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1. Mimura T, Yamagami S, Usui T, Funatsu H, Mimura Y, Noma H, Honda N, Amano S: Changes of conjunctivochalasis with age in a hospital-based study. Am J Ophthalmol; 2009 Jan;147(1):171-177.e1
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  • The mean grade of conjunctivochalasis was higher in female patients than in male patients (nasal area, P = .0229; temporal area, P = .0078) and was higher for the temporal conjunctiva than the nasal conjunctiva (P < .0000001).
  • These conjunctivochalasis-related parameters were correlated with the severity of conjunctivochalasis (P < .00001), especially of the middle bulbar conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / physiology. Conjunctival Diseases / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18775527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1891
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Russ HH, Costa VP, Ferreira FM, Valgas SR, Correa Neto MA, Strobel Ev, Truppel JH: Conjunctival changes induced by prostaglandin analogues and timolol maleate: a histomorphometric study. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2007 Nov-Dec;70(6):910-6
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  • [Title] Conjunctival changes induced by prostaglandin analogues and timolol maleate: a histomorphometric study.
  • PURPOSE: To compare histological changes induced by antiglaucoma medications in the rabbit conjunctiva.
  • Superior limbic conjunctival biopsies were performed at the 8th and 30th day in 5 rabbits of each group.
  • The conjunctiva was fixed with 10% formaldehyde, followed by HE and PAS staining.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although a moderate, diffuse inflammatory infiltrate was observed in PG-treated eyes, no changes in conjunctival epithelial thickness or subconjunctival collagen density were observed with these medications, suggesting that these drugs induce fewer changes than timolol maleate in the rabbit conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / adverse effects. Conjunctiva / drug effects. Ophthalmic Solutions / administration & dosage. Prostaglandins, Synthetic / adverse effects. Timolol / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18235898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2749
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Oftalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amides; 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Benzalkonium Compounds; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 0 / Prostaglandins, Synthetic; 4208238832 / Cloprostenol; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost; 817W3C6175 / Timolol; QXS94885MZ / Bimatoprost; WJ68R08KX9 / Travoprost
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3. Shields CL, Manchandia A, Subbiah R, Eagle RC Jr, Shields JA: Pigmented squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the conjunctiva in 5 cases. Ophthalmology; 2008 Oct;115(10):1673-8
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  • [Title] Pigmented squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the conjunctiva in 5 cases.
  • PURPOSE: To describe 5 patients with pigmented conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in situ.
  • The tumor showed leukoplakia (n = 1) and was at the temporal limbus (n = 4) or nasal limbus (n = 1).
  • The mean tumor basal dimension was 9.2 mm and mean thickness was 3.2 mm.
  • Brown pigment was present deep within the tumor in all 5 cases, involving 50% to 90% of the mass.
  • Histopathology revealed in situ squamous cell carcinoma (conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia) with pigmented dendritic melanocytes in all 5 cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Squamous cell carcinoma in situ can manifest as a pigmented tumor, resembling melanoma, in both Caucasians and non-Caucasians, primarily due to intratumoral pigmented dendritic melanocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18378314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Polak MB, Valamanesh F, Felt O, Torriglia A, Jeanny JC, Bourges JL, Rat P, Thomas-Doyle A, BenEzra D, Gurny R, Behar-Cohen F: Controlled delivery of 5-chlorouracil using poly(ortho esters) in filtering surgery for glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2008 Jul;49(7):2993-3003
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  • METHODS: Rabbit Tenon fibroblasts and human conjunctival cells were incubated with various 5-CU and 5-FU concentrations.
  • Histologic analysis showed evidence of functioning blebs in the POE-5-CU-treated eyes along with a preserved structure of the conjunctiva epithelium.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Blister / physiopathology. Cell Death. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Chromatin / drug effects. Conjunctiva / drug effects. Conjunctiva / pathology. Conjunctiva / physiopathology. Female. Fibroblasts / pathology. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Injections. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Necrosis. Rabbits. Trabeculectomy

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  • (PMID = 18579761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimitotic Agents; 0 / Chromatin; 0 / Polymers; 0 / poly(ortho ester); 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 7LQ4V03RNY / 5-chlorouracil; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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5. Mastropasqua L, Agnifili L, Ciancaglini M, Nubile M, Carpineto P, Fasanella V, Figus M, Lazzeri S, Nardi M: In vivo analysis of conjunctiva in gold micro shunt implantation for glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol; 2010 Dec;94(12):1592-6
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  • [Title] In vivo analysis of conjunctiva in gold micro shunt implantation for glaucoma.
  • AIMS: To describe the conjunctival epithelial features seen with in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) after gold micro shunt (GMS) implantation in the suprachoroidal space, in patients with uncontrolled glaucoma.
  • Conjunctival mean microcyst density (MMD: cysts/mm(2)) and mean microcyst area (MMA: μm(2)) were the main outcome measurements.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Successful GMS implantation significantly increased conjunctival microcysts density and surface at the site of the device insertion.

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Ophthalmol. 2010 Dec;94(12):1557-8 [20805140.001]
  • (PMID = 20805134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2079
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 7440-57-5 / Gold
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6. Mehta M, Fay A: Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid and conjunctiva. Int Ophthalmol Clin; 2009;49(1):111-21
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid and conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19125070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8167
  • [Journal-full-title] International ophthalmology clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Ophthalmol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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7. Al-Samarraie MS, Karinen R, Mørland J, Stokke Opdal M: Blood GHB concentrations and results of medical examinations in 25 car drivers in Norway. Eur J Clin Pharmacol; 2010 Oct;66(10):987-98
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  • Clinical findings were normal- to large-sized pupils (86%), impairment as the final conclusion (84%), impaired balance/nystagmus (62 and 54%, respectively), congested/shiny conjunctiva (67%), apathetic, aggressive or abnormal behaviour (65%), reduced short-term memory (67%), reduced/absent pupillar reaction to light (65%), heart rate ≤ 70 beats/min (56%), and some level of reduced consciousness (56%).

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  • (PMID = 20717656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1041
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of clinical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 7G33012534 / Sodium Oxybate
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8. Sjö LD: Ophthalmic lymphoma: epidemiology and pathogenesis. Acta Ophthalmol; 2009 Feb;87 Thesis 1:1-20
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  • Ophthalmic lymphoma, (lymphoma localized in the ocular region, i.e. eyelid, conjunctiva, lacrimal sac, lacrimal gland, orbit, or intraocularly) is relatively uncommon, accounting for 5%-10% of all extranodal lymphomas.
  • The purpose of this thesis was to review specimens from all Danish patients with a diagnosis of ophthalmic lymphoma during the period 1980-2005, in order to determine the distribution of lymphoma subtypes, and the incidence- and time trends in incidence for ophthalmic lymphoma.
  • A total of 228 Danish patients with a biopsy-reviewed verified diagnosis of ocular adnexal-, orbital-, or intraocular lymphoma were identified.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Caspases / genetics. Child. Denmark / epidemiology. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains / genetics. Incidence. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / epidemiology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / genetics. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Translocation, Genetic. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19178392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1755-3768
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta ophthalmologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; EC 3.4.22.- / MALT1 protein, human
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9. Grodio JL, Buckles EL, Schat KA: Production of house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) IgA specific anti-sera and its application in immunohistochemistry and in ELISA for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum-specific IgA. Vet Immunol Immunopathol; 2009 Dec 15;132(2-4):288-94
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  • The anti-sera were used to identify plasma cells in the Harderian gland and conjunctiva of house finches with conjunctivitis associated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection.

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  • (PMID = 19581004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2534
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary immunology and immunopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic; 0 / Antibodies, Bacterial; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Immunoglobulin A, Secretory; 0 / Indicators and Reagents
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10. Kase S, Takahashi S, Sato I, Nakanishi K, Yoshida K, Ohno S: Expression of p27(KIP1) and cyclin D1, and cell proliferation in human pterygium. Br J Ophthalmol; 2007 Jul;91(7):958-61
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  • BACKGROUND: The pterygium is a growth onto the cornea of fibrovascular tissue that is continuous with the conjunctiva, whereas the mechanisms of cell proliferation in pterygium epithelium are unknown.
  • RESULTS: Conjunctival epithelium consisted of several layers of round cells with a few goblet cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. Conjunctiva / metabolism. Conjunctiva / pathology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17179165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1955677
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11. Cursiefen C, Rummelt C, Jünemann A, Vorwerk C, Neuhuber W, Kruse FE, Schroedl F: Absence of blood and lymphatic vessels in the developing human cornea. Cornea; 2006 Jul;25(6):722-6
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  • In contrast, there were numerous blood and lymphatic vessels detectable in the adjacent conjunctiva.

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  • (PMID = 17077668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / LYVE1 protein, human; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins; 0 / von Willebrand Factor
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12. Musumeci M, Bellin M, Maltese A, Aragona P, Bucolo C, Musumeci S: Chitinase levels in the tears of subjects with ocular allergies. Cornea; 2008 Feb;27(2):168-73
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  • AMCase activity was measured in tears, RNA was extracted from epithelial cells of the conjunctiva, and AMCase mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
  • Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity were 100%, addressing the use of AMCase assay in the biochemical diagnosis of VKC and SAC.
  • AMCase mRNA was detected in epithelial cells of the conjunctiva, and the expression was significantly higher in VKC and SAC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Conjunctiva / enzymology. Epithelial Cells / enzymology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / physiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18216571.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.2.1.14 / CHIA protein, human; EC 3.2.1.14 / Chitinase
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13. Yoon KC, Park CS, You IC, Choi HJ, Lee KH, Im SK, Park HY, Pflugfelder SC: Expression of CXCL9, -10, -11, and CXCR3 in the tear film and ocular surface of patients with dry eye syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2010 Feb;51(2):643-50
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  • The expression of CXCL9, -10, -11, and CXCR3 in the conjunctiva was evaluated by using immunohistochemistry.
  • Flow cytometry was performed to count CXCR3(+) cells and CXCR3(+)CD4(+) cells in the conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemokine CXCL10 / metabolism. Chemokine CXCL11 / metabolism. Chemokine CXCL9 / metabolism. Conjunctiva / metabolism. Receptors, CXCR3 / metabolism. Sjogren's Syndrome / metabolism. Tears / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19850844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00991679
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY011915; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY011915-12
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL10 protein, human; 0 / CXCL11 protein, human; 0 / CXCL9 protein, human; 0 / CXCR3 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL10; 0 / Chemokine CXCL11; 0 / Chemokine CXCL9; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Receptors, CXCR3; 0 / tear proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3258976
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14. Oldoni I, Rodríguez-Avila A, Riblet SM, Zavala G, García M: Pathogenicity and growth characteristics of selected infectious laryngotracheitis virus strains from the United States. Avian Pathol; 2009 Feb;38(1):47-53
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  • Mild respiratory clinical signs were produced by IV-A, IV-B and the CEO vaccine, while VI-A and VI-B isolates produced severe respiratory signs and severe depression, and during the peak of clinical signs both isolates were re-isolated from the conjunctiva, sinus, trachea and thymus.
  • Similarly to Group VI isolates, V-A and V-B produced severe respiratory signs, depression, and were re-isolated from conjunctiva, sinus, and trachea; on cell culture, both isolates produced significant larger plaques than any of the other isolates analysed.

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  • (PMID = 19156579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3338
  • [Journal-full-title] Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Avian Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Viral Vaccines
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15. Ribatti D, Nico B, Perra MT, Maxia C, Piras F, Murtas D, Crivellato E, Sirigu P: Correlation between NGF/TrkA and microvascular density in human pterygium. Int J Exp Pathol; 2009 Dec;90(6):615-20
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  • Specimens of human pterygium obtained from 30 patients who had undergone surgical excision and of 10 normal bulbar conjunctiva were investigated immunohistochemically by using anti-CD31, anti-NGF and anti-TrkA antibodies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Conjunctiva / blood supply. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 19758420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2613
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9061-61-4 / Nerve Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803252
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16. Gencoglan G, Gerceker-Turk B, Kilinc-Karaarslan I, Akalin T, Ozdemir F: Dermoscopic findings in Laugier-Hunziker syndrome. Arch Dermatol; 2007 May;143(5):631-3
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  • The clinical behavior of mucocutaneous pigmented lesions ranges from benign to highly malignant.
  • Therefore, in most cases, the clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by further diagnostic methods.
  • OBSERVATIONS: The clinical examination revealed macular hyperpigmentation on the oral and genital mucosa, conjunctiva, and palmoplantar region together with longitudinal melanonychia.
  • A skin biopsy sample taken from the labial lesion was compatible with a diagnosis of mucosal melanosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: By means of this case report, the dermoscopic features of the pigmented lesions in LHS are described for the first time, which facilitates diagnosis with a noninvasive technique.
  • Future reports highlighting the dermoscopic features of this syndrome may simplify the diagnosis of LHS, which is thought to be underdiagnosed.

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  • (PMID = 17515514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Kafkala C, Choi J, Zafirakis P, Baltatzis S, Livir-Rallatos C, Rojas B, Foster CS: Mooren ulcer: an immunopathologic study. Cornea; 2006 Jul;25(6):667-73
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  • PURPOSE: To determine the pattern and distribution of mononuclear cells, adhesion, and co-stimulatory molecules in the conjunctiva of patients with Mooren ulcer.
  • METHODS: Conjunctival biopsy specimens were obtained from 6 patients with Mooren ulcer and 6 healthy individuals.
  • RESULTS: Differences in expression on the conjunctival epithelium from patients with Mooren ulcer and normal subjects were noted only for VCAM-1, VLA-4, ICAM-1, and LFA-1.
  • Mooren ulcer vascular endothelial cells prominently expressed E-selectin, VCAM-1, VLA-4, and ICAM-1 compared with normal conjunctiva.
  • CONCLUSION: The simultaneous presence of multiple types of inflammatory cells, adhesion, and co-stimulatory molecules in Mooren ulcer conjunctiva suggests that their interaction may contribute to a sustained immune activation as at least part of the pathogenic mechanism of this disorder.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antigens, CD / metabolism. CD4-CD8 Ratio. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Chronic Disease. Conjunctiva / metabolism. Conjunctiva / pathology. Epithelium / metabolism. Epithelium / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / immunology. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17077658.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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18. Fukushima A, Sumi T, Fukuda K, Kumagai N, Nishida T, Yagita H, Ueno H: Interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor beta contribute to the development of experimentally induced allergic conjunctivitis in mice during the effector phase. Br J Ophthalmol; 2006 Dec;90(12):1535-41
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  • RESULTS: Treatment with either anti-IL10 or anti-TGF beta antibodies during the induction phase did not affect eosinophil infiltration into the conjunctiva.
  • IL1alpha levels in the conjunctiva were reduced after treatment with either antibody; in addition, eotaxin and tumour necrosis factor alpha levels were reduced after treatment with antibody to TGF beta.
  • Rather, they augment the infiltration of eosinophils into the conjunctiva during the effector phase of experimentally induced allergic conjunctivitis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adoptive Transfer. Ambrosia / immunology. Animals. Cell Proliferation. Chemokine CCL11. Chemokines, CC / metabolism. Conjunctiva / immunology. Eosinophilia / immunology. Female. Interleukin-1alpha / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Spleen / immunology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16914468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ccl11 protein, mouse; 0 / Ccl11 protein, rat; 0 / Chemokine CCL11; 0 / Chemokines, CC; 0 / Interleukin-1alpha; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1857521
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19. Hashimoto T, Dainichi T, Ohyama B, Hamada T, Ishii N, Sato N, Tanigawa O, Nakayama J, Amano S, Nishiyama T, Karashima T, Nakama T, Yasumoto S: A case of antilaminin 332 mucous membrane pemphigoid showing a blister on the bulbar conjunctiva and a unique epitope on the alpha3 subunit. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Apr;162(4):898-9
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  • [Title] A case of antilaminin 332 mucous membrane pemphigoid showing a blister on the bulbar conjunctiva and a unique epitope on the alpha3 subunit.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Adhesion Molecules / immunology. Conjunctiva / immunology. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20199543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / kalinin; 8W5C518302 / Dapsone; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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20. Nguyen TT, Gin T, Nicholls K, Low M, Galanos J, Crawford A: Ophthalmological manifestations of Fabry disease: a survey of patients at the Royal Melbourne Fabry Disease Treatment Centre. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2005 Apr;33(2):164-8
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  • Patients also underwent slit-lamp examination looking for the presence of features of Fabry disease, particularly examining the bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, lens and fundus.
  • 97.1% of the hemizygotes and 78.1% of the heterozygotes had vascular abnormalities of the bulbar conjunctiva.
  • CONCLUSION: Conjunctival vascular tortuosity was the most common manifestation in this series.
  • Conjunctival and retinal vessel tortuosity, and corneal verticillata are frequently observed in Fabry disease.
  • The incidence of lenticular changes is not consistently reported, but in this series and many others, it is much less common than that of corneal, conjunctival and retinal changes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Conjunctiva / blood supply. Conjunctival Diseases / epidemiology. Conjunctival Diseases / etiology. Female. Health Surveys. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retinal Diseases / epidemiology. Retinal Diseases / etiology. Retinal Vessels / abnormalities. Victoria


21. Gulias-Cañizo R, Aranda-Rábago J, Rodríguez-Reyes AA: [Seborrheic keratosis of conjunctiva: a case report]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol; 2006 Apr;81(4):217-9
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  • [Title] [Seborrheic keratosis of conjunctiva: a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Queratosis seborreica de la conjuntiva: informe de un caso.
  • CASE REPORT: Pigmented conjunctival lesions are a diagnostic challenge for the clinician.
  • A 37-year-old man presented with a pigmented mass involving the conjunctiva of his right eye.
  • Clinically, a diagnosis of malignant melanoma was made and a wide excision of the tumor was performed.
  • The histopathologic diagnosis was seborrheic keratosis.
  • DISCUSSION: Seborrheic keratosis is a benign lesion which occurs on the eyelids and face of middle-aged and elderly individuals.
  • The occurrence of this lesion on the conjunctiva is rare, however there are 2 cases reported in the world literature.
  • Seborrheic keratosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of conjunctival pigmented lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Diseases / pathology. Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Conjunctiva / pathology. Conjunctiva / surgery. Humans. Male. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 16688646.001).
  • [ISSN] 0365-6691
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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22. Dounias G, Rachiotis G, Hadjichristodoulou C: Acute lead intoxication in a female battery worker: Diagnosis and management. J Occup Med Toxicol; 2010;5:19
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  • [Title] Acute lead intoxication in a female battery worker: Diagnosis and management.
  • Pallor of skin and conjunctiva was the only sign found in physical examination.
  • The increased levels of the lead related biomarkers of exposure and effect confirmed the diagnosis.
  • This case report emphasizes the importance of the occupational history in the context of the differential diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 20609219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-6673
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Occup Med Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2914075
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23. Rautenbach P, Wilson A, Gouws P: The reuse of opthalmic Minims: an unacceptable cross-infection risk? Eye (Lond); 2010 Jan;24(1):50-2
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  • In all, 7/41(17%) samples showed growth of normal conjunctiva and lid flora on the test area.

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  • [CommentIn] Eye (Lond). 2010 Aug;24(8):1421-2 [20508657.001]
  • (PMID = 19247391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5454
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media; 0 / Fluoresceins; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; B4OB0JHI1X / proxymetacaine; EPD1EH7F53 / Propoxycaine
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24. Kurlenda J, Grinholc M, Krzysztoń-Russjan J, Wiśniewska K: Epidemiological investigation of nosocomial outbreak of staphylococcal skin diseases in neonatal ward. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek; 2009 May;95(4):387-94
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  • Isolated strains were compared with strains cultured from affected skin and purulent conjunctiva of infected newborns.

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  • (PMID = 19234757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-9699
  • [Journal-full-title] Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins
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25. Morelli L, Polce M, Piscioli F, Del Nonno F, Covello R, Brenna A, Cione A, Licci S: Human nasal rhinosporidiosis: an Italian case report. Diagn Pathol; 2006;1:25
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  • BACKGROUND: Rhinosporidiosis is a disease affecting primarily the mucosa of nose, conjunctiva and urethra.
  • A microscopic diagnosis of rhinosporidiosis was made.

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  • (PMID = 16945122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1560165
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26. Kawakita T, Espana EM, He H, Li W, Liu CY, Tseng SC: Intrastromal invasion by limbal epithelial cells is mediated by epithelial-mesenchymal transition activated by air exposure. Am J Pathol; 2005 Aug;167(2):381-93
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  • Corneal epithelial stem cells are located in the basal layer of the limbus between the cornea and the conjunctiva.

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  • (PMID = 16049325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY15735; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY006819; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY12486; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY015735; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY06819; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY012486
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, mouse; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Trp63 protein, mouse; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1350963
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27. Bours J, Reitz C, Strobel J, Breipohl W: Detection of secretory IgM in tears during rhino-conjunctivitis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2005 May;243(5):456-63
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  • In contrast, sIgM is synthesized during rhino-conjunctivitis in high concentrations in the human lacrimal glands and the conjunctiva.

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  • (PMID = 15931543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 0 / secretory IgM; 0 / tear proteins
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28. West ES, Mkocha H, Munoz B, Mabey D, Foster A, Bailey R, West SK: Risk factors for postsurgical trichiasis recurrence in a trachoma-endemic area. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2005 Feb;46(2):447-53
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  • Recurrence was associated with tarsal conjunctival inflammation (OR: 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-3.8) and residence in the Kongwa district (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.6).
  • Recurrence is associated with evidence of inflammation in the tarsal conjunctiva, although it is not clear whether the inflammation contributes to recurrence, or is a result of the recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 15671268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Solomon A, Mabey D: Trachoma. BMJ Clin Evid; 2007;2007
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  • INTRODUCTION: Active trachoma is caused by chronic infection of the conjunctiva by Chlamydia trachomatis, and is the world's leading infectious cause of blindness.
  • Infection can lead to scarring of the tarsal conjunctiva, inversion of the eyelashes so that they abrade the cornea (trichiasis), and corneal opacity, leading to blindness.

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  • (PMID = 19450349.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-8526
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ clinical evidence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Clin Evid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2943797
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30. Babar TF, Khan MN, Hussain M, Shah SA, Khan MY, Khan MD: Spectrum of ocular surface squamous neoplasia. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2007 Jun;17(6):344-6
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  • [Title] Spectrum of ocular surface squamous neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), clinical presentations, the risk factors and treatment options.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 36 eyes of 35 patients with biopsy-proven ocular surface neoplasia.
  • Each patient was also assessed biomicroscopically for type and complications of ocular surface neoplasia.
  • Among 36 cases of OSSN, squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva was the most common type of OSSN seen in 63.9%, followed by carcinoma in situ of conjunctiva in 25% and carcinoma in situ of cornea in 11.1%.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Conjunctival Neoplasms. Cornea / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17623583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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31. Fukushima A, Yamaguchi T, Fukuda K, Sumi T, Kumagai N, Nishida T, Imai S, Ueno H: CD8+ T cells play disparate roles in the induction and the effector phases of murine experimental allergic conjunctivitis. Microbiol Immunol; 2006;50(9):719-28
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  • With regard to actively immunized mice, CD8KO mice showed significantly less severe eosinophil infiltration of the conjunctiva and lower total IgE levels, although the levels of the other Igs were equivalent between the two strains.
  • Thus, CD8+ T cells may play a significant role during the induction phase by aiding IgE production and the generation of Th2 cytokines in the conjunctiva, thus promoting the development of EC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adoptive Transfer. Ambrosia. Animals. Antigens, CD8 / genetics. Chemokines / immunology. Conjunctiva / immunology. Cytokines / immunology. Eosinophils / immunology. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Knockout. Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms. Spleen / cytology

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  • (PMID = 16985294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-5600
  • [Journal-full-title] Microbiology and immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Microbiol. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD8; 0 / CD8alpha antigen; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Cytokines
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32. Adenis JP, Grivet D: Ectropion of the lacrimal point: the shoelace technique. Eur J Ophthalmol; 2005 Mar-Apr;15(2):267-70
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  • METHODS/RESULTS: After diamond shape resection of the conjunctiva and the retractors, sutures are placed with each bridle interlacing on the posterior portion of the eyelid below the lacrimal point in a shoelace fashion.

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  • (PMID = 15812771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-6721
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Rofail M, Lee LR, Whitehead K: Conjunctival benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia associated with myopic scleral thinning. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2005 Feb;33(1):73-5
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  • [Title] Conjunctival benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia associated with myopic scleral thinning.
  • Known causes of conjunctival salmon patches include lymphoma, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, leukaemia and benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia.
  • The aetiology of benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia is thought to be a localized reactive change induced by an irritative or antigenic stimulus.
  • The case of benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia reported herein occurred in a myopic patient with extremely thin sclera.
  • The authors' hypothesis is that choroidal antigens are able to perfuse through thin sclera and act as chronic irritants to the overlying conjunctiva resulting in a lymphoid response and subsequent salmon patch formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Diseases / complications. Myopia / complications. Pseudolymphoma / complications. Sclera / pathology. Scleral Diseases / complications

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  • (PMID = 15670084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-6404
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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34. Mouly S, Mahé I, Haouchine B, Sanson-le-Pors MJ, Blain P, Tillet Y, Dewailly J, Mongold JJ, Bergmann JF: Pharmacodynamics of a new ophthalmic mydriatic insert in healthy volunteers: potential alternative as drug delivery system prior to cataract surgery. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol; 2006 Jun;98(6):547-54
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  • Secondary end-points included cardiovascular, general and local tolerance and quantification of bacterial colonisation of the conjunctiva and the cultured insert, respectively.
  • No significant bacterial contamination of conjunctiva swab and cultured insert was observed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Conjunctiva / microbiology. Demography. Diastole / drug effects. Drug Tolerance. Endpoint Determination. Female. Heart Rate / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Phenylephrine / administration & dosage. Phenylephrine / adverse effects. Phenylephrine / pharmacokinetics. Pupil / physiology. Systole / drug effects. Tropicamide / administration & dosage. Tropicamide / adverse effects. Tropicamide / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 16700815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-7835
  • [Journal-full-title] Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mydriatics; 1WS297W6MV / Phenylephrine; N0A3Z5XTC6 / Tropicamide
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35. Golebiowski B, Papas EB, Stapleton F: Factors affecting corneal and conjunctival sensitivity measurement. Optom Vis Sci; 2008 Apr;85(4):241-6
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  • [Title] Factors affecting corneal and conjunctival sensitivity measurement.
  • This study aimed to evaluate whether measurements of threshold of sensation to an air stimulus are affected by corneal/conjunctival location, gender, age, time of day, ambient temperature or humidity.
  • Multiple corneal measurements for 49 normal subjects (24M:25F) and conjunctival measurements for 33 subjects (16M:17F) were included in the analysis.
  • Threshold was measured at the corneal apex and at the inferior conjunctiva 2 mm from the limbus.
  • RESULTS: Mean group corneal threshold was 76.2+/-26.8 mL/min and conjunctival threshold 123.7+/-49.1 mL/min (n=33, p<0.001).
  • Corneal and conjunctival threshold were well correlated (r=0.66, p<0.001).
  • Thresholds were significantly higher for male than female subjects at both the cornea (M 82.2+/-23.5 mL/min, F 67.6+/-24.1 mL/min, p=0.04) and conjunctiva (M 144.1+/-40.7 mL/min, F 105.8+/-50.2 mL/min, p=0.02).
  • A similar effect on conjunctival sensitivity was not shown.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Corneal and conjunctival sensitivity were found to be associated.
  • Corneal and conjunctival sensitivity is higher in female subjects, who also show an age-related increase in corneal sensitivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctiva / physiology. Cornea / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18382334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Optom Vis Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Maruyama K, Shirato S: Efficacy and safety of transconjunctival scleral flap resuturing for hypotony after glaucoma filtering surgery. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2008 Dec;246(12):1751-6
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  • METHODS: Fifty-six eyes of 55 patients with hypotony maculopathy and/or choroidal detachment caused by excess filtration after glaucoma filtering surgery underwent transconjunctival scleral flap resuturing directly through the conjunctiva, using a 10-0 nylon suture with a round tapered needle.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Choroid Diseases / etiology. Conjunctiva / surgery. Female. Humans. Macula Lutea. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Reoperation / adverse effects. Retinal Diseases / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18751993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-702X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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37. Suner S, Crawford G, McMurdy J, Jay G: Non-invasive determination of hemoglobin by digital photography of palpebral conjunctiva. J Emerg Med; 2007 Aug;33(2):105-11
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  • [Title] Non-invasive determination of hemoglobin by digital photography of palpebral conjunctiva.
  • It is possible to derive an objective method that correlates conjunctiva color with measured hemoglobin and, when applied prospectively, is able to predict hemoglobin concentration in ED patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctiva / blood supply. Hemoglobinometry / methods. Hemoglobins / analysis. Photography / methods

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  • [CommentIn] J Emerg Med. 2009 Apr;36(3):307; author reply 307-8 [19095397.001]
  • (PMID = 17692757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-4679
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of emergency medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Emerg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemoglobins
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38. Gorezis S, Psilla M, Asproudis I, Peschos D, Papadopoulou C, Stefaniotou M: Intravitreal dirofilariasis: a rare ocular infection. Orbit; 2006 Mar;25(1):57-9
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  • The parasite is either encysted in a subcutaneous nodule or located under the bulbar conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Dirofilaria / pathogenicity. Dirofilariasis / diagnosis. Eye Infections, Parasitic / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16527779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6830
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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39. Isager P, Engholm G, Overgaard J, Storm H: Uveal and conjunctival malignant melanoma in denmark 1943-97: observed and relative survival of patients followed through 2002. Ophthalmic Epidemiol; 2006 Apr;13(2):85-96
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  • [Title] Uveal and conjunctival malignant melanoma in denmark 1943-97: observed and relative survival of patients followed through 2002.
  • METHODS: The study included 2,504 patients (1,292 men and 1,212 women) diagnosed with a melanoma in the ocular region, of which 2,434 cases could be topographically subclassified into 2,178 in the choroid/ciliary body, 141 in the iris, and 115 in the conjunctiva.
  • RESULTS: For the total ocular region and the choroid/ciliary body, the observed survival did not vary statistically significantly with the year of diagnosis.
  • A statistically insignificant higher observed survival for women than men was found for tumors in the ocular region and the subgroups choroid/ciliary body, iris, and conjunctiva.
  • The 5- and 10-year relative survival for the iris was for men 90% and 85% and for women 99% and 101%, respectively, and for the conjunctiva for men 83% and 70% and for women 93% and 82%, respectively.
  • The highest observed and relative survival was found for iris melanomas, the lowest for choroid/ciliary body melanomas, and intermediate for conjunctival melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / mortality. Melanoma / mortality. Uveal Neoplasms / mortality


40. Garenfeld W, Wilting I: [Oculotoxic and dermatotoxic side effects of phenothiazines]. Tijdschr Psychiatr; 2007;49(4):251-5
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  • [Transliterated title] Oculotoxische en dermatotoxische bijwerkingen bij gebruik van fenothiazinen.
  • These effects can take the form of photosensitivity, grey-purple discoloration and hyperpigmentation of the skin and hyperpigmentation of the conjunctiva, cornea, lens, retina, choroidea and macula.

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  • (PMID = 17436211.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7339
  • [Journal-full-title] Tijdschrift voor psychiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tijdschr Psychiatr
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Phenothiazines
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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41. Cheng HC, Yeh SI, Tsao YP, Kuo PC: Subconjunctival injection of recombinant AAV-angiostatin ameliorates alkali burn induced corneal angiogenesis. Mol Vis; 2007;13:2344-52
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  • Transgenic expression of angiostatin in the cornea, conjunctiva, retina, and muscle insertions was confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • RT-PCR demonstrated that the angiostatin gene expression was highly detectable in muscle fibers and not detectable in the conjunctiva, cornea, and retina.

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  • (PMID = 18199977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0535
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular vision
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Vis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkalies; 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; 86090-08-6 / Angiostatins
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42. Camesasca FI, Bianchi C, Beltrame G, Caporossi A, Piovella M, Rapisarda A, Tassinari G, Zeppa L, Italian Betamethasone-Chloramphenicol vs Dexamethasone-Tobramycin Combination Study Group: Control of inflammation and prophylaxis of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery: a multicenter study. Eur J Ophthalmol; 2007 Sep-Oct;17(5):733-42
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  • Pertaining to the two therapeutic regimens, efficacy, side effects, and clinical findings such as uncorrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, edema or hyperemia of eyelids and/or conjunctiva, conjunctival and/or ciliary vessels congestion, decreased corneal transparency, corneal edema, Descemet folds, anterior chamber Tyndall and depth, and posterior synechiae were also comparable.

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  • [ErratumIn] Eur J Ophthalmol. 2008 May-Jun;18(3):504
  • (PMID = 17932848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-6721
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Gels; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 66974FR9Q1 / Chloramphenicol; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone; VZ8RRZ51VK / Tobramycin
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43. Gonzales CR, Boshra J, Schwartz SD: 25-Gauge pars plicata vitrectomy for stage 4 and 5 retinopathy of prematurity. Retina; 2006 Sep;26(7 Suppl):S42-6
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  • A modified three-port 25-gauge approach was used in which conjunctival dissection and suturing of sclerotomies was necessary.
  • Modifications of the 25-gauge vitrectomy system included conjunctival dissection and suturing of conjunctiva and sclerotomies at the conclusion of the case.

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  • (PMID = 16946678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-004X
  • [Journal-full-title] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Pakravan M, Klesert TR, Akpek EK: Isolated lichen planus of the conjunctiva. Br J Ophthalmol; 2006 Oct;90(10):1325-6
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  • [Title] Isolated lichen planus of the conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Diseases / diagnosis. Lichen Planus / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Dry Eye Syndromes / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Cites] Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2002;13(4):350-65 [12191961.001]
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  • (PMID = 16980648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1857434
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45. Brovkina AF, Grishina EE: [Malignant (non-Hodgkin's) lymphoma of the organ of vision]. Vestn Oftalmol; 2009 Jan-Feb;125(1):58-61
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  • They give a concept of the current classification of lymphomas and information on the specific features of their course, by taking into account the site of the process (eyelids, conjunctiva, intraocular and orbital regions) and present recommendations on their treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidence. Prognosis. Russia / epidemiology. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19284106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-465X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik oftalmologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn Oftalmol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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46. Lorenz K, Zwiener I, Mirshahi A: Subconjunctival reflux and need for paracentesis after intravitreal injection of 0.1 ml bevacizumab: comparison between 27-gauge and 30-gauge needle. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2010 Nov;248(11):1573-7
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  • The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of paracentesis performed and the grade of reflux under the conjunctiva after injection of 0.1 ml bevacizumab (1.25 mg), depending on the thickness of the needles used.
  • The medians of the semi-quantitative assessment of the reflux grade under the conjunctiva were 2.0 in the 27-gauge group (corresponding to a mild reflux) and 1.0 in the 30-gauge group (corresponding to a minimal reflux, p < 0.001, IEE).
  • CONCLUSIONS: When using a 30-gauge needle for intravitreal injections, the reflux under the conjunctiva was less than with a 27-gauge needle.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Choroid Diseases / drug therapy. Conjunctiva. Female. Humans. Intravitreal Injections. Male. Middle Aged. Ocular Hypertension / therapy. Retinal Diseases / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20730442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-702X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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47. Sadiq MN, Arif AS, Jaffar S, Bhatia J: Use of supero-temporal free conjunctivo-limbal autograft in the surgical management of pterygium: our technique and results. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2009 Oct-Dec;21(4):121-4
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  • BACKGROUND: A pterygium is a fibro-vascular, wing shaped encroachment of the conjunctiva on to the cornea.
  • The inclusion of limbal tissue in the conjunctival auto graft following pterygium excision appears to be essential to ensure low recurrence rate.

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  • (PMID = 21067043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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48. Zimmermann P, Dietrich T, Bock F, Horn FK, Hofmann-Rummelt C, Kruse FE, Cursiefen C: Tumour-associated lymphangiogenesis in conjunctival malignant melanoma. Br J Ophthalmol; 2009 Nov;93(11):1529-34
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  • [Title] Tumour-associated lymphangiogenesis in conjunctival malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether tumour-associated lymphangiogenesis, that is the formation of new lymphatic vessels (LVs) induced by a tumour, occurs in and around conjunctival malignant melanoma (MM).
  • METHODS: Clinical files and conjunctival specimens of 20 patients with histologically diagnosed conjunctival MM were analysed.
  • The tumour area and the area covered by LV (LVA), LV number (LVN) and LV density (LVD) were measured within the tumour and in the peritumoural area in digital images of the specimen.
  • The LV results were correlated with the histopathological characteristics, tumour location, recurrence rate, mitomycin C therapy and presence of metastases.
  • RESULTS: LVs were detected in all specimens within the tumour and peritumourally.
  • Significantly more Ki67(+) proliferating lymphatic endothelial cells were detected in the tumour and in the peritumoural tissue up to 300 microm compared with the surrounding normal conjunctiva (>300 microm distance).
  • There was a slightly positive correlation between the tumour size and the LVN and LVA in the 50 microm zone adjacent to the tumour.
  • CONCLUSION: Conjunctival MMs display tumour-associated LV within and around the tumour.
  • The MM seems to induce lymphangiogenesis not only in the tumour, but also in its proximity.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphangiogenesis. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Melanoma / pathology

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  • [Cites] Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2000;98:471-92 [11190037.001]
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  • (PMID = 19628489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2079
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2760727
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49. Tominaga T, Miyazaki D, Sasaki S, Mihara S, Komatsu N, Yakura K, Inoue Y: Blocking mast cell-mediated type I hypersensitivity in experimental allergic conjunctivitis by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCR2. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2009 Nov;50(11):5181-8
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  • RESULTS: A subconjunctival injection of MCP-1 stimulated conjunctival mast cell degranulation and recruited monocytes/macrophages.
  • In the allergic conjunctivitis model, the allergen-induced MCP-1 protein was located in the monocytes/macrophages in the substantia propria of the conjunctiva.
  • Consistent with the outcome of the disease model, inhibition of CCR2 suppressed allergen-specific degranulation of IgE-primed, isolated conjunctival mast cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Allergens / toxicity. Animals. Cell Degranulation / physiology. Cell Movement / physiology. Conjunctiva / drug effects. Cytokines / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Eosinophils / physiology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Immunoglobulin E / immunology. Macrophages / physiology. Mice. Monocytes / physiology. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19553621.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Allergens; 0 / Ccl2 protein, mouse; 0 / Ccr2 protein, mouse; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Receptors, CCR2; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 37341-29-0 / Immunoglobulin E
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50. Grodio JL, Dhondt KV, O'Connell PH, Schat KA: Detection and quantification of Mycoplasma gallisepticum genome load in conjunctival samples of experimentally infected house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Avian Pathol; 2008 Aug;37(4):385-91
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  • [Title] Detection and quantification of Mycoplasma gallisepticum genome load in conjunctival samples of experimentally infected house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) using real-time polymerase chain reaction.
  • A TaqMan-based real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay utilizing the mgc2 gene was developed to detect Mycoplasma gallisepticum in conjunctival swabs of experimentally infected house finches.
  • The rag-1 qPCR results showed that host cell quantity varied greatly between conjunctival samples.
  • After inoculation, M. gallisepticum levels in the house finch conjunctiva increased over the 7-day period post infection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bacterial Proteins / isolation & purification. Conjunctiva / microbiology. DNA, Bacterial / isolation & purification. Genome

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  • (PMID = 18622854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3338
  • [Journal-full-title] Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Avian Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / DNA, Bacterial
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51. Yamashita T, Sonoda S, Suzuki R, Arimura N, Tachibana K, Maruyama K, Sakamoto T: A novel bubble liposome and ultrasound-mediated gene transfer to ocular surface: RC-1 cells in vitro and conjunctiva in vivo. Exp Eye Res; 2007 Dec;85(6):741-8
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  • [Title] A novel bubble liposome and ultrasound-mediated gene transfer to ocular surface: RC-1 cells in vitro and conjunctiva in vivo.
  • In rat eyes, strong GFP staining was seen in conjunctiva of BLUS group (average: 3.6).
  • GFP-positive cells were mainly in the conjunctiva and no tissue damage was seen histologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctiva / metabolism. Epithelium, Corneal / metabolism. Gene Transfer Techniques. Liposomes. Sonication

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  • (PMID = 17889849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4835
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins
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52. Liu S, Li J, Tan DT, Beuerman RW: Expression and function of muscarinic receptor subtypes on human cornea and conjunctiva. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2007 Jul;48(7):2987-96
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  • [Title] Expression and function of muscarinic receptor subtypes on human cornea and conjunctiva.
  • METHODS: Human limbal and conjunctival epithelial cells and conjunctival fibroblasts were isolated and cultured.
  • RT-PCR, real-time PCR, immunostaining and Western blot analyses for m1-m5 were performed on cultured cells and tissues and a human conjunctival epithelial cell line (IOBA-NHC).
  • RESULTS: RT-PCR revealed the presence of m1-m5 transcripts in cultured limbal and conjunctival epithelial cells and conjunctival fibroblasts.
  • Relative quantitative real-time PCR showed that the m1 transcript level in conjunctival cells was higher than that in limbal cells; m2, m3, and m4 expression levels were higher in conjunctival fibroblasts than in epithelial cells.
  • Carbachol increased the incorporation of BrdU into conjunctival epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was totally inhibited by atropine, but only partially inhibited by pirenzepine, AF-DX116, and 4-DAMP.
  • CONCLUSIONS: All five MR subtypes were found on corneal and conjunctival cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctiva / metabolism. Limbus Corneae / metabolism. Receptors, Muscarinic / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17591863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholinergic Agonists; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Muscarinic; 8Y164V895Y / Carbachol; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
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53. Tuncer S, Araz B, Peksayar G, Buyukbabani N: Solitary lacrimal gland choristoma of the limbal conjunctiva. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging; 2010;41 Online:e1-2
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  • [Title] Solitary lacrimal gland choristoma of the limbal conjunctiva.
  • It is a rare conjunctival tumor.
  • The authors report the clinical and histopathologic features of a conjunctival lacrimal gland choristoma.
  • A 34-year-old woman presented with a pinkish conjunctival mass in the left eye that had been present since birth.
  • The lesion was removed by excisional biopsy and the histopathologic findings were consistent with conjunctival lacrimal gland choristoma.
  • Clinically, these tumors resemble conjunctival hemangioblastoma, lymphangioma, or a lymphoid infiltrate.
  • Its presence since birth, temporal epibulbar location, and pink solid appearance can help in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / pathology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Lacrimal Apparatus

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
  • (PMID = 21053863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2375
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic surgery, lasers & imaging : the official journal of the International Society for Imaging in the Eye
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Oh DE, Kim YD: Lymphoproliferative diseases of the ocular adnexa in Korea. Arch Ophthalmol; 2007 Dec;125(12):1668-73
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  • Ocular lymphoproliferative lesions were located in the conjunctiva (53 patients), the eyelid (33 patients), and the orbit (42 patients).
  • Twenty patients had tumor relapses (15.6%), and 9 died of lymphoma during follow-up (7.0%).
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / epidemiology. Eyelid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / epidemiology. Orbital Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pseudolymphoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Korea / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18071120.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9950
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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55. Zhu H, Chauhan A: Tear dynamics model. Curr Eye Res; 2007 Mar;32(3):177-97
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  • The mass balances require models for the drainage of fluid through the canaliculi and the transport of tears and solutes through the conjunctiva.
  • The model also predicts that the conjunctiva is secretory and contributes about 25% of the total tear production.
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Animals. Conjunctiva / metabolism. Dry Eye Syndromes / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Humans. Ion Channels / metabolism. Ion Transport / physiology. Membrane Potentials. Osmolar Concentration

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  • (PMID = 17453939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-3683
  • [Journal-full-title] Current eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ion Channels
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56. Skotnitsky CC, Naduvilath TJ, Sweeney DF, Sankaridurg PR: Two presentations of contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis (CLPC) in hydrogel lens wear: local and general. Optom Vis Sci; 2006 Jan;83(1):27-36
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  • CLPC was classified as local if papillae were present in one to two areas of the tarsal conjunctiva and general if papillae occurred in three or more areas.
  • The physiological responses of the ocular surface, including tarsal conjunctiva redness and roughness, number of papillae present, lens fit and performance, and subjective patient symptoms, were measured during each visit at each site.

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  • (PMID = 16432470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Optom Vis Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel
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57. Sreejith RS, Reddy AK, Ganeshpuri SS, Garg P: Oestrus ovis ophthalmomyiasis with keratitis. Indian J Med Microbiol; 2010 Oct-Dec;28(4):399-402
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  • The tarsal conjunctiva of the upper eyelid showed injection with pseudomembrane.

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  • (PMID = 20966582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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58. Kohl E, Hillenkamp J, Landthaler M, Szeimies RM: [Skin and eyes]. Ophthalmologe; 2010 Mar;107(3):281-92; quiz 293
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  • The differential diagnosis must include atopic and seborrhoeic eyelid dermatitis.
  • Various immunobullous disorders involve the conjunctiva with varying severity.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Diseases / diagnosis. Skin Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Blepharitis / diagnosis. Comorbidity. Conjunctivitis, Allergic / diagnosis. Dermatitis, Allergic Contact / diagnosis. Dermatitis, Atopic / diagnosis. Dermatitis, Seborrheic / diagnosis. Eye Neoplasms / diagnosis. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20309669.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0423
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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59. Shii D, Nakagawa S, Shinomiya K, Yoshimi M, Katsuta O, Oda T, Nakamura M: Cyclosporin A eye drops inhibit fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in murine type I allergic conjunctivitis without affecting the early-phase reaction. Curr Eye Res; 2009 Jun;34(6):426-37
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  • Ocular tissue was harvested for histological evaluation 24 hours after the last challenge, and conjunctival tissue was collected for the measurement of collagen content and quantitative PCR 8 hours after the last challenge.
  • RESULTS: Scores for fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen content in the conjunctiva were higher after 5 days of antigen challenge than in normal non-challenged conjunctiva.
  • Instillation of cyclosporin A or betamethasone reduced the antigen-induced increases in scores for fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in the conjunctiva, and cyclosporin A significantly reduced the antigen-induced increase in conjunctival collagen content.
  • Cyclosporin A and betamethasone decreased the numbers of CD3(+) and CD4(+) T-cells and eosinophils in the conjunctiva, but did not affect the number of mast cells.
  • CONCLUSION: The results suggest that cyclosporin A eye drops inhibited fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration by the suppression of Th2 cytokine production in repeatedly antigen-challenged conjunctiva without affecting the early-phase reaction.

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  • (PMID = 19899977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2202
  • [Journal-full-title] Current eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone
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60. Halachmi-Eyal O, Lang Y, Keness Y, Miron D: Preoperative topical moxifloxacin 0.5% and povidone-iodine 5.0% versus povidone-iodine 5.0% alone to reduce bacterial colonization in the conjunctival sac. J Cataract Refract Surg; 2009 Dec;35(12):2109-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative topical moxifloxacin 0.5% and povidone-iodine 5.0% versus povidone-iodine 5.0% alone to reduce bacterial colonization in the conjunctival sac.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of adding topical moxifloxacin 0.5% to topical povidone-iodine 5.0% for preoperative reduction of bacterial recovery from the conjunctiva.
  • Povidone-iodine 5% solution was also instilled in the conjunctival sac in both groups for 3 minutes immediately before surgery.
  • Conjunctival cultures were obtained before prophylactic therapy and just before surgery.
  • The major outcome measures were the rate of bacterial colonization and bacterial type in conjunctival cultures obtained after instillation of povidone-iodine and immediately before surgery.
  • Positive conjunctival cultures were obtained before prophylactic therapy in 91 patients (38%) in the study group and 94 patients (41%) in the control group and just before surgery in 10 patients (4%) and 6 patients (3%), respectively; neither difference was statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with povidone-iodine 5.0% alone was effective in preoperative reduction of conjunctival bacterial colonization.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents, Local / therapeutic use. Antibiotic Prophylaxis. Aza Compounds / therapeutic use. Bacteria / isolation & purification. Conjunctiva / microbiology. Eye Infections, Bacterial / prevention & control. Povidone-Iodine / therapeutic use. Quinolines / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] J Cataract Refract Surg. 2010 May;36(5):871; author reply 871-2 [20457392.001]
  • [ErratumIn] J Cataract Refract Surg. 2010 Mar;36(3):535. Halachimi-Eyal, Orly [corrected to Halachmi-Eyal, Orly]
  • (PMID = 19969216.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4502
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cataract and refractive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cataract Refract Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents, Local; 0 / Aza Compounds; 0 / Fluoroquinolones; 0 / Quinolines; 25655-41-8 / Povidone-Iodine; U188XYD42P / moxifloxacin
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61. Desai M, Rapoor R, Gudithi SL, Kumar R, Prasad N, Dakshinamurty KV: Endophthalmitis: a rare complication of arteriovenous fistula infection. Hemodial Int; 2008 Apr;12(2):227-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • There was no perception of light in the left eye, conjunctiva was congested, cornea was clear, hypopyon present, and pupil was mid-dilated, not reacting to light.
  • Diagnosis of endophthalmitis was confirmed by B-scan ultrasound.

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  • (PMID = 18394055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1492-7535
  • [Journal-full-title] Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hemodial Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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62. Ago M, Ago K, Ogata M: Two fatalities by hydrogen sulfide poisoning: variation of pathological and toxicological findings. Leg Med (Tokyo); 2008 May;10(3):148-52
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  • In addition, the autopsy of patient A revealed petechiae of the palpebral conjunctiva and the mucous membrane of the mouth and erosion of the respiratory tract.

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  • (PMID = 18262457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1344-6223
  • [Journal-full-title] Legal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leg Med (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Air Pollutants; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Thiosulfates; YY9FVM7NSN / Hydrogen Sulfide
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63. Kaye SB, Lloyd M, Williams H, Yuen C, Scott JA, O'Donnell N, Batterbury M, Hiscott P, Hart CA: Evidence for persistence of adenovirus in the tear film a decade following conjunctivitis. J Med Virol; 2005 Oct;77(2):227-31
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  • It is unknown however, how long adenovirus is able to persist in the tear film and conjunctiva.
  • Patients were examined and samples of tears and conjunctival cells were collected from both eyes using tear film washes, filter paper, and swabs, the latter for virus isolation.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16121360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-6615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Chiang CC, Cheng YW, Lin CL, Lee H, Tsai FJ, Tseng SH, Tsai YY: Cyclooxygenase 2 expression in pterygium. Mol Vis; 2007;13:635-8
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  • PURPOSE: Following the recent discovery of an abnormal expression of the p53 gene in the epithelium in pterygium, some researchers felt that pterygium is a tumor rather than a degenerative disease.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining using a monoclonal antibody to COX 2 was performed on 90 pterygial specimens, 40 normal conjunctiva, and 5 normal limbus.
  • All specimens were negative in the normal conjunctiva and limbus group.
  • Given the role of COX 2 in cutaneous tumor carcinogenesis, we suggest COX 2 may also play a role in pterygium formation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Conjunctiva / enzymology. Epithelium / enzymology. Female. Goblet Cells / enzymology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Staining and Labeling. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 17515883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0535
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular vision
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Vis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2669508
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65. Brudenall DK, Schwab IR, Fritsches KA: Ocular morphology of the Leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). Vet Ophthalmol; 2008 Mar-Apr;11(2):99-110
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  • The nictitans shows extensive folding of the bulbar conjunctiva as an apparent mechanism to increase the surface area for mucus secretion.

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  • (PMID = 18302574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-5224
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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66. Perez-Vilar J, Mabolo R: Gel-forming mucins. Notions from in vitro studies. Histol Histopathol; 2007 04;22(4):455-64
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  • Mucus secretions form a protective barrier in the mucosa of the auditory, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital systems, and the conjunctiva in the eyes.

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  • (PMID = 17290356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gels; 0 / Mucins
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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67. Nardoni S, Dini M, Taccini F, Mancianti F: Occurrence, distribution and population size of Malassezia pachydermatis on skin and mucosae of atopic dogs. Vet Microbiol; 2007 May 16;122(1-2):172-7
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  • The frequence of isolation was higher from interdigital areas (70.7%), ears (63.4%), nail folds (35.7%), mouth (33.3%), groin (30.9%), conjunctiva and axillae (23.8%), perineum and anus (19%), perianal glands (9.5%).

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  • (PMID = 17257784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-1135
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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68. Zhong S, Teo WE, Zhu X, Beuerman R, Ramakrishna S, Yung LY: Formation of collagen-glycosaminoglycan blended nanofibrous scaffolds and their biological properties. Biomacromolecules; 2005 Nov-Dec;6(6):2998-3004
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  • This is evidently a more favorable environment allowing increased proliferation of rabbit conjunctiva fibroblast on the scaffolds.

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  • (PMID = 16283719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-7797
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomacromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomacromolecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Glycosaminoglycans; 0 / Macromolecular Substances; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 75-89-8 / Trifluoroethanol; 9007-28-7 / Chondroitin Sulfates; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 3.4.24.- / Collagenases
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69. Inoue H, Sonoda KH, Ishikawa M, Kadonosono K, Uchio E: Clinical evaluation of local ocular toxicity in candidate anti-adenoviral agents in vivo. Ophthalmologica; 2009;223(4):233-8
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  • Clinical scores in the conjunctiva and eyelid were recorded, and lacrimal irrigation was carried out.
  • RESULTS: In the cidofovir group, significant narrowing of lacrimal canaliculus, redness of eyelids and conjunctival injection were observed, but no obstruction of the lacrimal duct was found.
  • Although zalcitabine and stavudine induced eyelid redness and conjunctival injection, no change was observed in the lacrimal pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoviridae Infections / drug therapy. Antiviral Agents / toxicity. Conjunctiva / drug effects. Conjunctivitis, Viral / drug therapy. Cytosine / analogs & derivatives. Eyelids / drug effects. Lacrimal Apparatus / drug effects. Organophosphonates / toxicity

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19262070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0267
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / Organophosphonates; 8J337D1HZY / Cytosine; JIL713Q00N / cidofovir
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70. Norris HH, Peterson ME, Stebbins CC, McConchie BW, Bundoc VG, Trivedi S, Hodges MG, Anthony RM, Urban JF Jr, Long EO, Keane-Myers AM: Inhibitory receptor gp49B regulates eosinophil infiltration during allergic inflammation. J Leukoc Biol; 2007 Dec;82(6):1531-41
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  • Responses to ragweed (RW) challenge in the lung and conjunctiva were assessed in models of allergic inflammation and during an infection with parasitic larvae of the nematode Ascaris suum.
  • Furthermore, an increase in conjunctival inflammation with a predominance of eosinophils, neutrophils, and degranulated mast cells was observed in RW-sensitized, gp49B-deficient mice, which had been challenged in the eye, as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) controls.

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  • (PMID = 17761953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0741-5400
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of leukocyte biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Leukoc. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Allergens; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Immunoglobulin Isotypes; 0 / Lilrb4 protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic
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71. Touhami A, Di Pascuale MA, Kawatika T, Del Valle M, Rosa RH Jr, Dubovy S, Tseng SC: Characterisation of myofibroblasts in fibrovascular tissues of primary and recurrent pterygia. Br J Ophthalmol; 2005 Mar;89(3):269-74
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  • Interestingly, positive alpha-SMA staining was also found in the periorbital fibroadipose tissue posterior to Tenon's capsule near the nasal conjunctiva in all exenterated specimens.

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  • (PMID = 15722301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Calmodulin-Binding Proteins; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Vimentin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1772567
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72. Kheirkhah A, Casas V, Esquenazi S, Blanco G, Li W, Raju VK, Tseng SC: New surgical approach for superior conjunctivochalasis. Cornea; 2007 Jul;26(6):685-91
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  • PURPOSE: To show poor adhesion between the conjunctiva and the sclera in eyes with superior conjunctivochalasis (CCh) and to introduce a new surgical approach by reinforcing adhesion between the conjunctiva and the sclera for correcting this deficiency.
  • METHODS: After conjunctival peritomy and removal of the loose Tenon remnants, "Tenon reinforcement" for conjunctival adhesion to the underlying sclera was achieved by transplantation of cryopreserved amniotic membrane with fibrin glue (group A, 9 eyes of 6 patients) or 10-0 nylon sutures (group B, 8 eyes of 6 patients) in 17 eyes of 12 patients with refractory superior CCh.
  • During a mean follow-up of 3.7 +/- 1.9 months after surgery, all eyes achieved smooth conjunctival surface without any sign of CCh.
  • Reinforcement of conjunctival adhesion onto the sclera by amniotic membrane with either fibrin glue or sutures is effective in alleviating symptoms and signs in eyes with superior CCh.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Diseases / surgery. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 17592317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fibrin Tissue Adhesive
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73. Jain AK, Sukhija J, Chopra I, Sachdev N: Primary conjunctival herpetic geographic ulcer in an immunocompetent patient. Compr Ther; 2007;33(1):36-8
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  • [Title] Primary conjunctival herpetic geographic ulcer in an immunocompetent patient.
  • The major signs of a primary infection are limited to the lids, conjunctiva, and cornea.
  • Presence of a conjunctival dendrite without corneal involvement has been reported.
  • Although conjunctival ulceration has been associated with recurrent attacks, it has not been documented as a manifestation of primary herpetic infection.
  • We report a case of primary herpetic infection with geographic conjunctival ulcer with multiple corneal dendrites.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctivitis, Viral / diagnosis. Herpes Simplex / diagnosis. Immunocompetence. Keratitis, Dendritic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acyclovir / therapeutic use. Adult. Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Keratitis, Herpetic / diagnosis. Keratitis, Herpetic / immunology. Male. Ofloxacin / therapeutic use. Ointments. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 17984492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-8243
  • [Journal-full-title] Comprehensive therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Compr Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Ointments; A4P49JAZ9H / Ofloxacin; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir
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74. Lansdown AB: A pharmacological and toxicological profile of silver as an antimicrobial agent in medical devices. Adv Pharmacol Sci; 2010;2010:910686
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  • Argyria and argyrosis are the principle effects associated with heavy deposition of insoluble silver precipitates in the dermis and cornea/conjunctiva.

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  • (PMID = 21188244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-6342
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in pharmacological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Pharmacol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3003978
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75. Nakade T, Tomura Y, Jin K, Taniyama H, Yamamoto M, Kikkawa A, Miyagi K, Uchida E, Asakawa M, Mukai T, Shirasawa M, Yamaguchi M: Lead poisoning in whooper and tundra swans. J Wildl Dis; 2005 Jan;41(1):253-6
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  • Anorexia, depression, green watery feces, pale conjunctiva, and anemia were observed.

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  • (PMID = 15827233.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3558
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of wildlife diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Wildl. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chelating Agents; 2P299V784P / Lead; 9G34HU7RV0 / Edetic Acid
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76. Dalla Pozza G, Ghirlando A, Busato F, Midena E: Reconstruction of conjunctiva with amniotic membrane after excision of large conjunctival melanoma: a long-term study. Eur J Ophthalmol; 2005 Jul-Aug;15(4):446-50
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  • [Title] Reconstruction of conjunctiva with amniotic membrane after excision of large conjunctival melanoma: a long-term study.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate, on a long- term basis, the role of amniotic membrane in the reconstruction of large conjunctival defects after excision of large conjunctival melanoma.
  • METHODS: Four consecutive patients with diffuse conjunctival melanoma involving both bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva were studied.
  • Conjunctival melanoma was completely excised (with wide clinically disease-free margins) and amniotic membrane immediately sutured to the surrounding conjunctiva and sclera to cover the conjunctival defect.
  • RESULTS: Successful conjunctival surface reconstruction and physiologic fornical depth were achieved in all patients within 6 weeks.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Amniotic membrane transplantation is an effective alternative in ocular surface repairing surgery after removal of large conjunctival tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Amnion / transplantation. Conjunctiva / surgery. Conjunctival Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 16001375.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-6721
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. L P, L LR, N E, B KS: Malignant melanoma - cutaneous metastases. Indian J Dermatol; 2008;53(4):212-4
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  • Melanoma composed of melanocytes may arise in the skin or other tissues harboring melanocytes, such muco-cutaneous junctions, mucosa including the conjunctiva, iris, choroids and substantia nigra.1 Metastases to the skin and subcutaneous tissues from a malignant melanoma are less common.

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1964 Oct;17:1323-39 [14236766.001]
  • (PMID = 19882041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3611
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2763751
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cutaneous metastases / maignant / melanoma
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78. Shouman AA, Helal A, Marzouk MA, Zaki EM: Methylcellulose, a healing inhibitor factor in an animal model of trabeculectomy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2006 Jun;47(6):2515-9
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  • The methylcellulose was allowed to pass through the trabeculectomy site into the subconjunctival space, and an extra amount was injected by the same cannula under the conjunctiva in the area of the trabeculectomy from the edge of the periotomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctiva / drug effects. Methylcellulose / pharmacology. Sclera / drug effects. Trabeculectomy. Wound Healing / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16723464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9004-67-5 / Methylcellulose
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79. Rospond I, Sosnowski P, Pecold K: [Is the method of localizing intraocular foreign bodies according to Madroszkiewicz still outstanding?]. Klin Oczna; 2005;107(4-6):365-8
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  • Classic radiological method of Madroszkiewicz - in which the X-rays of the orbit is made after putting up the special indicators under the conjunctiva - seems to be neglected considering those more advanced diagnostic methods.

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  • (PMID = 16118960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinika oczna
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Oczna
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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80. Triay E, Bergman L, Nilsson B, All-Ericsson C, Seregard S: Time trends in the incidence of conjunctival melanoma in Sweden. Br J Ophthalmol; 2009 Nov;93(11):1524-8
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  • [Title] Time trends in the incidence of conjunctival melanoma in Sweden.
  • AIM: To study time trends in the incidence of conjunctival melanoma in Sweden.
  • METHODS: All patients with conjunctival melanoma from 1960 to 2005 in Sweden were identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry, cross-checked against hospital files, and validated by histopathological review (97.5%) or detailed hospital records (2.5%).
  • Time trends for the largest diameter, thickness and location of the tumour when diagnosed were analysed.
  • RESULTS: The age-standardised incidence of conjunctival melanoma increased significantly in men (n = 89) from 0.10 cases/million to 0.74 cases/million (p = 0.001) and in women (n = 81) from 0.06 cases/million to 0.45 cases/million (p = 0.007).
  • During the period of study, tumours became smaller (p = 0.005) and thinner (p = 0.002) at the time of diagnosis and increasingly arose from parts of the conjunctiva exposed to ultraviolet radiation (p = 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: The incidence of conjunctival melanoma increased in Sweden during the period 1960 to 2005.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / epidemiology. Melanoma / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19628487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2079
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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81. Bonini S, Micera A, Iovieno A, Lambiase A, Bonini S: Expression of Toll-like receptors in healthy and allergic conjunctiva. Ophthalmology; 2005 Sep;112(9):1528; discussion 1548-9
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  • [Title] Expression of Toll-like receptors in healthy and allergic conjunctiva.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in healthy and active vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) conjunctiva.
  • METHODS: Normal and VKC conjunctiva were evaluated for TLR-2, TLR-4, and TLR-9 mRNA and proteins by relative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Toll-like receptor 2, TLR-4, and TLR-9 were expressed in normal and VKC conjunctival epithelium and stroma, both with a more intense immunoreactivity in the stroma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Toll-like receptors are expressed in healthy and allergic conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctiva / metabolism. Conjunctivitis, Allergic / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16023216.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / TLR2 protein, human; 0 / TLR4 protein, human; 0 / TLR9 protein, human; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 2; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 4; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 9; 0 / Toll-Like Receptors
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82. Bekibele C, Baiyeroju A, Ajaiyeoba A, Akang E, Ajayi B: Tear function and abnormalities of ocular surface: relationship with subjective symptoms of dry eye in ibadan, Nigeria. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan;15(1):12-5
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  • Fifty -six out of 126 (46.8%) eyes of all symptomatic subjects compared to 7 out of 34 (20.6%) eyes of asymptomatic subjects had positive staining of conjunctiva with rose Bengal (p=0.06).

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  • [Cites] Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Jun;47(6):2445-50 [16723455.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Nucl Med. 2005 Oct;19(7):581-7 [16363623.001]
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  • (PMID = 20379423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-1599
  • [Journal-full-title] Middle East African journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2848794
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; dry eye / itching / pricking / tear instability
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83. Mondal RK, Nandi M, Datta S, Hira M: Disseminated lipogranulomatosis. Indian Pediatr; 2009 Feb;46(2):175-7
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  • Farber disease or disseminated lipogranulomatosis is a rare inherited disorder of lipid metabolism resulting from a defect in ceramide degradation.
  • We report a 4-year-old boy with Farber disease who presented with nodular swellings around the joint, angle of the mouth and conjunctiva, and was subsequently diagnosed to be a case of Farber Disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Farber Lipogranulomatosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Arthritis, Juvenile / diagnosis. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19242039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-6061
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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84. Messmer EM, Torres Suárez E, Mackert MI, Zapp DM, Kampik A: [In vivo confocal microscopy in blepharitis]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2005 Nov;222(11):894-900
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  • Scans of the tear film, the tarsal conjunctiva, the hair follicles and the meibomian glands were analysed by a masked observer.
  • RESULTS: Patients with normal lid margins exhibited a minimal round cell infiltrate in the tarsal conjunctival epithelium and largely normal ducts of the meibomian glands lined with a multilayered epithelium as well as normal gland acini.
  • In 15 of 19 patients with blepharitis/meibomitis, but not in meibomian gland dysfunction, an intense inflammation was observed in the tarsal conjunctival epithelium and stroma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In vivo confocal microscopy allowed the examination of the tear film, the tarsal conjunctiva, the lid margin including the lash follicles and the meibomian glands.

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  • (PMID = 16308822.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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85. Barsotti G, Marchetti V, Abramo F: Primary conjunctival mast cell tumor in a Labrador Retriever. Vet Ophthalmol; 2007 Jan-Feb;10(1):60-4
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  • [Title] Primary conjunctival mast cell tumor in a Labrador Retriever.
  • A 4-year-old, intact male Labrador Retriever with a rapidly progressive conjunctival mass was evaluated.
  • Ocular examination showed a 2-cm elongated mass arising from the superior bulbar conjunctiva of the left eye.
  • The superior palpebral conjunctiva was unaffected, and the remaining ocular examination was normal.
  • A poorly differentiated mast cell tumor was diagnosed by cytology.
  • After a complete clinical staging, the mass was excised and identified histologically as a grade-II mast cell tumor.
  • This report contributes to the current literature pertaining to canine conjunctival mast cell tumors; unfortunately, the paucity of case reports and the absence of large studies regarding this tumor make conclusions regarding its biologic behavior impossible.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Mast-Cell Sarcoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological / veterinary. Dogs. Male. Pedigree

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  • (PMID = 17204130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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86. Stacy RC, Jakobiec FA, Schoenfield L, Singh AD: Unifocal and multifocal reactive lymphoid hyperplasia vs follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexa. Am J Ophthalmol; 2010 Sep;150(3):412-426.e1
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  • RESULTS: RLH preferentially involved the conjunctiva, whereas follicular lymphoma had a propensity to involve the lacrimal gland.
  • However, 3 patients with orbital, but not conjunctival, RLH developed immunohistochemically proven multifocal nonophthalmic supradiaphragmatic adnexal RLH (sites included lung, parotid, axillary nodes, and uvea).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A correct diagnosis of RLH vs follicular lymphoma can be reliably established employing immunohistochemical methods.
  • Conjunctival RLH can usually be managed surgically without radiotherapy, but "multifocal RLH" required systemic treatment in 2 of 3 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Conjunctival Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pseudolymphoma / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [ErratumIn] Am J Ophthalmol. 2010 Dec;159(6):943
  • (PMID = 20599186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1891
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / BCL6 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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87. Massingale ML, Li X, Vallabhajosyula M, Chen D, Wei Y, Asbell PA: Analysis of inflammatory cytokines in the tears of dry eye patients. Cornea; 2009 Oct;28(9):1023-7
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  • Tears were analyzed for the presence of 8 cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-1beta] and 1 chemokine (IL-8).
  • The upregulation of their respective genes in the conjunctiva suggests that the concentration increase is not the result of evaporative effects, but of overproduction.
  • [MeSH-major] Dry Eye Syndromes / metabolism. Interferon-gamma / metabolism. Interleukin-8 / metabolism. Interleukins / metabolism. Tears / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19724208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4798
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R34EY017626-01AZ
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Interleukins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / tear proteins; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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88. Steiber Z, Ehlers N, Heegaard S, Hjortdal J, Berta A, Prause JU: Brown cornea. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2008 Apr;246(4):537-41
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  • We report a case of progressive brown corneal pigmentation in a patient with a primary acquired melanosis of the conjunctiva.
  • RESULTS: A 36-year-old female developed a corneal stromal pigmentation adjacent to a pigmented conjunctival lesion of the left eye.
  • The conjunctival lesion was surgically removed, and proved histopathologically to be a compound nevus with slight atypia and an acquired melanosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Corneal Diseases / pathology. Corneal Stroma / ultrastructure. Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Melanosis / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Keratoplasty, Penetrating. MART-1 Antigen. Melanocytes / ultrastructure. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18193447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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89. Ben Simon GJ, Cheung N, McKelvie P, Fox R, McNab AA: Oral chlorambucil for extranodal, marginal zone, B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the orbit. Ophthalmology; 2006 Jul;113(7):1209-13
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  • The lacrimal gland was the most frequent site of occurrence (24%), followed by the conjunctiva, eyelid, and superior orbit.
  • One patient with malignant transformation died 12 months after diagnosis and initial treatment.

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  • (PMID = 16647129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil
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90. Liao SL, Chen MS, Lin LL: Primary placement of a titanium sleeve in hydroxyapatite orbital implants. Eye (Lond); 2005 Apr;19(4):400-5
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  • The Tenon capsule and conjunctiva were meticulously closed with minimal tension.
  • The remaining 27 sleeves that did not spontaneously expose pursued secondary exposure of the titanium sleeve and peg insertion by conjunctival cutdown procedure 3 months after original surgery.
  • Two sleeves were found to be oblique positioned after the conjunctival cutdown procedure.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary placement of a titanium sleeve into hydroxyapatite implants has several advantages, including high patient acceptance, technical simplicity, and office-based conjunctival cutdown pegging procedure.

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  • (PMID = 15297860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 91D9GV0Z28 / Durapatite; D1JT611TNE / Titanium
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91. Saw VP, Dart JK, Sitaru C, Zillikens D: Cicatrising conjunctivitis with anti-basement membrane autoantibodies in ectodermal dysplasia. Br J Ophthalmol; 2008 Oct;92(10):1403-10
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  • METHODS: Conjunctival and buccal immunohistopathology, and serological analysis using a panel of epithelial basement membrane zone proteins including the bullous pemphigoid antigen 180 (BP180) were carried out as part of an ocular pemphigoid work-up in each patient.
  • The degree of photophobia, conjunctival inflammation and visual acuity were monitored to evaluate the response to immunosuppression.
  • RESULTS: Four of the six patients showed positive immunopathology: direct immunofluorescence testing of the conjunctiva in one patient demonstrated linear IgA deposition along the basement membrane zone, and IgG and IgM in the buccal mucosa of another patient.
  • Treatment with systemic immunosuppression, combined with clearance of bacterial colonisation, reduced the severity of photophobia and degree of conjunctival inflammation in 5/6 (83%) patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Basement Membrane / immunology. Conjunctival Diseases / immunology. Conjunctivitis, Bacterial / complications. Ectodermal Dysplasia / diagnosis. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18815422.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2079
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Non-Fibrillar Collagens; 0 / collagen type XVII
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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92. Charlotte F, Doghmi K, Cassoux N, Ye H, Du MQ, Kujas M, Lesot A, Mansour G, Lehoang P, Vignot N, Capron F, Leblond V: Ocular adnexal marginal zone B cell lymphoma: a clinical and pathologic study of 23 cases. Virchows Arch; 2006 Apr;448(4):506-16
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  • The tumor was confined to one ocular structure in 18 cases (conjunctiva, n=8; orbit, n=8; or lacrimal gland, n=2).
  • Regardless of the disease stage at diagnosis, combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy seemed to be more effective than chemotherapy alone in ocular adnexal MZL-MALT, as persistent complete remission was achieved in nine patients receiving combination therapy, while six of 14 patients treated with chemotherapy alone relapsed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Germinal Center / chemistry. Germinal Center / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Remission Induction. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16323006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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93. Ghazi NG, Patel BS, Olsakovsky LA, White K, Patterson JW, Carter B: A conjunctival lesion with histological features similar to large-cell acanthoma of the skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Oct;37(10):1103-6
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  • [Title] A conjunctival lesion with histological features similar to large-cell acanthoma of the skin.
  • LCA is currently believed to be a distinct entity with an unclear pathogenesis and a benign biologic behavior.
  • Here, we describe the first occurrence of LCA in the conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthoma / pathology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19719831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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94. Damato B, Coupland SE: Conjunctival melanoma and melanosis: a reappraisal of terminology, classification and staging. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2008 Nov;36(8):786-95
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  • [Title] Conjunctival melanoma and melanosis: a reappraisal of terminology, classification and staging.
  • This paper aims to stimulate debate on the terminology, classification, grading and staging of conjunctival melanosis and melanoma.
  • We audited our results with 76 invasive conjunctival melanomas.
  • Staging according to the sixth edition of the Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) system did not correlate well with tumour extent and outcome.
  • We also found deficiencies in the grading, terminology and classification of conjunctival melanocytic abnormalities.
  • In summary, we suggest that the term 'primary acquired melanosis' be reserved for clinical diagnosis.
  • Histologically, this abnormality can be categorized more precisely as either 'hypermelanosis' or 'conjunctival melanocytic intraepithelial neoplasia (C-MIN)'.
  • We suggest that the TNM staging system for conjunctival melanoma be revised to: (i) include a Tis stage;.
  • (ii) take account of tumour size, quadrant and caruncular involvement; and (iii) improve staging of any local invasion beyond conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / classification. Melanoma / classification. Melanosis / classification. Terminology as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19128387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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95. De Paiva CS, Villarreal AL, Corrales RM, Rahman HT, Chang VY, Farley WJ, Stern ME, Niederkorn JY, Li DQ, Pflugfelder SC: Dry eye-induced conjunctival epithelial squamous metaplasia is modulated by interferon-gamma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2007 Jun;48(6):2553-60
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  • [Title] Dry eye-induced conjunctival epithelial squamous metaplasia is modulated by interferon-gamma.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the role of interferon (IFN)-gamma in the pathogenesis of conjunctival squamous metaplasia in dry eye.
  • RESULTS: Dry eye promoted migration of CD4+ T cells and IFN-gamma+ cells into goblet cell zones of the conjunctiva and increased the concentration of IFN-gamma in tears.
  • This migration was accompanied by progressive goblet cell loss and an increase in SPRR-2 expression in the conjunctival epithelium.
  • Dry eye had no effect on conjunctival goblet cell density in IFN-gamma-knockout mice; however, exogenous administration of IFN-gamma significantly decreased goblet cell density after 5 days.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Conjunctival epithelial response to experimental dryness is related to the degree of CD4+ T-cell infiltration and the level of IFN-gamma production.
  • These findings suggest that IFN-gamma plays a pivotal role in promoting conjunctival squamous metaplasia in dry eye, and they provide insight into the immune pathogenesis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctiva / pathology. Dry Eye Syndromes / complications. Interferon-gamma / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17525184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY014553; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY016928-01; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY11915
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / SPRR2A protein, human; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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96. Hardarson SH, Sigurdsson HH, Níelsdóttir GE, Valgeirsson J, Loftsson T, Stefánsson E: Ocular powder: dry topical formulations of timolol are well tolerated in rabbits. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther; 2006 Oct;22(5):340-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Redness of the bulbar conjunctiva and the amount of discharge was rated from photographs (0-3 points, randomized and masked evaluation).

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  • (PMID = 17076628.001).
  • [ISSN] 1080-7683
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Powders; 817W3C6175 / Timolol
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97. Shields CL, Shields JA: Ocular melanoma: relatively rare but requiring respect. Clin Dermatol; 2009 Jan-Feb;27(1):122-33
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  • Primary ocular melanoma can involve the uveal tract, conjunctiva, eyelid, or orbit.
  • Uveal melanoma is the most common ocular melanoma and carries a serious prognosis, especially if the tumor is medium or large in size.
  • Conjunctival melanoma manifests on the surface of the eye and has been increasing in incidence.
  • Early diagnosis from annual ocular examination by an experienced ophthalmologist and treatment strategies are reviewed.

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  • (PMID = 19095158.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1131
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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98. Rashid S, Dana MR: Cicatrizing and autoimmune diseases. Chem Immunol Allergy; 2007;92:195-202
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  • When severe and affecting the epithelium and substantia propria of the conjunctiva, cicatrization can ensue, leading to significant mechanical alterations as a result of the fibrosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Conjunctivitis / immunology. Corneal Ulcer / immunology. Humans. Keratitis / immunology. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / immunology


99. Curtis TH, Durairaj VD: Conjunctival Kaposi sarcoma as the initial presentation of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2005 Jul;21(4):314-5
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  • [Title] Conjunctival Kaposi sarcoma as the initial presentation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.
  • A 34-year-old man presented to the ophthalmology clinic because of an enlarging mass of the left bulbar conjunctiva, found to be Kaposi sarcoma by histologic examination.
  • The patient had no prior diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection, making this one of only two descriptions in the literature of conjunctival Kaposi sarcoma as the initial presentation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / diagnosis. HIV Infections / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16052151.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
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100. Acosta MC, Alfaro ML, Borrás F, Belmonte C, Gallar J: Influence of age, gender and iris color on mechanical and chemical sensitivity of the cornea and conjunctiva. Exp Eye Res; 2006 Oct;83(4):932-8
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  • [Title] Influence of age, gender and iris color on mechanical and chemical sensitivity of the cornea and conjunctiva.
  • The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of age, gender and iris color on the mechanical and chemical sensitivity of the cornea and the conjunctiva.
  • In 57 healthy subjects (27 males, 30 females; ages between 23 and 71 years), sensory thresholds to mechanical and chemical stimulation were measured in the central cornea and the temporal conjunctiva using a Belmonte's gas esthesiometer.
  • Corneal and conjunctival thresholds to mechanical and chemical stimuli increased with age.
  • In the case of the conjunctiva, only age determined mechanical and chemical thresholds according to the equations: 78.2 ml/min+1.4.(Age-23 years) and 41.6%CO(2)+0.8.(Age-23 years), respectively.
  • Therefore, normal values of mechanical and chemical thresholds of the cornea and conjunctiva measured with the Belmonte gas esthesiometer can be predicted according to age and iris color.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / physiology. Conjunctiva / physiology. Cornea / physiology. Eye Color / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16784741.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4835
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
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