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1. Yamamoto A, Tanaka H, Ishida T, Horiike K: D-aspartate oxidase localisation in pituitary and pineal glands of the female pig. J Neuroendocrinol; 2010 Nov;22(11):1165-72
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  • [Title] D-aspartate oxidase localisation in pituitary and pineal glands of the female pig.
  • Because only D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) can degrade D-aspartate, we determined DDO localisation in the pituitary and pineal glands to elucidate the control mechanisms of local D-aspartate concentration.
  • Brain tissues and pituitary and pineal glands of the female pigs contained a similar DDO activity of 0.38-0.66 U/g protein.
  • We used dual-label immunocytochemistry to determine which pituitary hormones colocalise with DDO, and whether DDO and D-aspartate immunoreactivity is reciprocal.
  • In the pituitary gland, almost all proopiomelanocortin-positive cells colocalised DDO, whereas only growth hormone-positive cells colocalised D-aspartate.
  • The present study suggests that DDO plays important roles to prevent undesirable off-target action of D-aspartate by strictly controlling local D-aspartate concentration in the pituitary and pineal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] D-Aspartate Oxidase / metabolism. Pineal Gland / enzymology. Pituitary Gland / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibody Specificity. Aspartic Acid / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Brain / enzymology. Endocrine Glands / metabolism. Female. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Pituitary Hormones / immunology. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism. Swine

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20819121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2826
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; EC 1.4.3.1 / D-Aspartate Oxidase
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2. Lundkvist GB, Sellix MT, Nygård M, Davis E, Straume M, Kristensson K, Block GD: Clock gene expression during chronic inflammation induced by infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei in rats. J Biol Rhythms; 2010 Apr;25(2):92-102
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  • In tissue explants of pituitary glands from Period1-luciferase (Per1-luc) transgenic rats infected with Tb brucei, the period of Per1-luc expression was significantly shorter.
  • We also examined the relative expression of Per1, Clock, and Bmal1 mRNA in the SCN, pineal gland, and spleen from control and infected rats using qPCR.
  • Both Clock and Bmal1 mRNA expression was reduced in the pineal gland and spleen following Tb brucei infection.
  • However, our data show that the infection overall alters molecular clock function in peripheral clocks including the pituitary gland, pineal gland, and spleen.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Genetically Modified. Biological Clocks. Body Temperature. Male. Neurons / metabolism. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Spleen / metabolism. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20348460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4531
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biological rhythms
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Rhythms
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH062517; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL071510-03; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK007646; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH062517-03; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL071510
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Per1 protein, rat; 0 / Period Circadian Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS203341; NLM/ PMC2897063
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3. Watanabe A, Horikoshi T, Uchida M, Koizumi H, Yagishita T, Kinouchi H: Diagnostic value of spinal MR imaging in spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2009 Jan;30(1):147-51
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) presents with orthostatic headache, and the diagnosis is made on the basis of low CSF pressure and brain MR imaging findings characteristic of the disorder.
  • RESULTS: Brain MR imaging detected abnormalities in 15 of the 18 patients (83%): diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement in 15 (83%), descent of the cerebellar tonsil in 13 (72%), brain stem sagging in 13 (72%), enlargement of the pituitary gland in 12 (67%), and subdural fluid collection in 13 (72%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Spinal MR imaging is useful for the diagnosis of SIH, especially in the early stage.

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  • (PMID = 18768717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Suzuki S, Suzuki N, Mori J, Oshima A, Usami S, Hashizume K: micro-Crystallin as an intracellular 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine holder in vivo. Mol Endocrinol; 2007 Apr;21(4):885-94
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  • The disruption of the gene does not alter the expression of TSHbeta mRNA in the pituitary gland or glutathione-S-transferase alpha2 and deiodinase 1 mRNAs in either the liver or kidney.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Gene Expression. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Hearing / genetics. Heart Rate / genetics. Iodide Peroxidase / genetics. Isoenzymes / genetics. Kidney / chemistry. Kidney / metabolism. Liver / chemistry. Liver / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Myocardium / chemistry. Myocardium / metabolism. NADP / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / chemistry. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Thyrotropin, beta Subunit / genetics. Thyrotropin, beta Subunit / metabolism. Thyroxine / blood. Thyroxine / metabolism. Triiodothyronine / blood. Triiodothyronine / metabolism


5. Khawaja NM, Taher BM, Barham ME, Naser AA, Hadidy AM, Ahmad AT, Hamamy HA, Yaghi NA, Ajlouni KM: Pituitary enlargement in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract; 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):29-34
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  • [Title] Pituitary enlargement in patients with primary hypothyroidism.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assesses the frequency and degree of pituitary hyperplasia in patients with primary hypothyroidism, the association of pituitary enlargement with disease severity, and the response to treatment.
  • Initial and follow-up investigations included thyroid function tests, serum prolactin levels, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary.
  • Visual field examination was requested for all patients with pituitary enlargement (and adequately completed in 24).
  • RESULTS: Pituitary enlargement on MRI was found in 37 of the 53 patients (70%), with 31 of the 37 patients (84%) having TSH levels of > or = 100 microIU/mL.
  • After thyroxine treatment, 85% of the patients with pituitary enlargement who underwent a follow-up MRI showed a decrease in size of the gland.
  • About half of the patients were referred to our facility with the diagnosis of hypothyroidism; presenting features in the rest of the patients included galactorrhea, menstrual irregularities, learning disability, short stature, precocious puberty, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, headaches, visual field defects, and dry ichthyotic skin.
  • CONCLUSION: The association between pituitary gland enlargement and primary hypothyroidism should be kept in mind when pituitary hyperplasia is detected on MRI, before unwarranted and drastic interventions are initiated.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypothyroidism / diagnosis. Hypothyroidism / epidemiology. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Thyrotropin / metabolism. Thyroxine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Comorbidity. Developing Countries. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / epidemiology. Incidence. Jordan / epidemiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sex Distribution. Thyroid Function Tests

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  • (PMID = 16524860.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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6. Bouillon R: Acute adrenal insufficiency. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2006 Dec;35(4):767-75, ix
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  • Adrenal insufficiency is a rare disorder, usually with gradually evolving clinical symptoms and signs.
  • Occasionally, an acute adrenal insufficiency crisis can become a life-threatening condition because of acute interruption of a normal or hyperfunctioning adrenal or pituitary gland or sudden interruption of a adrenal replacement therapy.

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  • (PMID = 17127145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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7. Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ: Risk of pituitary tumors in cellular phone users: a case-control study. Epidemiology; 2009 May;20(3):348-54
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  • [Title] Risk of pituitary tumors in cellular phone users: a case-control study.
  • BACKGROUND: There is public concern and scientific interest regarding a potential effect of cellular phone use on the risk of developing intracranial tumors.
  • Tumors of the pituitary gland have barely been investigated in this context, but are of interest because of their intracranial location.
  • METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study between 2001 and 2005 of the risk of developing pituitary tumors in relation to cellular phone use in Southeast England, with 291 cases and 630 controls.
  • RESULTS: Tumor risk was not associated with cellular phone use overall (adjusted odds ratio = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7-1.3), and was not appreciably increased 10 or more years after first use (1.0; 0.5-1.9), or after 10 or more years of cumulative use (1.1; 0.5-2.4).
  • Separate analyses of analog and digital phone use showed no associations with tumor risk.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that the risk of developing pituitary tumors is associated with cellular phone use for the induction time periods and intensities of use observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Phones / utilization. Pituitary Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19279493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5487
  • [Journal-full-title] Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epidemiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Bensing S, Fetissov SO, Mulder J, Perheentupa J, Gustafsson J, Husebye ES, Oscarson M, Ekwall O, Crock PA, Hökfelt T, Hulting AL, Kämpe O: Pituitary autoantibodies in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 Jan 16;104(3):949-54
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  • [Title] Pituitary autoantibodies in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.
  • Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene.
  • In this study, we aimed to identify pituitary autoantigens in patients with APS1.
  • A pituitary cDNA expression library was screened with APS1 sera and a tudor domain containing protein 6 (TDRD6) cDNA clone was isolated.
  • By using immunohistochemistry, sera from 3/6 APS1 patients with growth hormone (GH) deficiency showed immunostaining of a small number of guinea pig anterior pituitary cells, and 40-50% of these cells were GH-positive.
  • The APS1 Aab-positive, GH-negative cells may represent a novel subpopulation of anterior pituitary cells.
  • In addition, 4/6 patient sera showed staining of a fiber-plexus in the pituitary intermediate lobe recognizing enzymes of monoamine and GABA synthesis.
  • Thus, we have identified TDRD6 as a major autoantigen in APS1 patients and shown that several sera from GH-deficient patients stain specific cell populations and nerves in the pituitary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Pituitary Gland / immunology. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17215373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ EF185284
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Autoantigens; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1783420
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9. Lin CS, Cheng CJ, Shih KC, Lin SH: Recurrent hyponatremia in a patient with chronic kidney disease. J Nephrol; 2006 May-Jun;19(3):394-8
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging of her brain displayed a normal pituitary gland and hypothalamus.

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  • (PMID = 16874705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids
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10. Saraga-Babic M, Bazina M, Vukojevic K, Bocina I, Stefanovic V: Involvement of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors in the early development of the human pituitary gland. Histol Histopathol; 2008 10;23(10):1259-68
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  • [Title] Involvement of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors in the early development of the human pituitary gland.
  • The spatial and temporal pattern of appearance of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and p53 proteins, and anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein was investigated in the developing pituitary gland of 6 human embryos 5-8-weeks old, using morphological and immunohistochemical techniques.
  • Pro-apoptotic p53 protein was detected in all parts of the pituitary gland throughout the investigated period.
  • While caspase-3 dependent pathway of cell death participated in morphogenesis of the adenohypophysis and associated connective tissue, p53-mediated apoptosis most likely participates in morphogenesis of all parts of the gland, including neurohypophysis.
  • The anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein was also detected in all parts of the developing gland.
  • Bcl-2 protein probably prevented cell death in all parts of the gland and enhanced cell differentiation.
  • The described pattern of appearance of the investigated pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors might be important for normal morphogenesis and function of the pituitary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Caspase 3 / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Gestational Age. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Morphogenesis. Pituitary Gland, Posterior / embryology. Pituitary Gland, Posterior / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18712678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP3 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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11. Yilmazlar S, Kocaeli H, Eyigor O, Hakyemez B, Korfali E: Clinical importance of the basal cavernous sinuses and cavernous carotid arteries relative to the pituitary gland and macroadenomas: quantitative analysis of the complete anatomy. Surg Neurol; 2008 Aug;70(2):165-74; discussion 174-5
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  • [Title] Clinical importance of the basal cavernous sinuses and cavernous carotid arteries relative to the pituitary gland and macroadenomas: quantitative analysis of the complete anatomy.
  • Our aim was to quantitatively analyze anatomical and radiologic relationships among the BCS, the CCA, and the pituitary gland, as these structures are accessed during TSS.
  • In each specimen, size of the pituitary gland and specific characteristics of each BCS and the horizontal segment of each CCA were recorded.
  • Slowly growing pituitary adenomas stretch out both CCAs considerably from medial to lateral directions, and they cause widening of intercarotid distances in all segments.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carotid Artery, Internal / anatomy & histology. Cavernous Sinus / anatomy & histology. Cranial Fossa, Middle / anatomy & histology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Sphenoid Bone / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cadaver. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / anatomy & histology. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Dura Mater / anatomy & histology. Dura Mater / surgery. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / anatomy & histology. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / surgery. Pituitary Gland, Posterior / anatomy & histology. Pituitary Gland, Posterior / pathology. Pituitary Gland, Posterior / surgery. Sella Turcica / anatomy & histology. Sella Turcica / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18262607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Nishida Y, Yoshioka M, Ray CA, Bolduc C, Tanaka H, St-Amand J: Regulation of pituitary gene expression by adrenalectomy. Obesity (Silver Spring); 2009 Jan;17(1):114-20
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  • [Title] Regulation of pituitary gene expression by adrenalectomy.
  • To identify pituitary mediators for ADX-induced physiological alterations, such as weight loss and hypotension, we investigated the effect of ADX on the pituitary transcriptome using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE).
  • The SAGE libraries were constructed from pituitary gland of intact (n = 51) and ADX (n = 12) mice.
  • This study reveals alterations of pituitary gene expressions that may be associated with ADX-induced physiological changes including weight loss.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenalectomy. Gene Expression Regulation. Pituitary Gland / physiology. RNA, Messenger / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19107126.001).
  • [ISSN] 1930-7381
  • [Journal-full-title] Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obesity (Silver Spring)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 63231-63-0 / RNA
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13. Pham KX, Amano M, Kurita Y, Shimizu A, Fujinami Y, Amiya N, Yamamori K: Changes in the immunostaining intensities of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone during ovarian maturation in the female Japanese flounder. Fish Physiol Biochem; 2008 Dec;34(4):357-65
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  • The role of gonadotropin (GTH) in the reproduction of the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, was studied by assessing the changes in the apparent activity of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the pituitary gland during gonadal maturation by immunohistochemical analyses.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Estradiol / blood. Female. Hydroxyprogesterones / blood. Immunohistochemistry. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 18958593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-5168
  • [Journal-full-title] Fish physiology and biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fish Physiol. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydroxyprogesterones; 10456-50-5 / 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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14. Mukdsi JH, De Paul AL, Gutiérrez S, Roth FD, Aoki A, Torres AI: Subcellular localisation of VEGF in different pituitary cells. Changes of its expression in oestrogen induced prolactinomas. J Mol Histol; 2005 Oct;36(8-9):447-54
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  • [Title] Subcellular localisation of VEGF in different pituitary cells. Changes of its expression in oestrogen induced prolactinomas.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important angiogenic factor in the pituitary gland.
  • The objective of this study was to unveil the VEGF subcellular localisation in different pituitary cell types and to evaluate changes in its expression at different time intervals after oestrogen stimulation.
  • Oestrogen treatment increased the number of VEGF immunopositive cells and its expression detected differentially by western blot in both nucleus and cytoplasm of pituitary cells when compared to the control.
  • In lactotrophs, the predominant cell of the tumour, VEGF was immunodetected in RER, Golgi complex, and vesicular organelles, supporting further the association with an auto-paracrine effect exerted by VEGF.
  • In the course of prolactinoma development, the oestrogen stimulated VEGF expression in tumoural cells, promoting a vascular adaptation which contributes to growth and progression of the tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogens / pharmacology. Lactotrophs / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Prolactinoma / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16733790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Histol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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15. Mantsch JR, Cullinan WE, Tang LC, Baker DA, Katz ES, Hoks MA, Ziegler DR: Daily cocaine self-administration under long-access conditions augments restraint-induced increases in plasma corticosterone and impairs glucocorticoid receptor-mediated negative feedback in rats. Brain Res; 2007 Sep 5;1167:101-11
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  • The present study examined alterations in stressor-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in rats provided daily access to cocaine for self-administration (SA) under long-access conditions (1.0 mg/kg/infusion; 6 hx14 days).
  • GR protein expression measured using Western blot analysis was significantly reduced in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (including the paraventricular nucleus [PVN]) but not in the pituitary gland, ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsal hippocampus, ventral subiculum, medial prefrontal cortex or amygdala in cocaine self-administering rats.

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  • (PMID = 17689506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA015758; None / None / / R01 DA015758-03; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA15758; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA015758-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS30281; NLM/ PMC2121305
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16. Robinson J: Prenatal programming of the female reproductive neuroendocrine system by androgens. Reproduction; 2006 Oct;132(4):539-47
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  • It has been clear for several decades that the areas of the brain that control reproductive function are sexually dimorphic and that the 'programming actions' of the male gonadal steroids are responsible for sex-specific release of the gonadotrophins from the pituitary gland.

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  • (PMID = 17008465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reproduction
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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17. Gu L, Laly M, Chang HC, Prior RL, Fang N, Ronis MJ, Badger TM: Isoflavone conjugates are underestimated in tissues using enzymatic hydrolysis. J Agric Food Chem; 2005 Aug 24;53(17):6858-63
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  • Acid hydrolysis or enzymatic hydrolysis (glucuronidases and sulfatases) was used to study isoflavone contents in the heart, brain, epididymis, fat, lung, testis, liver, pituitary gland, prostate gland, mammary glands, uterus, and kidney from rats fed diets made with soy protein isolate.

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  • (PMID = 16104811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoflavones; 6287WC5J2L / daidzein; DH2M523P0H / Genistein; EC 3.1.6.- / Sulfatases; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase
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18. Sitzmann BD, Mattison JA, Ingram DK, Roth GS, Ottinger MA, Urbanski HF: Impact of Moderate Calorie Restriction on the Reproductive Neuroendocrine Axis of Male Rhesus Macaques. Open Longev Sci; 2010;3(10):38-47
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  • Microarray profiling of pituitary gland and testicular gene expression was performed after 8 years of treatment, using GeneChip® Rhesus Macaque Genome Arrays (Affymetrix), and showed very little effect of caloric restriction.
  • Using a 1.5-fold difference threshold, our microarray analysis revealed differential expression of only 145 probesets in the pituitary gland and 260 in the testes, out of a total of >54,000.
  • Semi-quantitative RT-PCR performed on pituitary gland mRNA corroborated the microarray findings for selected modulated genes, including TSH receptor (TSHR) and sperm-specific antigen 2 (SSFA2).
  • Most notably, significantly lower expression of TSH receptor mRNA was observed in the pituitary of CR compared to CON animals.
  • Importantly, our data suggest that moderate CR has no obvious lasting detrimental effect on the reproductive neuroendocrine axis of long-lived primates, and has only a modest influence on pituitary and testicular gene expression.

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  • eagle-i research resources. PMID 20814446 (Oregon Health and Science University) .
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  • (PMID = 20814446.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Open Longevity Science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Open Longev Sci
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG029612-03; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR000163-478882; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR000163-460117; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P51 RR000163; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD029186-09; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG019914; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG029612; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR000163-486757; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG019914-04S1; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K01 RR000163; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD029186; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG019914-04
  • [Publication-type] JOURNAL ARTICLE
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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19. Hartmann H, Zöphel K, Freudenberg R, Oehme L, Andreeff M, Wunderlich G, Eisenhofer G, Kotzerke J: [Radiation exposure of patients during 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT examinations]. Nuklearmedizin; 2009;48(5):201-7
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  • AIM: Investigation of the biodistribution and calculation of dosimetry of Ga-68-DOTATOC- for patients imaged in the routine clinical setting for diagnosis or exclusion of neuroendocrine tumours.
  • The relevant organs for dosimetry were spleen, kidneys, liver, adrenals, urinary bladder and pituitary gland.
  • RESULTS: Rapid physiological uptake of the radiotracer could be demonstrated in liver, spleen and kidneys, adrenals and pituitary gland (mean SUVs were 6, 20, 16, 10, and 4, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: 68Ga-DOTATOC is used extensively for diagnosis of somatostatin receptor positive tumours because it has several advantages over the 111In-labelled ligand.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bone and Bones / radiation effects. Environmental Exposure. Female. Humans. Kidney / radiation effects. Liver / radiation effects. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19639164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gallium Radioisotopes; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; U194AS08HZ / Edotreotide
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20. Arreguin-Arevalo JA, Davis TL, Nett TM: Differential modulation of gonadotropin secretion by selective estrogen receptor 1 and estrogen receptor 2 agonists in ovariectomized ewes. Biol Reprod; 2007 Aug;77(2):320-8
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  • Modulation of the number of GnRH receptors by PPT and DPN was examined in primary cultures of ovine pituitary cells.
  • 1) ESR1 and ESR2 mediate the negative feedback of E2 on secretion of LH at the level of the pituitary gland, 2) ESR1 and ESR2 do not synergize or antagonize the effects of each other; however, they do interact to synchronize the beginning of the stimulatory effect of E2 on secretion of LH, 3) ESR1 and ESR2 may mediate at least partially the positive feedback of E2 on LH secretion by increasing the number of GnRH receptors, and 4) only ESR1 appears to be involved in the negative feedback of E2 on secretion of FSH.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cells, Cultured. Drug Interactions. Estradiol / administration & dosage. Feedback, Physiological. Female. Nitriles / administration & dosage. Ovariectomy. Phenols. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / chemistry. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / drug effects. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / metabolism. Pyrazoles / administration & dosage. Receptors, LHRH / analysis. Receptors, LHRH / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17429013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 1,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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21. Rocque BG, Herold KA, Salamat MS, Shenker Y, Kuo JS: Symptomatic hyperprolactinemia from an ectopic pituitary adenoma located in the clivus. Endocr Pract; 2009 Mar;15(2):143-8
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  • [Title] Symptomatic hyperprolactinemia from an ectopic pituitary adenoma located in the clivus.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of an ectopic pituitary adenoma in the clivus.
  • METHODS: The clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings of the case are reviewed, and the embryogenesis of the pituitary gland, the pathophysiologic features of this condition, the diagnosis, and the treatment options are discussed.
  • After the resected tissue was examined, the patient was diagnosed as having an ectopic prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma.
  • Surgical resection was undertaken in our patient because of the uncertainty of the diagnosis and the aggressive natural history of more common tumors of the clivus, such as chordomas.
  • Although it is possible that a successful trial of dopaminergic therapy would have obviated surgical intervention, this approach would be associated with additional risks if the diagnosis were incorrect.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Posterior / pathology. Hyperprolactinemia / diagnosis. Hyperprolactinemia / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19289326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Dreijerink KM, Höppener JW, Timmers HM, Lips CJ: Mechanisms of disease: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-relation to chromatin modifications and transcription regulation. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Oct;2(10):562-70
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  • [Title] Mechanisms of disease: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-relation to chromatin modifications and transcription regulation.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a hereditary tumor syndrome characterized by tumors of the parathyroid glands, the pancreatic islets, the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands, as well as by neuroendocrine carcinoid tumors, often at a young age.
  • Causal to the syndrome are germline mutations of the MEN1 tumor-suppressor gene.
  • Identification of gene-mutation carriers has enabled presymptomatic diagnosis and treatment of MEN1-related lesions.
  • Recent observations indicate several functions for menin in the regulation of transcription, serving either as a repressor or as an activator: menin interacts with the activator-protein-1-family transcription factor JunD, changing it from an oncoprotein into a tumor-suppressor protein, putatively by recruitment of histone deacetylase complexes; menin maintains transforming growth factor beta mediated signal transduction involved in parathyroid hormone and prolactin gene expression; and menin is an integral component of histone methyltransferase complexes.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromatin / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology. Transcription, Genetic


23. Venieratos D, Anagnostopoulou S, Garidou A: A new morphometric method for the sella turcica and the hypophyseal fossa and its clinical relevance. Folia Morphol (Warsz); 2005 Nov;64(4):240-7
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  • Their morphology and dimensions correlate to some extent with those of the contained pituitary gland and have, for this reason, attracted the interest of anatomists and radiologists.
  • With the application of MRI, however, these data are of limited use in the diagnosis of pituitary disorders, although they remain valuable with regard to a microsurgical approach to the hypophysis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Greece. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mathematics. Models, Anatomic. Pituitary Gland / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 16425149.001).
  • [ISSN] 0015-5659
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia morphologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Morphol. (Warsz)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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24. Kurowska M, Tarach JS, Zgliczyński W, Malicka J, Zieliński G, Janczarek M: Acromegaly in a patient with normal pituitary gland and somatotropic adenoma located in the sphenoid sinus. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Jul-Aug;59(4):348-51
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  • [Title] Acromegaly in a patient with normal pituitary gland and somatotropic adenoma located in the sphenoid sinus.
  • In most cases it is caused by GHRH or rarely GH-secreting neoplasms.
  • Even rarer are ectopic pituitary adenomas located in the sphenoid sinus or nasopharynx that originate from pituitary remnants in the craniopharyngeal duct.
  • MRI imaging revealed a slightly asymmetric pituitary gland (14 yen 4 mm) without focal lesions.
  • After preliminary treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue, transsphenoidal pituitary tumour removal was performed.
  • Histopathological, electron microscopical and immunohistochemical analysis revealed densely granulated somatotropic pituitary adenoma: GH(+), PRL(-), ACTH(-), TSH(-), FSH(-), LH(-), MIB1 < 1%, SSTR3(+) and SSTR5(+).
  • Post-surgical evaluation showed normal pituitary MRI scans, GH and IGF-1 levels 0.18 mug/l and 140 mg/l, respectively, as well as normal GH suppression with oral glucose.
  • The careful analysis of possible pituitary embryonic malformations points out their significance for proper localization of extrapituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / complications. Choristoma / complications. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Gland. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Sphenoid Sinus
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18777506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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25. Calle M, Kozicz T, van der Linden E, Desfeux A, Veening JG, Barendregt HP, Roubos EW: Effect of starvation on Fos and neuropeptide immunoreactivities in the brain and pituitary gland of Xenopus laevis. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2006 Jul;147(3):237-46
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  • [Title] Effect of starvation on Fos and neuropeptide immunoreactivities in the brain and pituitary gland of Xenopus laevis.
  • In the neural lobe of the pituitary gland a 22.5% lower optical density of CART-ir was observed.
  • Our results support the hypothesis that in X. laevis, the Mg plays a pivotal role in feeding-related processes and, moreover, that starvation also has neuropeptide- and brain structure-specific effects in other parts of the brain and in the pituitary gland, suggesting particular roles of these structures and their neuropeptides in physiological adaptation to starvation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / metabolism. Neuropeptides / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism. Starvation / metabolism. Xenopus / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16483575.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6480
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptide Y; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / Urocortins; 0 / cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein; 58569-55-4 / Enkephalin, Methionine; 73024-95-0 / enkephalin-Met, Arg(6)-Phe(7)-; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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26. Krarup T, Hagen C: [Autoimmune hypophysitis--a differential diagnosis to pituitary adenomas]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2010 Mar 15;172(11):881-2
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  • [Title] [Autoimmune hypophysitis--a differential diagnosis to pituitary adenomas].
  • This case story displays the importance of knowing AH, as it is an important differential diagnosis to pituitary gland adenomas and to diseases in the hypothalamus because it can be treated medically as opposed to surgically.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Autoimmune Diseases / diagnosis. Pituitary Diseases / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Prednisolone / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20403271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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27. Rivera JA: Lymphocytic hypophysitis: disease spectrum and approach to diagnosis and therapy. Pituitary; 2006;9(1):35-45
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  • [Title] Lymphocytic hypophysitis: disease spectrum and approach to diagnosis and therapy.
  • Lymphocytic hypophysitis (LYH) is a neuroendocrine disorder characterized by autoimmune inflammation of the pituitary gland with various degrees of pituitary dysfunction.
  • Coexistence of other autoimmune conditions is reported in 25-50% of cases and pituitary autoantibodies have been detected in up to 70% of biopsy-proven cases.
  • The clinical presentation varies depending on the pituitary segment that is more severely affected.
  • Other anterior pituitary hormones can also be affected but posterior pituitary involvement is absent or minimum.
  • A combination of extensive anterior pituitary involvement and DI characterizes lymphocytic Infudibulopanhypophysitis (LIPH).
  • The diagnosis can be challenging in many cases, because distinction from pituitary adenomas and other sellar masses is not obvious.
  • This paper reviews the etiology, epidemiology, clinical and radiological findings, diagnosis and management of LYH.
  • [MeSH-minor] Autoantibodies / analysis. Autoimmune Diseases. Humans. Inflammation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pituitary Gland / immunology. Pituitary Hormones / deficiency

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  • (PMID = 16703407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Pituitary Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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28. Sellix MT, Egli M, Poletini MO, McKee DT, Bosworth MD, Fitch CA, Freeman ME: Anatomical and functional characterization of clock gene expression in neuroendocrine dopaminergic neurons. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol; 2006 May;290(5):R1309-23
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  • We have also determined the effects of per1, per2, and clock mRNA knockdown in the SCN with antisense deoxyoligonucleotides (AS-ODN) on DA release from NDNs.
  • AS-ODN injections differentially affected DA turnover in the axon terminals of the median eminence (ME), neural lobe (NL) and intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary gland, resulting in a significant decrease in DA release in the early subjective night in the ME (TIDA), a significant increase in DA release at the beginning of the day in the IL (PHDA), and no effect in the NL (THDA).
  • AS-ODN-treatment induced a rhythm of DA concentration in the anterior lobe, with greater DA levels in the middle of the day.
  • These data suggest that clock gene expression, particularly PER1 and PER2, within NDNs may act to modulate diurnal rhythms of DA release from NDNs in the OVX rat.

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  • (PMID = 16373438.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6119
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-43200; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK043200-14; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA-19356; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK043200; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA019356
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ARNTL Transcription Factors; 0 / Antisense Elements (Genetics); 0 / Arntl protein, mouse; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Per1 protein, mouse; 0 / Per1 protein, rat; 0 / Per2 protein, mouse; 0 / Per2 protein, rat; 0 / Period Circadian Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; EC 2.3.1.48 / CLOCK Proteins; EC 2.3.1.48 / Clock protein, mouse; EC 2.3.1.48 / Clock protein, rat; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS9192; NLM/ PMC1457054
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29. Kelley RT, Smith JL 2nd, Rodzewicz GM: Transnasal endoscopic surgery of the pituitary: modifications and results over 10 years. Laryngoscope; 2006 Sep;116(9):1573-6
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  • [Title] Transnasal endoscopic surgery of the pituitary: modifications and results over 10 years.
  • OBJECTIVE: A 10-year retrospective review of three endoscopic approaches used by the authors for pituitary gland surgery is presented.
  • METHODS: A chart review and examination of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of patients who have had endoscopic pituitary surgery by the authors was performed.
  • We gathered specific details of the operative approach, nasal-sinus anatomy, tumor location, required ancillary nasal procedures, and postoperative complications.
  • RESULTS: Ninety patients had endoscopic pituitary surgery.
  • Four patients subsequently had craniotomy to resect suprasellar tumor extension.
  • One patient required revision endoscopic resection 3 years later for tumor recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: The authors have exclusively used endoscopic surgery of pituitary gland tumors for over 10 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16954981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Prodam F, Pagano L, Belcastro S, Golisano G, Busti A, Samà M, Caputo M, Bellone S, Voci A, Valente G, Aimaretti G: Pituitary metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2010 Jul;20(7):823-30
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  • [Title] Pituitary metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic carcinomas to the pituitary gland are uncommon, occurring in only 1% of the pituitary masses.
  • They often originate from breast or lung carcinomas and may resemble a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma both clinically and radiologically.
  • Here we describe a patient with pituitary metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma and discuss the unique features of these lesions.
  • Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass that was hypo-intense in T1-weighted and hyper-intense in T2-weighted-images, located from the sphenoid sinus up to chiasmatic cisterns, raising and deflecting the optic chiasm, down to hypopharynx region, and distorting the cavernous sinuses.
  • Total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection was performed with a final histopathological diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pituitary metastases from thyroid carcinoma are very uncommon.
  • As this patient illustrates, they tend to produce symptoms relating to space-occupying expansion in the parasellar region rather than to those due to destruction of the pituitary gland.
  • Although rare, pituitary metastases caused by thyroid malignancy should be considered in patients with expanding parasellar lesions if they have thyroid cancer or uncharacterized thyroid diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20604687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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31. Schwerin M, Kanitz E, Tuchscherer M, Brüssow KP, Nürnberg G, Otten W: Stress-related gene expression in brain and adrenal gland of porcine fetuses and neonates. Theriogenology; 2005 Mar 1;63(4):1220-34
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  • [Title] Stress-related gene expression in brain and adrenal gland of porcine fetuses and neonates.
  • Brain, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland were obtained to determine the mRNA levels for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), ACTH receptor (MC2R), c-jun and c-fos.
  • It was found that maternal deprivation caused significantly higher transcript levels of c-fos and CRH in brain accompanied by a down-regulation of CRHR1 mRNA and an up-regulation of c-jun in the pituitary gland.
  • The ACTH treatment of sows significantly increased mRNA expression of c-fos but not of CRH in the fetal brain, and significantly decreased MC2R mRNA expression in the adrenal gland.
  • However, HPA axis seems not to be fully developed in Day 77-fetuses because fetal pituitary CRHR1 and POMC mRNA expression was low in most of the fetuses.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone. Animals. Brain / embryology. Brain / growth & development. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Female. Gene Expression. Genes, fos / genetics. Genes, jun / genetics. Hydrocortisone / physiology. Pituitary Gland / chemistry. Pituitary Gland / embryology. Pituitary Gland / growth & development. Pregnancy. Pro-Opiomelanocortin / genetics. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, Corticotropin / genetics. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Swine

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  • (PMID = 15710205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] Theriogenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Theriogenology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRF receptor type 1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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32. Furukawa F, Watanabe S, Kaneko T, Uchida K: Changes in gene expression levels of somatolactin in the pituitary and morphology of gill mitochondria-rich cells in Mozambique tilapia after transfer to acidic freshwater (pH 3.5). Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2010 May 1;166(3):549-55
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  • [Title] Changes in gene expression levels of somatolactin in the pituitary and morphology of gill mitochondria-rich cells in Mozambique tilapia after transfer to acidic freshwater (pH 3.5).
  • We analyzed gene expression of somatolactin (sl), growth hormone (gh) and prolactin (prl), in the pituitary gland and size distribution of mitochondria-rich (MR) cells in the gills after transfer from normal freshwater (FW, pH 7.2) to acidified freshwater (AW, pH 3.5).
  • [MeSH-major] Fish Proteins / genetics. Fresh Water. Gills / cytology. Glycoproteins / genetics. Mitochondria / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Hormones / genetics. Tilapia / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20138176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6840
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fish Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / somatolactin protein, fish; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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33. Locatelli D, Canevari FR, Acchiardi I, Castelnuovo P: The endoscopic diving technique in pituitary and cranial base surgery: technical note. Neurosurgery; 2010 Feb;66(2):E400-1; discussion E401
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  • [Title] The endoscopic diving technique in pituitary and cranial base surgery: technical note.
  • Likewise, having extended endoscopic endonasal surgery to the entire base of the skull and in particular to the sinus cavity, "diving surgery" has proven to be effective in visualizing and dissecting more extended tumors.
  • RESULTS: The hydrodissection and continuous flushing of the sellar cavity, together with better control of bleeding, allow the surgeon to perform piecemeal removal of the lesion with direct control of the cleavage plane and tumor residue and avoid blind curettage near the pituitary gland.
  • This technique is particularly useful in identifying small infiltrations of the cavernous sinus and in checking the integrity of the pituitary stalk when instruments are introduced into the sella.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy / methods. Pituitary Gland / surgery. Skull Base / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Sella Turcica / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20087108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Ueno M, Inano H, Onoda M, Murase H, Ikota N, Kagiya TV, Anzai K: Modification of mortality and tumorigenesis by tocopherol-mono-glucoside (TMG) administered after X irradiation in mice and rats. Radiat Res; 2009 Oct;172(4):519-24
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  • The effects of TMG [2-(alpha-d-glucopyranosyl) methyl-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol], a water-soluble vitamin E derivative, administered after irradiation on the mortality of X-irradiated mice and on the development of tumors in the mammary and pituitary glands in rats were investigated.
  • When dams of lactating Wister rats were exposed to 1.5 Gy of X rays at day 21 after parturition and were then treated with diethylstilbestrol as a tumor promoter, the incidence of mammary tumors and pituitary tumors was increased compared to that in the nonirradiated control group.
  • The administration of TMG (600 mg/kg, i.p.) after irradiation significantly reduced the incidence of mammary tumors and pituitary tumors.
  • The number of rats that were free of both mammary and pituitary gland tumors was enhanced fourfold by TMG.
  • These results suggest that TMG is effective in preventing radiation-induced bone marrow death in mice and in reducing mammary and pituitary tumors in rats even when it is administered after irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Free Radical Scavengers / administration & dosage. Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology. Glucosides / administration & dosage. Glucosides / pharmacology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Bone Marrow / radiation effects. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control. Mice. Mortality. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / prevention & control. Rats. Time Factors. Tocopherols / administration & dosage. Tocopherols / pharmacology. X-Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 19772473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-7587
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Free Radical Scavengers; 0 / Glucosides; 0 / tocopherol monoglucoside; 1406-66-2 / Tocopherols
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35. D'Aniello A: D-Aspartic acid: an endogenous amino acid with an important neuroendocrine role. Brain Res Rev; 2007 Feb;53(2):215-34
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  • In the pituitary gland, it stimulates the secretion of the following hormones: prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), and growth hormone (GH) In the testes, it is present in Leydig cells and is involved in testosterone and progesterone release.
  • Thus, a hypothalamus-pituitary-gonads pathway, in which d-Asp is involved, has been formulated.

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  • (PMID = 17118457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-0173
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4SR0Q8YD1X / D-Aspartic Acid; 6384-92-5 / N-Methylaspartate
  • [Number-of-references] 110
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36. Kano H, Niranjan A, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: Stereotactic radiosurgery for pituitary metastases. Surg Neurol; 2009 Sep;72(3):248-55; discussion 255-6
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiosurgery for pituitary metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: We evaluated the role of Gamma Knife SRS in the multidisciplinary management of metastatic cancer to the pituitary gland.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of 18 consecutive pituitary metastasis patients who underwent Gamma Knife SRS during a 21-year experience.
  • There were 5 patients who had initial surgical resection of their pituitary metastasis, 5 who had fractionated radiation, and 7 who had CT before SRS.
  • Three (16.7%) patients developed new neurological deficits due to tumor progression despite SRS.
  • CONCLUSION: Development of a pituitary metastasis is an ominous finding in the context of systemic cancer.
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective palliative approach for most patients with pituitary metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Palliative Care. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Diabetes Insipidus / etiology. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Gamma Rays. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Karnofsky Performance Status. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18786712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3339
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Inamo Y: A boy with growth disturbance caused by hypothalamic damage associated with intracranial hypotension syndrome following a motor vehicle accident: case report. Endocr J; 2008 Dec;55(6):1113-6
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  • MRI and SPECT revealed damage to the hypothalamic and pituitary gland.

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  • (PMID = 18827408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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38. Alba M, Schally AV, Salvatori R: Partial reversibility of growth hormone (GH) deficiency in the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) knockout mouse by postnatal treatment with a GHRH analog. Endocrinology; 2005 Mar;146(3):1506-13
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  • The proliferation of pituitary somatotroph cells and the synthesis and secretion of GH require the hypothalamic peptide GH-releasing hormone (GHRH).
  • Accordingly, we have shown that mice with targeted disruption [knockout (KO)] of the GHRH gene (GHRHKO) have isolated GH deficiency (GHD) and anterior pituitary hypoplasia.
  • At both ages JI-38 caused growth acceleration, increase in size of the pituitary gland, increase in pituitary GH mRNA and GH protein levels and serum GH, and significant increase in liver IGF-I mRNA, although none of these parameters was fully normalized.
  • Our findings demonstrate that GHD and pituitary hypoplasia in GHRHKO mice may be partially reversed by long-term treatment with a GHRH analog, and that somatotroph cells maintain responsiveness to GHRH even if this factor is absent during intrauterine development.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Size. Body Weight. Crosses, Genetic. Female. Genotype. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Liver / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15564325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R03-HD-042465-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R03-HD-046641-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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39. Smith JT, Rao A, Pereira A, Caraty A, Millar RP, Clarke IJ: Kisspeptin is present in ovine hypophysial portal blood but does not increase during the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge: evidence that gonadotropes are not direct targets of kisspeptin in vivo. Endocrinology; 2008 Apr;149(4):1951-9
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  • Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that G protein-coupled receptor-54 mRNA is expressed in ovine pituitary cell fractions enriched for gonadotropes as well as in somatotropes and lactotropes.
  • To test whether kisspeptin acts directly on the pituitary gonadotropes, we first examined LH release from primary ovine pituitary cell cultures treated with kisspeptin.
  • We found that kisspeptin treatment increased the concentration of LH in culture media by 80%, compared with control, but only in pituitary cultures from ewes during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle.
  • After this, we determined whether kisspeptin acts on the pituitary gland in vivo.
  • Using GnRH-replaced ovariectomized hypothalamo-pituitary-disconnected ewes, we were not able to achieve any effect of kisspeptin on LH under steady-state conditions or during the period of an estrogen-induced LH surge.
  • Moreover, the low concentrations of kisspeptin in hypophysial portal blood and the lack of any change during the period of an estrogen-induced GnRH/LH surge suggest that action on the pituitary gland is not of major consequence in terms of LH release.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadotrophs / drug effects. Luteinizing Hormone / secretion. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18162520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KISS1 protein, human; 0 / Kisspeptins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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40. Iranmanesh A, Veldhuis JD: Combined inhibition of types I and II 5 alpha-reductase selectively augments the basal (nonpulsatile) mode of testosterone secretion in young men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jul;90(7):4232-7
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  • CONTEXT: Testosterone (Te) is metabolized in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, where untransformed steroid and activated products participate in feedback regulation of GnRH and LH secretion.

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  • (PMID = 15811930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00585; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG023133; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000585; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR00847; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000847
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; EC 1.3.1.22 / Cholestenone 5 alpha-Reductase
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41. Eves PC, Haycock JW: Melanocortin signalling mechanisms. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2010;681:19-28
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  • They are expressed predominantly in the brain, specifically the pituitary gland and also in the central nervous system.

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  • (PMID = 21222257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Melanocortins; 0 / Receptors, Melanocortin
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42. Koceïr EA, Benbaïbeche H, Haffaf el M, Kacimi G, Oudjit B: [Metabolic syndrome and hormonal interaction in obese and type 2 diabetic Algerian subject: the behavior eating disorder impact]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris); 2009 May-Jun;67(3):315-23
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  • [Title] [Metabolic syndrome and hormonal interaction in obese and type 2 diabetic Algerian subject: the behavior eating disorder impact].
  • [Transliterated title] Syndrome métabolique et interaction hormonale chez le sujet obèse et le patient diabétique de type 2 algérien: impact des troubles du comportement alimentaire.
  • In response to nutritional stress, the BED generates a hyperactivity of endocrine pancreas, adrenal gland, and pituitary gland.

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  • (PMID = 19411234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3898
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de biologie clinique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Biol. Clin. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Triglycerides; 0 / polypeptide C; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 4429-04-3 / Fructosamine; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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43. Butskhrikidze M, Bukia N, Machavariani L, Nanobashvili Z: Influence of water deprivation on morphological peculiarities of the neuronal organization in hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the rats. Georgian Med News; 2008 Jul-Aug;(160-161):52-4
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  • In the present study a histochemical investigation of the SO and PV nuclei of the hypothalamic-pituitary neurosecretory system are presented at different periods of the water deprivation.
  • In order to reveal a neurosecrete, the 5-10 mm thick slices of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland were stained with the Nissle method.

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  • (PMID = 18711239.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-0112
  • [Journal-full-title] Georgian medical news
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Georgian Med News
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Georgia (Republic)
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44. Tebben PJ, Atkinson JL, Scheithauer BW, Erickson D: Granulomatous adenohypophysitis after interferon and ribavirin therapy. Endocr Pract; 2007 Mar-Apr;13(2):169-75
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse enlargement of the pituitary gland, which encroached on but did not compress the optic chiasm.
  • Once physiologic doses of glucocorticoids were instituted, however, follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed substantial progression of the diffuse pituitary enlargement and mild compression of the optic chiasm.
  • An extensive evaluation for secondary causes of granulomatous inflammation of the pituitary revealed only an elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme level; no organisms were identified.
  • After 2 courses of high-dose glucocorticoids, she had radiographic evidence of decreased size of the pituitary lesion but continued to have multiple anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies.
  • CONCLUSION: Granulomatous hypophysitis and sarcoidosis of the pituitary are rare disorders.
  • Hypophysitis should be considered in patients receiving interferon and ribavirin therapy who have symptoms consistent with pituitary dysfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma / pathology. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects. Pituitary Diseases / pathology. Ribavirin / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17490932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 49717AWG6K / Ribavirin; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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45. Riemenschneider MJ, Beseoglu K, Hänggi D, Reifenberger G: Prostate adenocarcinoma metastasis in the pituitary gland. Arch Neurol; 2009 Aug;66(8):1036-7
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  • [Title] Prostate adenocarcinoma metastasis in the pituitary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diplopia / etiology. Endoscopy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19667229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3687
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Schmook MT, Brugger PC, Weber M, Kasprian G, Nemec S, Krampl-Bettelheim E, Prayer D: Forebrain development in fetal MRI: evaluation of anatomical landmarks before gestational week 27. Neuroradiology; 2010 Jun;52(6):495-504
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  • INTRODUCTION: Forebrain malformations include some of the most severe developmental anomalies and require early diagnosis.
  • The pituitary gland could be detected on T1w images in 60% with an increasing diameter with gestational age (p = 0.041).
  • The delineation of olfactory tracts (coronal plane), chiasm, SP and pituitary gland were significantly increased after week 21 (p < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Prenatal Diagnosis / methods. Prosencephalon / anatomy & histology. Prosencephalon / embryology

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  • (PMID = 20442992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1920
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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47. Hilbe M, Jaros P, Ehrensperger F, Zlinszky K, Janett F, Hässig M, Thun R: Histomorphological and immunohistochemical findings in testes, bulbourethral glands and brain of immunologically castrated male piglets. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd; 2006 Nov;148(11):599-608
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  • Immunohistological detection of LH and FSH in the pituitary gland of treated and control boars showed no quantifiable difference in the amount of these two gonadotropins and no lesions were visible in the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

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  • (PMID = 17209509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-7281
  • [Journal-full-title] Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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48. Fuentes J, Brinca L, Guerreiro PM, Power DM: PRL and GH synthesis and release from the sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) pituitary gland in vitro in response to osmotic challenge. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2010 Aug 1;168(1):95-102
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  • [Title] PRL and GH synthesis and release from the sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) pituitary gland in vitro in response to osmotic challenge.
  • In order to further investigate this interaction sea bream were challenged with full seawater (SW) or freshwater (FW) for 7 days and the response of pituitary glands cultured in vitro to an osmotic challenge (230, 275 and 320 mOsm/kg) was assessed.
  • After FW challenge pituitary PRL content and de novo synthesised and released PRL were significantly increased (p<0.01), while total PRL secretion was not different from SW animals.
  • GH pituitary content decreased in FW animals while total secretion and secretion of de novo synthesised protein were significantly increased (p<0.01).
  • Taken together the results suggest that the sea bream pituitary gland fails to respond appropriately to the osmotic challenge caused by low salinity and the physiological response evoked in vivo is not enough to allow this species to withstand and adapt to FW.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Hormone / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Prolactin / metabolism. Sea Bream / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20406642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6840
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; EC 3.6.3.9 / Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase
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49. Yilmazlar S, Bekar A, Taskapilioglu O, Tolunay S: Isolated intrasellar tuberculoma mimicking pituitary adenoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2007 May;14(5):477-81
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  • [Title] Isolated intrasellar tuberculoma mimicking pituitary adenoma.
  • A 37-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and menstrual irregularity due to an intrasellar lesion of the pituitary gland underwent transsphenoidal surgery for histopathological diagnosis and removal of the lesion.
  • Although differential diagnosis of inflammatory pathologies of the intrasellar region presents difficulties, this patient demonstrates that tuberculoma should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tuberculoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 17346976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents
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50. Gajewska A, Wolińska-Witort E, Kochman K: Vasoactive intestinal peptide modulates luteinizing hormone subunit gene expression in the anterior pituitary in female rat. Brain Res Bull; 2005 Oct 30;67(4):319-26
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  • [Title] Vasoactive intestinal peptide modulates luteinizing hormone subunit gene expression in the anterior pituitary in female rat.
  • Though central microinjection of VIP revealed its involvement in the modulation of LH release pattern, there is a lack of data concerning a possible VIP influence on the alpha and LHbeta subunit gene expression in the pituitary gland.
  • Northern-blot analysis revealed that VIP microinjection resulted in a decreased alpha and LHbeta mRNA content in pituitary gland and this effect was dependent on GnRH receptor activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression / drug effects. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / drug effects. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16182940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-9230
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Protein Subunits; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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51. Sheikhazadi A, Sadr SS, Ghadyani MH, Taheri SK, Manouchehri AA, Nazparvar B, Mehrpour O, Ghorbani M: Study of the normal internal organ weights in Tehran's population. J Forensic Leg Med; 2010 Feb;17(2):78-83
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  • RESULTS: The weight of the brain, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, thyroid gland, the pituitary gland, the suprarenal glands, testes, prostate, ovaries and the uterus were collected from 914 males and 308 females between 15 and 88 years.
  • However such results have to be regularly updated by pathologists in order to keep organ weight as a good criterion used in postmortem diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / anatomy & histology. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Body Height. Body Mass Index. Body Weight. Brain / anatomy & histology. Female. Forensic Pathology. Heart / anatomy & histology. Humans. Iran. Kidney / anatomy & histology. Liver / anatomy & histology. Lung / anatomy & histology. Male. Middle Aged. Ovary / anatomy & histology. Pancreas / anatomy & histology. Pituitary Gland / anatomy & histology. Prospective Studies. Prostate / anatomy & histology. Sex Characteristics. Spleen / anatomy & histology. Testis / anatomy & histology. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology. Uterus / anatomy & histology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20129426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-7487
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of forensic and legal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Forensic Leg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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52. Merheb M, Hourani R, Zantout MS, Azar ST: Endocrine dysfunction in a patient with PHACE syndrome, including port-wine stain of the right periorbital area. Endocr Pract; 2010 Mar-Apr;16(2):255-9
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  • Radiologic investigations included sagittal enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and the pituitary gland as well as computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck.
  • Laboratory investigations revealed both thyroid and GH deficiencies and confirmed the diagnosis of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple / diagnosis. Endocrine System Diseases / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Neurocutaneous Syndromes / diagnosis. Port-Wine Stain / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20061274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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53. Tabaee A, Anand VK, Barrón Y, Hiltzik DH, Brown SM, Kacker A, Mazumdar M, Schwartz TH: Endoscopic pituitary surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurosurg; 2009 Sep;111(3):545-54
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  • [Title] Endoscopic pituitary surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • OBJECT: Surgery on the pituitary gland is increasingly being performed through an endoscopic approach.
  • Overall, the pooled rate of gross tumor removal was 78% (95% CI 67-89%).
  • Hormone resolution was achieved in 81% (95% CI 71-91%) of adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting tumors, 84% (95% CI 76-92%) of growth hormone secreting tumors, and 82% (95% CI 70-94%) of prolactin secreting tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis support the safety and short-term efficacy of endoscopic pituitary surgery.
  • Future studies with long-term follow-up are required to determine tumor control.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendoscopy / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery


54. Wang SY, Hsu SR, Su SL, Tu ST: Sheehan's syndrome presenting with early postpartum congestive heart failure. J Chin Med Assoc; 2005 Aug;68(8):386-91
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  • Episodes of ventricular tachycardia of the torsade de pointes type and a prolonged QT interval were noted on baseline electrocardiogram.
  • The diagnosis was later supported by laboratory findings of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies.
  • A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging scan 32 days after delivery revealed a diminished and flattened pituitary gland with prominent intrasellar cerebrospinal fluid loculation, which was compatible with the clinical diagnosis of empty sella with panhypopituitarism.
  • The syndrome of acute anterior pituitary necrosis secondary to postpartum hemorrhage and shock was first described by Sheehan in 1939.
  • Although the occurrence of Sheehan's syndrome is now rare, it should still be considered in any woman with a history of peripartum hemorrhage who develops manifestations of pituitary hormone deficiency.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Electrocardiography. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 16138719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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55. Aznar Rodríguez S, Moreno Pérez O, Revert Marrahí P, Martínez Fuster S, Boix Carreño E, Picó Alfonso AM: Silent corticotroph adenomas of the pituitary gland: apropos of two cases. Endocrinol Nutr; 2008 Oct;55(8):367-71
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  • [Title] Silent corticotroph adenomas of the pituitary gland: apropos of two cases.
  • The clinical course of these tumors varies: while some have an insidious course, others behave aggressively, especially during tumoral recurrence.
  • Given the absence of clinical and biochemical features of hypercortisolism, the definitive diagnosis is histological.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22975601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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56. Mancini T, Casanueva FF, Giustina A: Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2008 Mar;37(1):67-99, viii
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  • Any process interfering with dopamine synthesis, its transport to the pituitary gland, or its action at the level of lactotroph dopamine receptors can cause hyperprolactinemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperprolactinemia / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18226731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine
  • [Number-of-references] 189
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57. Strobl-Mazzulla PH, Lethimonier C, Gueguen MM, Karube M, Fernandino JI, Yoshizaki G, Patiño R, Strüssmann CA, Kah O, Somoza GM: Brain aromatase (Cyp19A2) and estrogen receptors, in larvae and adult pejerrey fish Odontesthes bonariensis: Neuroanatomical and functional relations. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2008 Sep 1;158(2):191-201
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  • Both receptors' mRNAs largely overlap and were predominantly expressed in the brain, pituitary, liver, and gonads.
  • The estrogen receptors' mRNAs exhibited distinct but partially overlapping patterns of expression in the preoptic area and the mediobasal hypothalamus, as well as in the pituitary gland.

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  • (PMID = 18691594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6840
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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58. Dooley GP, Reardon KF, Prenni JE, Tjalkens RB, Legare ME, Foradori CD, Tessari JE, Hanneman WH: Proteomic analysis of diaminochlorotriazine adducts in wistar rat pituitary glands and LbetaT2 rat pituitary cells. Chem Res Toxicol; 2008 Apr;21(4):844-51
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  • [Title] Proteomic analysis of diaminochlorotriazine adducts in wistar rat pituitary glands and LbetaT2 rat pituitary cells.
  • This research was designed to identify ATRA-induced protein adducts formed in the pituitary gland of ATRA-exposed rats and in DACT-exposed LbetaT2 rat pituitary cells.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear staining in both pituitary sections and LbetaT2 cells indicating the formation of DACT protein adducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Atrazine / analogs & derivatives. Atrazine / toxicity. Herbicides / toxicity. Pituitary Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18370413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-228X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemical research in toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chem. Res. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5F32NS049892
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Herbicides; 0 / Proteins; 0 / diaminochlorotriazine; QJA9M5H4IM / Atrazine
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59. Massoud W, Paparel P, Lopez JG, Perrin P, Daumont M, Ruffion A: Discovery of a pituitary adenoma following treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in a patient with prostate cancer. Int J Urol; 2006 Jan;13(1):87-8
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  • [Title] Discovery of a pituitary adenoma following treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in a patient with prostate cancer.
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists have been proven to have a double effect on androgen metabolism: an initially stimulating, followed by an inhibitory, effect on the pituitary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / chemically induced. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Leuprolide / adverse effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / chemically induced. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16448441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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60. de Rougemont A, Mourot MG, Riou JP: Atypical thyrotropin-secreting pituitary microadenoma revealed by severe osteoporosis in a young man. J Bone Miner Metab; 2009;27(4):513-8
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  • [Title] Atypical thyrotropin-secreting pituitary microadenoma revealed by severe osteoporosis in a young man.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging finally revealed a thyrotropic microadenoma of the pituitary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperthyroidism / etiology. Osteoporosis / etiology. Osteoporosis / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyrotropin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Body Height. Body Weight. Bone Density / drug effects. Calcium / blood. Calcium / urine. Carbimazole / therapeutic use. Diphosphonates / pharmacology. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit / blood. Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit / secretion. Humans. Hydroxyproline / urine. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Osteocalcin / blood. Phosphates / blood. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / surgery. Thyroxine / blood. Triiodothyronine / blood

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  • (PMID = 19252815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-8779
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit; 0 / Phosphates; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; 8KQ660G60G / Carbimazole; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine; RMB44WO89X / Hydroxyproline; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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61. Simon D, Hadjiathanasiou C, Garel C, Czernichow P, Léger J: Phenotypic variability in children with growth hormone deficiency associated with posterior pituitary ectopia. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Apr;64(4):416-22
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  • [Title] Phenotypic variability in children with growth hormone deficiency associated with posterior pituitary ectopia.
  • OBJECTIVE: The cause of posterior pituitary ectopia (PPE) with anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies is unknown.
  • The objective of this study was to improve the phenotypic characterization of children with PPE and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) to seek insight into the mechanisms underlying abnormal pituitary-gland development.
  • RESULTS: Known extra-pituitary birth defects (BD) were present in 31 patients (BD+, 52%) and absent in 29 patients (BD-).
  • CONCLUSION: The high rate of extra-pituitary BDs and of familial components supports a role for genetic factors in the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple / pathology. Growth Disorders / pathology. Growth Hormone / deficiency. Pituitary Gland, Posterior / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 16584514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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62. Wilkinson M, Brown R, Imran SA, Ur E: Adipokine gene expression in brain and pituitary gland. Neuroendocrinology; 2007;86(3):191-209
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  • [Title] Adipokine gene expression in brain and pituitary gland.
  • This review outlines the evidence that several adipose-specific genes are also expressed in the central nervous system and pituitary gland.
  • Leptin expression in rat brain and pituitary was regulated through development, by food restriction, and following traumatic brain injury.
  • In contrast, hypothalamic resistin mRNA was unaffected by age or by fasting, but was significantly depleted by food restriction in mouse pituitary gland.
  • A similar convergence of signals in the pituitary gland could also influence anterior pituitary hormone secretion.
  • In conclusion, the evidence is suggestive that brain and pituitary-derived adipokines represent a local regulatory circuit that may fine tune the feedback effects of adipose hormones in the control of energy balance.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / physiology. Energy Metabolism / physiology. Gene Expression. Peptide Hormones / genetics. Pituitary Gland / physiology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17878708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0194
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adiponectin; 0 / Leptin; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / Resistin; 0 / adiponutrin
  • [Number-of-references] 172
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63. Krikorian A, Aron D: Evaluation and management of pituitary incidentalomas--revisiting an acquaintance. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;2(3):138-45
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  • [Title] Evaluation and management of pituitary incidentalomas--revisiting an acquaintance.
  • Incidentalomas of the pituitary gland have been described with increasing frequency, paralleling the advances in diagnostic imaging modalities.
  • The first part of this article will review current data about the prevalence, natural history and potential morbidity associated with these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16932273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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64. Mousa SA, Mousa MA: Involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor and adrenocorticotropic hormone in the ovarian maturation, seawater acclimation, and induced spawning of Liza ramada. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2006 Apr;146(2):167-79
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  • In the present study, we investigated the distribution and activities of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immunoreactive (ir) cells in the brain and pituitary of Liza ramada during ovarian maturation, seawater acclimation, and induction of spawning.
  • In the pituitary gland, we detected some ACTH-producing cells in the rostral pars distalis (RPD) containing CRF immunoreactivity.
  • The synthetic and secretory activity of CRF-ir cells in the NPO and MO as well as ACTH-ir cells in the pituitary were enhanced during ovarian maturation.
  • During seawater acclimation, CRF-ir cells in the NPO and MO and ACTH-ir cells in the pituitary showed dramatic increases in their synthetic activity.
  • Finally, hormonally induced ovulation was accompanied with elevation of plasma cortisol and depletion of CRF and ACTH immunoreactivity within the brain and the pituitary gland, respectively.
  • Mechanisms include enhancement of the synthetic and/or secretory activity of CRF-ir cells in the NPO and MO as well as ACTH-ir cells in the pituitary gland along with a rise in plasma cortisol during ovulation, supporting the possible role of these hormones during stress and reproduction in L. ramada.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / physiology. Female. Pituitary Gland / physiology. Seawater

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  • (PMID = 16376890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6480
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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65. Mullen RD, Colvin SC, Hunter CS, Savage JJ, Walvoord EC, Bhangoo AP, Ten S, Weigel J, Pfäffle RW, Rhodes SJ: Roles of the LHX3 and LHX4 LIM-homeodomain factors in pituitary development. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2007 Feb;265-266:190-5
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  • [Title] Roles of the LHX3 and LHX4 LIM-homeodomain factors in pituitary development.
  • The LHX3 and LHX4 LIM-homeodomain transcription factors play essential roles in pituitary gland and nervous system development.
  • Analyses of the features of these diseases and the biochemical properties of the LHX3 and LHX4 proteins will facilitate a better understanding of the molecular pathways that regulate the development of the specialized hormone-secreting cells of the mammalian anterior pituitary gland.

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  • (PMID = 17210222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD042024; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD42024
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / LHX4 protein, human; 0 / LIM-Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Lhx3 protein; 0 / Lhx4 protein, mouse; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 47
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS19374; NLM/ PMC1853274
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66. Diouf B, Collazos A, Labesse G, Macari F, Choquet A, Clair P, Gauthier-Rouvière C, Guérineau NC, Jay P, Hollande F, Joubert D: A 20-amino acid module of protein kinase C{epsilon} involved in translocation and selective targeting at cell-cell contacts. J Biol Chem; 2009 Jul 10;284(28):18808-15
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  • In the pituitary gland, activated protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms accumulate either selectively at the cell-cell contact (alpha and epsilon) or at the entire plasma membrane (beta1 and delta).
  • [MeSH-minor] 14-3-3 Proteins / chemistry. Amino Acid Sequence. Amino Acids / chemistry. Binding Sites. Cell Communication. Glutamic Acid / chemistry. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Protein Conformation. Protein Structure, Secondary. Protein Structure, Tertiary. Protein Transport. Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 19429675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 14-3-3 Proteins; 0 / Amino Acids; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C-epsilon; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2707237
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67. Breen KM, Davis TL, Doro LC, Nett TM, Oakley AE, Padmanabhan V, Rispoli LA, Wagenmaker ER, Karsch FJ: Insight into the neuroendocrine site and cellular mechanism by which cortisol suppresses pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Endocrinology; 2008 Feb;149(2):767-73
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  • [Title] Insight into the neuroendocrine site and cellular mechanism by which cortisol suppresses pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
  • Stress-like elevations in plasma glucocorticoids rapidly inhibit pulsatile LH secretion in ovariectomized sheep by reducing pituitary responsiveness to GnRH.
  • First, we demonstrated that a specific agonist of the type II GR, dexamethasone, mimics the suppressive action of cortisol on pituitary responsiveness to GnRH pulses in ovariectomized ewes.
  • We next determined that exposure of cultured ovine pituitary cells to cortisol reduced the LH response to pulse-like delivery of GnRH by 50% within 30 min, indicating a pituitary site of action.
  • Finally, we tested the hypothesis that suppression of pituitary responsiveness to GnRH in ovariectomized ewes is due to reduced tissue concentrations of GnRH receptor.
  • Collectively, these observations provide evidence that cortisol acts via the type II GR within the pituitary gland to elicit a rapid decrease in responsiveness to GnRH, independent of changes in expression of the GnRH receptor.

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  • (PMID = 17962347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / F32 HD051360; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD030773; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD051360; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD30773
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2219297
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68. Nitta Y, Satoh K, Suga S, Endo S, Nitta K: Comparison of the effectiveness of high and low LET radiations for the proportion of survivals with liver tumors at every age in (C57BL/6N x C3H/HeN) F1 mice. J Vet Med Sci; 2006 Jul;68(7):647-53
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  • [Title] Comparison of the effectiveness of high and low LET radiations for the proportion of survivals with liver tumors at every age in (C57BL/6N x C3H/HeN) F1 mice.
  • Following radiation, tumor incidences in liver, Harderian gland, lung, ovary and pituitary gland were compared.
  • The proportion of the lifespan with liver tumors exposed to neutrons to that exposed to gamma rays was calculated as a function of age.
  • With regard to liver tumor incidence evaluated at 18 months of age, the effectiveness of neutrons to gamma rays was 2.54 for females, and 2.08 for males by the factor.
  • Levels of estrogen in the serum were similar between mice bearing liver tumors and those devoid of tumors.
  • Proportions of the lifespan with liver tumors of neutron-exposed to gamma-exposed were shorter in females than males along with ages over 12 months.
  • To obtain this factor at every age contributed for the evaluation of the biological effectiveness of radiations with the parameter of tumor incidence and latency simultaneously.

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  • (PMID = 16891775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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69. Hoff JB, Dysko R, Kurachi S, Kurachi K: Technique for performance and evaluation of parapharyngeal hypophysectomy in mice. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci; 2006 Mar;45(2):57-62
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  • 3) selection of increasing sizes of dental burrs to create a foramen in the cranial base through which the pituitary gland was removed; and 4) disuse of a tracheotomy for airway patency.
  • In addition, verification of successful gland removal was assessed by measuring major urinary protein (MUP) in the urine; presence of MUP indicated incomplete hypophysectomy.

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  • (PMID = 16542046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins; 0 / major urinary proteins; 9001-28-9 / Factor IX; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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70. Yang H, Dixit VD, Patel K, Vandanmagsar B, Collins G, Sun Y, Smith RG, Taub DD: Reduction in hypophyseal growth hormone and prolactin expression due to deficiency in ghrelin receptor signaling is associated with Pit-1 suppression: relevance to the immune system. Brain Behav Immun; 2008 Nov;22(8):1138-45
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  • Studies in primary cultures of pituitary cells from very young mice have shown that GHS-R1a agonists, including ghrelin, increase expression of the pituitary-specific transcription factor (Pit-1) that is critical for differentiation of pituitary cells into somatotrophs, lactotrophs, and thyrotrophs.
  • Here, we now show that Pit-1 mRNA levels are significantly lower in the pituitary gland of Ghsr-/- mice compared to wild-type littermates and also with advancing age.
  • To determine whether reduced GH is caused by reduced expression of Pit-1 in Ghsr-/- mice, we also measured prolactin (PRL) expression in the pituitary gland and in the circulation.
  • The reduction in expression of both GH and PRL is consistent with a Pit-1 regulated pathway and demonstrates that the GHS-R has an important role in the pituitary gland as a modulator of Pit-1 expression and provides a possible mechanism to explain the lower plasma IGF-1 and modestly reduced body weight exhibited by Ghsr-/- mice.

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  • (PMID = 18602461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2139
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain, behavior, and immunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Behav. Immun.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG018895; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG18895-02; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 AG000758-10; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG19230-01; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG019230
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin; 0 / Transcription Factor Pit-1; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS58373; NLM/ PMC2783985
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71. Kerr J, Wood W, Ridgway EC: Basic science and clinical research advances in the pituitary transcription factors: Pit-1 and Prop-1. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2008 Aug;15(4):359-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Basic science and clinical research advances in the pituitary transcription factors: Pit-1 and Prop-1.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pituitary-specific transcription factors, Pit-1 (also called Pou1f1) and prophet of Pit-1 (Prop-1), are critical for normal pituitary development and function.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: A number of important basic research discoveries have been made in the area of the pituitary-specific transcription factors, Pit-1 and Prop-1.
  • Among these findings include: the effects of the Pit-1 coactivators, GATA-2 and TRAP-220, on the transcriptional regulation of the TSHbeta gene and thyrotropin expression, characterization of a novel pituitary regulator of Pit-1 expression, Atbf1, elucidation of the roles of Wnt and Notch signaling on Prop-1-mediated specification of the Pit-1 cell lineage and gonadotropes, and the identification of regulatory regions of the Prop-1 gene.
  • Advances in clinical research include: the identification of novel mutations in the human POU1F1 and PROP-1 genes, and screening guidelines for patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiencies and possible mutations in these transcription factors.
  • SUMMARY: Research into the complex interplay of signaling pathways and transcription factors that regulate the pituitary gland are important areas of developmental biology and normal physiology.
  • Clinically, such research has important implications for human diseases by identifying inheritable transcription factor mutations that may cause pituitary hormonal deficiencies.
  • [MeSH-major] Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Pituitary Diseases / genetics. Transcription Factor Pit-1 / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomedical Research. Gene Expression. Genetic Testing. Humans. Models, Genetic. Mutation. Pituitary Hormones / deficiency. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 18594277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Prophet of Pit-1 protein; 0 / Transcription Factor Pit-1; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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72. La Rosa S, Uccella S, Dainese L, Marchet S, Placidi C, Vigetti D, Capella C: Characterization of c-kit (CD117) expression in human normal pituitary cells and pituitary adenomas. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):104-11
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  • [Title] Characterization of c-kit (CD117) expression in human normal pituitary cells and pituitary adenomas.
  • In experimental animal models, c-kit has been detected in the pars intermedia of the normal pituitary gland and in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-positive adenomas and it has been suggested that it plays a role in regulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion.
  • To the best of our knowledge, the expression of c-kit in normal human pituitary cells and in pituitary adenomas has never been reported, so the possible biological role of this receptor in the control of pituitary hormone secretion remains unclear.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of c-kit in normal human pituitary glands and in a series of 62 well-characterized pituitary adenomas.
  • These data suggest that, in normal conditions, c-kit may be involved in the pituitary-adrenal axis regulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blotting, Western. Child. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Paraffin Embedding. Prolactinoma / metabolism. Prolactinoma / pathology. Tissue Fixation

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  • (PMID = 18568298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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73. El-Naggar SM, Malik MT, Martin A, Moore JP, Proctor M, Hamid T, Kakar SS: Development of cystic glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium in Mullerian inhibitory substance type II receptor-pituitary tumor transforming gene transgenic mice. J Endocrinol; 2007 Jul;194(1):179-91
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  • [Title] Development of cystic glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium in Mullerian inhibitory substance type II receptor-pituitary tumor transforming gene transgenic mice.
  • The pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG)/securin is an oncogene that is involved in cell cycle regulation and sister chromatid separation.
  • PTTG is highly expressed in various tumors including ovarian tumors, suggesting that PTTG may play a role in ovarian tumorigenesis.
  • Overexpression of PTTG resulted in induction of cellular transformation in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice.
  • PTTG expression was increased in ovarian surface epithelium, ovarian granulosa cells, as well as in the pituitary gland.
  • Transgenic females did not develop any visible ovarian tumors at 8-10 months of age; however, there was an overall increase in the corpus luteum mass in transgenic ovary, suggesting increased luteinization.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Hyperplasia / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Receptors, Peptide / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17592032.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA124630; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA82511
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Peptide; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Securin; 0 / anti-Mullerian hormone receptor; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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74. Veldhuis JD, Keenan DM, Bowers CY: Peripheral estrogen receptor-alpha selectively modulates the waveform of GH secretory bursts in healthy women. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol; 2007 Oct;293(4):R1514-21
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  • Estradiol (E(2)) drives growth hormone (GH) secretion via estrogen receptors (ER) located in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
  • Given this complex network, one cannot a priori predict the selective roles of hypothalamic compared with pituitary ER pathways.

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  • (PMID = 17686882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6119
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000585; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG-29362-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R21-DK-072095; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01-AG-019695; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / MO1-RR-00585
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Oligopeptides; 22X328QOC4 / fulvestrant; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine; E6S6E1F19M / growth hormone-releasing peptide-2
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75. Kamouchi M, Wakugawa Y, Okada Y, Kishikawa K, Matsuo R, Toyoda K, Yasumori K, Inoue T, Ibayashi S, Iida M: Venous infarction secondary to septic cavernous sinus thrombosis. Intern Med; 2006;45(1):25-7
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  • Postmortem examination demonstrated hemorrhagic infarction in the right frontotemporal lobe as well as hemorrhagic necrosis of the pituitary gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Necrosis / complications. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16467601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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76. Nejadkazem M, Samii A, Fahlbusch R, Bidadi S: A simplified direct endonasal approach for transsphenoidal surgery. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2008 Oct;51(5):272-4
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  • It is the least traumatic route to the sella turcica, it avoids brain retraction, and it provides excellent visualization of the pituitary gland and lesions related to that structure.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasal Cavity / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Gland / surgery. Sella Turcica / surgery. Sphenoid Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Endoscopy / methods. Humans. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / instrumentation. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Diseases / surgery. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Sphenoid Sinus / anatomy & histology. Sphenoid Sinus / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18855291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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77. Parrott J, Mullins ME: Postoperative imaging of the pituitary gland. Top Magn Reson Imaging; 2005 Jul;16(4):317-23
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  • [Title] Postoperative imaging of the pituitary gland.
  • Imaging often plays an important role in the management of patients who have been surgically treated for pituitary disease.
  • The primary goals of the radiologist are to recognize normal postoperative findings, to distinguish iatrogenic changes in the sella and surrounding regions from residual tumor, and to detect surgical or therapy-related complications when apparent on imaging.
  • Accurate assessment of the postoperative pituitary region requires an understanding of the normal sellar anatomy and of the common neurosurgical techniques applied to this region and familiarity with the appearance of this region in both the acute postoperative setting and also upon subsequent subacute and later examinations.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Diseases / diagnosis. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Postoperative Care. Sella Turcica / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Sphenoid Sinus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16785847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-3459
  • [Journal-full-title] Topics in magnetic resonance imaging : TMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Top Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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78. Feiz-Erfan I, Rao G, White WL, McCutcheon IE: Efficacy of Trans-septal Trans-sphenoidal Surgery in Correcting Visual Symptoms Caused by Hematogenous Metastases to the Sella and Pituitary Gland. Skull Base; 2008 Mar;18(2):77-84
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  • [Title] Efficacy of Trans-septal Trans-sphenoidal Surgery in Correcting Visual Symptoms Caused by Hematogenous Metastases to the Sella and Pituitary Gland.
  • The rate of symptomatic improvement of visual symptoms associated with hematogenous metastases to the sella and pituitary was evaluated retrospectively in seven patients (five men, two women; mean age, 52.3 years) with primarily visual symptoms (diplopia alone in three, diplopia with blurred vision in one, blurred vision alone in one, loss of peripheral vision in one, and unilateral complete blindness in one).
  • Five patients developed complications (cerebrospinal fluid leakage in three, diabetes insipidus in two, anterior pituitary dysfunction in two, and colitis in one).

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  • (PMID = 18769652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5010
  • [Journal-full-title] Skull base : official journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skull Base
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2435478
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Metastatic disease / pituitary gland / sellar mass / sublabial / transnasal / vision
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79. Lincoln GA, Hazlerigg DG: Mammalian circannual pacemakers. Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl; 2010;67:171-86
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  • The concept is that in specific sites in the brain, pituitary and peripheral tissues, residual populations of progenitor cells (adult stem cells) synchronously initiate a phase of cell division to begin a cycle.
  • We have begun to characterise such a tissue-based timer in our Soay sheep model focusing on the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland and the sub-ventricular zone of the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) as potential circannual pacemakers.
  • The PT is of special interest because it is a melatonin-responsive tissue containing undifferentiated cells, strategically located at the gateway between the brain and pituitary gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Birds. Photoperiod. Pituitary Gland / physiology. Reproduction / physiology. Sciuridae

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  • (PMID = 21755671.001).
  • [ISSN] 1747-3403
  • [Journal-full-title] Society of Reproduction and Fertility supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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80. Herman AP, Tomaszewska-Zaremba D: Effect of endotoxin on the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland of anestrous ewes. Anim Reprod Sci; 2010 Jul;120(1-4):105-11
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  • [Title] Effect of endotoxin on the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland of anestrous ewes.
  • An immune/inflammatory challenge can affect reproduction at the level of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, or gonads.
  • Nonetheless, the major impact is thought to occur within the brain or the pituitary gland.
  • The present study was designed to examine the effect of intravenous (i.v.) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) genes in the hypothalamic structures where GnRH neurons are located as well as in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) of anestrous ewes.
  • Together, these observations indicate that inflammatory challenge can affect the reproductive system at the hypothalamic level through modulation of the activity of GnRH-ergic neurons as well as at the level of the AP via inhibition of LH secretion or/and through reduction of the sensitivity of GnRH reactive pituitary cells to GnRH stimulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anestrus / drug effects. Endotoxins / pharmacology. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Hypothalamus / drug effects. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / drug effects. Receptors, LHRH / genetics. Sheep

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20427135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2232
  • [Journal-full-title] Animal reproduction science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anim. Reprod. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endotoxins; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 67924-63-4 / endotoxin, Escherichia coli; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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81. Sánchez-Lemus E, Benicky J, Pavel J, Saavedra JM: In vivo Angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockade selectively inhibits LPS-induced innate immune response and ACTH release in rat pituitary gland. Brain Behav Immun; 2009 Oct;23(7):945-57
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  • [Title] In vivo Angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockade selectively inhibits LPS-induced innate immune response and ACTH release in rat pituitary gland.
  • Systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration induces an innate immune response and stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
  • We studied Angiotensin II AT(1) receptor participation in the LPS effects with focus on the pituitary gland.
  • LPS (50 microg/kg, i.p.) enhanced, 3h after administration, gene expression of pituitary CD14 and that of Angiotensin II AT(1A) receptors in pituitary and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN); stimulated ACTH and corticosterone release; decreased pituitary CRF(1) receptor mRNA and increased all plasma and pituitary pro-inflammatory factors studied.
  • The AT(1) receptor blocker (ARB) candesartan (1mg/kg/day, s.c. daily for 3 days before LPS) blocked pituitary and PVN AT(1) receptors, inhibited LPS-induced ACTH but not corticosterone secretion and decreased LPS-induced release of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 to the circulation.
  • The ARB reduced LPS-induced pituitary gene expression of IL-6, LIF, iNOS, COX-2 and IkappaB-alpha; and prevented LPS-induced increase of nNOS/eNOS activity.
  • When administered alone, the ARB increased basal plasma corticosterone levels and basal PGE(2) mRNA in pituitary.
  • Our results demonstrate that the pituitary gland is a target for systemically administered LPS.
  • AT(1) receptor activity is necessary for the complete pituitary response to LPS and is limited to specific pro-inflammatory pathways.
  • There is a complementary and complex influence of the PVN and circulating cytokines on the initial pituitary response to LPS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Cytokines / blood. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19427376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2139
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain, behavior, and immunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Behav. Immun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 MH002762-11
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers; 0 / Benzimidazoles; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Tetrazoles; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone; S8Q36MD2XX / candesartan; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS116172; NLM/ PMC2749886
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82. Colao A, Ochoa AS, Auriemma RS, Faggiano A, Pivonello R, Lombardi G: Pituitary carcinomas. Front Horm Res; 2010;38:94-108
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  • [Title] Pituitary carcinomas.
  • Pituitary carcinoma is a extremely rare and is characterized by a very poor prognosis.
  • Even if at diagnosis the presence of metastases is required to define a pituitary carcinoma, the lesion was almost invariably diagnosed first as a benign pituitary tumor, that after a variable period of latency, ranging from few months to many years, changed its natural course to an aggressive pituitary tumor poorly responsive to therapy.
  • Recent studies have partially clarified its molecular pathogenesis and found possible markers of aggressiveness in order to make an earlier diagnosis, when still treatment could improve their prognosis.
  • Most pituitary carcinomas are functioning, and ACTH- and PRL-secreting carcinomas are the most frequent.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Oncogenes

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20616500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-3073
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers of hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Horm Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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83. Kuo YT, Herlihy AH, So PW, Bhakoo KK, Bell JD: In vivo measurements of T1 relaxation times in mouse brain associated with different modes of systemic administration of manganese chloride. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2005 Apr;21(4):334-9
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  • T1 and T2 maps for each MRI transverse slice were generated using commercial software, and T1 and T2 values of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), pituitary gland, and lateral ventricle were obtained.
  • Significant decreases in T1 values were seen for the pituitary gland and the ventricles 15 minutes after either IV or IP injection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chlorides / administration & dosage. Female. Injections, Intraperitoneal. Injections, Intravenous. Injections, Subcutaneous. Lateral Ventricles / drug effects. Lateral Ventricles / physiology. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Gland / physiology

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MANGANESE, ELEMENTAL .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15779025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U120061305
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Contrast Media; 42Z2K6ZL8P / Manganese
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84. Schäffler A: [Treatment of pituitary gland hyperfunction: from acromegaly to prolactinoma]. Internist (Berl); 2006 Dec;47(12):1215-6, 1218-20, 1222
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  • [Title] [Treatment of pituitary gland hyperfunction: from acromegaly to prolactinoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Hyperpituitarism / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17033781.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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85. Ellestad LE, Carre W, Muchow M, Jenkins SA, Wang X, Cogburn LA, Porter TE: Gene expression profiling during cellular differentiation in the embryonic pituitary gland using cDNA microarrays. Physiol Genomics; 2006 May 16;25(3):414-25
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling during cellular differentiation in the embryonic pituitary gland using cDNA microarrays.
  • The anterior pituitary is comprised of five major hormone-secreting cell types that differentiate during embryonic development in a temporally distinct manner.
  • Although genes with these expression profiles are likely involved in development of the pituitary gland as a whole, some of these could be specifically associated with thyrotroph differentiation.
  • This is the first study to evaluate changes in anterior pituitary gene expression during embryonic development of any species using microarrays, and numerous transcription factors and signaling molecules not previously implicated in pituitary development were identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation / genetics. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / embryology. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16493019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-2267
  • [Journal-full-title] Physiological genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Physiol. Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Thyrotropin, beta Subunit; 0 / Transcription Factors; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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86. Akahori H, Sugimoto T: Lymphocytic hypophysitis with a long latent period from onset of central diabetes insipidus to development of pituitary enlargement. Intern Med; 2010;49(15):1565-71
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  • [Title] Lymphocytic hypophysitis with a long latent period from onset of central diabetes insipidus to development of pituitary enlargement.
  • Initial pituitary MRI imaging was normal, except for loss of the "bright spot" of the posterior lobe.
  • A diagnosis of idiopathic diabetes insipidus was made.
  • Two years later, pituitary gland enlargement with panhypopituitarism was detected.
  • Eight months after commencing a replacement dose of corticosteroid, the pituitary enlargement was reduced in size.
  • These findings resulted in a diagnosis of lymphocytic hypophysitis.
  • In patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus, it is important to suspect lymphocytic hypophysitis and to perform a long follow-up to repeat endocrinological examinations and pituitary imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / complications. Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / diagnosis. Lymphocytes / pathology. Pituitary Diseases / diagnosis. Pituitary Diseases / etiology


87. La Rosa S, Vigetti D, Placidi C, Finzi G, Uccella S, Clerici M, Bartolini B, Carnevali I, Losa M, Capella C: Localization of carboxyl ester lipase in human pituitary gland and pituitary adenomas. J Histochem Cytochem; 2010 Oct;58(10):881-9
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  • [Title] Localization of carboxyl ester lipase in human pituitary gland and pituitary adenomas.
  • Carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes a wide variety of lipid substrates, including ceramides, which are known to show inhibitory regulation of pituitary hormone secretion in experimental models.
  • Because no studies on CEL expression in human pituitary and pituitary adenomas have been reported in the literature, we investigated CEL expression in 10 normal pituitary glands and 86 well-characterized pituitary adenomas [12 FSH/LH cell, 17 α-subunit/null cell, 6 TSH cell, 21 ACTH cell, 11 prolactin (PRL) cell, and 19 GH cell adenomas] using IHC, immunoelectron microscopy, Western blotting, and quantitative RT-PCR.
  • In adenomas, it was mainly found in functioning GH, ACTH, and TSH tumors, whereas its expression was poor in the corresponding silent adenomas and was lacking in FSH/LH cell, null cell, and PRL cell adenomas.
  • This is the first study demonstrating CEL expression in normal human pituitary glands and in functioning GH, ACTH, and TSH adenomas.
  • Considering that CEL hydrolyzes ceramides, inactivating their inhibitory function on pituitary hormone secretion, our findings suggest a possible role of CEL in the regulation of hormone secretion in both normal and adenomatous pituitary cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / enzymology. Lipase / biosynthesis. Pituitary Gland / enzymology. Pituitary Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy, Immunoelectron. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20566755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-5044
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.1.3 / CEL protein, human; EC 3.1.1.3 / Lipase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2942741
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88. Ray DK, Yen CP, Vance ML, Laws ER, Lopes B, Sheehan JP: Gamma knife surgery for lymphocytic hypophysitis. J Neurosurg; 2010 Jan;112(1):118-21
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  • Lymphocytic hypophysitis is a relatively uncommon autoimmune inflammatory disorder affecting the pituitary gland.
  • The authors report on their experience with a patient who presented with diplopia and marked enlargement of the pituitary gland.
  • She underwent transsphenoidal surgery, and histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of lymphocytic hypophysitis.


89. Jeong SY, Lee SW, Lee HJ, Kang S, Seo JH, Chun KA, Cho IH, Won KS, Zeon SK, Ahn BC, Lee J: Incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT: a multicentre study. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Dec;37(12):2334-43
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  • [Title] Incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT: a multicentre study.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and to investigate its clinical significance.
  • Quantification of pituitary metabolic activity was obtained by using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax).
  • Hormone assays and pituitary MRIs were performed to assess pituitary lesions.
  • RESULTS: Focally increased pituitary FDG uptake on PET/CT was found in 30 of 40,967 patients, accounting for an incidence of 0.073%.
  • Histological diagnosis was obtained in three patients and included two growth hormone-secreting adenomas and one non-functioning adenoma.
  • Hormone assays were performed on serum samples from 11 patients, 2 of whom were shown to have hypersecretion of pituitary hormone.
  • Abnormal MRI findings suggesting a pituitary mass were found in 18 of 19 cases (94.7%).
  • There were no cases diagnosed with metastasis to the pituitary gland during clinical follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: Incidental pituitary FDG uptake was a very rare finding.
  • Cases with incidental pituitary FDG uptake were diagnosed primarily with clinically non-functioning adenomas, and there were also a few functioning adenomas.
  • Further evaluations, including hormone assays and pituitary MRI, are warranted when pituitary uptake is found on FDG PET/CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Positron-Emission Tomography / statistics & numerical data. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data. Whole Body Imaging / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 20661556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7089
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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90. Brown RE, Imran SA, Ur E, Wilkinson M: KiSS-1 mRNA in adipose tissue is regulated by sex hormones and food intake. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2008 Jan 16;281(1-2):64-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • KiSS-1 mRNA was quantified in FAT, hypothalamus (HYP) and pituitary gland (PIT) using realtime RT-PCR.

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  • (PMID = 18069123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / Kiss1 protein, rat; 0 / Kisspeptins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Leptin; W81N5U6R6U / Sodium Glutamate
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96. Nakamura D, Yanagiba Y, Duan Z, Ito Y, Okamura A, Asaeda N, Tagawa Y, Li C, Taya K, Zhang SY, Naito H, Ramdhan DH, Kamijima M, Nakajima T: Bisphenol A may cause testosterone reduction by adversely affecting both testis and pituitary systems similar to estradiol. Toxicol Lett; 2010 Apr 15;194(1-2):16-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bisphenol A may cause testosterone reduction by adversely affecting both testis and pituitary systems similar to estradiol.
  • Thus, BPA directly affects not only the Leydig cells but also the pituitary gland, but the former may be impaired at lower exposure concentrations than the latter.
  • [MeSH-major] Phenols / toxicity. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Testis / drug effects. Testosterone / metabolism

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. BISPHENOL A DISODIUM SALT .
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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CHOLESTEROL .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20144698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3169
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzhydryl Compounds; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Phenols; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; MLT3645I99 / bisphenol A
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97. Korsisaari N, Ross J, Wu X, Kowanetz M, Pal N, Hall L, Eastham-Anderson J, Forrest WF, Van Bruggen N, Peale FV, Ferrara N: Blocking vascular endothelial growth factor-A inhibits the growth of pituitary adenomas and lowers serum prolactin level in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Jan 1;14(1):249-58
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Blocking vascular endothelial growth factor-A inhibits the growth of pituitary adenomas and lowers serum prolactin level in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
  • PURPOSE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is defined clinically by the combined occurrence of multiple tumors, typically of the parathyroid glands, pancreatic islet cells, and anterior pituitary gland.
  • We wished to determine the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A in the vascularization and growth of MEN1-associated tumors, with an emphasis on pituitary adenomas.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To investigate whether tumor growth in Men1(+/-) mice is mediated by VEGF-A dependent angiogenesis, we carried out a monotherapy with the anti-VEGF-A monoclonal antibody (mAb) G6-31.
  • We evaluated tumor growth by magnetic resonance imaging and assessed vascular density in tissue sections.
  • RESULTS: During the treatment with mAb G6-31, a significant inhibition of the pituitary adenoma growth was observed, leading to an increased mean tumor doubling-free survival compared with mice treated with a control antibody.
  • Similarly, the growth of s.c. pituitary adenoma transplants was effectively inhibited by administration of anti-VEGF-A mAb.
  • Additionally, the vascular density in pancreatic islet tumors was significantly reduced by the treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that VEGF-A blockade may represent a nonsurgical treatment for benign tumors of the endocrine system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactin / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors


98. Chen J, Gremeaux L, Fu Q, Liekens D, Van Laere S, Vankelecom H: Pituitary progenitor cells tracked down by side population dissection. Stem Cells; 2009 May;27(5):1182-95
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  • [Title] Pituitary progenitor cells tracked down by side population dissection.
  • The pituitary gland represents the endocrine core, governing the body's hormonal landscape by adapting its cellular composition to changing demands.
  • Recently, we uncovered a candidate stem/progenitor cell population in the anterior pituitary.
  • Here, we scrutinized this "side population" (SP) and show that, unexpectedly, not the subset expressing high levels of "stem cell antigen-1" (Sca1(high)) but the remainder non-Sca1(high) fraction clusters the pituitary progenitor cells.
  • Transcriptomal interrogation revealed in the non-Sca1(high) SP upregulated expression of the pituitary stem/progenitor cell markers Sox2 and Sox9, and of multiple factors critically involved in pituitary embryogenesis.
  • Non-Sca1(high) SP cells, revealed by Sox2 expression, are observed in the postulated periluminal stem/progenitor cell niche, but also in small groups scattered over the gland, thereby advocating the existence of multiple niches.
  • In early postnatal mice undergoing a pituitary growth wave, Sox2(+) cells are more abundant than in adults, concordant with a larger SP and higher non-Sca1(high) proportion.
  • Together, we tracked down pituitary progenitor cells by SP phenotype, and thus provide a straightforward method to isolate and scrutinize these cells from the plastic pituitary ex vivo, as well as a culture system for in-depth exploration of their regulatory network.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Separation / methods. Pituitary Gland / cytology. Stem Cells / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Ataxin-1. Ataxins. Cell Aggregation / drug effects. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Culture Media, Serum-Free. Embryonic Development / drug effects. Endothelial Cells / cytology. Endothelial Cells / drug effects. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Genome / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / pharmacology. Mice. Multipotent Stem Cells / cytology. Multipotent Stem Cells / drug effects. Multipotent Stem Cells / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Phenotype. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / cytology. SOXB1 Transcription Factors / metabolism. Stem Cell Niche / cytology. Stem Cell Niche / drug effects. Stem Cell Niche / metabolism. Up-Regulation / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19418455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4918
  • [Journal-full-title] Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stem Cells
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ataxin-1; 0 / Ataxins; 0 / Atxn1 protein, mouse; 0 / Culture Media, Serum-Free; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / Sox2 protein, mouse
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99. Xing B, Deng K, Ren ZY, Su CB, Wang RZ, Yang Y, Ma WB, Li YN: Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and surgical results of adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Chin Med Sci J; 2008 Mar;23(1):44-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and surgical results of adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and surgical results of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • All patients underwent thin-section sagittal and coronal scans of the pituitary gland before and after administration of gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) on a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner, and dynamic enhanced MRI was performed in 39 patients.
  • Pituitary apoplexy was found in 13 (4.9%) cases.
  • Preoperative endocrinological tests of 199 cases supported the diagnosis of typical Cushing's disease, while the other 67 cases had atypical endocrinological results.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced coronal pituitary MRI is helpful for preoperative localization of ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenoma.

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  • (PMID = 18437910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-9294
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsueh k'o hsueh tsa chih
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. Sci. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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100. Seoane S, Ben I, Centeno V, Perez-Fernandez R: Cellular expression levels of the vitamin D receptor are critical to its transcriptional regulation by the pituitary transcription factor Pit-1. Mol Endocrinol; 2007 Jul;21(7):1513-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cellular expression levels of the vitamin D receptor are critical to its transcriptional regulation by the pituitary transcription factor Pit-1.
  • In the present study, it is demonstrated that administration of the pituitary transcription factor Pit-1 (originally found in the pituitary gland but also present in other nonpituitary cell types and tissues) to the MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cell line induces a significant increase in VDR mRNA and protein levels.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Base Sequence. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. COS Cells. CREB-Binding Protein / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cercopithecus aethiops. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation. Female. Gene Expression. HeLa Cells. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA Interference. RNA Polymerase II / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17456792.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CREBBP protein, human; 0 / Histones; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Transcription Factor Pit-1; EC 2.3.1.48 / CREB-Binding Protein; EC 2.7.7.- / RNA Polymerase II
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