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1. Singh N, Lo CY, Chan WF: Laparoscopic enucleation of a nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumor at the head of the pancreas. JSLS; 2006 Apr-Jun;10(2):259-62
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic enucleation of a nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumor at the head of the pancreas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopy is a safe, feasible technique for benign pancreatic pathologies and has been increasingly reported for neuroendocrine tumors located at the body and tail of the pancreas.
  • We report a case of successful enucleation of a nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumor located at the head of the pancreas, in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I.
  • METHODS: A 5-cm nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumor at the pancreatic head was identified by computerized tomography scan.
  • Laparoscopic ultrasound did not reveal additional tumors on any other part of the pancreas.
  • RESULTS: Enucleation was successfully performed for this solitary tumor because of its favorable position.
  • Histology revealed an islet cell tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic enucleation of neuroendocrine tumor at the pancreatic head is safe and feasible for select patients.

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  • (PMID = 16882434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3016133
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2. Fernández-Cruz L, Blanco L, Cosa R, Rendón H: Is laparoscopic resection adequate in patients with neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors? World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):904-17
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  • Some have suggested that a malignant tumor is a contraindication to laparoscopic resection.
  • Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and long-term outcome of the laparoscopic approach in patients with functioning, nonfunctioning, or overt malignant pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNT).
  • Other than 9 PNTs localized in the head of the pancreas, all tumors were located in the left pancreas.
  • There were 33 patients with functioning tumors: 4 with gastrinomas (mean size 1.2 cm), 1 with a glucagonoma (4 cm), 3 with vipomas (3.2 cm), 2 with carcinoids (5.2 cm), 20 with sporadic insulinomas (1.4 cm), 2 with insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) (4.4 cm), and 1 with a malignant insulinoma (13 cm).
  • Sixteen patients had a nonfunctioning tumor (mean size 5 cm).
  • Long-term outcomes were analyzed by tumor recurrence and patient survival.
  • Conclusions This series demonstrates that LPS is feasible and safe in benign-appearing and malignant neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors (NEPTs).
  • The benefits of minimally invasive surgery were manifest in the short hospital stay and acceptable pancreas-related complications in high-risk patients.

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  • (PMID = 18264824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Leite AR, Corrêa-Giannella ML, Dagli ML, Fortes MA, Vegas VM, Giannella-Neto D: Fibronectin and laminin induce expression of islet cell markers in hepatic oval cells in culture. Cell Tissue Res; 2007 Mar;327(3):529-37
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  • Since no previous studies have investigated the effect of ECM proteins on the expression of islet cell markers by cultured OC, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether FN and LAM modulate the expression of genes related to the endocrine pancreas in these liver cells.

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  • (PMID = 17149594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-766X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell and tissue research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Tissue Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Laminin; 0 / PAX6 protein; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Pancreatic Hormones; 0 / Propanols; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 protein; 3W678R12M0 / allyl alcohol; 9007-92-5 / Glucagon; 9M98QLJ2DL / 2-Acetylaminofluorene
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4. Schober AK, Hahn EG, Harsch IA: [A 67-year-old patient with recurrent hypoglycemia]. Internist (Berl); 2008 Apr;49(4):485-9
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  • Imaging techniques revealed a tumor of the pancreas involving the spleen with metastases of the liver, expressing somatostatin receptors.
  • In case of diagnosed insulinoma, underlying MEN (multiple endocrine neoplasia) should be considered.
  • Excision of the tumor is recommended in patients with benign solitary insulinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypoglycemia / etiology. Insulinoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Blood Glucose / metabolism. C-Peptide / blood. Chromogranin A / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Insulin / blood. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Palliative Care. Recurrence. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18324381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / C-Peptide; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Insulin
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5. Xiao X, Heimberg H: Retraction. Adult stem cells regenerate the endocrine pancreas and normalize hyperglycaemia and insulin production in diabetic mice. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol (2005) 89: 184-190. Pathologe; 2008 Nov;29 Suppl 2:289
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  • [Title] Retraction. Adult stem cells regenerate the endocrine pancreas and normalize hyperglycaemia and insulin production in diabetic mice. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol (2005) 89: 184-190.

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  • [RetractionOf] Huss R, Xiangwei X, Heimberg H. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol. 2005;89:184-90 [18035689.001]
  • (PMID = 19039619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Retraction of Publication
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Gasco V, Beccuti G, Marotta F, Benso A, Granata R, Broglio F, Ghigo E: Endocrine and metabolic actions of ghrelin. Endocr Dev; 2010;17:86-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endocrine and metabolic actions of ghrelin.
  • This peptide, whose acylation is performed by a specific octanoyl-transferase, is predominantly produced by the stomach, although expressed by many other endocrine and nonendocrine, peripheral and central tissues.
  • GRLN receptors have been well demonstrated either in the endocrine pancreas or the adipose tissue; at these levels there are receptors that bind GRLN independently of its acylation (therefore a non-GHS-R1a, still undefined receptor).
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Glands / physiology. Ghrelin / physiology. Metabolism / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19955759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1662-2979
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Gonadotropins; 0 / Insulin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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7. Loffler KA, Biondi CA, Gartside M, Waring P, Stark M, Serewko-Auret MM, Muller HK, Hayward NK, Kay GF: Broad tumor spectrum in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Int J Cancer; 2007 Jan 15;120(2):259-67
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  • [Title] Broad tumor spectrum in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited cancer predisposition syndrome typified by development of tumors in parathyroid, pituitary and endocrine pancreas, as well as less common sites including both endocrine and nonendocrine organs.
  • Deletion or mutation of the tumor suppressor gene MEN1 on chromosome 11 has been identified in many cases of MEN1 as well as in sporadic tumors.
  • Here we describe a mouse model of MEN1 in which tumors were seen in pancreatic islets, pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid, adrenal glands, testes and ovaries.
  • The observed tumor spectrum therefore includes types commonly seen in MEN1 patients and additional types.
  • Pancreatic pathology was most common, evident in over 80% of animals, while other tumor types developed with lower frequency and generally later onset.
  • Tumors of multiple endocrine organs were observed frequently, but progression to carcinoma and metastasis were not evident.
  • Menin expression was below the level of detection in ovary, thyroid and testis, but loss of nuclear menin immunoreactivity was observed uniformly in all pancreatic islet adenomas and in some hyperplastic islet cells, suggesting that complete loss of Men1 is a critical point in islet tumor progression in this model.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Mice / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Exons / genetics. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Male. Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational / genetics


8. Kloosterman WP, Lagendijk AK, Ketting RF, Moulton JD, Plasterk RH: Targeted inhibition of miRNA maturation with morpholinos reveals a role for miR-375 in pancreatic islet development. PLoS Biol; 2007 Aug;5(8):e203
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  • The aberrant formation of the endocrine pancreas, caused by miR-375 knockdown, is one of the first loss-of-function phenotypes for an individual miRNA in vertebrate development.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Base Sequence. Cell Movement / physiology. Genes, Reporter. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Islets of Langerhans / cytology. Islets of Langerhans / embryology. Islets of Langerhans / metabolism. Molecular Sequence Data. Phenotype. RNA Precursors / genetics. RNA Precursors / metabolism. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism. Sequence Alignment. Zebrafish Proteins / genetics. Zebrafish Proteins / metabolism


9. Bordi C, D'Adda T, Azzoni C, Pizzi S, Bottarelli L, Mormandi F, Antonetti T, Luong TV, Rindi G: Criteria for malignancy in gastrointestinal endocrine tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(2):119-29
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Criteria for malignancy in gastrointestinal endocrine tumors.
  • In contrast with the large amount of data generated from endocrine tumors of the pancreas, sparse and mostly unconfirmed data are available on the criteria for the assessment of malignancy risk and patient outcome in endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • In these conditions the 2000 WHO classification with its standardized scheme of pathologic report constitutes a framework facilitating the assessment of tumor malignancy and has been regarded as useful for clinical purposes, providing the basis for proper management of the patients and for the design of treatment protocols.
  • The classification is based on a combination of pathological and clinical features with parameters specific for each organ in which the endocrine tumors originate.
  • (1) well-differentiated endocrine tumors, further subdivided into tumors with benign and with uncertain behavior;.
  • (2) well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas, low grade; and (3) poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas, high grade.
  • In this review the differential tumor characteristics between the different categories are summarized.
  • Moreover, the relevance of additional features with respect to tumor prognostication, chiefly the Ki-67 proliferation index and malignancy-associated genetic changes, is discussed with emphasis on the discrepancies emerging between tumors of foregut and of midgut origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / classification. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / classification. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen. Mitotic Index. Prognosis. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 17159244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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10. Koceïr EA, Benbaïbeche H, Haffaf el M, Kacimi G, Oudjit B: [Metabolic syndrome and hormonal interaction in obese and type 2 diabetic Algerian subject: the behavior eating disorder impact]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris); 2009 May-Jun;67(3):315-23
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  • [Title] [Metabolic syndrome and hormonal interaction in obese and type 2 diabetic Algerian subject: the behavior eating disorder impact].
  • [Transliterated title] Syndrome métabolique et interaction hormonale chez le sujet obèse et le patient diabétique de type 2 algérien: impact des troubles du comportement alimentaire.
  • In response to nutritional stress, the BED generates a hyperactivity of endocrine pancreas, adrenal gland, and pituitary gland.

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  • (PMID = 19411234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3898
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de biologie clinique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Biol. Clin. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Triglycerides; 0 / polypeptide C; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 4429-04-3 / Fructosamine; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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11. Chan CB, Harper ME: Uncoupling proteins: role in insulin resistance and insulin insufficiency. Curr Diabetes Rev; 2006 Aug;2(3):271-83
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  • UCP2 mRNA is expressed in a wide range of tissues; however UCP2 protein expression is restricted to fewer tissues, including the endocrine pancreas, spleen, stomach, brain and the lung.

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  • (PMID = 18220632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-3998
  • [Journal-full-title] Current diabetes reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Diabetes Rev
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / 43987; Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / 43987
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; 0 / Ion Channels; 0 / Mitochondrial Proteins; 0 / mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2; 0 / mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3
  • [Number-of-references] 168
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ CAMS820; NLM/ PMC3060851
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12. Pissios P, Ozcan U, Kokkotou E, Okada T, Liew CW, Liu S, Peters JN, Dahlgren G, Karamchandani J, Kudva YC, Kurpad AJ, Kennedy RT, Maratos-Flier E, Kulkarni RN: Melanin concentrating hormone is a novel regulator of islet function and growth. Diabetes; 2007 Feb;56(2):311-9
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  • In this study, we further explored the role of MCH in the endocrine pancreas.
  • Both MCH and MCHR1 are expressed in mouse and human islets and in clonal beta-cell lines as assessed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry.
  • Interestingly, MCH enhanced insulin secretion in human and mouse islets and rodent beta-cell lines in a dose-dependent manner.

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  • (PMID = 17259374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-1797
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabetes
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK 02885; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK040561; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK 67536; None / None / / P30 DK040561-11; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK 46960; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R03 DK 66207; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK 040561; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK040561-11; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK 68721; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P01 DK 53115; United States / PHS HHS / / 5P30 36836
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Hypothalamic Hormones; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Melanins; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Receptors, Pituitary Hormone; 0 / melanin-concentrating hormone receptor; 67382-96-1 / melanin-concentrating hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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13. Gesase AP, Satoh Y: Morphology of neuropeptide Y immunopositive ganglia in the mouse pancreas. Ital J Anat Embryol; 2006 Jul-Sep;111(3):171-8
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  • [Title] Morphology of neuropeptide Y immunopositive ganglia in the mouse pancreas.
  • The current immunohistochemical study used the antibody against neuropeptide Y (NPY) to observe the morphology of the autonomic ganglia in the mouse pancreas.
  • Two types of ganglia were observed and they included the endocrine-contact ganglia that made contact with the endocrine pancreas and the interstitial ganglia, which were located in the interstitial space.
  • The interstitial ganglia showed intense NPY-immunostaining than the endocrine-contact ganglia and were also closely associated with the NPY-immunopositive nerve fibres and varicose nerve fibres compared to the endocrine-contact ganglia.
  • The endocrine-contact ganglia were also stained positively against the NPY, but the intensity of staining was weaker compared to that of the interstitial ganglia.
  • The ganglia were seen to have a direct contact with NPY-immunopositive cells of the endocrine pancreas.
  • Endocrine-contact ganglia were associated with a few NPY-immunopostive varicose nerve fibres but were not in contact with NPY-immunopoisitive large nerve bundles.
  • The current observation revealed that the interstitial ganglia of the mouse pancreas showed intense NPY-immunoreactivity compared to endocrine contact ganglia and that the interstitial ganglia are associated with numerous NPY-immunopositive nerve terminals.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglia, Autonomic / metabolism. Neurons / metabolism. Neuropeptide Y / metabolism. Pancreas / innervation
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Autonomic Pathways / cytology. Autonomic Pathways / metabolism. Blood Vessels / cytology. Blood Vessels / innervation. Blood Vessels / metabolism. Cell Shape / physiology. Immunohistochemistry. Islets of Langerhans / cytology. Islets of Langerhans / innervation. Islets of Langerhans / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Microcirculation / cytology. Microcirculation / innervation. Microcirculation / metabolism. Presynaptic Terminals / metabolism. Presynaptic Terminals / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 17312923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1122-6714
  • [Journal-full-title] Italian journal of anatomy and embryology = Archivio italiano di anatomia ed embriologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ital J Anat Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuropeptide Y
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14. Gustavsen CR, Pillay N, Heller RS: An immunohistochemical study of the endocrine pancreas of the African ice rat, Otomys sloggetti robertsi. Acta Histochem; 2008;110(4):294-301
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  • [Title] An immunohistochemical study of the endocrine pancreas of the African ice rat, Otomys sloggetti robertsi.
  • The study reported here examines the endocrine pancreas of this species using immunohistochemical techniques.
  • The islets of Langerhans were scattered in the exocrine pancreas and tended to be quite small.
  • Scattered single endocrine cells (mostly immunoreactive for insulin) were found in the exocrine pancreas and were not generally associated with ducts (as marked by pan-cytokeratin labeling).
  • The normal islet architecture of insulin in the center and glucagon, somatostatin (SS) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in the rim was observed, but the islets tended to have 2-3 layers of glucagon immunoreactive cells.
  • Examining for rarer endocrine cell types, we found that cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) immunoreactive cells were co-localized with SS; and peptide YY (PYY) immunoreactive cells could be found that were singly immunoreactive or co-localized with either PP or glucagon.
  • The Nkx family of transcription factors (Nkx6.1 and 2.2) and PDX-1 were all detected in the pancreas in a similar manner to that seen in mouse and rat.
  • In conclusion, the endocrine pancreas of the African ice rat is quite similar to that of other studied rodents, but these animals have more glucagon and SS cells than rat (Rattus) or mouse (Mus) species.
  • [MeSH-major] Islets of Langerhans / metabolism. Murinae / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18406449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-1281
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta histochemica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Histochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Hormones; 0 / Transcription Factors
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15. Foo KS, Brauner H, Ostenson CG, Broberger C: Nucleobindin-2/nesfatin in the endocrine pancreas: distribution and relationship to glycaemic state. J Endocrinol; 2010 Mar;204(3):255-63
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  • [Title] Nucleobindin-2/nesfatin in the endocrine pancreas: distribution and relationship to glycaemic state.
  • Given the overlap of signalling molecules between the brain and pancreas, we have explored the presence of NUCB2 in the islets of Langerhans.
  • NUCB2-like immunoreactivity was detected by immunofluorescence in all human and rat islet beta-cells (as detected by co-localization with insulin), but not in other islet cells or in the exocrine pancreas.
  • Islet NUCB2 content, as measured by enzyme immunoassay, did not change significantly following an overnight fast, but was substantially lower in islets isolated from an animal model of type 2 diabetes, the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats (48% of non-diabetic Wistar rat control).
  • The release of NUCB2 from isolated rat islets was significantly elevated following glucose challenge (123%), but this effect was substantially lower than that observed for insulin (816%).
  • However, our findings, together with previous reports, appear more compatible with intracellular actions rather than with endocrine/paracrine communication, and suggest that NUCB2 in serum derives primarily from non-islet sources.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Glucose / metabolism. Islets of Langerhans / metabolism


16. Christein JD, Smoot RL, Farnell MB: Central pancreatectomy: a technique for the resection of pancreatic neck lesions. Arch Surg; 2006 Mar;141(3):293-9
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  • Although historically used for traumatic pancreatic transection and chronic pancreatitis, it currently is reserved for selective management of pancreatic neck lesions that are benign or have low malignant potential.
  • Our objectives were to describe the technique and determine the safety and effectiveness of central pancreatectomy in the excision of benign or low-malignant potential lesions of the pancreatic neck.
  • On follow-up, long-term endocrine and exocrine function were determined based on laboratory values and patient history.
  • Mean tumor size was 2.8 cm and mean operative time was 4.8 hours with a mean blood loss of 381 mL.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Central pancreatectomy may preserve endocrine and exocrine function.
  • The precise role of central pancreatectomy in the management of benign or low-malignant potential lesions of the neck of the pancreas remains in evolution.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Islet Cell / radiography. Adenoma, Islet Cell / surgery. Cystadenoma, Serous / radiography. Cystadenoma, Serous / surgery. Female. Humans. Liposarcoma / surgery. Male. Mesenteric Veins / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16549696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Somm E, Schwitzgebel VM, Vauthay DM, Camm EJ, Chen CY, Giacobino JP, Sizonenko SV, Aubert ML, Hüppi PS: Prenatal nicotine exposure alters early pancreatic islet and adipose tissue development with consequences on the control of body weight and glucose metabolism later in life. Endocrinology; 2008 Dec;149(12):6289-99
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  • In the present study, we investigated the impact of prenatal nicotine exposure (3 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats via osmotic Alzet minipumps) on the early endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue development in rat pups before weaning.
  • Prenatal nicotine exposure led to a decrease in endocrine pancreatic islet size and number at 7 d of life (postnatal d 7), which corroborates with a decrease in gene expression of specific transcription factors such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1, Pax-6, Nkx6.1, and of hormones such as insulin and glucagon.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Weight / drug effects. Glucose / metabolism. Islets of Langerhans / drug effects. Nicotine / toxicity. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18687784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ganglionic Stimulants; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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18. Pasquali L, Fan Y, Trucco M, Ringquist S: Rehabilitation of adaptive immunity and regeneration of beta cells. Trends Biotechnol; 2006 Nov;24(11):516-22
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  • Recent observations illustrating the regenerative capability of the endocrine pancreas in addition to advances in stem cell and gene therapy technologies enable the exploration of alternatives to allogeneic islet transplantation.

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  • (PMID = 16963140.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-7799
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Biotechnol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U19 AI 056374-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HLA-DQ Antigens
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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19. Chianelli M, Parisella MG, Visalli N, Mather SJ, D'Alessandria C, Pozzilli P, Signore A, IMDIAB study group: Pancreatic scintigraphy with 99mTc-interleukin-2 at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and after 1 year of nicotinamide therapy. Diabetes Metab Res Rev; 2008 Feb;24(2):115-22
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  • [Title] Pancreatic scintigraphy with 99mTc-interleukin-2 at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and after 1 year of nicotinamide therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical utility of pancreatic scintigraphy with 99mTc-interleukin-2 to identify Type 1 diabetic patients with pancreatic inflammation at diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Significant pancreatic accumulation of 99mTc-interleukin-2 was found in 31% of the patients at the time of diagnosis.
  • Patients positive or negative for pancreatic accumulation of interleukin-2 scintigraphy did not show any difference in metabolic or immunologic parameters at diagnosis.
  • Positive patients, however, showed higher C-peptide values at 3 months and lower insulin requirement at 1 year, compared to negative patients (insulin requirement (IR): 0.33+/-0.11 vs 0.67+/-0.24 IU/kg/day, positive vs negative patients; p=0.0001); patients positive to IL2 scintigraphy treated with nicotinamide at 25 mg/kg were the only group showing a significant reduction in IR 1 year after diagnosis (IRt0: 0.53+/-0.30 vs IRt12: 0.28+/-0.07 IU/kg/day; p=0.013).
  • After 1 year, all the positive patients showed a significant decrease in pancreatic uptake of 99mTc-interleukin-2 (P/B: 7.87+/-2.28 at diagnosis vs 5.00+/-1.23 after 1 year; p<0.0001 paired t-test).
  • CONCLUSION: 99mTc-interleukin-2 scintigraphy at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes may identify patients with pancreatic inflammation.
  • In such patients, treated with nicotinamide at 25 mg/kg, insulin requirement and pancreatic inflammation after 1 year were significantly reduced suggesting that IL2 scintigraphy may be of potential use for assessing the autoimmune phenomena in endocrine pancreas.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / radionuclide imaging. Interleukin-2. Niacinamide / therapeutic use. Organotechnetium Compounds. Pancreas / radionuclide imaging

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17918277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-7552
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / technetium Tc 99m interleukin 2; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide
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20. Krishnamurthy M, Wang R: Integrins and extracellular matrices in pancreatic tissue engineering. Front Biosci (Schol Ed); 2009;1:477-91
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  • The role of integrin receptors in regulating numerous cellular programs have been well studied in the endocrine pancreas.
  • These adhesion receptors and their interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) are important determinants of islet cell biology as they influence the development, survival and function of the islets of Langerhans.
  • [MeSH-major] Extracellular Matrix / physiology. Integrins / physiology. Islets of Langerhans / cytology. Tissue Engineering

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  • (PMID = 19482715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-0524
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Biosci (Schol Ed)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrins
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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21. Beatriz Di Carlo M, López Mingorance FN, del Carmen Maselli M, Hamamura S, Otero G, Tiscornia OM, Negri GA: [Biochemical profile of the pancreatic function: pancreolauril and oral glucose tolerance tests]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam; 2010 Jun;40(2):128-33
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  • [Transliterated title] Evaluación bioquímica de la función pancreática: Pruebas del pancreolauril y de la tolerancia a la glucosa oral.
  • BACKGROUND: The pancreas is a mixed gland that takes part in the digestion of nutrients and in the homeostasis ofglycemia.
  • Chronic pancreopathy is the cause of secretory insufficiency, characterized by an inflammatory process that leads to fibrosis of the pancreas, with a progressive loss of both exocrine and endocrine functions of the gland.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study both the exocrine and endocrine pancreatic relationship in patients with pancreatopathies and other non-pancreatic digestive alterations, by means of serum pancreolauril (sPL) and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT).
  • From the latter group, a subgroup (n=11) with a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (CP) was studied.
  • CONCLUSION: By the biochemical tests used, pancreas functionality corresponds with a close relationship between exocrine and endocrine pancreas.
  • Thus, we suggest the use of the sPL test as a helpful tool for the diagnosis of CP.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluoresceins. Glucose / analysis. Glucose Tolerance Test. Pancreas, Exocrine / physiopathology. Pancreatitis, Chronic / blood

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  • (PMID = 20645560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9033
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Latinoam.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluoresceins; 939U41013O / fluorescein dilaurate; EC 3.1.1.3 / Lipase; EC 3.2.1.- / Amylases; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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22. Fowden AL, Giussani DA, Forhead AJ: Endocrine and metabolic programming during intrauterine development. Early Hum Dev; 2005 Sep;81(9):723-34
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  • [Title] Endocrine and metabolic programming during intrauterine development.
  • Many of these metabolic disorders have an endocrine origin and are accompanied by abnormal hormone concentrations.
  • This has led to the hypothesis that adult metabolic disease arises in utero as a result of programming of key endocrine systems during suboptimal intrauterine conditions associated with fetal growth retardation.
  • This review examines the experimental evidence for prenatal endocrine programming with particular emphasis on endocrine axes involved in growth and metabolism, namely, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the endocrine pancreas and the somatotrophic axis.
  • It also considers how changes in these endocrine systems contribute to the programming of metabolism in later life.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine System / embryology. Fetal Development. Metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16085373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-3782
  • [Journal-full-title] Early human development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Early Hum. Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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23. Noone TC, Hosey J, Firat Z, Semelka RC: Imaging and localization of islet-cell tumours of the pancreas on CT and MRI. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;19(2):195-211
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  • [Title] Imaging and localization of islet-cell tumours of the pancreas on CT and MRI.
  • Islet-cell tumours are neuroendocrine tumours that arise from the endocrine pancreas.
  • They range from benign to malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Islet Cell / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Humans. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Islets of Langerhans / pathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15763695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-690X
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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24. Stosic-Grujicic S, Stojanovic I, Maksimovic-Ivanic D, Momcilovic M, Popadic D, Harhaji L, Miljkovic D, Metz C, Mangano K, Papaccio G, Al-Abed Y, Nicoletti F: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is necessary for progression of autoimmune diabetes mellitus. J Cell Physiol; 2008 Jun;215(3):665-75
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  • Furthermore, MIF-deficient (MIF(-/-)) mice were less susceptible to the induction of immunoinflammatory diabetes, insulitis and apoptosis within the endocrine pancreas by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) than genetically matched wild type (WT) mice.
  • Furthermore, MIF deletion affected the production of IL-18, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and iNOS in the islets of Langerhans.
  • These data, along with the higher expression of IL-4 and TGF-beta observed in the periphery and in the pancreas of MLD-STZ-challenged MIF(-/-) mice as compared to WT controls suggest that MIF deficiency has induced an immune deviation towards protective type 2/3 response.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adoptive Transfer. Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / pharmacology. Cytokines / biosynthesis. Cytokines / genetics. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Islets of Langerhans / drug effects. Islets of Langerhans / enzymology. Islets of Langerhans / pathology. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / drug effects. Mice. Mice, Inbred NOD. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Spleen / drug effects. Spleen / pathology. Streptozocin. Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives. Tyrosine / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18064633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4652
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 3604-79-3 / 3-nitrotyrosine; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 5.3.- / Intramolecular Oxidoreductases; EC 5.3.2.1 / Mif protein, mouse
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25. Bolkent S, Bolkent S, Yanardag R, Tunali S: Protective effect of vanadyl sulfate on the pancreas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes Res Clin Pract; 2005 Nov;70(2):103-9
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  • [Title] Protective effect of vanadyl sulfate on the pancreas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
  • The aim of this study is to examine from a biochemical and histological perspective, whether vanadium has a protective effect on the pancreas of diabetic rats.
  • On day 60, the pancreas tissue and blood samples were taken from the animals.
  • In pancreatic islets of the diabetic group, a decrease in the number of immunoreactive B cells was observed in comparison to the control group.
  • On the other hand, pancreatic islets of the diabetic group given vanadyl sulfate showed a higher number of immunoreactive B cells in comparison to the diabetic group.
  • According to the immunohistochemical and biochemical results obtained, it was concluded that vanadyl sulfate can regenerate B cells of endocrine pancreas in experimental diabetes.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / drug therapy. Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology. Pancreas / drug effects. Vanadium Compounds / pharmacology. Vanadium Compounds / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16188572.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-8227
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetes research and clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Vanadium Compounds; 6DU9Y533FA / vanadyl sulfate
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26. Borka K: [Claudin expression in different pancreatic cancers and its significance in differential diagnostics]. Magy Onkol; 2009 Sep;53(3):273-8
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  • The aim of our studies was to compare the different CLDN expression patterns in normal pancreas cells, pancreatic endocrine tumors, adenocarcinomas, mucinous cystic tumors and acinar cell carcinomas.
  • Expression of CLDNs-3 and -7 was manifest in endocrine cells.
  • 2.) CLDN-3 and -7 proteins showed high expression in endocrine tumors, CLDN-1, -2, and -4 proteins in exocrine tumors.
  • This is the first description of CLDN protein expression in endocrine tumors.
  • 3.) The level of CLDN-1, -4 and -7 protein expression in borderline cystic tumors is in between that of benign and malignant tumors.
  • 1.) The presence of CLDN-3 refers to endocrine differentiation.
  • Considering the CLDN expression observed in normal pancreas cells, it can be established that CLDN-1, -2 and -4 proteins are definitely markers of ductal differentiation, CLDN-1 protein of acinar and CLDN-3 of endocrine differentiation. 2).
  • The increased CLDN-4 expression in adenocarcinomas and mucinous cystic tumors, as well as the high CLDN-3 expression in endocrine tumors may open up new prospects in the targeted therapy of these tumors. 3).
  • The claudin expression pattern of pancreas tumors may be employed in the differential diagnosis of these tumors and may be of help in deciding dignity.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Claudins / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / metabolism. Claudin-1. Claudin-3. Claudin-4. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Luminescence. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Microscopy, Electron. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19793693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CLDN1 protein, human; 0 / CLDN2 protein, human; 0 / CLDN3 protein, human; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / CLDN7 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-1; 0 / Claudin-3; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / Claudins; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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27. Drucker DJ: The role of gut hormones in glucose homeostasis. J Clin Invest; 2007 Jan;117(1):24-32
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  • Among the specialized cell types in the gastrointestinal mucosa, enteroendocrine cells have important roles in regulating energy intake and glucose homeostasis through their actions on peripheral target organs, including the endocrine pancreas.

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  • (PMID = 17200703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9738
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Insulin; 55963-74-1 / Proglucagon; 9007-92-5 / Glucagon; EC 3.4.14.5 / DPP4 protein, human; EC 3.4.14.5 / Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4; EC 3.5.4.4 / Adenosine Deaminase
  • [Number-of-references] 125
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1716213
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28. Alasio TM, Vine A, Sanchez MA, Dardik H: Pancreatic endocrine tumor coexistent with serous microcystic adenoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2005 Aug;9(4):234-8
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  • [Title] Pancreatic endocrine tumor coexistent with serous microcystic adenoma: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Serous cystadenomas of the pancreas have been classified as benign exocrine tumors.
  • We report a case of a coexistent neuroendocrine tumor identified within a serous cystadenoma in a 78-year-old woman, which was discovered incidentally after complete resection of the tumor.
  • Given the unpredictable metastatic potential of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas, we advocate complete resection of all pancreatic cystic tumors, combined with careful sampling of the pathological specimen to rule out a coexistent potentially malignant neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 16084460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Strowski MZ, Kaczmarek P, Mergler S, Wiedenmann B, Domin D, Szwajkowski P, Wojciechowicz T, Skrzypski M, Szczepankiewicz D, Szkudelski T, Rucinski M, Malendowicz LK, Nowak KW: Insulinostatic activity of cerebellin--evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies in rats. Regul Pept; 2009 Oct 9;157(1-3):19-24
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  • Cbln is also expressed in the pancreas; however, its function in the pancreas is unknown.
  • We identified Cbln1 and Cbln3 transcripts in rat pancreatic islets and detected Cbln-immunoreactivity, predominantly located in the periphery of the rat endocrine pancreas.
  • CER decreased insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreatic islets at high (11 mM), but not at low (3.33 mM) glucose concentration.
  • Our study demonstrates for the first time that Cbln1 and Cbln3 are expressed in the rat endocrine pancreas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium / analysis. Cell Line. Cyclic AMP / analysis. Female. Islets of Langerhans / drug effects. Islets of Langerhans / metabolism. Islets of Langerhans / secretion. Pancreas, Exocrine / drug effects. Pancreas, Exocrine / metabolism. Pancreas, Exocrine / secretion. Protein Precursors / genetics. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19481574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1686
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Pept.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Protein Precursors; 94071-26-8 / cerebellin; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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30. Umeda H, Ozaki N, Mizutani N, Fukuyama T, Nagasaki H, Arima H, Oiso Y: Protective effect of hedgehog signaling on cytokine-induced cytotoxicity in pancreatic beta-cells. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Nov;118(10):692-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays an important role in pancreas development.
  • However, its role in the developed endocrine pancreas remains to be elucidated.
  • The Hh signal inhibitor cyclopamine were pretreated in INS-1E cells and rat islets.
  • RESULTS: We found that exposure to proinflammatory cytokines increased Ihh expression in rat islets and INS-1E cells.
  • By contrast, treatment with cyclopamine increased cytokine-induced apoptosis in INS-1E cells and rat islets.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Gene Silencing. Islets of Langerhans / drug effects. Islets of Langerhans / metabolism. Islets of Langerhans / pathology. Male. NF-kappa B / genetics. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism. Organ Culture Techniques. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering. Rats. Veratrum Alkaloids / pharmacology

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  • [Copyright] © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 20533175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Dhh protein, rat; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Ihh protein, rat; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Veratrum Alkaloids; 0 / sonic hedgehog protein, rat; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nos2 protein, rat; ZH658AJ192 / cyclopamine
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31. Portha B, Lacraz G, Chavey A, Figeac F, Fradet M, Tourrel-Cuzin C, Homo-Delarche F, Giroix MH, Bailbé D, Gangnerau MN, Movassat J: Islet structure and function in the GK rat. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2010;654:479-500
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  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) arises when the endocrine pancreas fails to secrete sufficient insulin to cope with the metabolic demand because of beta-cell secretory dysfunction and/or decreased beta-cell mass.
  • Defining the nature of the pancreatic islet defects present in T2D has been difficult, in part because human islets are inaccessible for direct study.
  • (ii) gestational metabolic impairment inducing an epigenetic programming of the offspring pancreas (decreased beta-cell neogenesis and proliferation) transmitted over generations; and (iii) loss of beta-cell differentiation related to chronic exposure to hyperglycaemia/hyperlipidaemia, islet inflammation, islet oxidative stress, islet fibrosis and perturbed islet vasculature.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism. Islets of Langerhans / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation. Cell Survival. Disease Models, Animal. Endocrine System. Epigenesis, Genetic. Insulin-Secreting Cells / cytology. Mice. Models, Biological. Oxidative Stress. Rats. Reactive Oxygen Species

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  • (PMID = 20217511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species
  • [Number-of-references] 111
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32. Johansson T, Lejonklou MH, Ekeblad S, Stålberg P, Skogseid B: Lack of nuclear expression of hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES1) in pancreatic endocrine tumors. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):354-9
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  • [Title] Lack of nuclear expression of hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES1) in pancreatic endocrine tumors.
  • Cell line experiments have suggested the involvement of Notch signaling in pancreatic endocrine tumorigenesis.
  • We investigated the expression of NOTCH1, HES1, HEY1 and ASCL1 in pancreatic endocrine tumors and compared the data to tumor phenotype including hormone production, heredity, and WHO classification.
  • Real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed on samples of 26 pancreatic endocrine tumors.
  • For comparison, 10 specimens of macroscopically normal pancreas were analyzed using immunohistochemistry.
  • In the nontumorous pancreatic endocrine cells, weak nuclear expression of HES1 as well as of HEY1 and NOTCH1 was observed.
  • This lack of nuclear expression of HES1 may contribute to the abundance of ASCL1 and to tumorigenesis in the endocrine pancreas.
  • [MeSH-major] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18491256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ASCL1 protein, human; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / HEY1 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NOTCH1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 149348-15-2 / HES1 protein, human
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33. Isidori AM, Lenzi A: Ectopic ACTH syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov;51(8):1217-25
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  • Ectopic adrenocorticotropic secretion (EAS) is responsible for 12-17% of cases of Cushing's syndrome (CS) and covers a range of tumours, from undetectable benign lesions to widespread metastases.
  • EAS requires a complete workup that includes the establishment of endogenous CS, diagnosis of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependency, localization of the source of ACTH secretion and rapid biochemical control of hypercortisolaemia.
  • Dynamic endocrine tests should include inferior petrosal sinus sampling with CRH stimulation.
  • In addition to small cell lung carcinoma, the most common causes of ectopic EAS are bronchial carcinoids, thymic tumours, islet cell tumour of the pancreas, medullary thyroid carcinomas, and phaeochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / complications. Abdominal Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Biomarkers / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Petrosal Sinus Sampling. Thoracic Neoplasms / complications. Thoracic Neoplasms / secretion. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18209859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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34. McIntosh CH, Widenmaier S, Kim SJ: Pleiotropic actions of the incretin hormones. Vitam Horm; 2010;84:21-79
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  • The insulin secretory response to a meal results largely from glucose stimulation of the pancreatic islets and both direct and indirect (autonomic) glucose-dependent stimulation by incretin hormones released from the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Localization of the cognate G protein-coupled receptors for GIP and GLP-1 revealed that they are present in numerous tissues in addition to the endocrine pancreas, including the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, central nervous and autonomic nervous systems (ANSs), adipose tissue, and bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / physiology. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / physiology. Insulin / physiology. Islets of Langerhans / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21094896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0083-6729
  • [Journal-full-title] Vitamins and hormones
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vitam. Horm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; 0 / Receptors, Glucagon; 59392-49-3 / Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide; 89750-14-1 / Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
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35. Boonen K, Baggerman G, D'Hertog W, Husson SJ, Overbergh L, Mathieu C, Schoofs L: Neuropeptides of the islets of Langerhans: a peptidomics study. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2007 Jun-Jul;152(2-3):231-41
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  • [Title] Neuropeptides of the islets of Langerhans: a peptidomics study.
  • Neuropeptides from the endocrine pancreas (the islets of Langerhans) play an important role in the regulation of blood glucose levels.
  • Therefore, our aim is to identify the "peptidome" (the in vivo peptide profile at a certain time) of the pancreatic islets, which is beneficial for medical progress related to the treatment of diabetes.
  • So far, there are few neuropeptides isolated and sequenced from the endocrine pancreas and mainly in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemical techniques have been used to demonstrate the occurrence of peptides in the pancreas.
  • We have analysed the peptidome of the islets using peptidomics, i.e. a combination of liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics.
  • We are able to identify the peptidome of islets extracts.
  • [MeSH-major] Islets of Langerhans / metabolism. Neuropeptides / metabolism. Proteomics

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  • (PMID = 17559849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6480
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amyloid; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranin B; 0 / Islet Amyloid Polypeptide; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Pcsk1n protein, mouse; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / Secretogranin II; 0 / chromogranin A, mouse; 0 / chromogranin B, mouse; 0 / secretogranin 2, mouse; 106388-42-5 / Peptide YY; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 55963-74-1 / Proglucagon; 74315-46-1 / prosomatostatin; 9035-68-1 / Proinsulin
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36. Nio K, Shimakami T, Yamashita T, Kagaya T, Sakai Y, Yamashita T, Mizukoshi E, Sakai A, Nakamoto Y, Honda M, Kaneko S, Kitagawa H, Kayahara M, Ohta T, Zen Y: [Two cases of a nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumor found on a medical checkup]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Apr;106(4):560-8
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  • [Title] [Two cases of a nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumor found on a medical checkup].
  • Case 1) A 35-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for detailed examination of a 50-mm pancreas head tumor with surrounding lymph node swelling detected on medical checkup images.
  • Ultrasound-guided lymph node biopsy specimens gave a diagnosis of a nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer, and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy was given after surgical resection of the tumor.
  • Case 2) A 52-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for detailed examination of an 18-mm pancreas head tumor detected by medical checkup FDG-PET images.
  • Imaging tests gave a diagnosis of a nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.
  • He underwent surgical resection, and the tumor was diagnosed as benign pathologically.
  • Both cases showed FDG-PET accumulation in the tumors irrespective of their malignant or benign nature.
  • Increased prevalence of FDG-PET checkup may increase the diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in asymptomatic subjects.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Incidental Findings. Islets of Langerhans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19346726.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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37. Otonkoski T, Näntö-Salonen K, Seppänen M, Veijola R, Huopio H, Hussain K, Tapanainen P, Eskola O, Parkkola R, Ekström K, Guiot Y, Rahier J, Laakso M, Rintala R, Nuutila P, Minn H: Noninvasive diagnosis of focal hyperinsulinism of infancy with [18F]-DOPA positron emission tomography. Diabetes; 2006 Jan;55(1):13-8
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  • [Title] Noninvasive diagnosis of focal hyperinsulinism of infancy with [18F]-DOPA positron emission tomography.
  • Congenital hyperinsulinism of infancy (CHI) is characterized by severe hypoglycemia due to dysregulated insulin secretion, associated with either focal or diffuse pathology of the endocrine pancreas.
  • Five patients had a visually apparent focal accumulation of [(18)F]-DOPA and standardized uptake value (SUV) >50% higher (mean 1.8-fold) than the maximum SUV of the unaffected part of the pancreas.
  • The remaining nine patients had diffuse accumulation of [(18)F]-DOPA in the pancreas (SUV ratio <1.5).
  • [MeSH-major] Congenital Hyperinsulinism / diagnosis. Levodopa. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Fluorine Radioisotopes. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Mutation. Pancreas / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16380471.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-1797
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 46627O600J / Levodopa
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38. Li Z, Korzh V, Gong Z: Localized rbp4 expression in the yolk syncytial layer plays a role in yolk cell extension and early liver development. BMC Dev Biol; 2007;7:117
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  • Since exocrine pancreas, endocrine pancreas, intestine and heart developed normally in Rbp4 morphants, we suggest that rbp4 expression in the YSL is required only for liver development.


39. Slosar M, Vohra P, Prasad M, Fischer A, Quinlan R, Khan A: Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):149-57
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors.
  • It is highly expressed in carcinomas of the pancreas, stomach, colon, rectum, kidneys, uterine cervix, lung, and ovary.
  • No significant correlation was found between pathologic tumor characteristics and IMP3 expression in differentiated follicular pattern thyroid carcinoma.
  • With 100% specificity and 69% sensitivity for FC as compared to FA and 100% specificity for FVPC, again compared to FA, IMP3 has the potential to be diagnostically useful in differentiating malignant and benign follicular pattern thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19449140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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40. Ozkaya M, Yuzbasioglu MF, Koruk I, Cakal E, Sahin M, Cakal B: Preoperative detection of insulinomas: two case reports. Cases J; 2008;1(1):362
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  • BACKGROUND: Insulinoma is the most common endocrine tumor of the pancreas.
  • We present two cases with benign pancreatic insulinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19040758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2633341
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41. Rubio-Cabezas O, Minton JA, Kantor I, Williams D, Ellard S, Hattersley AT: Homozygous mutations in NEUROD1 are responsible for a novel syndrome of permanent neonatal diabetes and neurological abnormalities. Diabetes; 2010 Sep;59(9):2326-31
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  • Studies in mice suggest that this basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor is critical in the development of endocrine cell lineage.
  • Both patients had permanent diabetes diagnosed in the first 2 months of life with no evidence of exocrine pancreatic dysfunction and a morphologically normal pancreas on abdominal imaging.
  • This syndrome highlights the critical role of NEUROD1 in both the development of the endocrine pancreas and the central nervous system in humans.


42. Søndergaard LG, Stoltenberg M, Doering P, Flyvbjerg A, Rungby J: Zinc ions in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas of zinc deficient rats. Histol Histopathol; 2006 06;21(6):619-25
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  • [Title] Zinc ions in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas of zinc deficient rats.
  • The present study investigates how subclinical zinc deficiency in rats affects glucose metabolism and zinc distribution in the pancreas.
  • Zinc ion staining intensity of the islets of Langerhans was unaffected by the zinc deficiency.
  • In contrast, the acinar cells in the exocrine pancreas appeared depleted of iZnSAMG grains in the zinc deficient rats when compared with their controls.
  • Though statistically non-significant, a reduction in total zinc of the pancreas was found.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that the endocrine pancreas is able to compensate for the subclinical zinc deficiency as it maintains an adequate zinc ion level in the secretory vesicles for insulin storage.
  • The exocrine pancreas lacks this ability; it exhibits decreased levels of zinc ion staining as a consequence of 4 weeks of reduced zinc intake.
  • [MeSH-major] Islets of Langerhans / chemistry. Pancreas, Exocrine / chemistry. Zinc / analysis. Zinc / deficiency

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  • (PMID = 16528672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Ions; 0 / Sulfides; 0 / Zinc Compounds; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose; J41CSQ7QDS / Zinc; KPS085631O / zinc sulfide
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43. Harries LW, Locke JM, Shields B, Hanley NA, Hanley KP, Steele A, Njølstad PR, Ellard S, Hattersley AT: The diabetic phenotype in HNF4A mutation carriers is moderated by the expression of HNF4A isoforms from the P1 promoter during fetal development. Diabetes; 2008 Jun;57(6):1745-52
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  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured the expression of HNF4A isoforms in human adult tissues and gestationally staged fetal pancreas by isoform-specific real-time PCR.
  • The correlation between mutation position and age of diagnosis or age-related penetrance was assessed in a cohort of 190 patients with HNF4A mutations.
  • RESULTS: HNF4A was expressed exclusively from the P2 promoter in adult pancreas, but from 9 weeks until at least 26 weeks after conception, up to 23% of expression in fetal pancreas was of P1 origin.
  • In whole pancreas, HNF4A9 expression was greater than in islets isolated from the endocrine pancreas (relative level 22 vs. 7%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that isoforms derived from the HNF4A P1 promoter are expressed in human fetal, but not adult, pancreas, and that their presence during pancreatic development may moderate the diabetic phenotype in individuals with mutations in the HNF4A gene.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Kidney / physiology. Kidney / physiopathology. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreas / physiology. Pancreas / physiopathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Protein Isoforms / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] Diabetes. 2008 Jun;57(6):1461-2 [18511449.001]
  • (PMID = 18356407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-327X
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 081278/Z/06/Z
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HNF4A protein, human; 0 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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44. Dyrskog SE, Gregersen S, Hermansen K: High-fat feeding during gestation and nursing period have differential effects on the insulin secretory capacity in offspring from normal Wistar rats. Rev Diabet Stud; 2005;2(3):136-45
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  • Restriction of protein or energy intake during gestation or early life is linked to developmental defects in the endocrine pancreas and insulin resistance.
  • After 14 wk, the islets of Langerhans were isolated for determination of insulin secretory capacity in static incubation and dynamic perifusion experiments.

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  • (PMID = 17491688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1614-0575
  • [Journal-full-title] The review of diabetic studies : RDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Diabet Stud
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1783557
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45. Agudo J, Ayuso E, Jimenez V, Salavert A, Casellas A, Tafuro S, Haurigot V, Ruberte J, Segovia JC, Bueren J, Bosch F: IGF-I mediates regeneration of endocrine pancreas by increasing beta cell replication through cell cycle protein modulation in mice. Diabetologia; 2008 Oct;51(10):1862-72
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  • [Title] IGF-I mediates regeneration of endocrine pancreas by increasing beta cell replication through cell cycle protein modulation in mice.
  • Igf1 expression in beta cells of transgenic mice regenerates the endocrine pancreas during type 1 diabetes.
  • In contrast, higher levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21) were detected in islets from non-STZ-treated transgenic mice.
  • Therefore, our study suggests that local production of IGF-I may be a safe approach to regenerate endocrine pancreas to reverse diabetes.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Insulin-Secreting Cells / metabolism. Islets of Langerhans / metabolism


46. Krzysztof K, Wiktor B, Tadeusz Ł, Waldemar B, Magdalena K, Janusz D: Neuroendocrine tumours--analysis of own material--a nine--year retrospective study. Hepatogastroenterology; 2010 Mar-Apr;57(98):236-41
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  • The aim of this study was to present the author's observations of the histological tumor types, occurrence and its surgical treatment.
  • Ultrasonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal cavity, pelvis, thorax or neck--depend on the tumor localization--were done in every individual.
  • All cases were subjected to surgical procedure with an aim to resect the tumour completely.
  • There were 6 cases of neuroendocrine tumours localized in pancreas.
  • In adrenal glands we observed 10 benign and 1 malignant pheochromocytoma (one bilateral female case with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2A).
  • The clinical manifestations of some neuroendocrine tumours are not specific, so it causes a lot of difficulties in early diagnosis and treatment.

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  • (PMID = 20583420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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47. Behrend EN: Update on drugs used to treat endocrine diseases in small animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract; 2006 Sep;36(5):1087-105, vii
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  • [Title] Update on drugs used to treat endocrine diseases in small animals.
  • Drug therapy for the endocrine system is implemented to replace a hormone deficiency or to prevent or reduce the formation or effects of excess hormone.
  • Treatment of endocrine disorders covers diseases of the pituitary, adrenal, parathyroid, and thyroid glands as well as the endocrine pancreas.

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  • (PMID = 16984828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Insulin, Long-Acting; 08J2K08A3Y / Dihydrotestosterone; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; L0FPV48Q5R / trilostane
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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48. Le D, Karmali S, Harness JK, Sheppard BC: An update: the operative experience in adrenal, pancreatic, and other less common endocrine diseases of U.S. general surgery residents. World J Surg; 2008 Feb;32(2):232-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An update: the operative experience in adrenal, pancreatic, and other less common endocrine diseases of U.S. general surgery residents.
  • BACKGROUND: A prior study that examined the operative experience of general surgery residents in endocrine surgery for the academic years 1986-1987 to 1993-1994 found this training to be inadequate due to low operative volume.
  • METHODS: To evaluate how the development of minimally invasive endocrine surgery might alter this outcome, we reviewed more recent data from the Resident Statistic Summaries (Report C) of the Residency Review Committee from 1994-1995 to 2003-2004.
  • For adrenalectomy, the average number of cases per resident was 1.46; for endocrine pancreas, the average was 0.14.
  • CONCLUSION: Reports from postgraduate training in laparoscopic or endocrine surgery suggest that these fellowships may provide the necessary additional operative experience.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Clinical Competence / statistics & numerical data. Endocrine Surgical Procedures / statistics & numerical data. General Surgery / education. Internship and Residency / statistics & numerical data. Pancreatic Diseases / surgery


49. Lynn FC: Meta-regulation: microRNA regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Nov;20(9):452-9
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  • MicroRNAs are key players in this regulatory milieu; they have been implicated in regulating gene expression within several metabolically active tissues including the endocrine pancreas, liver and adipose tissue.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue / metabolism. Animals. Brain / metabolism. Humans. Islets of Langerhans / metabolism. Liver / metabolism. Muscles / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19800254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3061
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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50. Goh BK, Ooi LL, Kumarasinghe MP, Tan YM, Cheow PC, Chow PK, Chung YF, Wong WK: Clinicopathological features of patients with concomitant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas and pancreatic endocrine neoplasm. Pancreatology; 2006;6(6):520-6
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological features of patients with concomitant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas and pancreatic endocrine neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: The occurrence of concomitant pancreatic endocrine neoplasm (PEN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas has rarely been reported.
  • The median size of the endocrine neoplasms was 14 mm (range 2-30) and they occurred in the head (n = 3), body (n = 2) and tail (n = 5).
  • Seven of the PENs were classified as benign, 2 were potentially malignant, and 1 was frankly malignant with lymph node involvement.
  • None of the endocrine neoplasms were functioning.
  • The IPMNs were found in the tail (n = 4), head (n = 3), head and body (n = 1), body (n = 1) and the entire pancreas (n = 1).
  • Five of these neoplasms were benign, 2 were borderline and 3 were malignant (1 carcinoma in situ).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chromogranins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP.
  • (PMID = 17124434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-3903
  • [Journal-full-title] Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pancreatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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51. Henopp T, Anlauf M, Schmitt A, Schlenger R, Zalatnai A, Couvelard A, Ruszniewski P, Schaps KP, Jonkers YM, Speel EJ, Pellegata NS, Heitz PU, Komminoth P, Perren A, Klöppel G: Glucagon cell adenomatosis: a newly recognized disease of the endocrine pancreas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jan;94(1):213-7
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  • [Title] Glucagon cell adenomatosis: a newly recognized disease of the endocrine pancreas.
  • BACKGROUND: Glucagon-producing tumors are either solitary neoplasms of the pancreas, occasionally associated with a glucagonoma syndrome, or multiple neoplasms associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1).
  • We observed a previously undescribed multicentric glucagon-producing tumor disease that is not related to MEN1.
  • In addition, many islets were unusually large and showed glucagon cell hyperplasia.
  • There was no clinical or molecular evidence of any hereditary tumor disease, and changes in the MEN1 gene were only seen in individual tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The findings are sufficiently distinctive to suggest a new neoplastic disease of the endocrine pancreas that we recommend calling glucagon cell adenomatosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / genetics. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18957496.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 9007-92-5 / Glucagon; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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52. Ajabnoor MA, El-Naggar MM, Elayat AA, Abdulrafee A: Functional and morphological study of cultured pancreatic islets treated with cyclosporine. Life Sci; 2007 Jan 2;80(4):345-55
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  • [Title] Functional and morphological study of cultured pancreatic islets treated with cyclosporine.
  • Cyclosporine A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressive drug, has been found to induce glucose intolerance through its toxic effect on the endocrine pancreas.
  • It is not exactly known whether CsA has a direct effect on the endocrine pancreas or induces its effect indirectly.
  • The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the function and morphology of isolated pancreatic islets when they are directly exposed in vitro to CsA.
  • Pancreatic islets were isolated from adult male Lewis rats using collagenase ductal perfusion technique.
  • The islets were separated with the discontinuous Ficoll gradient technique and further purified by hand picking of the non-islet tissue.
  • The islets were cultured in RPMI-1640, pH 7.4 and maintained at 37 degrees C in a humid atmosphere of 5% (v/v) carbon dioxide in air.
  • Islets were harvested at 1, 4 and 10 days of culture and processed for functional or histological study.
  • The functional study of the islets cultured with 1 microg/ml CsA showed insulin and C-peptide contents similar to those of the control islets.
  • The islets cultured with 5 microg/ml CsA showed a marked decrease in insulin and C-peptide contents.
  • Phase contrast microscopy showed that the islets cultured with 1 microg/ml CsA were mostly normal looking with a well-defined regular periphery; a few islets had ill-defined or irregular peripheries.
  • The islets cultured with 5 microg/ml CsA had ill-defined irregular peripheries at 1 day, and were dense and forming clumps at 4 and 10 days following culture.
  • Islets showed a weakly positive immunoperoxidase reaction for insulin that was weaker following the toxic dose of CsA.
  • It is concluded that CsA has a direct effect on B-cells that was proved by the functional and morphological changes seen in the pancreatic islets cultured in vitro.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclosporine / toxicity. Immunosuppressive Agents / toxicity. Islets of Langerhans / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17074365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-3205
  • [Journal-full-title] Life sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Life Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / C-Peptide; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Insulin; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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53. Karaca M, Magnan C, Kargar C: Functional pancreatic beta-cell mass: involvement in type 2 diabetes and therapeutic intervention. Diabetes Metab; 2009 Apr;35(2):77-84
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  • It is also the consequence of an inability of the endocrine pancreas to adapt the beta-cell mass to insulin demand (pancreas plasticity), which eventually leads to a decrease in functional beta-cell mass.

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  • (PMID = 19251449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1262-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetes & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabetes Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors; 0 / Incretins; 89750-14-1 / Glucagon-Like Peptide 1; EC 3.4.14.5 / DPP4 protein, human; EC 3.4.14.5 / Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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54. Nishi M, Sasahara M, Shono T, Saika S, Yamamoto Y, Ohkawa K, Furuta H, Nakao T, Sasaki H, Nanjo K: A case of novel de novo paired box gene 6 (PAX6) mutation with early-onset diabetes mellitus and aniridia. Diabet Med; 2005 May;22(5):641-4
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  • [Title] A case of novel de novo paired box gene 6 (PAX6) mutation with early-onset diabetes mellitus and aniridia.
  • PAX6 is also involved in the development of the endocrine pancreas, and reported to be a genetic factor common to aniridia and glucose intolerance, although the latter is usually mild.

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  • (PMID = 15842522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3071
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabet. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / PAX6 protein; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Repressor Proteins
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55. Meivar-Levy I, Ferber S: Regenerative medicine: using liver to generate pancreas for treating diabetes. Isr Med Assoc J; 2006 Jun;8(6):430-4
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  • [Title] Regenerative medicine: using liver to generate pancreas for treating diabetes.
  • We review recent evidence documenting the surprising capacity of the mature liver to serve as a potential source of tissue for generating functional endocrine pancreas.
  • The process of liver-to-pancreas developmental redirection is induced by ectopic expression of pancreatic transcription and differentiation factors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Differentiation. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Islets of Langerhans Transplantation. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Transcription, Genetic. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 16833177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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56. Takahashi N, Kasai H: Exocytic process analyzed with two-photon excitation imaging in endocrine pancreas. Endocr J; 2007 Jun;54(3):337-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Exocytic process analyzed with two-photon excitation imaging in endocrine pancreas.
  • At insulin exocytosis in the pancreatic islets, it took two seconds for the fusion pore to dilate from 1.4 nm in diameter to 6 nm in diameter, and such unusual stability of the pore may be due to the crystallization of the intragranular contents.
  • [MeSH-major] Exocytosis / physiology. Islets of Langerhans / ultrastructure. Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton / methods. Secretory Vesicles / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 17409577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Insulin; 0 / SNARE Proteins; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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57. Fasanella KE, McGrath KM, Sanders M, Brody D, Domsic R, Khalid A: Pancreatic endocrine tumor EUS-guided FNA DNA microsatellite loss and mortality. Gastrointest Endosc; 2009 May;69(6):1074-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pancreatic endocrine tumor EUS-guided FNA DNA microsatellite loss and mortality.
  • BACKGROUND: The clinical course of pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET) depends on tumor size, the presence of invasion or metastasis, the Ki-67 index, mitoses per high power field, and mutational damage.
  • Malignant PET contained multiple microsatellite losses, with a median fractional allelic loss (FAL) of 0.37 (range 0.12-0.69, interquartile range [IQR] 0.23-0.42), significantly different from benign PET, median FAL 0 (range 0-0.18, IQR 0-0.08, P < .0001).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreas / pathology. Pancreas / ultrasonography. Prognosis

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  • [CommentIn] Gastrointest Endosc. 2009 May;69(6):1081-4 [19410041.001]
  • (PMID = 19152901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6779
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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58. Koyuturk M, Ozsoy-Sacan O, Bolkent S, Yanardag R: Effect of glurenorm on immunohistochemical changes in pancreatic beta cells of rats in experimental diabetes. Indian J Exp Biol; 2005 Mar;43(3):268-71
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  • Immunohistochemical localization of islets of Langerhans of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, ip) induced diabetic + glurenorm (10 mg/kg, po) treated female albino rats revealed increase in number of beta cells and insulin immunoreactivity of beta cells.
  • The results suggest that glurenorm can cause the stimulation of beta cells of endocrine pancreas in diabetic rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / drug therapy. Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Islets of Langerhans / drug effects. Sulfonylurea Compounds / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15816415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5189
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of experimental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J. Exp. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Sulfonylurea Compounds; C7C2QDD75P / gliquidone
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59. Youson JH, Al-Mahrouki AA, Amemiya Y, Graham LC, Montpetit CJ, Irwin DM: The fish endocrine pancreas: review, new data, and future research directions in ontogeny and phylogeny. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2006 Sep 1;148(2):105-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The fish endocrine pancreas: review, new data, and future research directions in ontogeny and phylogeny.
  • The literature on the ontogeny and phylogeny of the endocrine pancreas of ray-finned fishes is summarized since the latest review in fish [Youson, J.H., Al-Mahrouki, A.A., 1999. Review.
  • Ontogenetic and phylogenetic development of the endocrine pancreas (islet organ) in fishes. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • The present study also provides the first comparative analysis of sequences of preprohormones of endocrine peptides from closely related basal teleost species.
  • [MeSH-major] Fishes / embryology. Fishes / genetics. Fishes / physiology. Islets of Langerhans / embryology. Islets of Langerhans / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16430894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6480
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 59763-91-6 / Pancreatic Polypeptide
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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60. Metz DC, Jensen RT: Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: pancreatic endocrine tumors. Gastroenterology; 2008 Nov;135(5):1469-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: pancreatic endocrine tumors.
  • Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) have long fascinated clinicians and investigators despite their relative rarity.
  • Their clinical presentation varies depending on whether the tumor is functional or not, and also according to the specific hormonal syndrome produced.
  • Chromogranin A appears to be the most useful serum marker for diagnosis, staging, and monitoring.
  • Most PETs are relatively indolent but ultimately malignant, except for insulinomas, which predominantly are benign.
  • Surgery is the only modality that offers the possibility of cure, although it generally is noncurative in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or nonfunctional PETs with multiple endocrine neoplasia-type 1.
  • Systemic or regional therapies generally are reserved until symptoms occur or tumor growth is rapid.
  • This review addresses a number of recent advances regarding the molecular pathology, diagnosis, localization, and management of PETs including discussion of peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy and other novel antitumor approaches.
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Global Health. Humans. Morbidity. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18703061.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 DK053200-16; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 DK053215-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 308
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS78368; NLM/ PMC2612755
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61. Montero F, Baglietto-Vargas D, Moreno-González I, López-Tellez JF, Cuesta-Munoz AL, Gutiérrez A, Aledo JC: Glutaminase activity is confined to the mantle of the islets of Langerhans. Biochimie; 2007 Nov;89(11):1366-71
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  • [Title] Glutaminase activity is confined to the mantle of the islets of Langerhans.
  • Glutamatergic signalling plays an important role in the coordination of hormone secretion from the endocrine pancreas.
  • Recently we have reported that the endocrine pancreas co-expresses two isoforms of the protein glutaminase (GA), denoted as kidney-type (KGA) and liver-type (LGA).
  • However, how GA activity, and therefore glutamate production, is regulated in the islets represents a critical issue that remains unresolved.
  • Since the purification of these enzymes from rat islets is a daunting task, in order to characterize each isoform we have taken advantage of the spatial segregation of these isoenzymes in pancreas.
  • All the GA activity detected in pancreatic islets was attributed to KGA and was confined to the mantle of the islets.
  • Double labelling analyses strongly suggested that alpha-cells should be regarded as the site of glutamate production in the endocrine pancreas.
  • [MeSH-major] Glutaminase / metabolism. Islets of Langerhans / cytology. Islets of Langerhans / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 17614191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9084
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochimie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 3.5.1.2 / Glutaminase
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62. Eberhard D, Lammert E: The pancreatic beta-cell in the islet and organ community. Curr Opin Genet Dev; 2009 Oct;19(5):469-75
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  • The endocrine pancreas consists of highly vascularized and innervated endocrine mini-organs--the islets of Langerhans.
  • Now multiple interactions with endocrine and nonendocrine islet cells as well as with other organs have been shown to affect the developing as well as the mature beta-cell.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulin-Secreting Cells / cytology. Insulin-Secreting Cells / physiology. Islets of Langerhans. Pancreas

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  • (PMID = 19713099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0380
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in genetics & development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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63. Capurso G, Crnogorac-Jurcevic T, Milione M, Panzuto F, Campanini N, Dowen SE, Di Florio A, Sette C, Bordi C, Lemoine NR, Delle Fave G: Peanut-like 1 (septin 5) gene expression in normal and neoplastic human endocrine pancreas. Neuroendocrinology; 2005;81(5):311-21
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  • [Title] Peanut-like 1 (septin 5) gene expression in normal and neoplastic human endocrine pancreas.
  • As the secretory apparatus of pancreatic islet cells closely resembles that of neurons, we decided to study the expression of PNUTL1 in the human endocrine pancreas, both in normal islets and in pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs).
  • Normal pancreatic tissue, purified islets, 11 PETs and two cell lines were used to evaluate the presence of PNUTL1 by RT-PCR and Western blot.
  • The expression of the PNUTL1 protein was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry on normal pancreas, additional 26 PETs, eight pancreatic adenocarcinomas, one mixed endocrine-exocrine pancreatic neoplasm, a specimen of solid papillary pseudomucinous tumor, an adult islet cell hyperplasia and a case of neonatal nesidioblastosis.
  • In addition, a tissue array (LandMark High Density Cancer Tissue MicroArray) comprising 280 various tumor and matched normal specimens was utilized.
  • In the normal pancreas PNUTL1 expression is almost exclusively confined to the islet cells, weak expression was occasionally seen in some acinar cells, while immunoreactivity was completely absent in the ductal epithelia.
  • Our findings describe for the first time the high expression levels of PNUTL1 in human pancreatic endocrine cells that suggests a similar role of this protein in islet cells to that demonstrated in neuronal tissues, and warrants further functional studies of this protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Gene Expression / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Islets of Langerhans / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16179808.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.6.1.- / SEPT5 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.- / Septins
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64. Zhang Q, Davenport JR, Croyle MJ, Haycraft CJ, Yoder BK: Disruption of IFT results in both exocrine and endocrine abnormalities in the pancreas of Tg737(orpk) mutant mice. Lab Invest; 2005 Jan;85(1):45-64
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  • [Title] Disruption of IFT results in both exocrine and endocrine abnormalities in the pancreas of Tg737(orpk) mutant mice.
  • Here, we further establish a connection between cilia dysfunction and disease by showing that loss of polaris (Tg737), an intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein required for ciliogenesis, causes abnormalities in the exocrine and endocrine pancreas of the Tg737(orpk) mouse.
  • In addition, serum amylase levels are elevated and carboxypeptidase is abnormally activated within the pancreas.
  • Intriguingly, although the acini are severely affected in Tg737(orpk) mutants, cilia and Tg737 expression are restricted to the ducts and islets and are not detected on acinar cells.
  • Analysis of the endocrine pancreas in Tg737(orpk) mutants revealed normal differentiation and distribution of cell types in the islets.

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  • (PMID = 15580285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-6837
  • [Journal-full-title] Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lab. Invest.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK074038; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK07545; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK65655
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tg737Rpw protein, mouse; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 3.2.1.23 / beta-Galactosidase
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65. Dai MH, Zhao YP, Liao Q, Liu ZW, Guo JC, Cong L: [Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: current indications and surgical results]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Aug 1;44(15):1022-5
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  • 2005 with diagnosis of masses located at pancreatic body/tail.
  • Preoperative diagnosis: nine patients with cystic lesion located at pancreatic body and tail, one patient with pancreatic endocrine tumor with liver metastasis, which located at pancreatic tail.
  • The mean size of the tumor was 4.0 cm.
  • The serum levels of tumor markers (including CA19-9, CA242, CA50 and CEA) of the patients were all normal.
  • During the follow-up, nine patients with benign cystic lesions did not relapse.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy was safe and feasible for benign cystic tumors located at the body or tail of the pancreas.

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  • (PMID = 17074236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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66. Jain R, Lammert E: Cell-cell interactions in the endocrine pancreas. Diabetes Obes Metab; 2009 Nov;11 Suppl 4:159-67
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  • [Title] Cell-cell interactions in the endocrine pancreas.
  • The islets of Langerhans forming the endocrine pancreas are composed of alpha-, beta-, delta-, epsilon- and PP-cells, and interactions between these cells are required for fine-tuning glucose homeostasis of the body.
  • The endocrine cells communicate through homotypic or heterotypic cell-cell adhesion, or in a paracrine fashion, and this communication is involved in the regulated secretion of islet hormones.
  • This review discusses how islet hormones, secreted molecules and ions influence the endocrine cells and how cell adhesion molecules such as neural cell adhesion molecule, cadherins, connexin-36, Eph receptors and ephrin ligands, as well as extracellular matrix proteins, modulate pancreatic islet function.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Communication / physiology. Insulin-Secreting Cells / physiology. Islets of Langerhans / cytology. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / physiology. Receptors, Eph Family / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19817798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1326
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetes, obesity & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabetes Obes Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Eph Family
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67. Reis AF, Hauache OM, Velho G: Vitamin D endocrine system and the genetic susceptibility to diabetes, obesity and vascular disease. A review of evidence. Diabetes Metab; 2005 Sep;31(4 Pt 1):318-25
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  • [Title] Vitamin D endocrine system and the genetic susceptibility to diabetes, obesity and vascular disease. A review of evidence.
  • The Vitamin D endocrine system regulates multiple aspects of calcium metabolism and cellular differentiation and replication in the immune system, endocrine pancreas, liver, skeletal muscles and adipocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus / genetics. Endocrine System / physiology. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Obesity / genetics. Receptors, Calcitriol / genetics. Vascular Diseases / genetics. Vitamin D / physiology


68. Lavoie EG, Fausther M, Kauffenstein G, Kukulski F, Künzli BM, Friess H, Sévigny J: Identification of the ectonucleotidases expressed in mouse, rat, and human Langerhans islets: potential role of NTPDase3 in insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Oct;299(4):E647-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of the ectonucleotidases expressed in mouse, rat, and human Langerhans islets: potential role of NTPDase3 in insulin secretion.
  • Extracellular nucleotides and adenosine regulate endocrine pancreatic functions such as insulin secretion by Langerhans islet β-cells via the activation of specific P2 and P1 receptors.
  • The objective of this study was to identify and localize the major ectonucleotidases, namely NTPDases and ecto-5'-nucleotidase, present in the endocrine pancreas.
  • The localization of ectonucleotidase activity and protein was carried out in situ by enzyme histochemistry and immunolocalization in mouse, rat, and human pancreas sections.
  • NTPDase1 was localized in all blood vessels and acini, and NTPDase2 was localized in capillaries of Langerhans islets and in peripheral conjunctive tissue, whereas NTPDase3 was detected in all Langerhans islet cell types.
  • Interestingly, among the mammalian species tested, ecto-5'-nucleotidase was present only in rat Langerhans islet cells, where it was coexpressed with NTPDase3.
  • In conclusion, all pancreatic endocrine cells express NTPDase3 that was shown to modulate insulin secretion in rat INS-1 (832/13) β-cells.
  • Ecto-5'-nucleotidase is expressed in rat Langerhans islet cells but absent in human and mouse endocrine cells.
  • [MeSH-major] 5'-Nucleotidase / physiology. Insulin / secretion. Islets of Langerhans / enzymology. Islets of Langerhans / secretion. Pyrophosphatases / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20682839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-1555
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; EC 3.1.3.5 / 5'-Nucleotidase; EC 3.6.1.- / Pyrophosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / nucleoside-triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3
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69. Saruç M, Karaarslan M, Rasa K, Saygili O, Ince U, Baysal C, Pour PM, Cakmakçi M, Tözün N: Pancreatic cancer and glucose metabolism. Turk J Gastroenterol; 2009 Dec;20(4):257-60
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  • We aimed to investigate the relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer, and also the impact of tumor removal on glucose metabolism.
  • Thirteen patients (72%) had normal glucose metabolism after tumor removal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that tumor removal in pancreatic cancer patients improved glucose metabolism.
  • This occurred despite a postoperative reduction in endocrine pancreas mass, which may suggest the presence of insulin resistance and diabetogenic effect of pancreatic cancer.
  • The elucidation of the mechanism is of immense importance for providing an early tumor marker and preventative and therapeutic modalities.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology. Diabetes Mellitus / metabolism. Female. Glucose Tolerance Test. Humans. Hyperinsulinism / epidemiology. Hyperinsulinism / metabolism. Insulin / blood. Insulin Resistance. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 20084568.001).
  • [ISSN] 2148-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of gastroenterology : the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Insulin
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70. Reusens B, Remacle C: Programming of the endocrine pancreas by the early nutritional environment. Int J Biochem Cell Biol; 2006;38(5-6):913-22
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  • [Title] Programming of the endocrine pancreas by the early nutritional environment.
  • It focuses on the alteration of the endocrine pancreas at birth.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreas / embryology. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Diabetes, Gestational / physiopathology. Female. Humans. Insulin-Secreting Cells / pathology. Islets of Langerhans / embryology. Mitochondria / physiology. Pregnancy. Protein Deficiency / complications. Protein-Energy Malnutrition / complications. Uterus / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 16337425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-2725
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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71. Rieck S, Kaestner KH: Expansion of beta-cell mass in response to pregnancy. Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Mar;21(3):151-8
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  • During times of prolonged metabolic demand for insulin, the endocrine pancreas can respond by increasing beta-cell mass, both by increasing cell size and by changing the balance between beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20015659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3061
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK055342-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK055342; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK055342-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01-DK055243
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 84
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS309330; NLM/ PMC3627215
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72. Yagil C, Barkalifa R, Sapojnikov M, Wechsler A, Ben-Dor D, Weksler-Zangen S, Kaiser N, Raz I, Yagil Y: Metabolic and genomic dissection of diabetes in the Cohen rat. Physiol Genomics; 2007 Apr 24;29(2):181-92
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  • The development of diabetes is accompanied by depletion of the acini from the exocrine pancreas and replacement with fat cells, while the appearance of the islets of Langerhans remains intact.
  • With reversion back from diabetogenic to regular diet, the diabetic phenotype disappears but the histological changes in the exocrine pancreas prevail.
  • We conclude that the development of diabetes in our model is dependent upon high casein and low copper in diet, that it is accompanied by histomorphological changes in the exocrine but not endocrine pancreas, that it is reversible, and that it is associated with a major QTL on chromosome 4 in which we detected Ica1, a high priority candidate gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Animal Feed / analysis. Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / genetics. Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / metabolism. Diet. Disease Models, Animal. Pancreas / pathology. Quantitative Trait Loci

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  • (PMID = 17213368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-2267
  • [Journal-full-title] Physiological genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Physiol. Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Caseins; 0 / Ica1 protein, rat; 789U1901C5 / Copper
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73. Palumbo P, De Gaetano A: An islet population model of the endocrine pancreas. J Math Biol; 2010 Aug;61(2):171-205
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  • [Title] An islet population model of the endocrine pancreas.
  • Without detailing the chain of biochemical events giving rise to the delivery of insulin packets, the effect of the islets' bursting response to varying glucose concentration is described by a simple second order nonlinear model, of the same functional form for all islets, but with a random distribution of parameter values over the one million islets considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Islets of Langerhans / cytology. Islets of Langerhans / metabolism. Models, Biological

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  • (PMID = 19756607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1416
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of mathematical biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Math Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Insulin
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74. Hammerman MR: Growing new endocrine pancreas in situ. Clin Exp Nephrol; 2006 Mar;10(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Growing new endocrine pancreas in situ.
  • Embryonic pancreatic primordia transplanted into diabetic animal hosts undergo selective endocrine differentiation in situ and normalize glucose tolerance.
  • [MeSH-major] Organogenesis. Pancreas / embryology. Pancreas, Artificial. Tissue Engineering / methods

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  • (PMID = 16544171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1342-1751
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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75. Deramaudt TB, Sachdeva MM, Wescott MP, Chen Y, Stoffers DA, Rustgi AK: The PDX1 homeodomain transcription factor negatively regulates the pancreatic ductal cell-specific keratin 19 promoter. J Biol Chem; 2006 Dec 15;281(50):38385-95
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  • The pancreas has three distinct cell types, ductal, acinar, and islet, each with different functions.
  • Embryologically, the pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) homeodomain protein is critical for the initiation of all pancreatic lineages; however, the later differentiation of the endocrine pancreas is uniquely dependent upon high PDX1 expression, whereas PDX1 is down-regulated in the ductal and acinar cell lineages.
  • Furthermore, PDX1 may inhibit the ductal differentiation program in the pancreatic endocrine compartment, particularly beta cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Homeodomain Proteins / physiology. Keratin-19 / genetics. Pancreas / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Trans-Activators / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Base Sequence. Cell Line. DNA Primers. Genes, Reporter. Insulinoma / genetics. Insulinoma / pathology. Mice. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17056599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / 5T32 GM 08216-19; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P01 DK 49210; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK 19525; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK 50306; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK 068157; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK 50306
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / myeloid ecotropic viral integration site 1 protein; 0 / pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 protein
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76. Erbel S, Reers C, Nawroth PP, Ritzel RA: Prolonged culture of human islets induces ER stress. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Feb;118(2):81-6
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  • [Title] Prolonged culture of human islets induces ER stress.
  • Isolated human islets are a frequently used model to examine islet pathophysiology in T2D.
  • Therefore it is important to establish how function and beta-cell turnover of human islets change in culture.
  • Islets from four organ donors were cultured over four weeks.
  • At 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks aliquots of islets were used for analysis of a) islet-cell turnover (replication by Ki-67 and apoptosis by TUNEL staining), b) the ER stress level (CHOP and phospho-eIF2alpha staining), c) fractional beta-cell content (insulin staining) and d) islet function (2 h static incubation).
  • In comparison to islets in situ islet cell turnover is accelerated (>10-fold).
  • In conclusion, isolated human islets may be used for in vitro experiments for up to three weeks.
  • Studies analyzing the pathophysiology of human T2D at the level of the endocrine pancreas need to confirm results obtained with isolated human islets by analysis of primary human pancreatic tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Endoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism. Islets of Langerhans / cytology. Islets of Langerhans / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.
  • (PMID = 19838981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2; 0 / Insulin; 147336-12-7 / Transcription Factor CHOP
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77. Bindom SM, Lazartigues E: The sweeter side of ACE2: physiological evidence for a role in diabetes. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Apr 29;302(2):193-202
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  • The enzyme is present in the kidney, liver, adipose tissue and pancreas.
  • Its expression is elevated in the endocrine pancreas in diabetes and in the early phase during diabetic nephropathy.
  • Recently, we have shown the presence of the Mas receptor in the mouse pancreas and observed a reduction in Mas receptor immuno-reactivity as well as higher fasting blood glucose levels in ACE2 knockout mice, indicating that these mice may be a new model to study the role of ACE2 in diabetes.

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  • (PMID = 18948167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR018766-066843; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR018766-066843; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS052479; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS052479-02S1; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS052479-01S1; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR018766-057611; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS052479-01S1; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS052479; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS052479-02S1; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR018766; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR018766-057611
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / angiotensin I (1-7); 0 / proto-oncogene proteins c-mas-1; 9041-90-1 / Angiotensin I; EC 3.4.15.1 / Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A; EC 3.4.17.- / angiotensin converting enzyme 2
  • [Number-of-references] 144
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS106716; NLM/ PMC2676688
  •  go-up   go-down


78. Nikolic T, Geutskens SB, van Rooijen N, Drexhage HA, Leenen PJ: Dendritic cells and macrophages are essential for the retention of lymphocytes in (peri)-insulitis of the nonobese diabetic mouse: a phagocyte depletion study. Lab Invest; 2005 Apr;85(4):487-501
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  • Dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (Mphi) are present in high numbers in the pancreas of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse during the diabetogenic process from very early stages onwards.
  • Interestingly, this treatment caused a delayed disappearance (7-21 days postinjection) of DC and Mphi from the endocrine pancreas at a time when monocytes, DC and Mphi had already repopulated the circulation and the spleen.
  • The depletion of DC and Mphi from the endocrine pancreas was accompanied by a total disappearance of lymphocytes from the pancreas.
  • Taken together, our data show an essential role of phagocytic cells, that is, DC and Mphi, in the recruitment of lymphocytes to the pancreatic islets in NOD mice.

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  • (PMID = 15654358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-6837
  • [Journal-full-title] Laboratory investigation;