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1. Hanker L, Karn T, Ruckhaeberle E, Gaetje R, Solbach C, Schmidt M, Engels K, Holtrich U, Kaufmann M, Rody A: Clinical relevance of the putative stem cell marker p63 in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Aug;122(3):765-75
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  • This protein is crucial for the maintenance of a stem cell population in the human epithelium and necessary for the normal development of all epithelial tissues including mammary glands.
  • Tumor samples containing large amounts of benign breast tissue, which will interfere with p63 measurement, were excluded prior to the analysis.
  • In a subgroup analysis, endocrine-treated patients with high p63 expression showed a better prognosis than low p63 expression (P = 0.06; n = 186).
  • P63 is a positive prognostic factor in endocrine-treated ER positive breast cancer and might influence responsiveness to endocrine treatment.
  • Thus, p63 could be helpful as a predictive factor for endocrine therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19898932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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2. Krzysztof K, Wiktor B, Tadeusz Ł, Waldemar B, Magdalena K, Janusz D: Neuroendocrine tumours--analysis of own material--a nine--year retrospective study. Hepatogastroenterology; 2010 Mar-Apr;57(98):236-41
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  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neuroendocrine tumours are fairly rare neoplasms that require different treatments and have various prognoses.
  • The aim of this study was to present the author's observations of the histological tumor types, occurrence and its surgical treatment.
  • Ultrasonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal cavity, pelvis, thorax or neck--depend on the tumor localization--were done in every individual.
  • All cases were subjected to surgical procedure with an aim to resect the tumour completely.
  • In adrenal glands we observed 10 benign and 1 malignant pheochromocytoma (one bilateral female case with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2A).
  • The clinical manifestations of some neuroendocrine tumours are not specific, so it causes a lot of difficulties in early diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20583420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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3. Brauckhoff M, Dralle H: [Recurrent operations on the adrenal glands]. Chirurg; 2005 Mar;76(3):227-37
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  • [Title] [Recurrent operations on the adrenal glands].
  • Repeat adrenalectomy may be required due to ipsilateral recurrence of benign or malignant adrenal tumors after previous total or subtotal adrenalectomy.
  • Even for multivisceral resection in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma, complete resection of local recurrent tumor offers results similar to those of primary resection (5-year survival 40-60%).
  • In contrast, since no benefit on long-term survival has been shown so far by tumor debulking, palliative tumor resection should only be performed individually for control of severe endocrine symptoms.
  • In any case, during open or endoscopic approach, tumor spillage must be avoided to prevent local tumor cell implantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Palliative Care. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / mortality. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 15739057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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4. Veveris-Lowe TL, Lawrence MG, Collard RL, Bui L, Herington AC, Nicol DL, Clements JA: Kallikrein 4 (hK4) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are associated with the loss of E-cadherin and an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like effect in prostate cancer cells. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Sep;12(3):631-43
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  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and the related kallikrein family of serine proteases are current or emerging biomarkers for prostate cancer detection and progression.
  • In this study, we now show that the comparative expression of hK4 protein in prostate cancer tissues, compared with benign glands, is greater than that of PSA and kallikrein 2 (KLK2/hK2), suggesting that hK4 may play an important functional role in prostate cancer progression in addition to its biomarker potential.
  • We hypothesised that this increase in motility displayed by the hK4 and PSA-expressing PC-3 cells may be related to the observed change in structure in these cells from a typical rounded epithelial-like cell to a spindle-shaped, more mesenchymal-like cell, with compromised adhesion to the culture surface.
  • The loss of E-cadherin and associated increase in vimentin are indicative of EMT and provides compelling evidence that hK4, in particular, and PSA have a functional role in the progression of prostate cancer through their promotion of tumour cell migration.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / metabolism. Kallikreins / metabolism. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Male. Mesoderm / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness


5. Ramuz O, Lelong B, Giovannini M, Delpero JR, Rochaix P, Xerri L, Hassoun J, Flejou JF, Monges G: "Sugar" tumor of the pancreas: a rare entity that is diagnosable on preoperative fine-needle biopsies. Virchows Arch; 2005 May;446(5):555-9
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  • [Title] "Sugar" tumor of the pancreas: a rare entity that is diagnosable on preoperative fine-needle biopsies.
  • This study is the second to report a pancreatic "sugar" tumor (ST) case.
  • Both CT scan and endoluminal ultrasonography (EUS) features evoked a 15-mm large benign endocrine tumor.
  • Pathological examination of EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies could not confirm this diagnosis.
  • The tumor was intrapancreatic, well circumscribed, and organized in sheets of epithelioid cells.
  • The tumor cells expressed HMB-45 but did not express epithelial or endocrine immunohistochemical markers.
  • This observation highlights that STs should be considered in preoperative differential diagnosis of pancreas tumors, since they may be treated by limited surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiomyolipoma / chemistry. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Antigens, Neoplasm. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / complications. Humans. Laparoscopy. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Pancreatectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15821930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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6. Polamaung W, Wisedopas N, Vasinanukorn P, Pak-art P, Snabboon T: Asymptomatic bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2007 Oct;13(6):667-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONCLUSION: Myelolipoma is a relatively rare benign tumor of the adrenal glands composed of adipose cells and mature hematopoietic elements.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17954426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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7. Uchida K, Toriumi Y, Kawase K, Tabei I, Yamashita A, Nogi H: Percutaneous endoscopy-guided biopsy of an intracystic tumor with a mammary ductoscopy. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(2):215-8
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  • [Title] Percutaneous endoscopy-guided biopsy of an intracystic tumor with a mammary ductoscopy.
  • METHODS: An endoscope was inserted into the cyst percutaneously, and the intracystic tumor was biopsied using forceps.
  • Four of six cases were cancer, and two were benign papillomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Breast Cyst / pathology. Endoscopy / methods. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Endoscopes. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Nipples / secretion. Papilloma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17485908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Agarwal A, Mehrotra PK, Jain M, Gupta SK, Mishra A, Chand G, Agarwal G, Verma AK, Mishra SK, Singh U: Size of the tumor and pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS): can they predict malignancy? World J Surg; 2010 Dec;34(12):3022-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Size of the tumor and pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS): can they predict malignancy?
  • The goal of this study was to find a correlation between the tumor size and malignant potential of PCC and determine whether the "Pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score" (PASS) proposed by Thompson can be applied to predict malignancy.
  • Tumor size was available for 90 tumors.
  • RESULTS: Of the benign cases, none developed recurrence or metastasis.
  • Of the sporadic benign cases, 21 (41%) patients with tumor size > 6 cm had a PASS of >4, and none of them developed metastasis.
  • No correlation was found between tumor size and PASS > 4 and PASS ≤ 4 (7.8 cm vs. 7.1 cm; p = 0.23).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20703467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Dong Y, Bui LT, Odorico DM, Tan OL, Myers SA, Samaratunga H, Gardiner RA, Clements JA: Compartmentalized expression of kallikrein 4 (KLK4/hK4) isoforms in prostate cancer: nuclear, cytoplasmic and secreted forms. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Dec;12(4):875-89
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  • The prostate-specific antigen-related serine protease gene, kallikrein 4 (KLK4), is expressed in the prostate and, more importantly, overexpressed in prostate cancer.
  • Using V5/His6 and green fluorescent protein (GFP) carboxy terminal tagged expression constructs and immunocytochemical approaches, we found that hK4-254 is cytoplasmically localized, while the N-terminal truncated hK4-205 is in the nucleus of transfected PC-3 prostate cancer cells.
  • At the protein level, using anti-hK4 peptide antibodies specific to different regions of hK4-254 (N-terminal and C-terminal), we also demonstrated that endogenous hK4-254 (detected with the N-terminal antibody) is more intensely stained in malignant cells than in benign prostate cells, and is secreted into seminal fluid.
  • In contrast, for the endogenous nuclear-localized N-terminal truncated hK4-205 form, there was less difference in staining intensity between benign and cancer glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Kallikreins / analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgens / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Glycosylation. Humans. Male. Protein Biosynthesis. Protein Isoforms / analysis. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Semen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16322328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins; EC 3.4.21.- / kallikrein 4; EC 3.4.21.77 / KLK4-205, human
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10. Kianmanesh R, O'toole D, Sauvanet A, Ruszniewski P, Belghiti J: [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors]. J Chir (Paris); 2005 May-Jun;142(3):132-49
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Traitement chirurgical des tumeurs endocrines gastro-entéro-pancréatiques.
  • Endocrine tumors (ET) of the digestive tract (formerly called neuroendocrine tumors) are rare.
  • The surgical goals are to: 1. prolong survival by resecting the primary tumor and any nodal or hepatic metastases, 2. control the symptoms related to hormonal secretion, 3. prevent or treat local complications.
  • The most common sites of gastrointestinal ET's ( carcinoids) are the appendix and the rectum; these are often small (<1 cm), benign, and discovered fortuitously at the time of appendectomy or colonoscopic removal.
  • More than half of the cases of pancreatic ET are non-functional.
  • They are usually malignant and of advanced stage at diagnosis presenting as a palpable or obstructing mass or as liver metastases.
  • Insulinoma and gastrinoma (cause of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) are the most common functional ET's. 80% are sporadic; in these cases, tumor size, location, and malignant potential determine the type of resection which may vary from a simple enucleation to a formal pancreatectomy.
  • In 10-20% of cases, pancreaticoduodenal ET presents in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia (NEM type I), an autosomal-dominant genetic disease with multifocal endocrine involvement of the pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas, and adrenal glands.
  • For insulinoma with NEM-I, enucleation of lesions in the pancreatic head plus a caudal pancreatectomy is the most appropriate procedure.
  • For gastrinoma with NEM-I, the benefit of surgical resection for tumors less than 2-3 cm in size is not clear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Islet Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Insulinoma / surgery. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Gastrinoma / surgery. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / surgery. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / diagnosis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / surgery. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Pancreatectomy. Postoperative Care. Postoperative Complications. Prognosis. Somatostatinoma / diagnosis. Somatostatinoma / surgery. Vipoma / diagnosis. Vipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16142076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 236
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11. Michalakis K, Ilias I: Medical management of adrenal disease: a narrative review. Endocr Regul; 2009 Jul;43(3):127-35
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  • Adrenal diseases comprise for a variety of medical endocrine issues, ranging from partial or complete gland insufficiency, to several kinds of adrenal hyperfunction, either of congenital or neoplastic etiology.
  • Most benign neoplastic adrenal diseases that cause hyperfunction of the gland are surgically treated, however this may not be always feasible or effective.
  • For malignant adrenocortical disease, surgical removal remains the indicated treatment, but if the potential for surgical intervention is limited due to tumor extension, medical treatment can alleviate symptoms of hormone hypersecretion; mitotane in selected patients has good results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / drug therapy. Adrenal Insufficiency / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19817507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-0668
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine regulations
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Regul
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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12. Waldmann J, Bartsch DK, Kann PH, Fendrich V, Rothmund M, Langer P: Adrenal involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: results of 7 years prospective screening. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2007 Jul;392(4):437-43
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  • [Title] Adrenal involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: results of 7 years prospective screening.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal tumors are a common manifestation of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) syndrome.
  • Adrenal glands have been screened by biochemical analysis and either by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or computed tomography (CT) or both.
  • Age at diagnosis of MEN-1, type of adrenal tumor, genotype, therapy, and clinical characteristics have been analyzed.
  • Adrenal lesions were detected in average 6.9 years after the initial diagnosis of MEN-1.
  • Median tumor size was 12 mm (5-40 mm).
  • Tumor size smaller than 10 mm was observed in 11 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: MEN-1-associated adrenal tumors are mostly small, benign, and nonfunctioning and much more common than previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

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  • (PMID = 17235589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Treska V, Wirthová M, Hadravská S, Mukensnábl P, Kuntscher V, Kreuzberg B, Lisá L, Kozák K: [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia]. Zentralbl Chir; 2006 Feb;131(1):80-3
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  • [Transliterated title] Ein bilaterales Riesenmyelolipom der Nebennieren in Kombination mit kongenitaler adrenaler Hyperplasie.
  • BACKGROUND: Myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor formed by mature fat tissue with strata of haematopoiesis.
  • It is usually localized in the region of the adrenal gland.
  • Myelolipomas are mostly clinically inert, only a small number of them are associated with Cushing's type of endocrine disorders, Conn's syndrome, Addison's disease, etc.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: The authors present a rare case of a giant bilateral myelolipoma emerging out of the adrenal gland cortex in a congenital adrenal hyperplasia, with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, in a woman with pronounced virilism.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The coincidence of myelolipoma and congenital disorder with subsequent overproduction of the adrenocorticotropin hormone and androgens, might be explained by the incipient of myelolipoma through chronic hormonal stimulation of the adrenal gland cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Myelolipoma / complications. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


14. Al-Brahim N, Asa S: Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(2):103-5
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  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland and rarely in extra-adrenal sites.
  • These cases emphasize the importance of this combination as a pitfall in the correct diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17917001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Weismann D, Briese J, Niemann J, Grüneberger M, Adam P, Hahner S, Johanssen S, Liu W, Ezzat S, Saeger W, Bamberger AM, Fassnacht M, Schulte HM, Asa SL, Allolio B, Bamberger CM: Osteopontin stimulates invasion of NCI-h295 cells but is not associated with survival in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Pathol; 2009 Jun;218(2):232-40
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  • In this study, we demonstrated OPN and integrin alphavbeta3 expression in normal adrenal glands and benign adenomas, with staining seen exclusively in adrenocortical cells as well as even stronger staining in ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Osteopontin / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemistry. Adrenal Glands / chemistry. Blotting, Western / methods. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Integrin alphaVbeta3 / analysis. Integrin alphaVbeta3 / genetics. Integrin alphaVbeta3 / metabolism. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Statistics, Nonparametric. Transfection / methods

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  • (PMID = 19326399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrin alphaVbeta3; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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16. Nakayama Y, Inoue H, Hamada Y, Takeshita M, Iwasaki H, Maeshiro K, Iwanaga S, Tani H, Ryu S, Yasunami Y, Ikeda S: Intraductal tubular adenoma of the pancreas, pyloric gland type: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 6 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 May;29(5):607-16
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  • [Title] Intraductal tubular adenoma of the pancreas, pyloric gland type: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 6 cases.
  • The intraductal tubular adenoma (ITA), pyloric gland type, of the pancreas is an uncommon benign tumor, akin to the pyloric gland type adenoma of the gallbladder.
  • Microscopically, the tumors were composed of closely packed tubular glands resembling pyloric type glands.
  • Endocrine cells were found in five tumors.
  • Pepsinogen II was positive in 5 tumors; thus, the results displayed a pattern of differentiation similar to those of ordinary gastric pyloric or metaplastic pyloric glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Pancreatic Ducts / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Mucins / analysis. Mucins / classification. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pepsinogen A / analysis. Smad4 Protein. Trans-Activators / analysis. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15832084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Mucins; 0 / SMAD4 protein, human; 0 / Smad4 Protein; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 9001-10-9 / Pepsinogen A
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17. Korsisaari N, Ross J, Wu X, Kowanetz M, Pal N, Hall L, Eastham-Anderson J, Forrest WF, Van Bruggen N, Peale FV, Ferrara N: Blocking vascular endothelial growth factor-A inhibits the growth of pituitary adenomas and lowers serum prolactin level in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Jan 1;14(1):249-58
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  • [Title] Blocking vascular endothelial growth factor-A inhibits the growth of pituitary adenomas and lowers serum prolactin level in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
  • PURPOSE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is defined clinically by the combined occurrence of multiple tumors, typically of the parathyroid glands, pancreatic islet cells, and anterior pituitary gland.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To investigate whether tumor growth in Men1(+/-) mice is mediated by VEGF-A dependent angiogenesis, we carried out a monotherapy with the anti-VEGF-A monoclonal antibody (mAb) G6-31.
  • We evaluated tumor growth by magnetic resonance imaging and assessed vascular density in tissue sections.
  • RESULTS: During the treatment with mAb G6-31, a significant inhibition of the pituitary adenoma growth was observed, leading to an increased mean tumor doubling-free survival compared with mice treated with a control antibody.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that VEGF-A blockade may represent a nonsurgical treatment for benign tumors of the endocrine system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactin / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors


18. Buurman H, Saeger W: Abnormalities in incidentally removed adrenal glands. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(3):277-82
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  • [Title] Abnormalities in incidentally removed adrenal glands.
  • The incidence and type of pathological findings in a large group of surgically removed adrenal glands were analyzed: 282 resected adrenals from the years 1995 to 2004 were examined; 242 adrenals were removed for therapy of renal cell carcinomas (in one case both adrenals were removed).
  • Other indications for adrenalectomies were malignant tumors (urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, etc.) and benign findings (oncocytoma, angiomyolipoma, pyelonephritis, etc.).
  • A total of 18 adrenals exhibited a metastasis or diffuse infiltration of the adrenal or para-adrenal tissue by a malignant tumor (17 renal cell carcinomas, 1 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17308364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Stratakis CA: Cushing syndrome caused by adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias (corticotropin- independent Cushing syndrome). Endocr Dev; 2008;13:117-32
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  • The majority of benign adrenocortical tumors associated with CS are associated with defects of the cAMP signaling pathway, whereas adrenal cancer is linked to aberrant expression of growth factors and germline or somatic mutations of tumor suppressor genes such as TP53.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / physiology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Cyclic AMP / physiology. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18493137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-7082
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD000642-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
  • [Number-of-references] 33
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS307822; NLM/ PMC3132884
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20. Saidak Z, Mentaverri R, Brown EM: The role of the calcium-sensing receptor in the development and progression of cancer. Endocr Rev; 2009 Apr;30(2):178-95
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  • Apart from its primary role in Ca(2+)(o) homeostasis, the CaR may be involved in phenomena that allow for the development of many types of benign or malignant tumors, from parathyroid adenomas to breast, prostate, and colon cancers.
  • In contrast, colon and parathyroid cancers often present with reduced or absent CaR expression, and activation of this receptor decreases cell proliferation, suggesting a role for the CaR as a tumor suppressor gene.
  • Thus, the CaR may play an important role in the development of many types of neoplasia.
  • Herein, we review the role of the CaR in various benign and malignant tumors in further detail, describing its contribution to parathyroid tumors, breast, prostate, and colon cancers, and we evaluate how pharmacological manipulations of this receptor may be of interest for the treatment of certain cancers in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation. Disease Progression. Humans. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Metastasis. Parathyroid Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19237714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7189
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing
  • [Number-of-references] 235
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21. Uehara H, Tatsumi K, Masuda E, Kato M, Kizu T, Ishida T, Takakura R, Takano Y, Nakaizumi A, Ishikawa O, Takenaka A: Scraping cytology with a guidewire for pancreatic-ductal strictures. Gastrointest Endosc; 2009 Jul;70(1):52-9
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-six patients with pancreatic-ductal strictures composed of 71 malignant and 15 benign diseases were evaluated.
  • Malignant diseases included 70 pancreatic carcinomas and 1 endocrine tumor; benign diseases included the following: 7 chronic pancreatitis, 3 autoimmune pancreatitis, 3 idiopathic pancreatic-ductal strictures, and 2 pancreatic cysts.
  • Sensitivities for pancreatic carcinoma with a tumor of <20 mm, 21 to 40 mm, 41 to 60 mm, and >61 mm were 95%, 92%, 100%, and 100%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Benign or malignant pancreatic-ductal strictures were accurately discriminated by scraping cytology with a guidewire during ERCP.
  • The technique yielded high diagnostic sensitivities in pancreatic carcinoma, regardless of the location or size of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19249043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6779
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Ronchi CL, Sbiera S, Kraus L, Wortmann S, Johanssen S, Adam P, Willenberg HS, Hahner S, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Expression of excision repair cross complementing group 1 and prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):907-18
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  • In other tumor entities, expression of excision repair cross complementing group 1 (ERCC1) predicts resistance to platinum compounds.
  • We have retrolectively established adrenal tissue microarrays and analyzed prospectively samples from 163 ACCs, 15 benign adrenal adenomas, and 8 normal adrenal glands by immunohistochemistry for ERCC1 protein expression.
  • ERCC1 protein was highly expressed in all normal adrenal glands, 14 benign tumors (93%) and in 75 ACCs (47%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Endonucleases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Platinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19240185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Platinum Compounds; EC 3.1.- / ERCC1 protein, human; EC 3.1.- / Endonucleases
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23. Babinska A, Sworczak K, Wisniewski P, Nałecz A, Jaskiewicz K: The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Apr;116(4):246-51
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  • BACKGROUND: The detectability of adrenal incidentalomas (incidentally found adrenal tumours) in the whole population is estimated at 0.1%; 0.42% in non-endocrine patients and at 4.3% in oncologically diagnosed ones.
  • Even up to 16% of incidentalomas of adrenal glands can be malignant lesions.
  • The issue of crucial importance is the histopathological differentiation between benign lesions and malignant tumours of the adrenal cortex and medulla.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of p53, p21, PCNA and Ki67 in the tumour's tissue can be useful in the histopathological diagnostics of adrenal incidentalomas and whether it is important for prognosis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our series consisted of 74 tumour samples from 164 patients operated for incidentalomas.
  • RESULTS: We found a statistically significant correlation between the expression of p53, p21, Ki67 and the differential diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma (for proteins: p53 p=0.010, for p21 p=0.010, for Ki67 p<0.001).
  • The statistical significant correlation between PCNA protein and diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma was not found.
  • The statistically significant correlation between p21, PCNA proteins and the diagnosis of benign and malignant PHEOs was not estimated.
  • There was no expression of Ki67 or p53 protein above the assumed level in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. p21-Activated Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18393131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
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24. Fareau GG, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R: Diagnostic challenges in adrenocortical carcinoma: recommendations for surveillance after surgical resection of selected adrenal nodules. Endocr Pract; 2007 Oct;13(6):636-41
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  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss challenges in the diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma and to suggest surveillance measures after removal of selected adrenal nodules.
  • RESULTS: A laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed, and the histologic diagnosis was a benign adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite a comprehensive biochemical, radiologic, and histologic assessment, the diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma can be missed.
  • Particularly, we caution against undue reliance on the initial tumor size.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Aged. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Hypertension / etiology. Hypokalemia / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17954420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Sundaraiya S, Dizdarevic S, Miles K, Quin J, Williams A, Wheatley T, Zammitt C: Unusual initial manifestation of metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with thyrotoxicosis diagnosed by technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate scan: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2009 Jul-Aug;15(5):458-62
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  • METHODS: We present the clinical findings, laboratory results, imaging studies, and surgical pathology report in a man with thyrotoxicosis in whom metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer was diagnosed incidentally on a routine TcO4- thyroid scan in the setting of a presumed diagnosis of benign toxic thyroid disease.
  • Scintigraphy revealed sites of metastatic involvement predominantly in the bones along with a cold nodule in the left thyroid lobe, consistent with the primary tumor.
  • Through an extensive literature review, the incidence of malignant involvement in hyperfunctioning thyroid glands and the possible role of sodium iodide symporter expression by thyroid cancer metastatic lesions in preoperative detection of metastatic sites are addressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyrotoxicosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19491082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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26. Shukla A, Grisouard J, Ehemann V, Hermani A, Enzmann H, Mayer D: Analysis of signaling pathways related to cell proliferation stimulated by insulin analogs in human mammary epithelial cell lines. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Jun;16(2):429-41
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  • [Title] Analysis of signaling pathways related to cell proliferation stimulated by insulin analogs in human mammary epithelial cell lines.
  • We identified and analyzed the signaling pathways related to cell proliferation induced by regular insulin and by four insulin analogs presently approved for therapeutical use.
  • Benign and malignant mammary cell lines showing different insulin receptor (IR) and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression patterns were studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Insulin / analogs & derivatives. Insulin / pharmacology. Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cattle. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Immunoblotting. MAP Kinase Signaling System / drug effects. Mammary Glands, Human / metabolism. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / genetics. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / metabolism. Receptor, Insulin / genetics. Receptor, Insulin / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19153208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Insulin; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Insulin; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
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27. Fenske W, Völker HU, Adam P, Hahner S, Johanssen S, Wortmann S, Schmidt M, Morcos M, Müller-Hermelink HK, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):919-28
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  • Accelerated glycolysis is a characteristic feature of cancer cells and in a variety of tumour entities key factors in glucose metabolism like glucose transporter 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and -3), transketolase like-1 enzyme (TKTL1) and pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2-PK) are overexpressed and of prognostic value.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue microarrays of paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 167 ACCs, 15 adrenal adenomas and 4 normal adrenal glands.
  • GLUT1 and -3 were expressed in 33 and 17% of ACC samples respectively, but in none of the benign tumours or normal adrenals glands.
  • By contrast, TKTL1 and M2-PK were detectable in all benign tissues and the vast majority of ACCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Female. Glucose / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19465749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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28. Gill AJ, Clarkson A, Gimm O, Keil J, Dralle H, Howell VM, Marsh DJ: Loss of nuclear expression of parafibromin distinguishes parathyroid carcinomas and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome-related adenomas from sporadic parathyroid adenomas and hyperplasias. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Sep;30(9):1140-9
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  • [Title] Loss of nuclear expression of parafibromin distinguishes parathyroid carcinomas and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome-related adenomas from sporadic parathyroid adenomas and hyperplasias.
  • Commonly there is a long lag time between diagnosis and clinical evidence of malignant behavior even in histopathologically straightforward lesions.
  • There is therefore a need for a novel adjunctive marker to assist in the diagnosis of carcinoma.
  • Parafibromin is the protein encoded by the putative tumor suppressor gene HRPT2.
  • Mutations predicted to inactivate parafibromin were first detected in the germline of patients with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome.
  • We performed immunohistochemistry for parafibromin on 115 parathyroid tissues comprising 4 HPT-JT-related tumors (3 adenomas and 1 carcinoma), 11 sporadic parathyroid carcinomas, 79 sporadic adenomas, 3 multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A-related adenomas, 2 sporadic primary hyperplasias, 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-1-related hyperplasias, 6 secondary hyperplasias, 4 tertiary hyperplasias, and 4 normal parathyroid glands.
  • There was complete absence of nuclear staining in 3 of 4 (75%) HPT-JT-related tumors and 8 of 11 (73%) sporadic parathyroid carcinomas and focal weak staining in 1 of 4 HPT-JT tumors and 2 of 11 sporadic parathyroid carcinomas.
  • In contrast, 98 of 100 non-HPT-JT-related benign parathyroids showed diffuse strong nuclear positivity and 2 of 100 showed weak positive staining.
  • We conclude that, in the correct clinical and pathologic context, complete absence of nuclear staining for parafibromin is diagnostic of parathyroid carcinoma or an HPT-JT-related tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Jaw Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / chemistry. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 16931959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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29. Branchini G, Schneider L, Cericatto R, Capp E, Brum IS: Progesterone receptors A and B and estrogen receptor alpha expression in normal breast tissue and fibroadenomas. Endocrine; 2009 Jun;35(3):459-66
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  • Fibroadenomas are the most common benign breast tumors, occurring mainly in young women.
  • Their responses to the hormonal environment are similar to those of normal breast tissue, which suggests that steroid receptors may play a role in tumor development.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Estrogen Receptor alpha / genetics. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Mammary Glands, Human / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19367380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / progesterone receptor A; 0 / progesterone receptor B
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30. Pantalone KM, Gopan T, Remer EM, Faiman C, Ioachimescu AG, Levin HS, Siperstein A, Berber E, Shepardson LB, Bravo EL, Hamrahian AH: Change in adrenal mass size as a predictor of a malignant tumor. Endocr Pract; 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):577-87
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  • [Title] Change in adrenal mass size as a predictor of a malignant tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of adrenal mass absolute growth, growth rate, and percentage growth rate on serial imaging for distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal masses.
  • RESULTS: There were 111 benign (81.6%) and 25 malignant (18.4%) adrenal masses.
  • After adjustment for other factors, the 3 growth measures remained statistically significant predictors of a malignant tumor.
  • In 3 patients with metastatic lesions, no growth or a decrease in mass size during a period of 4 to 36 months was observed.
  • CONCLUSION: In this study, the largest with surgical histopathology findings as the "gold standard" for diagnosis, change in adrenal mass size was a significant predictor of a malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 20150023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Fassnacht M, Weismann D, Ebert S, Adam P, Zink M, Beuschlein F, Hahner S, Allolio B: AKT is highly phosphorylated in pheochromocytomas but not in benign adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jul;90(7):4366-70
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  • [Title] AKT is highly phosphorylated in pheochromocytomas but not in benign adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Activation of AKT plays a major role in a variety of human neoplasias.
  • Immunohistochemistry for total AKT and pAKT was performed in pheochromocytomas (n = 8), ACC (n = 4), and normal adrenal glands (n = 2).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. PTEN Phosphohydrolase. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / physiology. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / analysis. Phosphorylation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15855265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / AKT1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.1.3.- / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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32. Jurczyńska J, Stepień T, Lawnicka H, Stepień H, Krupiński R, Kołomecki K, Kuzdak K, Komorowski J: Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Jan-Feb;60(1):9-13
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  • INTRODUCTION: Neoangiogenesis appears to be an important event in tumour invasion and in the formation of metastases in many endocrine-related human cancers.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the plasma blood concentrations of VEGF, sVEGFR1, and sVEGFR2 in patients with benign and malignant adrenal tumours treated by surgery.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied the blood before surgery of 41 patients with adrenal cortex tumours and 10 normal subjects without hormonal or CT/USG pathology of the adrenal glands (controls).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral blood concentrations of VEGF and its receptors cannot be clinically valuable markers that discriminate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours before and after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19224499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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33. Meyer-Rochow GY, Jackson NE, Conaglen JV, Whittle DE, Kunnimalaiyaan M, Chen H, Westin G, Sandgren J, Stålberg P, Khanafshar E, Shibru D, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E, Gill AJ, Clifton-Bligh R, Robinson BG, Benn DE, Sidhu SB: MicroRNA profiling of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas identifies novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):835-46
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  • [Title] MicroRNA profiling of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas identifies novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets.
  • There is increasing evidence to suggest that miRNAs could be useful in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.
  • We performed miRNA microarray expression profiling on a cohort of 12 benign and 12 malignant pheochromocytomas and identified a number of differentially expressed miRNAs.
  • These results were validated in a separate cohort of ten benign and ten malignant samples using real-time quantitative RT-PCR; benign samples had a minimum follow-up of at least 2 years.
  • It was found that IGF2 as well as its intronic miR-483-5p was over-expressed, while miR-15a and miR-16 were under-expressed in malignant tumours compared with benign tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. MicroRNAs / physiology. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Animals. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Cell Cycle. Cohort Studies. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Rate. Tumor Cells, Cultured






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