oct;11(4):391-400
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  • [Title] Analysis of NF1 somatic mutations in cutaneous neurofibromas from patients with high tumor burden.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1, (NF1) is a complex, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by benign and malignant tumors which result from NF1 gene mutations.
  • These modifying loci may include deficiencies in mismatch repair genes and elements involved in cell cycle regulation (TP53, RB1, and CDKN2A).
  • We have analyzed the somatic mutations in 89 cutaneous neurofibromas derived from three unrelated NF1 patients with high tumor burden, by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis of the NF1, TP53, RB1, and CDKN2A genes, by assessing microsatellite instability (MSI), by direct sequencing of the NF1, TP53, and several mismatch repair (MMR) genes and by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification of the NF1 and TP53 genes.
  • Each mutation was distinct demonstrating the independent origin of each tumor.
  • LOH of markers flanking the RB1 gene was also found in one tumor but no CDKN2A mutations were detected.
  • The identification of LOH involving TP53 and RB1 loci is a novel finding in benign cutaneous neurofibromas possibly demonstrating an alternative underlying molecular mechanism associated with the development of these benign tumors from this cohort of patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Computational Biology / methods. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Genes, p53. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Retinoblastoma Protein / genetics

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  • [Cites] Hum Mutat. 2003 Jan;21(1):28-44 [12497629.001]
  • (PMID = 20358387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-6753
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurogenetics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein
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96. Waldmann J, Bartsch DK, Kann PH, Fendrich V, Rothmund M, Langer P: Adrenal involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: results of 7 years prospective screening. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2007 Jul;392(4):437-43
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  • Age at diagnosis of MEN-1, type of adrenal tumor, genotype, therapy, and clinical characteristics have been analyzed.
  • Median tumor size was 12 mm (5-40 mm).
  • Tumor size smaller than 10 mm was observed in 11 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: MEN-1-associated adrenal tumors are mostly small, benign, and nonfunctioning and much more common than previously reported.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. DNA Mutational Analysis. Endosonography. Female. Genotype. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Prevalence. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17235589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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97. Yao L, Schiavi F, Cascon A, Qin Y, Inglada-Pérez L, King EE, Toledo RA, Ercolino T, Rapizzi E, Ricketts CJ, Mori L, Giacchè M, Mendola A, Taschin E, Boaretto F, Loli P, Iacobone M, Rossi GP, Biondi B, Lima-Junior JV, Kater CE, Bex M, Vikkula M, Grossman AB, Gruber SB, Barontini M, Persu A, Castellano M, Toledo SP, Maher ER, Mannelli M, Opocher G, Robledo M, Dahia PL: Spectrum and prevalence of FP/TMEM127 gene mutations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. JAMA; 2010 Dec 15;304(23):2611-9
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  • We recently identified germline mutations of the novel transmembrane-encoding gene FP/TMEM127 in familial and sporadic pheochromocytomas consistent with a tumor suppressor effect.
  • The most common presentation was that of a single benign adrenal tumor in patients older than 40 years.
  • Expression of 5 novel FP/TMEM127 mutations in cell lines revealed diffuse localization of the mutant proteins in contrast with the discrete multiorganelle distribution of wild-type TMEM127.

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  • (PMID = 21156949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 P30 CA465920; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01AG19316; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P30 AG013319; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA54174; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / TMEM127 protein, human
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98. Eifler JB Jr, King P, Schlegel PN: Incidental testicular lesions found during infertility evaluation are usually benign and may be managed conservatively. J Urol; 2008 Jul;180(1):261-4; discussion 265
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidental testicular lesions found during infertility evaluation are usually benign and may be managed conservatively.
  • PURPOSE: Hypoechoic lesions on scrotal ultrasonography are often considered germ cell tumors and radical orchiectomy is recommended.
  • Of the men 26% had a history of cryptorchidism and 3 patients had a history of testis tumor.
  • All men had tumor markers tested and the results were negative.
  • Of the remaining 18 patients 11 had lesions less than 5 mm in greatest diameter and all of these were confirmed to be benign.
  • All other patients with hyperechoic or heterogeneous areas on ultrasound with subsequent tissue diagnoses were found to have benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Men with severe infertility who are found to have incidental testicular lesions and negative tumor markers, especially lesions less than 5 mm, may be initially observed with serial scrotal ultrasound examinations.


99. Jang SI, Lee EJ, Hart PS, Ramaswami M, Pallos D, Hart TC: Germ line gain of function with SOS1 mutation in hereditary gingival fibromatosis. J Biol Chem; 2007 Jul 13;282(28):20245-55
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  • [Title] Germ line gain of function with SOS1 mutation in hereditary gingival fibromatosis.
  • Mutation of human SOS1 is responsible for hereditary gingival fibromatosis type 1, a benign overgrowth condition of the gingiva.
  • Here, we investigated molecular mechanisms responsible for the increased rate of cell proliferation in gingival fibroblasts caused by mutant SOS1 in vitro.
  • Additionally, we observed an increase in the magnitude and duration of ERK signaling in hereditary gingival fibromatosis gingival fibroblasts that was associated with phosphorylation of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein and the up-regulation of cell cycle regulators, including cyclins C, D, and E and the E2F/DP transcription factors.
  • These factors promote cell cycle progression from G(1) to S phase, and their up-regulation may underlie the increased gingival fibroblast proliferation observed.
  • Selective depletion of wild-type and mutant SOS1 through small interfering RNA demonstrates the link between mutation of SOS1, ERK signaling, cell proliferation rate, and the expression levels of Egr-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Membrane / genetics. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cell Membrane / pathology. Cells, Cultured. Cyclins / biosynthesis. E2F Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Early Growth Response Protein 1 / biosynthesis. Early Growth Response Protein 1 / genetics. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Humans. Phosphorylation. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / biosynthesis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Protein Processing, Post-Translational / genetics. Protein Transport / genetics. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Retinoblastoma Protein / genetics. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism. Up-Regulation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17510059.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclins; 0 / E2F Transcription Factors; 0 / EGR1 protein, human; 0 / Early Growth Response Protein 1; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / SOS1 Protein; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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100. Brown AB, Mahmood U, Cortes ML, Tang Y, Dai G, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Prabhakar S, Leishear K, Onda H, Kwiatkowski D, Weissleder R, Breakefield X: Magnetic resonance imaging and characterization of spontaneous lesions in a transgenic mouse model of tuberous sclerosis as a model for endothelial cell-based transgene delivery. Hum Gene Ther; 2005 Dec;16(12):1367-76
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging and characterization of spontaneous lesions in a transgenic mouse model of tuberous sclerosis as a model for endothelial cell-based transgene delivery.
  • Benign hamartomas develop in multiple organs, believed to be caused by somatic mutation in addition to germ line mutation to cause loss of both alleles of either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor gene, with resultant dysregulated growth due to loss of hamartin or tuberin function, respectively.
  • MRI detected 100% of the renal lesions (cystadenomas, renal cell carcinomas) and 75% of the hepatic lesions (hemangiosarcomas), later identified by histology.
  • Cell-mediated gene delivery was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of renal, hepatic, and lung lesions after intravenous delivery of MS1 mouse endothelial cells, transduced to express an enhanced form of green fluorescent protein (EGFP).
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Transfer Techniques. Genetic Therapy / methods. Tuberous Sclerosis / pathology. Tuberous Sclerosis / therapy. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / pathology. Cell Line. Disease Models, Animal. Endothelial Cells. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics. Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Transduction, Genetic. Transgenes

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  • (PMID = 16390268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-0342
  • [Journal-full-title] Human gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Gene Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA69246; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS24279; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA86355; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R24 CA92782
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; 4JG2LF96VF / tuberous sclerosis complex 2 protein
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