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1. Listewnik MH, Birkenfeld B, Chosia M, Elbl B, Zaborek B: [Occurrence of malignant lesions in patients referred to 131I therapy due to benign thyroid diseases]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:2-6
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  • [Title] [Occurrence of malignant lesions in patients referred to 131I therapy due to benign thyroid diseases].
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the range of this problem in patients considered for radioiodine therapy due to benign thyroid diseases.
  • All patients were subjected to routine procedure which comprised of thyroid function assessment, radioiodine uptake, thyroid scan, ultrasound examination.
  • Cytological diagnosis was: in 3 patients--ca papillare, in 3--follicular tumour, in 1--Hürthle'a cell tumour, and in one patient histopathological examination was required without definitive cytological diagnosis.
  • In six patients primary diagnosis was toxic nodular goiter, in three patients Graves' disease.
  • 3. Thyroid scan is supportive in choosing a proper place for FNAB.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperthyroidism / pathology. Hyperthyroidism / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17091449.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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2. Marrazzo A, Casà L, David M, Lo Gerfo D, Noto A, Riili I, Taormina P: [Thyroidectomy with LigaSure versus traditional thyroidectomy: our experience]. Chir Ital; 2007 May-Jun;59(3):361-5
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  • Over the past few decades the surgical strategy for both benign and malignant thyroid diseases has undergone several changes.
  • In particular, total thyroidectomy today has become the routine operation for most thyroid diseases.
  • We had only one case of haemorrhage in a patient submitted to thyroidectomy with LigaSureTM, 8 cases of transitory hypocalcaemia, 3 of which in patients with LigaSure thyroidectomy and 5 in patients treated with traditional thyroidectomy (p = 0.42), 2 cases of stupor of the recurrent nerve (1 in group A and 1 in group B) and a single definitive recurrent lesion in a group B patient with carcinoma, in which the tumour infiltrated the recurrent nerve.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17663377.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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3. Haymart MR, Glinberg SL, Liu J, Sippel RS, Jaume JC, Chen H: Higher serum TSH in thyroid cancer patients occurs independent of age and correlates with extrathyroidal extension. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Sep;71(3):434-9
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  • [Title] Higher serum TSH in thyroid cancer patients occurs independent of age and correlates with extrathyroidal extension.
  • BACKGROUND: It has previously been shown that higher serum TSH is associated with increased thyroid cancer incidence and advanced-stage disease.
  • As age over 45 years is a known prognostic indicator for thyroid cancer, it is important to know whether higher TSH in patients with thyroid cancer occurs independent of age.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1361 patients underwent thyroid surgery between May 1994 and December 2007 at a single institution.
  • Despite the rise in the benign subgroups, mean TSH was consistently higher in those with cancer vs. those without.
  • On multivariate analysis of high-risk features associated with poor prognosis, there was a significant association between higher TSH and extrathyroidal extension (P = 0.002), whereas there was no clear relationship with age, tumour size > 4 cm, and distant metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: Independent of age, thyroid cancer incidence correlates with higher TSH.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Cohort Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19067720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T35 DK062709
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS778777; NLM/ PMC4852738
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4. Chen HC, Jen YM, Wang CH, Lee JC, Lin YS: Etiology of vocal cord paralysis. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2007;69(3):167-71
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  • OBJECTIVE: Vocal cord paralysis (VCP) is a sign of a certain underlying disease, a diagnosis which can be attributed to various causes.
  • In males, neoplasm was the most common cause occurring in 63 of 176 males, whereas surgery was most frequent in 59 of 115 females.
  • The possibility of a neoplasm must be ruled out before VCP is labeled idiopathic.
  • A benign thyroid tumor could also cause VCP.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Laryngeal Neoplasms / complications. Laryngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Radiation Injuries / complications. Radiation Injuries / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17264533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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5. Hasanzadeh H, Sharafi A, Allah Verdi M, Nikoofar A: Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Phys Med Biol; 2006 Sep 7;51(17):4375-83
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  • [Title] Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure.
  • In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs.
  • The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries.
  • Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours.
  • The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 +/- 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 +/- 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve.
  • The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 +/- 15.1 cGy, 9.15 +/- 3.89 cGy, 0.47 +/- 0.3 cGy and 0.53 +/- 0.31 cGy, respectively.
  • The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Models, Anatomic. Ovary. Parotid Gland. Radiation Dosage. Risk Assessment. Testis. Thyroid Gland

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  • (PMID = 16912387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-9155
  • [Journal-full-title] Physics in medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phys Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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6. Fryknäs M, Wickenberg-Bolin U, Göransson H, Gustafsson MG, Foukakis T, Lee JJ, Landegren U, Höög A, Larsson C, Grimelius L, Wallin G, Pettersson U, Isaksson A: Molecular markers for discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors. Tumour Biol; 2006;27(4):211-20
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  • [Title] Molecular markers for discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify molecular markers useful for the diagnostic discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • METHODS: A panel of thyroid tumors was characterized with expression profiling using cDNA microarrays.
  • A robust algorithm for gene selection was developed to identify molecular markers useful for the classification of heterogeneous tumor classes.
  • The study included tumor tissue specimens from 10 patients with benign follicular adenomas and from 10 with malignant tumors.
  • Several of the identified genes, for example DIO1, CITED1, CA12 and FN1, have previously been observed as differentially expressed in various thyroid tumors.
  • These genes have the potential for molecular classification of follicular thyroid tumors and for providing improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in thyroid malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Genetic Markers. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. DNA Primers. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16675914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Genetic Markers
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7. Fornelli A, Bondi A, Jovine E, Eusebi V: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma resembling a thyroid follicular neoplasm. Virchows Arch; 2010 Mar;456(3):339-42
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  • [Title] Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma resembling a thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • The first case of well-differentiated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with remarkable follicular architecture resembling a follicular neoplasm of thyroid is described in a 52-year-old man.
  • The follicles contained homogenous eosinophilic material akin to colloid and were lined by benign-looking cuboidal cells.
  • Immunohistochemically, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and thyroglobulin were negative and the patient had no evidence of a previous or concomitant thyroid tumour.
  • This case can be added to the list of extrathyroid primary tumours that resemble thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20082203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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8. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms and improve the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ann Surg; 2005 Sep;242(3):353-61; discussion 361-3
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  • [Title] ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms and improve the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether genes that regulate cellular invasion and metastasis are differentially expressed and could serve as diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules.
  • SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: Patients whose thyroid nodules have indeterminate or suspicious cytologic features on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy require thyroidectomy because of a 20% to 30% risk of thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: Differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms were identified by extracellular matrix and adhesion molecule cDNA array analysis and confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • RESULTS: By cDNA array analysis, ADAMTS8, ECM1, MMP8, PLAU, SELP, and TMPRSS4 were upregulated, and by quantitative PCR, ECM1, SELP, and TMPRSS4 mRNA expression was higher in malignant (n = 57) than in benign (n = 38) thyroid neoplasms (P< 0.002).
  • ECM1 and TMPRSS4 mRNA expression levels were independent predictors of a malignant thyroid neoplasm (P < 0.003).
  • The level of ECM1 mRNA expression was higher in TNM stage I differentiated thyroid cancers than in stage II and III tumors (P < or = 0.031).
  • CONCLUSIONS: ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are excellent diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and may be used to improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • ECM1 is also a marker of the extent of disease in differentiated thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Serine Endopeptidases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Gene Expression. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16135921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ECM1 protein, human; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / transmembrane serine protease 2, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1357743
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9. Chesnokova V, Melmed S: Pituitary tumour-transforming gene (PTTG) and pituitary senescence. Horm Res; 2009 Apr;71 Suppl 2:82-7
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  • [Title] Pituitary tumour-transforming gene (PTTG) and pituitary senescence.
  • Pituitary tumours account for 15% of intracranial neoplasms and are benign monoclonal neoplasms that may be clinically silent or secrete hormones, including prolactin, growth hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone or, rarely, thyroid-stimulating hormone or gonadotrophins.
  • We explored the role of disordered pituitary cell proliferation control in the pathogenesis of these invariably benign adenomas, studying the mechanisms underlying pituitary aneuploidy, premature proliferative arrest (senescence), markers of cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in single, double or triply mutant transgenic mice with mutations of Rb, Pttg and/or p21.
  • These results improve our understanding of pituitary syndromes associated with infertility, growth disorders, hypercortisolism or adrenal, thyroid and gonadal failure due to abrogated pituitary function.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Aging. Cell Cycle. Mutation. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19407503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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10. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1102-9; discussion 1109-10
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • We postulated that expression analysis of genes that modulate angiogenesis would identify differentially expressed genes that would help to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms and serve as markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: A complementary DNA (cDNA) array with 96 genes that modulate angiogenesis was used to identify differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm cDNA array expression data in 123 patients (4 normal thyroid, 26 hyperplastic nodules, 27 follicular adenomas, 23 follicular cancers, 18 follicular variant of papillary cancers, 25 papillary cancers).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two genes were upregulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms by cDNA array analysis, but only 13 genes had higher messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (P < or = .04).
  • Of the 13 differentially expressed genes, the combined use of angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) mRNA expression levels was best for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid neoplasms, with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 75%, and negative predictive value of 94%.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 mRNA expression was elevated in higher TNM stage neoplasms and in patients with high-risk AMES (Age, distant Metastasis, Extrathyroidal invasion, and tumor Size) differentiated thyroid cancers (P < or = .005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Angiopoietin 2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and could improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 are markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Angiogenic Proteins / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics


11. Liu Z, Liu D, Bojdani E, El-Naggar AK, Vasko V, Xing M: IQGAP1 plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Dec 15;16(24):6009-18
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  • [Title] IQGAP1 plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to explore the role of IQGAP1 in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer and its potential as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target in this cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined IQGAP1 copy gain and its relationship with clinicopathologic outcomes of thyroid cancer and investigated its role in cell invasion and molecules involved in the process.
  • RESULTS: We found IQGAP1 copy number (CN) gain ≥ 3 in 1 of 30 (3%), 24 of 74 (32%), 44 of 107 (41%), 8 of 16 (50%), and 27 of 41 (66%) of benign thyroid tumor, follicular variant papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC), follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), tall cell papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and anaplastic thyroid cancer, respectively, in the increasing order of invasiveness of these tumors.
  • A similar tumor distribution trend of CN ≥ 4 was also seen.
  • The siRNA knockdown of IQGAP1 dramatically inhibited thyroid cancer cell invasion and colony formation.
  • This provided a mechanism for the invasive role of IQGAP1 in thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IQGAP1, through genetic copy gain, plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer and may represent a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this cancer.

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20959410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113507-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / ras GTPase-Activating Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS242709; NLM/ PMC3005072
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12. Riesco-Eizaguirre G, Santisteban P: New insights in thyroid follicular cell biology and its impact in thyroid cancer therapy. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Dec;14(4):957-77
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  • [Title] New insights in thyroid follicular cell biology and its impact in thyroid cancer therapy.
  • Well-differentiated thyroid cancer has in general terms a very good outcome.
  • Whereas the prevalence of nodular thyroid disease worldwide is high, malignant conversion from benign thyroid nodules is rare.
  • Treatment of thyroid cancer is usually successful, but we still do not have effective therapies for patients with invasive or metastatic thyroid cancer if the disease does not concentrate radioiodine and it is not surgically resectable.
  • On the other hand, from the same thyroid cell, one of the most aggressive human tumours can arise--undifferentiated or anaplastic thyroid carcinoma--leading to death in a few months.
  • The most common type of thyroid cancer--papillary thyroid carcinoma--stands out among solid tumours because many of the tumour-initiating events have been identified.
  • All of them function in a single pathway--the RTK/RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway--and obey an 'exclusivity principle': one and only one component of the pathway is mutated in a single tumour.
  • This highlights the requirement of this signal transduction pathway for the transformation to thyroid cancer and paves the way to targeted therapies against a tumour with a mutation in a known gene or any gene upstream of the target.
  • Studies in vitro and in vivo, including genomic profiling and genetically engineered mouse models, have clearly shown that each oncoprotein exerts its own oncogenic drive, conferring a distinct biological behaviour on thyroid tumours.
  • In this review, we attempt to summarise the most recent advances in thyroid follicular cell-derived cancers research and their potential clinical impact that may change the management of thyroid cancer in the near future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Multigene Family. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics


13. Arif S, Patel J, Blanes A, Diaz-Cano SJ: Cytoarchitectural and kinetic features in the histological evaluation of follicular thyroid neoplasms. Histopathology; 2007 May;50(6):750-63
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  • [Title] Cytoarchitectural and kinetic features in the histological evaluation of follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • AIMS: The diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinomas is mainly based on capsular and vascular invasion.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Anisokaryosis, chromatin pattern, nucleolus, nuclear pleomorphism, nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, necrosis, stromal changes and tumour interstitial lymphocytes (TIL) were analysed in adenomatous hyperplastic nodules (39), adenomas (43) and carcinomas (28 minimally invasive, 48 widely invasive and 27 anaplastic).
  • Variables were compared by histological diagnosis using Fisher's exact test, analysis of variance and Student's t-tests and considered significant if P < 0.05.
  • TIL were absent in 96% of neoplasms and 54% of adenomatous hyperplastic nodules.
  • A kinetic advantage predominated in the internal compartments of benign lesions and in the peripheral compartments of malignant lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Follicular carcinomas show up-regulation of proliferation markers and the distinctive topographical kinetic profiles provide a basis for the distinction between benign and malignant and an explanation for the circumscription and encapsulation of benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Nodule / blood supply. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17493239.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Than TH, Swethadri GK, Wong J, Ahmad T, Jamil D, Maganlal RK, Hamdi MM, Abdullah MS: Expression of Galectin-3 and Galectin-7 in thyroid malignancy as potential diagnostic indicators. Singapore Med J; 2008 Apr;49(4):333-8
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  • [Title] Expression of Galectin-3 and Galectin-7 in thyroid malignancy as potential diagnostic indicators.
  • INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that Galectin-3 (Gal-3) and Galectin-7 (Gal-7) are potential tumour markers for differentiating thyroid carcinoma from its benign counter part.
  • Although the value of Gal-3 has been studied extensively, there is little knowledge regarding the expression of Gal-7 in thyroid malignancy.
  • METHODS: We initiated an immunohistochemical (IHC) study on the expression of Gal-3 and Gal-7 on various thyroid lesions.
  • Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded thyroid tissues were stained for IHC expression of Gal-3 and Gal-7 using monoclonal anti-human Gal-3 antibody and anti-human Gal-7 antibody (R&D Systems Inc, MN, USA).
  • RESULTS: A total of 95 cases were collected, including 32 benign and 63 malignant thyroid lesions.
  • These contained 37 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma, nine cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma follicular variant, 16 cases of follicular carcinoma, one case of anaplastic carcinoma, 14 cases of follicular adenomas and 18 cases of nodular goitre.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that the IHC localisation of Gal-3 is a useful marker in conjunction with routine haematoylin and eosin staining in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions, while there is no significant adjunct diagnostic value in Gal-7 for thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Galectins / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 18418527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Galectins; 0 / LGALS7 protein, human
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15. Salvatore G, Chiappetta G, Nikiforov YE, Decaussin-Petrucci M, Fusco A, Carney JA, Santoro M: Molecular profile of hyalinizing trabecular tumours of the thyroid: high prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements and absence of B-raf and N-ras point mutations. Eur J Cancer; 2005 Mar;41(5):816-21
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  • [Title] Molecular profile of hyalinizing trabecular tumours of the thyroid: high prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements and absence of B-raf and N-ras point mutations.
  • Hyalinizing trabecular tumour (HTT) of the thyroid is a neoplasm of follicular derivation that shares several morphological similarities with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • In this study, we investigated the prevalence of B-raf point mutations, RET/PTC rearrangements and N-ras point mutations in a large HTT series (28 samples).
  • Twenty benign thyroid lesions and 10 PTC served as control cases.
  • Thus, in clinical practice, the detection of B-raf mutations in a thyroid follicular tumour may prove to be a valuable tool, supplementing histological examination, and allowing a differential diagnosis between PTC and HTT.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Genes, ras. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Point Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Gene Rearrangement / genetics. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret

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  • (PMID = 15763659.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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16. Skubis-Zegadło J, Nikodemska A, Przytuła E, Mikula M, Bardadin K, Ostrowski J, Wenzel BE, Czarnocka B: Expression of pendrin in benign and malignant human thyroid tissues. Br J Cancer; 2005 Jul 11;93(1):144-51
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  • [Title] Expression of pendrin in benign and malignant human thyroid tissues.
  • The Pendred syndrome gene (PDS) encodes a transmembrane protein, pendrin, which is expressed in follicular thyroid cells and participates in the apical iodide transport.
  • Pendrin expression has been studied in various thyroid neoplasms by means of immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot and RT-quantitative real-time PCR.
  • The expression was related to the functional activity of the thyroid tissue.
  • Pendrin protein was detected in 73.3 and 76.7% of the follicular (FTC) and papillary (PTC) thyroid carcinomas, respectively, where pendrin was solely localised inside the cytoplasm.
  • Focal reactivity was detected in one follicular- and three papillary carcinomas, whereas pendrin protein was absent in three of 15 FTC and four of 30 PTC; mRNA of pendrin was detected in 92.4% of thyroid tumours.
  • The relative mRNA expression of pendrin was lower in cancers than in normal thyroid tissues (P<0.001).
  • The pendrin protein level was found to parallel its mRNA expression, which was not, however, related to the tumour size and tumour stage.
  • In conclusion, pendrin is expressed in the majority of differentiated thyroid tumours with high individual variability but its targeting to the apical cell membrane is affected.
  • [MeSH-major] Membrane Transport Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15942636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / SLC26A4 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361481
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17. Isidori AM, Lenzi A: Ectopic ACTH syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov;51(8):1217-25
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  • Ectopic adrenocorticotropic secretion (EAS) is responsible for 12-17% of cases of Cushing's syndrome (CS) and covers a range of tumours, from undetectable benign lesions to widespread metastases.
  • EAS requires a complete workup that includes the establishment of endogenous CS, diagnosis of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependency, localization of the source of ACTH secretion and rapid biochemical control of hypercortisolaemia.
  • In addition to small cell lung carcinoma, the most common causes of ectopic EAS are bronchial carcinoids, thymic tumours, islet cell tumour of the pancreas, medullary thyroid carcinomas, and phaeochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / complications. Abdominal Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Biomarkers / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Petrosal Sinus Sampling. Thoracic Neoplasms / complications. Thoracic Neoplasms / secretion. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18209859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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18. Scherer S, Abd-Elrahmane DG, Petersen RH, Bjarnason NH: [Intrathoracic goiter with differential diagnostic difficulties]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2009 Jan 12;171(3):147
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  • Intrathoracic goiter represents an important differential diagnosis in the examination of lung tumours.
  • A 71-year-old healthy woman presented with dyspnoea, stridor and an inhomogeneous tumour compressing the upper part of the right lung at the level of the left atrium.
  • Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated no uptake in the pulmonary mass and material from two sets of core-needle biopsies were inconclusive.
  • Surgery with histology revealed a degenerated benign intrathoracic goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter, Substernal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19174029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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19. Cai S, Liu H, Li WB, Ouyang YS, Zhang B, Li P, Wang XL, Zhang XY, Li JC, Jiang YX: Ultrasonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinoma and their diagnostic values. Chin Med J (Engl); 2010 Nov;123(21):3074-8
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  • [Title] Ultrasonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinoma and their diagnostic values.
  • BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare malignant tumour and usually difficult to diagnose with ultrasound.
  • METHODS: We analyzed the sonographic features of 35 MTCs and 50 benign nodules with respect to nodular size, echogenecity, internal content, shape, height/width, border, peripheral halo, calcifications and colour flow pattern.
  • The differences in sonographic features between MTCs and benign nodules were analyzed with Chi square test.
  • The combination of multiple sonographic features is helpful, but not definitive, for the diagnosis of MTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21162958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, medullary
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20. Krzysztof K, Wiktor B, Tadeusz Ł, Waldemar B, Magdalena K, Janusz D: Neuroendocrine tumours--analysis of own material--a nine--year retrospective study. Hepatogastroenterology; 2010 Mar-Apr;57(98):236-41
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  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neuroendocrine tumours are fairly rare neoplasms that require different treatments and have various prognoses.
  • The aim of this study was to present the author's observations of the histological tumor types, occurrence and its surgical treatment.
  • Ultrasonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal cavity, pelvis, thorax or neck--depend on the tumor localization--were done in every individual.
  • All cases were subjected to surgical procedure with an aim to resect the tumour completely.
  • In the study we have also 11 cases of medullary thyroid carcinomas.
  • In adrenal glands we observed 10 benign and 1 malignant pheochromocytoma (one bilateral female case with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2A).
  • The clinical manifestations of some neuroendocrine tumours are not specific, so it causes a lot of difficulties in early diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20583420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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21. Jesneck JL, Mukherjee S, Yurkovetsky Z, Clyde M, Marks JR, Lokshin AE, Lo JY: Do serum biomarkers really measure breast cancer? BMC Cancer; 2009 May 28;9:164
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  • The classifiers distinguished normal tissue from benign lesions similarly at AUC = 0.80 +/- 0.05.
  • However, the serum proteins of benign and malignant lesions were indistinguishable (AUC = 0.55 +/- 0.06).
  • The classification tasks of normal vs. cancer and normal vs. benign selected the same top feature: MIF, which suggests that the biomarkers indicated inflammatory response rather than cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19476629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 84955; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA-112437-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2696469
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22. Pisello F, Geraci G, Sciumè C, Li Volsi F, Modica G: [Total thyroidectomy of choice in papillary microcarcinoma]. G Chir; 2007 Jan-Feb;28(1-2):13-9
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  • [Transliterated title] La tiroidectomia totale di principio nel microcarcinoma papillare.
  • INTRODUCTION: Today, the "gold standard" of surgical management of benign thyroid disease is still controversy.
  • There are different surgical approaches to the thyroid gland, from a radical, total thyroidectomy to a conservative treatment, lobectomy with or not isthmectomy.
  • In consideration of the more frequent incidence of small carcinomas accidentally founded in the context of the thyroid parenchyma removed for another pathology, the aim of this study is to bring a contribute to resolve the debate on the therapeutic choice in the surgical management of the thyroid benign disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2000 to January 2006 502 thyroidectomy were performed in the Section of General and Thoracic Surgery of University of Palermo: 458 total thyroidectomy (91.3%), 2 partial thyroidectomy (0.3%), 24 (4.8%) lobectomy with isthmectomy and 18 (3.6%) reinterventions for relapse; 34 patients (6.8%) were preoperative suspected (cytological or ultrasonography) for thyroid cancer.
  • DISCUSSION: Papillary microcarcinoma is a "thyroid papillary cancer with a diameter < or = 1 cm? ".
  • Actually, there are no univocal data on natural history, nodal metastasis, biological and clinical behaviour, morbidity and mortality of these neoplasms; the certain data is that only the radical surgery can prevent relapse and incidentalomas that modify surgical approach.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our opinion, the surgical management of the all thyroid disease must be the more radical since the first time, because we think other approaches not correct to improve the complete health from the benign thyroid disease and to prevent (secondary prevention) papillary microcarcinoma not pre-operative diagnosed, because there are no preoperative pattern to make a correct diagnosis of this tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17313727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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23. Cho Mar K, Eimoto T, Tateyama H, Arai Y, Fujiyoshi Y, Hamaguchi M: Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions. Histopathology; 2006 Feb;48(3):286-94
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  • [Title] Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions.
  • AIMS: To examine expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and related proteins in follicular thyroid lesions (FTLs) and to determine their usefulness for differential diagnosis of FTLs, particularly between minimally invasive carcinoma and adenoma.
  • In-situ hybridization of MMP-2 and MMP-7 mRNA in selected cases demonstrated the expression of these enzymes in the tumour cells as well as in some stromal cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / chemistry. Adenoma / chemistry. Matrix Metalloproteinases / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / genetics. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16430475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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24. Fuhrer D, Eszlinger M, Karger S, Krause K, Engelhardt C, Hasenclever D, Dralle H, Paschke R: Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor II, cyclooxygenase-2, ets-1 and thyroid-specific thyroglobulin mRNA expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 May;152(5):785-90
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  • [Title] Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor II, cyclooxygenase-2, ets-1 and thyroid-specific thyroglobulin mRNA expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated three markers (insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and ets-1) of thyroid growth stimulation and cell transformation together with a thyroid-specific marker (thyroglobulin (Tg)) for their potential to differentiate benign and malignant follicular thyroid neoplasia (FN).
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: mRNA expression levels were determined by real-time PCR in 100 snap-frozen thyroid samples: 36 benign thyroid nodules with different histology and function (19 cold (CTN) and 17 toxic thyroid nodules (TTN)), 36 corresponding normal thyroid tissues of the same patients, eight Graves' disease (GD) thyroids, 10 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and 10 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • RESULTS: Mean IGF-II and COX-2 levels were not significantly altered between benign and malignant thyroid nodules (IGF-II) or nodular (FTC, TTN, CTN) and normal thyroid tissues (COX-2).
  • In contrast, eight- to tenfold upregulation of ets-1 was observed in PTC and three- to fourfold upregulation of ets-1 was observed in FTC (and GD) compared with benign thyroid nodules and normal thyroid tissues.
  • In addition, thyroglobulin mRNA expression was markedly downregulated (50- to 100-fold) in FTC, PTC and GD samples compared with benign nodular and normal thyroid tissues.
  • Hence an ets-1/Tg ratio >20 distinguished differentiated thyroid cancer from benign nodular or normal thyroid tissue.
  • However, in a consecutive series of 40 FNAC samples only equivocal results were obtained on 38 benign and two malignant (FTC) thyroid tumour samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Upregulation of ets-1 and downregulation of Tg mRNA expression occur in differentiated thyroid cancer and may facilitate pre-operative identification of thyroid malignancy depending on further evaluation of these potentially promising markers in a larger series of benign and malignant thyroid tumours and their FNAC samples.

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  • (PMID = 15879365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ETS1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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25. Jayle C, Franco S, Bris L, Lefort G, Corbi P: [Multiple myxomata: about one case]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss; 2007 Oct;100(10):878-81
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  • This benign tumour is sometimes described in the context of Carney's syndrome, in which cardiac myxoma, cutaneous myxoma, lentigo and pigmentary nevus cutaneous lesions, endocrine disorders, and testicular, thyroid and hypophyseal tumours are associated.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Heart Neoplasms / genetics. Myxoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18033020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9683
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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26. Takeyama H, Tabei I, Uchida K, Morikawa T: Sentinel node biopsy for follicular tumours of the thyroid gland. Br J Surg; 2009 May;96(5):490-5
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  • [Title] Sentinel node biopsy for follicular tumours of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: It is difficult to differentiate histologically between benign and malignant follicular-type tumours of the thyroid gland.
  • The present study evaluated whether sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy was helpful in obtaining the correct diagnosis of malignant follicular-type tumours, as metastasis to the lymph nodes is sufficient evidence for a diagnosis of cancer.
  • METHODS: SLN biopsy was performed for 37 follicular-type tumours suspected to be malignant on the basis of preoperative examinations, but for which the diagnosis had not been confirmed.
  • SLN metastases were found in four of 12 patients with a malignant tumour identified by intraoperative frozen-section analysis.
  • Frozen-section analysis of the tumour itself identified only one follicular cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Detection of SLN metastasis was helpful in diagnosing follicular thyroid cancer and thus enabling one-stage surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Body Mass Index. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Care. Length of Stay. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19358183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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27. Brzeziańska E, Cyniak-Magierska A, Sporny S, Pastuszak-Lewandoska D, Lewiński A: Assessment of cyclin D1 gene expression as a prognostic factor in benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2007 Aug;28(4):341-50
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  • [Title] Assessment of cyclin D1 gene expression as a prognostic factor in benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • 1) an assessment of CCND1 gene expression level in benign and malignant thyroid lesions and 2) the evaluation of possible correlations between gene expression and the histopathological variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), or tumour size, classified according to TNM definition of primary tumours (in case of PTC only) or patient's sex or age.
  • DESIGN: Thirty five (35) tissue samples were analysed: 24 cases of PTC, 4 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), 4 cases of follicular adenoma (FA) and 3 cases of nodular goitre (NG).
  • RESULTS: The level of cyclin D1 gene expression was significantly higher in malignant thyroid tumours (PTC, MTC), as compared with that in macroscopically unchanged thyroid tissue, FA and/or NG groups.
  • On the other hand, the correlation was observed between RQ values and tumour size.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cyclin D1 gene expression in various thyroid lesions may be helpful in diagnostically doubtful cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cyclins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Cyclin D. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17693985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin D; 0 / Cyclins
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28. Espadinha C, Pinto AE, Leite V: Underexpression of PPARgamma is associated with aneuploidy and lower differentiation of thyroid tumours of follicular origin. Oncol Rep; 2009 Oct;22(4):907-13
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  • [Title] Underexpression of PPARgamma is associated with aneuploidy and lower differentiation of thyroid tumours of follicular origin.
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) gene is a nuclear receptor that is involved in thyroid tumourigenesis.
  • Aneuploidy is also observed in some thyroid tumours, particularly in the more advanced cases.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of PPARgamma expression with the degree of differentiation and ploidy status of benign and malignant thyroid neoplasias.
  • DNA cytometric studies, ploidy and S-phase fraction (SPF) determination, and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of molecular markers specific for thyroid follicular cells, namely Tg (thyroglobulin), TSHR (TSH receptor) and NIS (Na+/I- symporter) were compared between thyroid lesions with positive or negative PPARgamma protein expression.
  • This study showed that underexpression of PPARgamma is associated with poor tumour differentiation, aneuploidy and higher cell proliferative activity.
  • Therapies designed to modulate expression of PPARgamma may have an impact on the growth of thyroid neoplasias.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Aneuploidy. PPAR gamma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19724872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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29. Dănilă R, Karakas E, Osei-Agyemang T, Hassan I: Outcome of incidental thyroid carcinoma in patients undergoing surgery for Graves' disease. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2008 Jan-Mar;112(1):115-8
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  • [Title] Outcome of incidental thyroid carcinoma in patients undergoing surgery for Graves' disease.
  • Thyroid malignancy detected incidentally in patients who are operated for Graves'disease (GD) has been reported at different rates.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the rate and outcome of incidental thyroid carcinoma in thyrotoxic GD patients managed by surgery in our institution.
  • Incidence and outcome of thyroid carcinoma incidentally discovered in patients undergoing surgery for GD were analysed.
  • Two (2.2%) of all patients had a papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • Tumour size was 3 mm and 5 mm.
  • CONCLUSION: The incidence of incidentally thyroid microcarcinoma was not higher in patients with GD compared to other benign thyroid disorders described in the literature.
  • Differentiated thyroid cancer found incidentally at surgery for hyperthyroidism seems to have a good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Graves Disease / surgery. Incidental Findings. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18677914.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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30. Watkinson JC: Fifteen years' experience in thyroid surgery. Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2010 Oct;92(7):541-7
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  • [Title] Fifteen years' experience in thyroid surgery.
  • INTRODUCTION: Thyroid disease is common, thyroid cancer is uncommon.
  • Recently, significant advances have been made regarding mechanisms involved in both thyroid growth and function (goitrogenesis) and carcinogenesis at a molecular level.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the study cohort, 1113 patients had benign disease and 387 malignancy.
  • For benign disease, 716 patients had lobectomy or isthmusectomy, 44 had near-total thyroidectomy and 318 a total thyroidectomy.
  • Thyroid growth and function was investigated using 500 human thyroid cell primary cultures obtained at surgery, as well as in three animal models.
  • The role of pituitary tumour transforming gene (PTTG), PTTG binding factor (PBF) and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in thyroid cell function was then evaluated.
  • Regarding thyroid growth and function, TSH represents (either directly or indirectly) the main factor mediating thyroid follicular cell growth.
  • For carcinogenesis, over-expression of the proto-oncogenes PTTG and PBF induces tumours in nude mice, and PTTG can induce proliferation of human thyroid cells and, in addition, both repress expression and function of NIS.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Education, Medical, Graduate / methods. Female. General Surgery / education. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prospective Studies. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / adverse effects. Thyroidectomy / methods. Young Adult

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  • [Cites] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jun;86(6):2709-16 [11397875.001]
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  • (PMID = 20883601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3229340
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31. Klagge A, Krause K, Schierle K, Steinert F, Dralle H, Fuhrer D: Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human thyroid tumours. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Apr;42(4):237-40
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  • [Title] Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human thyroid tumours.
  • The expression of SSTR at the tumour cell surface confers the possibility for diagnostic imaging and therapy of tumours using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues.
  • To date, the precise expression pattern of the SSTR subtypes 1-5 in thyroid epithelial tumours remains to be determined.
  • We investigated the mRNA expression of SSTR1-5 in benign and malignant epithelial thyroid tumours [20 cold thyroid nodules (CTNs), 20 toxic thyroid nodules (TTNs), 20 papillary, 20 follicular, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas (PTCs, FTCs, ATCs, respectively)] and compared them to normal surrounding thyroid tissues.
  • Four out of five SSTR subtypes were detected in malignant thyroid tumours, benign neoplasia, and normal surrounding tissue with a predominant expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5, and a weak expression of SSTR1 and SSTR3.
  • Compared to normal thyroid tissue, SSTR2 was significantly upregulated in PTC and ATC.
  • SSTR5 mRNA expression was increased in PTC and FTC and significantly decreased in CTN and TTN compared to normal thyroid tissue.
  • SSTR2 is the predominant subtype in thyroid epithelial tumours with a high expression pattern, in particular, in PTC .
  • Perspectively, the expression of distinct SSTR in thyroid epithelial tumours might represent a promising avenue for diagnostics and therapy of advanced thyroid cancer with somatostatin analogues.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.
  • (PMID = 20094970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin
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32. Kubisch CH, Flatz WH, Göke B: [Incidentaloma of the pancreas]. Z Gastroenterol; 2008 Mar;46(3):292-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Inzidentalome des Pankreas.
  • Incidentalomas of the adrenal and thyroid gland are still often dismissed because they are common and mostly benign.
  • Thus, we recommend an early resection of pancreatic incidentalomas with a size of > 2 cm, in younger patients without concomitant diseases or increased operative risk, with a malignant histology, and with mucinous cells and increased tumour markers in blood samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulinoma / diagnosis. Insulinoma / surgery. Pancreatectomy / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18322885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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33. Krause K, Karger S, Sheu SY, Aigner T, Kursawe R, Gimm O, Schmid KW, Dralle H, Fuhrer D: Evidence for a role of the amyloid precursor protein in thyroid carcinogenesis. J Endocrinol; 2008 Aug;198(2):291-9
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  • [Title] Evidence for a role of the amyloid precursor protein in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • We have recently found an increased expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cold thyroid nodules that are difficult to classify as a truly benign thyroid neoplasm or a lesion with the potential for further dedifferentiation.
  • Since differences in APP activity have been found in other human cancers, we asked whether thyroid carcinogenesis might be associated with an altered APP expression and function.
  • APP regulation was studied in vitro in differentiated (FRTL-5) and dedifferentiated follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC-133) thyroid cells after specific inhibition or activation of the cAMP-PKA, the PI3K/AKT or the protein kinase c (PKC) cascades.
  • In vivo analysis of APP expression and downstream signalling was performed in benign and malignant thyroid tissues.
  • We found that upregulation of APP expression and sAPP secretion is induced by TSH in differentiated thyroid cells and by insulin in thyroid cancer cells.
  • Thyroid cancers are characterized by APP upregulation, increased membrane targeting of the APP ectodomain and significantly increased mRNA levels of the APP scaffold proteins JIP1, ShcA and Fe65.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Insulin / pharmacology. Microscopy, Confocal. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Protein Transport / drug effects. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyrotropin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18480379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APBB1 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor; 0 / Insulin; 0 / MAPK8IP1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SHC1 protein, human; 0 / Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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34. Miccoli P, Minuto MN, Galleri D, D'Agostino J, Basolo F, Antonangeli L, Aghini-Lombardi F, Berti P: Incidental thyroid carcinoma in a large series of consecutive patients operated on for benign thyroid disease. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Mar;76(3):123-6
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  • [Title] Incidental thyroid carcinoma in a large series of consecutive patients operated on for benign thyroid disease.
  • BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of incidental thyroid carcinoma (ITC) in patients operated on for a benign disease is frequent.
  • METHODS: A total of 998 consecutive patients (697 women and 301 men; mean age, 49.5 years) undergoing surgery for benign thyroid pathology in a single institution were studied.
  • The mean time between first diagnosis of thyroid disease and operation was 9.0 years (range, 0-50 years).
  • In 43 patients, the tumour size was greater than 1 cm, whereas it exceeded 2 cm in 25 patients.
  • Sex, age, thyroid volume and interval between diagnosis and surgery did not significantly influence its incidence.
  • The majority of ITC was represented by microcarcinomas, but in approximately 25% of patients, the tumour size was greater than 2 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Incidental Findings. Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16626346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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35. Del Rio P, Sommaruga L, Bezer L, Arcuri MF, Cataldo S, Robuschi G, Sianesi M: Thyroidectomy for differentiated carcinoma in older patients on a short stay basis. Acta Biomed; 2009 Apr;80(1):65-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for thyroid cancer and for selected benign thyroid conditions.
  • The aging of the general population and the improvements in surgical technique induced an extension of the surgical indications to major thyroid surgery to older patients also on a short stay basis.
  • METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2006, 152 patients affected by thyroid carcinoma underwent total thyroidectomy on a short stay basis.
  • We divided our series in 2 groups of patients according to the age (> or < of 65 yrs) and considered the outcome analysing several factors including: ASA score, mean operative time, mean hospital stay, tumour size, and post-operative complications.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although a longer length of stay was noted in the older group and possibly related to a higher ASA score and a worse preoperative airways condition, total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma may be safely carried out in older patients on a short stay basis if performed by an expert staff and in the setting of a multidisciplinary and exhaustive preoperative assessment.
  • [MeSH-major] Ambulatory Surgical Procedures. Carcinoma / surgery. Length of Stay. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 19705623.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-4203
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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36. Guarino E, Tarantini B, Pilli T, Checchi S, Brilli L, Ciuoli C, Di Cairano G, Mazzucato P, Pacini F: Presurgical serum thyroglobulin has no prognostic value in papillary thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2005 Sep;15(9):1041-5
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  • [Title] Presurgical serum thyroglobulin has no prognostic value in papillary thyroid cancer.
  • We investigated whether serum thyroglobulin determination before surgery for differentiated thyroid carcinoma may have any prognostic value with regard to tumour extension and disease outcome in a retrospective series of 71 patients with papillary thyroid cancer.
  • Presurgical serum thyroglobulin levels were correlated with the size of the primary tumoral nodule (p = 0.006) and of the whole thyroid (p = 0.02).
  • The same correlation was found in a control group of patients with benign thyroid nodules, confirming that presurgical serum thyroglobulin cannot be used for the differential diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Presurgical serum thyroglobulin levels did not differ among patients with tumor limited to thyroid gland or extending to cervical lymph nodes or invading outside the thyroid capsule or metastasising to distant size.
  • In addition presurgical serum thyroglobulin levels were not correlated with the disease outcome after a mean follow-up of 9 years: no difference was found among patients in complete remission or with persistent disease or dead from thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16187912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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37. Carlini M, Giovannini C, Castaldi F, Mercadante E, Dell'Avanzato R, Zazza S, Nania A, Santeusanio G, Passeri M, Di Perna P: High risk for microcarcinoma in thyroid benign diseases. Incidence in a one year period of total thyroidectomies. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jun;24(2):231-6
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  • [Title] High risk for microcarcinoma in thyroid benign diseases. Incidence in a one year period of total thyroidectomies.
  • Over the last few years, incidental thyroid microcarcinoma (TMC) has become a frequent disease and its incidence in some reports is considerable.
  • The discovery of new cases depends on the progress of the diagnostics (US scan, fine needle biopsy and cytology, CT, MRI), on the extended indications to thyroidectomy for benign disease and on the attention in pathologic examination of the specimen.
  • The clinical evolution of this disease is not well known: in spite of a high incidence reported in some autoptic series, suggesting that this tumour could have a good prognosis, some authors report an overall incidence of up to 11% of local recurrence, metastasis and mortality.
  • Aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and the clinico-pathological findings of TMC over a one year period of total thyroidectomies for diffuse benign thyroid diseases, and to evaluate, on the basis of the frequency of incidental microcarcinoma, if the surgical procedure of complete removal of the gland should be adopted in any case.
  • In this series no patient had pre-operative diagnosis or tentative diagnosis of carcinoma and the incidence of TMC at the final histologic examination was 27.4%.
  • Total thyroidectomy confirmed to be the treatment of choice for diffuse benign diseases and appeared necessary to obtain both, diagnosis and treatment of incidental TMC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / etiology. Thyroid Diseases / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Recurrence. Risk. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonics

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  • [ErratumIn] J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Mar;26(1):2. Dell'Avanzato [corrected to Dell'Avanzato, R]
  • (PMID = 16110756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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38. Liu YY, van der Pluijm G, Karperien M, Stokkel MP, Pereira AM, Morreau J, Kievit J, Romijn JA, Smit JW: Lithium as adjuvant to radioiodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: clinical and in vitro studies. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Jun;64(6):617-24
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  • [Title] Lithium as adjuvant to radioiodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: clinical and in vitro studies.
  • OBJECTIVE: Lithium has been reported to increase radioactive iodine (RaI) doses in benign thyroid disease and in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • DESIGN: In a clinical study, 12 patients were selected with metastases of DTC who had received previous RaI therapy without lithium (control) that had not influenced tumour progression, despite RaI accumulation in metastases.
  • In an in vitro study, iodide uptake was studied in the benign rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5, in the polarized non-thyroid MDCK cell line, stably transfected with human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) to study the effects of lithium on NIS in a non-thyroid background, and the human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line FTC133-hNIS to study lithium effects in a background of DTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lithium Carbonate / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic / therapeutic use. Aged. Animals. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radiotherapy. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rats. Symporters / genetics. Symporters / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Transfection / methods. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16712662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic; 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; 2BMD2GNA4V / Lithium Carbonate
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39. Larumbe A, Iglesias ME, Illarramendi JJ, Córdoba A, Gállego M: [Acral keratoses and inverted follicular keratosis presenting Cowden disease]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2007 Jul-Aug;98(6):425-9
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  • [Transliterated title] Queratosis acras y queratosis folicular invertida como manifestación de la enfermedad de Cowden.
  • Cowden disease is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the presence of multiple hamartomas in the skin, thyroid, breast, nervous system and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Breast and thyroid neoplasms (benign and malignant) develop in up to two thirds of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / diagnosis. Keratosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Humans. Lymphangioma / etiology. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17663933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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40. Bocciolini C, Dall'olio D, Cavazza S, Laudadio P: Schwannoma of cervical sympathetic chain: assessment and management. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2005 Jun;25(3):191-4
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  • Schwannoma arising from the cervical sympathetic chain is an uncommon benign nerve tumour.
  • This tumour most often presents as an asymptomatic solitary neck mass, with slow-growing and rare malignant degeneration.
  • Definitive pre-operative diagnosis may be difficult and investigations are not usually helpful.
  • Diagnosis relies on clinical suspicion and confirmation is often obtained by means of surgical pathology.
  • Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for this tumour, with recurrence being rare.
  • Diagnostic studies included computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound which confirmed a circumscribed mass in the upper left portion of the neck next to the thyroid gland.
  • The pathologic and radiological evaluations, treatment and postoperative complications of this neoplasm are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglia, Sympathetic / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / surgery

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  • [Cites] Am Surg. 2000 Jan;66(1):52-5 [10651348.001]
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  • (PMID = 16450776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-100X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2639869
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41. Hemerly JP, Bastos AU, Cerutti JM: Identification of several novel non-p.R132 IDH1 variants in thyroid carcinomas. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Nov;163(5):747-55
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  • [Title] Identification of several novel non-p.R132 IDH1 variants in thyroid carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether IDH1 had somatically acquired mutations in thyroid carcinomas.
  • DESIGN: Exons 4 and 6 of IDH1 were sequenced in a large panel of thyroid tumours (n=138) and compared with the patients normal DNA (n=26).
  • RESULTS: We identified four novel and two previously described non-synonymous variants in thyroid carcinomas, which were absent in benign tumours and paired normal thyroid.
  • Although IDH1 variants occurred at higher frequency in follicular thyroid carcinomas, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas than the observed variants in classical PTC (15/72 vs 3/37), it was not significant (P=0.1).
  • CONCLUSION: IDH1-acquired genetic alterations are highly prevalent in thyroid carcinomas (16%).
  • Our findings not only extend our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying pathogenesis of thyroid tumours, but also emphasize the biological differences between tumour types.

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  • (PMID = 20702649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
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42. Lappinga PJ, Kip NS, Jin L, Lloyd RV, Henry MR, Zhang J, Nassar A: HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Oct 25;118(5):287-97
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  • [Title] HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of thyroid nodules with an indeterminate diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) (eg, "suspicious for follicular neoplasm") prove to be benign at the time of surgical resection.
  • Ancillary tests in current use are limited in their ability to improve the preoperative detection of malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • Studies using paraffin-embedded tissue have indicated that high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression is present in a high percentage of malignant thyroid neoplasms but not in benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • In the current study, the ability of HMGA2 overexpression analysis to preoperatively distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on suspicious cytologic smears was evaluated.
  • METHODS: Patients who underwent thyroid FNA and subsequent thyroid resection from 2001 through 2007 were identified.
  • A subset of these patients who had a cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious" underwent HMGA2 expression analysis.
  • With an HMGA2 overexpression change of 5.9-fold or greater compared with a thyroid tumor cell line as a positive cutoff, the test was found to have the following overall performance for detecting malignant nodules: sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 97%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 84%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HMGA2 mRNA expression analysis can be performed on cytologic smears and demonstrates a high specificity and positive predictive value and relatively high sensitivity and negative predictive value for detecting malignancy in "suspicious" thyroid aspirate specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. HMGA2 Protein / genetics. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20597139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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43. Mambo E, Chatterjee A, Xing M, Tallini G, Haugen BR, Yeung SC, Sukumar S, Sidransky D: Tumor-specific changes in mtDNA content in human cancer. Int J Cancer; 2005 Oct 10;116(6):920-4
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  • [Title] Tumor-specific changes in mtDNA content in human cancer.
  • We examined mtDNA content in 25 pairs of normal and tumor breast tissue samples, 37 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 21 benign thyroid neoplasms and in 20 paired normal and PTC samples.
  • Our results showed that mtDNA content was reduced in 80% of the breast tumors relative to their corresponding normal. mtDNA was increased in papillary thyroid carcinomas, however, when compared to the corresponding normal DNA taken from the same individual.
  • Our findings indicate that changes in mtDNA content during carcinogenesis may be regulated in a tumor specific manner.
  • Additionally, changes in mtDNA levels did not correlate with tumor grade and metastasis, suggesting that these alterations may occur in the early stages of tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Reference Values. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15856456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U01CA084986-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA077664-07
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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44. Evenson A, Mowschenson P, Wang H, Connolly J, Mendrinos S, Parangi S, Hasselgren PO: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg; 2007 Jun;193(6):707-12
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma (HTA) is an uncommon benign thyroid tumor that can present as a solitary thyroid nodule, a prominent nodule in a multinodular goiter, or as an incidental finding in a thyroidectomy specimen.
  • METHODS: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 7 patients presenting with a solitary thyroid nodule (n = 4) or a multinodular goiter (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although HTA is a rare condition of the thyroid, the surgeon needs to be aware of this entity to be able to better discuss the pathological findings with the patient, particularly since some pathologists and endocrinologists believe that HTA may represent a malignant neoplasm of low metastatic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17512281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Bozza F, Vigili MG, Ruscito P, Marzetti A, Marzetti F: Surgical management of parapharyngeal space tumours: results of 10-year follow-up. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2009 Feb;29(1):10-5
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  • Although primary tumours of the parapharyngeal space are rare and account for only 0.5% of head and neck neoplasms, they represent a formidable challenge to the surgeon both in the assessment of the preoperative condition and the appropriate surgical approach.
  • Of these, 8 (66.6%) were benign and 4 (33.4%) malignant.
  • The positive predictive value of our fine-needle aspiration biopsy was 75% for benign tumours (3/4) and 100% (4/4) for malignant tumours.
  • Different surgical approaches were used: transcervical-transmandibular in 5 cases (41.6%); transparotid-transcervical in 4 patients (33.4%); transoral in 2 patients (16.6%) with a small pleomorphic adenoma of the deep lobe of parotid, and in the last case (8.4%), transcervical surgery was performed for papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis.
  • One patient with a recurrent parotid gland adenocarcinoma died of distant metastasis 4 years after parapharyngeal space surgery.
  • These 12 parapharyngeal space tumours were treated with use of one of the various surgical approaches described in relation to the histopathological diagnosis (benign or malignant), to the side (prestyloid or poststyloid) and to the size (+/-4 cm) of the neoplasia and, moreover, were observed at long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Cites] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999 Nov;121(5):539-42 [10547466.001]
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  • (PMID = 19609376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1827-675X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2689563
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Mandibulotomy / Parapharyngeal space / Parapharyngeal tumour / Parotid / Pleomorphic adenoma / Surgical approach
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46. Broulík P: [Differential diagnosing of hypercalcemias]. Vnitr Lek; 2007 Jul-Aug;53(7-8):826-30
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  • Primary hyperparathyreosis and tumour diseases are the two most frequent causes of hypercalcaemia.
  • Evaluation of clinical condition and obtaining the immunoreactive parathormone level data are of extreme importance for correct diagnosis.
  • Additional, less frequent causes of hypercalcaemia should also be taken into consideration, such as diseases caused by the granulomatose tissue, familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia, drug provoked hypercalcaemia, high thyroid hormone doses and patient dehydration.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17915427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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47. Listewnik MH, Birkenfeld B, Piwowarska-Bilska H, Cichoń-Bańkowska K, Iglińska-Wagner L, Watrak W, Smolira W, Zorga P, Niedziałkowska K, Elbl B, Sawrymowicz M: The application of SPECT/CT scintigraphy with MIBI-Tc⁹⁹(m) in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules - a preliminary report. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):422-6
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  • [Title] The application of SPECT/CT scintigraphy with MIBI-Tc⁹⁹(m) in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules - a preliminary report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Thyroid cancer diagnosis is based mainly on fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) performed under ultrasonography guidance.
  • Thyroid scintigraphy with an oncophilic tracer such as MIBI-Tc⁹⁹(m) may be helpful.
  • 63.5) years, who, in 2009, underwent planar and SPECT/CT thyroid scintigraphy with MIBI-Tc⁹⁹(m) using washout method.
  • The tumour/background ratio in early and delayed images was calculated and the wash-out ratio was estimated.
  • Three patients with an abnormal results underwent surgery and had benign histopathology results after the operation, in 3 patients the observation is being confirmed without any increase in malignancy suspicions, and 2 were lost for observation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary results do support the use of MIBI-Tc⁹⁹m in the evaluation of indeterminate thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Nodule / diagnostic imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21049451.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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48. Cunniffe G, Fernández J, Alonso T, Balaguer O, Dinares C, Huguet P, Medel R: Thyroid orbitopathy obscuring the diagnosis of a rare neuromuscular hamartoma of the superior rectus muscle in an adult. Orbit; 2010 Jun;29(3):168-70
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  • [Title] Thyroid orbitopathy obscuring the diagnosis of a rare neuromuscular hamartoma of the superior rectus muscle in an adult.
  • A neuromuscular hamartoma is a rare benign tumour that is most frequently associated with peripheral nerves.
  • An initial diagnosis of thyroid orbitopathy was made and he had a limited response to two courses of oral steroid administered in another centre.
  • Given this unusual pattern of muscle involvement in thyroid orbitopathy, a muscle biopsy was performed.
  • We wish to highlight the importance of a muscle biopsy when faced with a clinical picture and radiological pattern of extraocular muscle enlargement not typical of what we know to occur traditionally in thyroid eye disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Graves Ophthalmopathy / diagnosis. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Neuromuscular Diseases / diagnosis. Oculomotor Muscles / pathology. Orbital Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / complications. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Physiologic / methods. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Thyroidectomy / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20497087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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49. Carlini M, Giovannini C, Mercadante E, Castaldi F, Dell'Avanzato R, Zazza S: [Incidental thyroid microcarcinoma in benign thyroid disease. Incidence in a total of 100 consecutive thyroidectomies]. Chir Ital; 2006 Jul-Aug;58(4):441-7
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  • [Title] [Incidental thyroid microcarcinoma in benign thyroid disease. Incidence in a total of 100 consecutive thyroidectomies].
  • [Transliterated title] I microcarcinoma incidentale della tiroide nelle tireopade benigne. Incidenza su 100 tiroidectomie totali consecutive.
  • Over the past few years, incidental thyroid microcarcinoma has become a frequent disease and its incidence in some reports is considerable.
  • Discovering new cases depends on the extended indications for total thyroidectomy for benign disease, on progress in the field of diagnostic instruments (ultrasound, scintigram, fine needle biopsy for cytology, CT scan, MRI), and on the pathology examination of very thin slices of specimens.
  • In spite of the high incidence reported in some autopsy series, suggesting that this tumour may have a good prognosis, some Authors report an overall incidence of up to 11% of local recurrence, metastasis or mortality.
  • For all these reasons the surgical treatment of incidental thyroid microcarcinoma is still controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and examine the clinical-pathological findings of incidental thyroid microcarcinoma in a series of 100 consecutive thyroidectomies and to evaluate whether complete removal of the gland should be adopted in all cases.
  • In the present series the incidence of incidental thyroid microcarcinoma was 21.6% (19/88).
  • Total thyroidectomy was considered the treatment of choice for diffuse benign disease and appeared to be necessary for both the diagnosis and treatment of incidental thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Thyroid Diseases / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16999148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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50. Klein M, Catargi B: VEGF in physiological process and thyroid disease. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2007 Dec;68(6):438-48
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  • [Title] VEGF in physiological process and thyroid disease.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important regulator of both benign and malignant disease processes in the thyroid gland.
  • VEGF-A is implicated in tumour growth and metastasis via blood vessels while VEGF-C and VEGF-D, involved in lymphangiogenesis, favour metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes in papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • High levels of VEGF expression in thyroid tumour cells may correlate with a poorer outcome in papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / physiology. Thyroid Diseases / physiopathology. Thyroid Gland / physiology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17991452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / VEGFB protein, human; 0 / VEGFC protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor B; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 128
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51. Wiseman SM, Melck A, Masoudi H, Ghaidi F, Goldstein L, Gown A, Jones SJ, Griffith OL: Molecular phenotyping of thyroid tumors identifies a marker panel for differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Oct;15(10):2811-26
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  • [Title] Molecular phenotyping of thyroid tumors identifies a marker panel for differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosis.
  • The objective of this work was to evaluate the molecular phenotype of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and benign thyroid lesions to identify molecular markers that allow for accurate thyroid cancer diagnosis.
  • METHODS: Tissue microarrays consisting of 100 benign and 105 malignant thyroid lesions, plus 24 lymph node samples, were stained for a panel of 57 molecular markers.
  • Significant associations between marker staining and tumor pathology (DTC versus benign) were determined using contingency table and Mann-Whitney U (MU) tests.
  • RESULTS: Of the 57 diagnostic markers evaluated 35 (61%) were significantly associated with a DTC diagnosis after multiple testing correction.
  • Of these, in DTC compared with benign thyroid tumors, 8 markers were downregulated and 27 upregulated.
  • The most significant markers for DTC diagnosis were: Galectin-3, Cytokeratin 19, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Androgen Receptor, p16, Aurora-A, and HBME-1.
  • Using the entire molecular marker panel, a Random Forests algorithm was able to classify tumors as DTC or benign with an estimated sensitivity of 87.9%, specificity of 94.0%, and an accuracy of 91.0%.
  • CONCLUSION: Evaluation of the DTC and benign thyroid tumor molecular phenotype has allowed for identification of a marker panel, composed of both established and novel markers, useful for thyroid cancer diagnosis.
  • These results suggest that further study of the molecular profile of thyroid tumors is warranted, and a diagnostic molecular marker panel may potentially improve patient selection for thyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Prognosis. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18612701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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52. Rahbari R, Sansano IG, Elaraj DM, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Prior head and neck radiation exposure is not a contraindication to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. J Am Coll Surg; 2010 Jun;210(6):942-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Most patients with primary hyperparathyroidism can have a minimally invasive parathyroidectomy based on localization studies showing single-gland disease.
  • In patients with a history of head and neck irradiation, due to the increased risk of multigland disease and risk of concurrent thyroid cancer, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is considered by some to be a contraindication.
  • There was no significant difference in concurrent benign thyroid neoplasm, thyroid cancer, and type of parathyroid disease (single vs multigland) in the 2 groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Head and neck irradiation should not be a contraindication for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in the setting of preoperative localization studies showing single-gland disease and no concurrent thyroid neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20510803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Zekri JM, Manifold IH, Wadsley JC: Metastatic struma ovarii: late presentation, unusual features and multiple radioactive iodine treatments. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2006 Dec;18(10):768-72
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  • Metastatic malignant struma ovarii is rare and there is a lack of agreement on the criteria of diagnosis and the lines of management.
  • Here we describe a patient with struma ovarii that was initially diagnosed as benign and presented 10 years later with distant metastases.
  • The case was associated with a number of unusual features and challenging management issues, such as a delayed diagnosis of recurrence, functioning metastases with treatment consequences, tumour lysis-induced thyrotoxicosis and cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea.
  • The diagnosis and management of struma ovarii should be led by an expert multidisciplinary team.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis. Struma Ovarii / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Ovarian Follicle / pathology. Thyroglobulin / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17168212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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54. Suárez C, Rodrigo JP, Ferlito A, Cabanillas R, Shaha AR, Rinaldo A: Tumours of familial origin in the head and neck. Oral Oncol; 2006 Nov;42(10):965-78
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  • Individuals with inherited cancer syndromes are at significant risk of developing both benign and malignant tumours as a result of a germline mutation in a specific tumour suppressor gene.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasias type 1 are characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of at least two of the three main related endocrine tumours: parathyroid, enteropancreatic and anterior pituitary.
  • No clear correlation of MEN-1 genotype with genotype has emerged to date, and MEN-1 mutation testing in tumours is not used clinically because it have not implications for tumour staging.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is due to a germline mutation in the RET proto-oncogene.
  • Hallmarks of MEN-2A (the commonest phenotypic variant) include medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / genetics. Neurofibromatoses / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16857415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 121
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55. Di Tommaso L, Arizzi C, Roncalli M: [Well differentiated thyroid carcinoma: new perspectives and old dilemmas]. Ann Ital Chir; 2006 May-Jun;77(3):199-208
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  • [Title] [Well differentiated thyroid carcinoma: new perspectives and old dilemmas].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinomi ben differenziati della tiroide: concetti emergenti e problematiche irrisolte.
  • The diagnosis of well differentiated carcinoma (i.e papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma) represents one of the most challenging issue in thyroid pathology.
  • 1) the role of fine needle aspiration versus frozen section examination in pre- or peri- operative diagnosis;.
  • 2) the management of small papillary tumour;.
  • There is general agreement that fine needle aspiration represent the best pre-operative diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules; foremost limits are represented by "not diagnostic" and 'follicular lesion, NOS".
  • The management of papillary micro-carcinoma (i.e. papillary carcinoma smaller than 1 cm.) in the setting of an otherwise benign thyroid disease is a matter of debate, since several clinicians suggest to consider these as incidental findings thus avoiding additional treatment.
  • Recently this attitude has been supported by the proposal to regard these lesion as "tumour" and not carcinoma: available data on follow up seems to sustain and favour this approach.
  • There exist a group of well differentiated tumours of the thyroid lacking the criteria to be diagnosed either as papillary (i.e. nuclear grooves, nuclear pseudo-inclusion and nuclear clearing) or follicular (i.e. capsular or vascular invasion) carcinoma; for these lesion, whose behaviour (nodal or blood metastasis) can not be predicted, it has been suggested the term of well differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential.
  • Finally it has to be mentioned the possible role of molecular biology in the diagnosis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma; indeed markers such as RET/PTC or PAX8/PPARgamma, which to date have been employed mainly in basic research, might represent useful diagnostic (and therapeutic) tools in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17137034.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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56. Kameyama K, Ito K, Takami H: [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1973-8
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  • [Title] [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor].
  • True benign neoplasm of the thyroid gland is only follicular adenoma, which is a tumor derived from follicular cells.
  • The architectural pattern of follicular adenoma varies from trabecular to macrofollicular, and in most instances more than one architectural pattern is observed in one tumor.
  • Adenomatous goiter, a hyperplastic lesion of follicles, is the most common tumorous lesion of thyroid gland.
  • The gland is distorted with a nodular surface.
  • Mature or immature teratoma is also observed in the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18018557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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57. de Souza Meyer EL, Dora JM, Wagner MS, Maia AL: Decreased type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression might be an early and discrete event in thyroid cell dedifferentation towards papillary carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Jun;62(6):672-8
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  • [Title] Decreased type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression might be an early and discrete event in thyroid cell dedifferentation towards papillary carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Type I iodothyronine deiodinase (D1) catalyses the 5' monodeiodination of T4 and is highly expressed in normal human thyroid gland.
  • We have investigated D1 expression in a series of benign and malignant differentiated thyroid neoplasias.
  • DESIGN: Surgically isolated thyroid tumour fragments were used.
  • RESULTS: In papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), D1 mRNA and activity levels were decreased compared with the surrounding tissue (0.25 +/- 0.24 vs. 1.09 +/- 0.54 arbitrary units (AU), P < 0.001 and 0.08 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.24 +/- 0.15 pmol T4/min/mg protein, P = 0.045, respectively).
  • By contrast, significantly higher D1 mRNA levels and enzyme activity were present in follicular adenoma (1.9 +/- 1.5 vs. 0.83 +/- 0.58 AU, P = 0.028 and 2.67 +/- 1.42 vs. 0.22 +/- 0.06 pmol T4/min/mg protein, P = 0.044, respectively) and in follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) than in surrounding normal tissue (1.2 +/- 0.46 vs. 0.67 +/- 0.18 AU, P = 0.038 and 1.20 +/- 0.58 vs. 0.20 +/- 0.10 pmol T4/min/mg protein, P < 0.001, respectively).
  • Type II iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) activity was also significantly higher in metastatic FTC samples than in normal thyroid tissues (5.20 +/- 0.81 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.27 fmol T4/min/mg protein, P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that thyroid cell dedifferentiation promotes changes in D1 gene expression by pretranscriptional mechanisms and indicate that decreased D1 expression might be an early and discrete event in thyroid cell dedifferentiation towards papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Iodide Peroxidase / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15943828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type I; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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58. Ditsch N, Liebhardt S, Von Koch F, Lenhard M, Vogeser M, Spitzweg C, Gallwas J, Toth B: Thyroid function in breast cancer patients. Anticancer Res; 2010 May;30(5):1713-7
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  • [Title] Thyroid function in breast cancer patients.
  • In addition, oestrogen-like effects of thyroid hormones on breast cancer cell growth are seen in vitro.
  • Therefore, this study evaluated thyroid function in breast cancer patients, women with benign breast tumour and healthy controls.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Breast cancer patients (n=65), women with carcinoma in situ (n=13) or benign breast tumour (n=27), and healthy controls (n=38) were included in the study.
  • Thyroid history was reported.
  • Thyroid hormones (fT4, fT3, TSH) and thyroid antibodies (TPO, TRAK and TG) were determined.
  • RESULTS: fT3 and fT4 levels were highest in breast cancer patients, and differed significantly from controls (fT3 and fT4: p<0.001) as well as from patients with benign breast tumour (fT3: p=0.021; fT4: p=0.017).
  • With regard to TRAK antibodies, breast cancer patients showed the highest levels differing significantly from women with benign breast tumours (p=0.048).
  • CONCLUSION: Significant differences in fT3/fT4 as well as TRAK levels were observed among breast cancer patients, women with benign breast tumours and healthy controls.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Thyroid Gland / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Case-Control Studies. Estrogens / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Prospective Studies. Risk. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroid Hormones / metabolism


59. Tischler V, Fritzsche FR, Wild PJ, Stephan C, Seifert HH, Riener MO, Hermanns T, Mortezavi A, Gerhardt J, Schraml P, Jung K, Moch H, Soltermann A, Kristiansen G: Periostin is up-regulated in high grade and high stage prostate cancer. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:273
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  • Metastatic prostate cancers (n = 20), hormone refractory prostate cancers (n = 19) and benign prostatic tissues (n = 38) were also analyzed.
  • RESULTS: In total, strong epithelial periostin expression was detectable in 142 of 418 (34.0%) of prostate carcinomas and in 11 of 38 benign prostate glands (28.9%).
  • Increased periostin expression in carcinoma cells was significantly associated with high Gleason score (p < 0.01) and advanced tumour stage (p < 0.05) in the test cohort.
  • Whereas periostin expression was weak or absent in the stroma around normal prostate glands, strong periostin expression in tumour stroma was found in most primary and metastatic prostate cancers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that periostin up-regulation is related to increased tumour aggressiveness in prostate cancer and might be a promising target for therapeutical interventions in primary and metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Cohort Studies. Epithelial Cells / chemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Stromal Cells / chemistry. Time Factors. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 20534149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / POSTN protein, human; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2903527
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60. Lee SM, Kwak KH: Risk factors and a predictive model for thyroid cancer in Korean women. Cancer Nurs; 2010 Jul-Aug;33(4):310-9
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  • [Title] Risk factors and a predictive model for thyroid cancer in Korean women.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence in Korean women has increased radically and is the highest in all cancer types.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer and to develop a predictive model based on these risk factors.
  • To construct a predictive model, the participants selected were 260 female outpatients diagnosed with malignant neoplasm of thyroid gland who had undergone thyroid removal surgery.
  • Nine variables, including occupation, live(d) in coastal region, family history of thyroid cancer, history of benign thyroid tumor, menopause status and weight gain, number of full-term deliveries, abortion, exercise intensity, and stress, remained as statistically significant risk factors in the stepwise regression model.
  • CONCLUSION: The predictive power of the model was relatively good, so it can be used to identify individuals at high risk for thyroid cancer.
  • Thus, it will be possible to detect thyroid cancer in its earliest stage, diminish mortality, and improve quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Logistic Models. Risk Assessment / organization & administration. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 20495449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-9804
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Appetecchia M, Solivetti FM: The association of colour flow Doppler sonography and conventional ultrasonography improves the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. Horm Res; 2006;66(5):249-56
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  • [Title] The association of colour flow Doppler sonography and conventional ultrasonography improves the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we compared the results of conventional ultrasonography (US) and colour flow Doppler sonography (CFDS) with those of US guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and of pathologic staging of resected thyroid nodules, to assess the relative importance of US and CFDS in discriminating malignant thyroid nodules.
  • SUBJECTS AND STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed records of 230 patients submitted to US-guided FNAB before surgery for solitary, not hot thyroid nodules.
  • At histology a thyroid carcinoma was found in 36 patients (17.7%) and a benign nodule was observed in 167 patients (82.3%).
  • We did not find any difference in cancer prevalence between nodules with a primary tumour size < or =1 cm and those >1 cm (17.6 vs. 17.7%; p = 0.99).
  • Microcalcifications were seen in 83.3% (30/36) of malignant nodules and in 33.5% (56/167) of benign nodules.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of conventional US and CFDS provides benefits in increasing the screening sensitivity and accuracy in distinguishing malignant thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 17016052.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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62. Listewnik MH, Birkenfeld B, Chosia M, Elbl B, Niedziałkowska K, Sawrymowicz M: The occurrence of malignant thyroid lesions in patients after radioiodine treatment due to benign thyroid diseases. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):454-7
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  • [Title] The occurrence of malignant thyroid lesions in patients after radioiodine treatment due to benign thyroid diseases.
  • INTRODUCTION: Radioiodine treatment (RT) of benign thyroid diseases is a well-known, safe, and effective treatment.
  • In a group of patients after RT, who remained in long-term follow-up, sporadic cases of malignant thyroid lesions occurred.
  • Apart from thyroid function estimation, if needed, fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid or neck focal lesions was performed based on ultrasonographic or clinical examination.
  • Suspicious thyroid lesion results were found in 9 patients (8 F, 1 M), aged 46-73 (average 56 years) followed up for 3-57 months after RT: papillary cancer in two patients, Hürthle cell tumour in one patient, and suspicious cells in two patients (with benign lesions on postoperative histopathology).
  • A follicular tumour in FNAB was suspected in two cases (no data about the first, and the second with lung cancer was not operable).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant thyroid lesions in patients after RT due to benign thyroid diseases are seldom detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology. Thyroid Diseases / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnostic imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / etiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma. Causality. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 21049457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; Thyroid cancer, Hurthle cell; Thyroid cancer, papillary
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63. Kajor M, Ziaja J, Lange D, Król R, Ciupińska-Kajor M, Turska-d'Amico M, Maka B, Cierpka L: [Analysis of morphology of adrenal pheochromocytoma as regards their potential malignancy]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):911-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal pheochromocytoma are diagnosed the most often in patients with arterial hypertension or with thyroid medullar cancer and suspicion of MEN II syndromes.
  • The aim of the study is to analyse the morphology of pheochromocytomas on the basis of Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) in order to estimate their potential malignancy.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was establish before surgery in 87.5%.
  • 12.5% of patients were referred to surgery on the basis of tumour diameter (range 70 to 102 mm).
  • RESULTS: In pathological examination benign pheochromo-cytoma was diagnosed in 39 presented patients.
  • Among 35 patients operated on more than 12 months ago 2 patients died: 1 patient with malignant pheochromocytoma (PASS=8 points) and 1 patient with MEN IIA syndrome (due to disseminated thyroid medullar cancer).
  • CONCLUSION: Analysis of pheochromocytoma in PASS is only of rough character and does not allow for clear-cut histological diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16821210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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64. Lundgren CI, Stalberg P, Grodski S, Sidhu S, Sywak M, Delbridge L: Minimally invasive thyroid surgery for diagnostic excision of solitary thyroid nodules. Asian J Surg; 2007 Oct;30(4):250-4
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  • [Title] Minimally invasive thyroid surgery for diagnostic excision of solitary thyroid nodules.
  • OBJECTIVE: Various techniques for minimally invasive thyroid surgery (MITS), including endoscopic and video-assisted procedures, have now been described.
  • Based on our units experience with minimally invasive parathyroidectomy via a lateral incision, a similar technique for minimally invasive thyroid lobectomy has been developed and assessed.
  • METHODS: The last 203 consecutive thyroid procedures using the MITS technique, performed between July 2002 and June 2006, comprised the study group.
  • The procedures included 155 thyroid lobectomies and 48 nodule excisions; 31 of the patients underwent a minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) during which an ipsilateral thyroid nodule was removed.
  • The mean tumour size was 17.3 mm, but the mean size of the thyroid lobe removed was 39.5 mm.
  • Final diagnoses included benign multinodular goitre (26%), follicular adenoma (22%) and carcinoma (20%).
  • CONCLUSION: MITS is a safe and feasible alternative to open thyroid surgery in appropriately selected cases.
  • It offers a valuable option for diagnostic excision biopsy in patients with thyroid nodules demonstrating an atypical fine-needle biopsy whilst avoiding the need for a standard cervical "collar" incision.

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  • (PMID = 17962127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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65. Delbridge L: Solitary thyroid nodule: current management. ANZ J Surg; 2006 May;76(5):381-6
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  • [Title] Solitary thyroid nodule: current management.
  • Clinically, solitary thyroid nodules are common, being present in up to 50% of the elderly population.
  • The majority are benign with thyroid cancer representing an uncommon clinical problem.
  • Investigation should include careful history and examination and thyroid function tests.
  • Thyroid 'incidentalomas' are a common management problem.
  • Because it is not possible to distinguish a follicular carcinoma from a follicular adenoma on cytological grounds alone, this category must simply be interpreted as indicating a follicular tumour and up to 20% will be malignant.
  • The major challenge in the management of the solitary thyroid nodule remains the assessment as to which nodules require surgical excision and which can be followed conservatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16768700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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66. Santeusanio G, Schiaroli S, Ortenzi A, Mulè A, Perrone G, Fadda G: Solitary fibrous tumour of thyroid: report of two cases with immunohistochemical features and literature review. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Sep;2(3):231-5
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  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumour of thyroid: report of two cases with immunohistochemical features and literature review.
  • Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare tumour principally found in adults in the pleural cavity.
  • Two cases of SFT of the thyroid gland are described in this paper showing their distinctive microscopical architecture, namely "patternless growth pattern".
  • Tumour cells revealed a diffuse strong positivity for CD34, CD99, bcl-2 and Vimentin, but negativity for Desmin, EMA, AE1/AE3, SMA, S-100 and CD31 antibodies.
  • The differential diagnosis of thyroid SFT includes different types of spindle cell proliferation, benign and malignant mesenchymal tumours, medullary thyroid carcinoma, fasciitis-like papillary carcinoma, and undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma.
  • However, the morphologic and immunohistochemical findings of SFT are so characteristic that this diagnosis seldom represent a difficulty.
  • [MeSH-major] Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mesenchymoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20614321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807559
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Immunohistochemistry / Review / Solitary fibrous tumour / Thyroid
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67. Mills SC, Haq M, Smellie WJ, Harmer C: Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid: Retrospective review of 62 patients treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1946 and 2003. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Mar;35(3):230-4
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  • [Title] Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid: Retrospective review of 62 patients treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1946 and 2003.
  • INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have included Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) as a variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma in analysis of clinical outcome and others have failed to adequately distinguish between benign and malignant Hürthle cell neoplasms.
  • The aim of this study was to report our experience of histologically confirmed malignant HCC, identifying patient, tumour and treatment factors that predict outcome.
  • Lymph node status (p=0.008), presence of metastases at diagnosis (p=0.005) and tumour stage (p=0.009) were independent predictors of DFS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HCC appears to be a separate entity from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), with a more aggressive disease profile.
  • Lymph node status, tumour stage, and the presence of metastases are independent predictors of DFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18722077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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68. Nio Y, Iguchi C, Itakura M, Toga T, Hashimoto K, Koike M, Omori H, Sato Y, Endo S: High incidence of synchronous or metachronous breast cancer in patients with malignant and benign thyroid tumor or tumor-like disorders. Anticancer Res; 2009 May;29(5):1607-10
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  • [Title] High incidence of synchronous or metachronous breast cancer in patients with malignant and benign thyroid tumor or tumor-like disorders.
  • BACKGROUND: Although many reports indicated an association between thyroid diseases and breast cancer, such an association still remains controversial.
  • The present study was aimed to clarify the association of thyroid diseases with the breast cancer incidence.
  • In the patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumor or tumor-like disorders, the incidence of other malignancies was surveyed, and the frequency of thyroid cancer in patients with breast cancer was also surveyed.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1982 and 2005, a total of 201 female patients received surgery for tumor or tumor-like disorders, including 65 carcinoma, 68 adenoma, 61 adenomatous goiter and 7 chronic thyroiditis cases.
  • RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of breast cancer was 16.4% (33/201) in the patients, who received thyroid surgeries and was much higher than other malignancies: 2.0% gastric cancer, 1.0% uterine and colorectal cancer.
  • The incidence rate of breast cancer in each disease was 13.8% for thyroid cancer, 16.2% for adenoma and 21.3% for adenomatous goiter, but no incidence for chronic thyroiditis.
  • On the other hand, in the patients with breast cancer during the same period in our department, the frequency of thyroid cancer was only 2.1% (7/340).
  • CONCLUSION: It appears that thyroid cancer, adenoma and adenomatous goiter were associated with the risk of breast cancer, but chronic thyroiditis was not related.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications


69. Martínez-Brocca MA, Castilla C, Navarro E, Amaya MJ, Travado P, Japón MA, Sáez C: Clinicopathological correlations of Bcl-xL and Bax expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Feb;68(2):190-7
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological correlations of Bcl-xL and Bax expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Our aim was to investigate whether anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL and pro-apoptotic Bax were over-expressed in a large series of differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) and to study their association with tumour presentation at diagnosis and prognosis.
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: We examined the immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-xL and Bax in benign nodular thyroid disease (BNTD) and DTC and their association with clinicopathological parameters.
  • Thyroid tissue samples were collected from an unselected series of patients undergoing surgical resection for DTC (n = 74) or BNTD (n = 15).
  • Non-neoplastic thyroid tissue was largely unstained for both proteins.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-xL might be a valuable tool in the prediction of tumour aggressiveness in DTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17803695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein
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70. Zhang YX: Artificial neural networks based on principal component analysis input selection for clinical pattern recognition analysis. Talanta; 2007 Aug 15;73(1):68-75
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  • One data set contains 168 clinical urinary samples, of which 84 specimens are from female thyroid cancer patients (malignant tumour group), and the other samples were collected from healthy women (normal group).
  • In all the specimens, each number of the samples for both uterine cervical cancer patients (malignant tumour group) and healthy females (normal group) is 60, and the other 48 samples were collected from uterine myoma patients (benign tumour group).

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  • (PMID = 19071851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3573
  • [Journal-full-title] Talanta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Talanta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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71. Yasuda M, Hanagiri T, Ichiki Y, Uramoto H, Takenoyama M, Yasumoto K: Surgical treatment of patients with stenosis of the central airway due to tracheal tumours. Asian J Surg; 2010 Oct;33(4):212-7
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  • The most common histological finding was thyroid carcinoma (n = 3), followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 2), a metastatic thyroid tumour (n = 1), and a benign granular cell tumour (n = 1).
  • Three patients with a microscopic residual tumour required postoperative external radiotherapy.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Asian Surgical Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21377110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0219-3108
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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72. Kondo T, Matsuyoshi A, Matsuyoshi H, Goto R, Ono K, Honda Y, Iyama K, Tsuruzoe K, Miyamura N, Araki E: A case of primary thyroid squamous cell cancer: transformation from benign tumour associated with chronic thyroiditis? BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • [Title] A case of primary thyroid squamous cell cancer: transformation from benign tumour associated with chronic thyroiditis?
  • Primary squamous cell cancer of the thyroid gland (SCT) is a rare malignant tumour and is associated with a high mortality.
  • The cancer was identified with acute painful swelling of the thyroid gland, when the patient was under periodical observation for her chronic thyroiditis at our outpatient's clinic.
  • Early diagnosis and prompt treatment might have been essential for the successful management of this patient.

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  • (PMID = 21686450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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73. Gómez-Martín C, Rodríguez A, Malón D, Cortés-Funes H: Biliary cystadenocarcinoma with mesenchymal stroma. Clin Transl Oncol; 2010 Mar;12(3):234-7
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  • This tumour needs to be distinguished from benign biliary cystadenoma, which is antecedent in most cases.
  • Preoperative diagnosis of BCACs is often difficult, because their clinical manifestations are similar to those of other hepatic cystic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Hepatectomy. Hepatitis B / complications. Humans. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20231130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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74. Karlberg N, Karlberg S, Karikoski R, Mikkola S, Lipsanen-Nyman M, Jalanko H: High frequency of tumours in Mulibrey nanism. J Pathol; 2009 Jun;218(2):163-71
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  • Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a monogenic disorder with prenatal-onset growth failure, typical clinical characteristics, cardiopathy and tendency for a metabolic syndrome.
  • In this work, the frequency and pathology of malignant and benign tumours were analysed in a national cohort of 89 Finnish MUL patients aged 0.7-76 years.
  • The results show that the MUL patients have disturbed architecture with ectopic tissues and a high frequency of both benign and malignant tumours detectable in several internal organs.
  • Fifteen malignancies occurred in 13 patients (15%), seven of them in the kidney (five Wilms' tumours), three in the thyroid gland, two gynaecological cancers, one gastrointestinal carcinoid tumour, one neuropituitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and one case of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
  • Our findings show that MUL is associated with frequent malignant tumours and benign adenomatous and vascular lesions, as well as disturbed organ development.
  • [MeSH-major] Mulibrey Nanism / complications. Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Finland. Heart Neoplasms / complications. Heart Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Infant. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prevalence. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Wilms Tumor / complications. Wilms Tumor / pathology


75. Jensen K, Patel A, Larin A, Hoperia V, Saji M, Bauer A, Yim K, Hemming V, Vasko V: Human herpes simplex viruses in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. J Pathol; 2010 Jun;221(2):193-200
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  • [Title] Human herpes simplex viruses in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.
  • To test the hypothesis that herpes viruses may have a role in thyroid neoplasia, we analysed thyroid tissues from patients with benign (44) and malignant (65) lesions for HSV1 and HSV2 DNA.
  • In vitro experiments were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying thyroid cancer cell susceptibility to HSV.
  • HSV1 was detected with the same frequency in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.
  • HSV2 was significantly associated with papillary thyroid cancer and the presence of lymph node metastases.
  • The expression of HSV entry receptor nectin-1 was increased in thyroid tumours compared to normal thyroid tissue and further increased in papillary thyroid cancer.
  • Nectin-1 expression was detected in all examined thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • Inhibition of PI3K/AKT or MAPK/ERK signalling did not affect the level of nectin-1 expression but decreased thyroid cancer cell susceptibility to HSV.
  • These findings showed that HSV is frequently detected in thyroid cancer.
  • During tumour progression, thyroid cells acquire increased susceptibility to HSV due to increased expression of viral entry mediator nectin-1 and activation of mitogenic signalling in cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. DNA, Viral / analysis. Herpesvirus 1, Human / metabolism. Herpesvirus 2, Human / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Interferon-beta / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / virology

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  • (PMID = 20455254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / nectins; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta
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76. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):767-74
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with thyroid nodules have indeterminate or suspicious fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy results.
  • We hypothesized that genes that regulate cell-cycle progression would be differentially expressed in malignant versus benign thyroid nodules and could serve as diagnostic markers and markers of disease aggressiveness.
  • METHODS: We used a cDNA array with 96 cell-cycle regulatory genes to identify differentially expressed genes in pooled benign versus malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Genes up- or down-regulated by more than 2-fold in malignant thyroid neoplasms were further evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 95 patients with hyperplastic nodules (n = 19), follicular adenoma (n = 19), follicular thyroid cancer (n = 19), the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19), and papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19).
  • RESULTS: cDNA array analysis showed that cyclin B1, MCM5, MCM7, RAD9, ubiquitin C, CDK6, SKP2, and APAF1 were up-regulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative PCR showed that MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 mRNA expression were significantly higher in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms (< or = 0.0012).
  • The level of MCM7 mRNA expression was higher in T4 than in T1, T2, and T3 differentiated thyroid cancers (P < 0.0127).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 are overexpressed in malignant thyroid neoplasms of follicular cell origin.
  • These genes may be useful markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms as an adjunct to FNA biopsy.
  • MCM7 mRNA expression is higher in locally invasive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression. Humans. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16547620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MCM5 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 139691-42-2 / rad9 protein; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM7 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7
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77. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Yasuoka H, Kakudo K, Inohara H, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Galectin-3 expression in follicular tumours: an immunohistochemical study of its use as a marker of follicular carcinoma. Pathology; 2005 Aug;37(4):296-8
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  • AIMS: Galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside binding family of lectins, has been regarded as a useful tool for discriminating malignant tumours from benign nodules of the thyroid, including the distinction between follicular carcinoma and adenoma.
  • However, there are follicular tumours with unclear vascular or capsular invasion, which makes diagnosis more difficult.
  • METHODS: We immunohistochemically investigated galectin-3 expression in 260 cases of follicular tumour with various degrees of vascular or capsular invasion classified into four categories.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that galectin-3 plays a role in the transformation of follicular tumours from benign to malignant; however, when diagnosing follicular tumours, the presence of this protein should not be required for diagnosing malignant transformation in all cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16194828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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78. Daniels JS: Granular cell tumour of tongue: A case report. Saudi Dent J; 2009 Jul;21(2):75-8
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  • [Title] Granular cell tumour of tongue: A case report.
  • Granular cell tumour, also known as Abrikossoff tumour, is a relatively uncommon benign neoplasm, which is more commonly found in females in the 4th to 6th decades of life even though it can occur in all ages.
  • Although majority of granular cell tumours are benign, some are clinically aggressive and a few frankly malignant forms have been reported.
  • Some benign lesions exhibit surface ulcerations and this clinical appearance, combined with the overlying pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, seen histologically, may lead to misdiagnosis of malignancy if adequate biopsy material was not taken.
  • A case of granular cell tumour which occurred on the midline area of the dorsum of the posterior 1/3 of the tongue is reported in a 20-year-old female patient.
  • It is interesting because the patient was younger than the average age of occurrence and the tumour occurred in a similar site to that of a lingual thyroid.

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  • (PMID = 23960463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1013-9052
  • [Journal-full-title] The Saudi dental journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Dent J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3722994
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Dorsum of posterior one-third of tongue / Granular cell tumour / Lingual thyroid / Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia / Squamous cell carcinoma of tongue
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79. Granja F, Morari EC, Assumpção LV, Ward LS: GSTO polymorphism analysis in thyroid nodules suggest that GSTO1 variants do not influence the risk for malignancy. Eur J Cancer Prev; 2005 Jun;14(3):277-80
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  • [Title] GSTO polymorphism analysis in thyroid nodules suggest that GSTO1 variants do not influence the risk for malignancy.
  • In order to investigate the role of GSTO1 inheritance pattern on thyroid cancer risk we used a polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP)-sequencing approach to compare the genotypes of 173 (87 women, 86 men; 18-81 years old; 47+/-18 years old) healthy control individuals with those of 145 patients with thyroid nodules (84 women, 61 men; 17-81 years old; 49+/-14 years old) including 17 follicular carcinomas, 76 papillary carcinomas, 21 follicular adenomas and 31 multinodular goiters.
  • The incidence of GSTO1 variants was similar in the control population and population with the benign and malignant nodules.
  • There was no association between genotype and the patients' clinical features, tumour parameters of aggressiveness at diagnosis or behaviour during follow-up.
  • We conclude that GSTO1 variants do not influence the risk for thyroid nodules or their pathologic and clinical characteristics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15901998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.5.1.18 / GSTO1 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase
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80. Bałdys-Waligórska A, Krzentowska A, Gołkowski F, Sokołowski G, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A: The prevalence of benign and malignant neoplasms in acromegalic patients. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):29-34
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  • [Title] The prevalence of benign and malignant neoplasms in acromegalic patients.
  • INTRODUCTION: In acromegalic patients, the prevalence of certain benign and malignant neoplasms is higher than that in the healthy population.
  • In 10.9% of these patients no data on tumour diameter were available.
  • Among malignant tumours, thyroid cancer, endometrium and cervix cancer were the most frequent, each of these occurring in 3 patients (3.0%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: From our retrospective study, we suggest an overall increase of tumour incidence in acromegalic patients.
  • In our study group, the number of malignant neoplasms was significantly higher in patients with long-lasting uncontrolled disease (over 5 years), compared to patients with controlled disease. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 29-34).
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / epidemiology. Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colonic Polyps / epidemiology. Comorbidity. Female. Goiter / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / epidemiology. Poland / epidemiology. Prevalence. Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20205101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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81. Tomoda C, Takamura Y, Ito Y, Miya A, Miyauchi A: Transient vocal cord paralysis after fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid tumor. Thyroid; 2006 Jul;16(7):697-9
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  • [Title] Transient vocal cord paralysis after fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: Complications of thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are exceedingly rare.
  • Here we describe patients diagnosed as having transient vocal cord paralysis after FNAB of benign thyroid tumor.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective review of patients with concurrent diagnosis of vocal cord paralysis after FNAB.
  • These patients had solid and/or cystic lesion in the thyroid.
  • Cytologic findings were benign tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the incidence of vocal cord paralysis in patients with thyroid tumor after FNAB is reported to be 0.036%, the true incidence is unknown because asymptomatic subjects are not screened.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Vocal Cord Paralysis / chemically induced. Vocal Cords / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16889495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Hindié E, Zanotti-Fregonara P, Duron F, Keller I, Bouchard P, Devaux JY: Should 'low-risk' thyroid cancer patients with residual thyroglobulin be re-treated with iodine 131? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Mar;66(3):329-34
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  • [Title] Should 'low-risk' thyroid cancer patients with residual thyroglobulin be re-treated with iodine 131?
  • OBJECTIVE: The American consensus statement on patients with low-risk thyroid cancer, published in 2003, suggests repeat (131)I therapy if the thyroglobulin value is elevated at first follow-up.
  • METHODS: Among 407 patients with thyroid cancer who had total thyroidectomy and (131)I ablation between January 2000 and December 2003, 12 patients with stage I thyroid cancer (any tumour (T), any node (N), metastasis (M)0 if < 45 years or T1, N0, M0 if > 45 years), were re-treated on the basis of their thyroglobulin level at first follow-up.
  • None of them had a T4 tumour.
  • Thyroglobulin levels after thyroid hormone withdrawal 'off-T4' ranged between 4.5 and 251 ng/ml (median 8).
  • Two patients had slight residual uptake only in the thyroid bed and negative ultrasound examination.
  • This finding was interpreted as benign (131)I thymic uptake.
  • The last three patients also had mediastinal thymic uptake associated with a slight thyroid bed uptake.
  • CONCLUSIONS: No distant lesions were found in a group of young 'low-risk' thyroid cancer patients given empirical (131)I therapy for residual thyroglobulin.
  • The authors also briefly discuss the hypothesis that enhanced thymus might be a source of benign thyroglobulin secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Patient Selection. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Retreatment. Risk Assessment / methods. Thymus Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Gland / secretion. Thyroidectomy. Whole-Body Counting

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  • (PMID = 17302864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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83. Lallu S, Naran S, Bethwaite P: Fine needle aspiration cytology of unsuspected metastatic hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid and its pitfalls: a report of two cases. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Jul;35(7):439-43
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of unsuspected metastatic hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid and its pitfalls: a report of two cases.
  • We discuss two cases of unsuspected metastatic thyroid carcinoma of Hurthle cell type, presenting as subcutaneous masses in the occipital scalp and supra-acetabular region of the right ilium; clinically suspected to be a lipoma and a vascular tumour, respectively.
  • In case 1, a definitive diagnosis of metastatic Hurthle cell carcinoma was made based on cell block preparation and positive immunohistochemical stains for thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor-1.
  • These cases are of interest as the bland cytologic features may lead to an erroneous benign diagnosis.
  • Immunohistochemistry aids the definitive diagnosis of metastatic Hurthle cell carcinoma of thyroid especially when the presence of a previous thyroid lesion is not communicated to the laboratory.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / secondary. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17580356.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Finn SP, Smyth P, Cahill S, Streck C, O'Regan EM, Flavin R, Sherlock J, Howells D, Henfrey R, Cullen M, Toner M, Timon C, O'Leary JJ, Sheils OM: Expression microarray analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tissue: emphasis on the follicular variant and potential markers of malignancy. Virchows Arch; 2007 Mar;450(3):249-60
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  • [Title] Expression microarray analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tissue: emphasis on the follicular variant and potential markers of malignancy.
  • The most common sub-variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the so-called follicular variant (FVPTC), which is a particularly problematic lesion and can be challenging from a diagnostic viewpoint even in resected lesions.
  • Although fine needle aspiration cytology is very useful in the diagnosis of PTC, its accuracy and utility would be greatly facilitated by the development of specific markers for PTC and its common variants.
  • We used the recently developed Applied Biosystems 1700 microarray system to interrogate a series of 11 benign thyroid lesions and conditions and 14 samples of PTC (six with classic morphology and eight with follicular variant morphology).
  • However, we have also identified numerous transcripts never previously implicated in thyroid carcinogenesis, and many of which are not represented on other microarray platforms.
  • Diminished expression of metallothioneins featured strongly among these and suggests a possible role for this family as tumour suppressors in PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17252232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.7.- / Taq Polymerase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1888716
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85. Lazzereschi D, Nardi F, Turco A, Ottini L, D'Amico C, Mariani-Costantini R, Gulino A, Coppa A: A complex pattern of mutations and abnormal splicing of Smad4 is present in thyroid tumours. Oncogene; 2005 Aug 11;24(34):5344-54
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  • [Title] A complex pattern of mutations and abnormal splicing of Smad4 is present in thyroid tumours.
  • Sensitivity to transforming growth factor-beta is impaired in thyroid tumours.
  • We analysed 56 thyroid tumours of various histotypes for Smad4 mutations by PCR-SSCP and sequencing, linking them to Smad4 reactivity as examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and 29 of them also for abnormalities in RNA expression due to alternative splicing.
  • In all, 15/56 cases (27%), both benign and malignant lesions, harbour alterations of Smad4 coding sequence.
  • We have also detected four alternatively spliced tumour-associated Smad4 isoforms, lacking portions of the linker region, and three more due to unreported internal exon-exon rearrangements.
  • Smad4 is both frequently mutated and deregulated by aberrant splicing in thyroid tumours and these alterations may contribute as an early event to thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15940269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMAD4 protein, human; 0 / Smad4 Protein; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta
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86. Malterling RR, Andersson RE, Falkmer S, Falkmer U, Niléhn E, Järhult J: Differentiated thyroid cancer in a Swedish county--long-term results and quality of life. Acta Oncol; 2010 May;49(4):454-9
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  • [Title] Differentiated thyroid cancer in a Swedish county--long-term results and quality of life.
  • BACKGROUND: There is still no complete agreement about the proper treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • Thirty nine patients had papillary cancers incidentally detected during surgery for benign disorders (median size 7 (1-30) mm).
  • RESULTS: Eleven of 106 patients considered tumour-free after primary surgery developed recurrences during follow-up.
  • No patient below 50 years of age at diagnosis died from DTC.
  • Only three of 29 patients with isolated loco-regional spreading of their disease at the time of diagnosis have died from thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / surgery. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Quality of Life. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Registries. Sample Size. Sweden / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20092427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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87. Xu F, Liu B, Chen XY, Zhou EX, Fan DF, Ma Y, Tang ZH: [Diagnosis and therapy of childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analysis of 12 cases]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;11(2):120-3
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analysis of 12 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and therapy of thyroid carcinoma in children.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 12 children under the age of 14 years, diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma between August 1998 and August 2008, were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: A hard thyroid mass was observed in 10 out of 12 children with thyroid carcinoma, but only one out of 15 children with benign thyroid tumor (<0.05).
  • The rate of cervical lymph node metastasis in children with thyroid carcinoma was significantly higher than that in children with benign thyroid tumor (<0.05).
  • There was no significant difference in the final diagnostic rate of thyroid carcinoma between ultrasonography and CT scans (75% vs 83%; >0.05).
  • All of 12 cases were pathologically confirmed as differentiated thyroid carcinoma, including papillary carcinoma (7 cases), follicular carcinoma (3 cases) and papillary-follicular carcinoma (2 cases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood thyroid carcinoma is mostly differentiated and characterized by hard thyroid mass and cervical lymph node metastasis.
  • A combination of ultrasonography and CT is helpful to the diagnosis of childhood thyroid carcinoma.
  • The treatment outcome may be satisfactory by optimal therapy in children with thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19222949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-8830
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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88. Ahmed M, Bin Yousef H, Greer W, Faraz H, Al Sobhi S, Al Zahrani A, Raef H, Al Ghamdi A, Al Kadhi Y, Al Dayel F: Hurthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland. ANZ J Surg; 2008 Mar;78(3):139-43
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  • [Title] Hurthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: A clinicopathological analysis and long-term follow up of 32 patients with Hurthle cell neoplasm (HCN) was undertaken to contrast the clinical and histological features between benign versus malignant HCN of thyroid and to examine the effect of treatment on the outcome.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 32 patients with HCN who were identified out of an archival clinical/pathological/imaging database of 3752 thyroid cancer patients seen between 1976 and June 2006.
  • All patients underwent thyroid surgery.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients were classified as malignant HCN (MHCN) and 15 as benign HCN (BHCN).
  • The mean tumour size was 4.43 +/- 0.66 cm for MHCN, and 2.57 +/- 0.32 cm for BHCN (P = 0.03).
  • Multicentric tumour foci were evident in five cases (29%) of MHCN but none among the BHCN (P = 0.03).
  • At neck exploration cervical lymph node dissection was carried out in nine MHCN patients with findings of tumour metastases in 33%.
  • Postoperatively, three MHCN patients had no thyroid remnant on ultrasound and computed tomography of neck and undetectable serum thyroglobulin; these were considered to be in remission.
  • Fourteen other MHCN patients with postoperative thyroid remnant and/or distant metastases received 131I treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Features of MHCN consisted of a large tumour size, unequivocal capsular and vascular invasion, multicentric tumour foci, metastatic lymph node deposits in one-third of patients and presence of distant metastasis in a few.
  • Findings of dominant Hurthle cell cytology in a fine-needle aspiration biopsy from a thyroid nodule should prompt surgical resection of the lesion to assess malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] ANZ J Surg. 2008 Mar;78(3):115 [18269467.001]
  • (PMID = 18269475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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89. Siassakos D, Gourgiotis S, Moustafellos P, Dimopoulos N, Hadjiyannakis E: Thyroid microcarcinoma during thyroidectomy. Singapore Med J; 2008 Jan;49(1):23-5
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  • [Title] Thyroid microcarcinoma during thyroidectomy.
  • The prevalence rate in cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher compared to cases with other benign thyroid pathology (26.8 percent versus 11.9 percent, p-value equals 0.02).
  • The histological type was that of papillary tumour in ten cases (34.5 percent) and follicular in 18 cases (62.1 percent).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Medical Oncology / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hashimoto Disease / diagnosis. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Risk. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18204764.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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90. Wang EL, Qian ZR, Rahman MM, Yoshimoto K, Yamada S, Kudo E, Sano T: Increased expression of HMGA1 correlates with tumour invasiveness and proliferation in human pituitary adenomas. Histopathology; 2010 Mar;56(4):501-9
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  • [Title] Increased expression of HMGA1 correlates with tumour invasiveness and proliferation in human pituitary adenomas.
  • AIMS: High-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) is highly expressed in various benign and malignant tumours.
  • Although HMGA1 expression was frequently detected in clinically non-functioning adenomas - 90% of silent adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 76.2% of follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone and 100% of null cell adenomas - it was also detected in 48.1% of growth hormone (GH), 60% of mixed GH/prolactin (PRL), 62.5% of PRL, 66.6% of thyroid-stimulating hormone and 37.5% of ACTH adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that HMGA1 up-regulation has an important oncogenic role in pituitary tumorigenesis, as well as being a novel molecular marker of tumour proliferation and invasiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. HMGA Proteins / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Case-Control Studies. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tumor Burden. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 20459557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA Proteins
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91. Song DE, Kim YM, Gong G: Cytomorphological changes after ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection in benign thyroid nodules. Cytopathology; 2009 Jun;20(3):183-7
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  • [Title] Cytomorphological changes after ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection in benign thyroid nodules.
  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize the cytomorphological changes after percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in benign thyroid nodules, we compared the cytological features of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples before and after PEI.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Necrotic background and presence of multinucleated giant cells are indicative of tissue damage caused by PEI in the FNAC specimens of benign thyroid nodules.
  • In contrast to other modalities including chemotherapy or radiation treatment for malignant tumour, no unusual cytological change is observed after PEI.
  • [MeSH-major] Ethanol / therapeutic use. Injections, Intralesional. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18476990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2303
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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92. Denizot Y, Chianéa T, Labrousse F, Truffinet V, Delage M, Mathonnet M: Platelet-activating factor and human thyroid cancer. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Jul;153(1):31-40
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  • [Title] Platelet-activating factor and human thyroid cancer.
  • The levels of PAF, lyso-PAF (the PAF precursor), phospholipase A2 activity (PLA2, the enzymatic activity implicated in lyso-PAF formation) and acetylhydrolase activity (AHA, the PAF-degrading enzyme) were investigated in various diseased thyroid tissues.
  • SUBJECTS: Control and diseased tissue of patients with a hyperplastic goitre (n = 14), a benign adenoma (n = 12) and a papillary thyroid carcinoma (n = 15) were investigated.
  • RESULTS: PAF receptor transcripts were found in the human thyroid tissue.
  • PAF, lyso-PAF, PLA2 and AHA were present in control thyroid tissues, their levels being significantly correlated with each other, suggesting tiny regulations of the PAF metabolic pathways inside the thyroid gland.
  • PAF, lyso-PAF, PLA2 and AHA levels remained unchanged in diseased tissues of patients with a hyperplastic goitre, a benign adenoma and a papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • No difference was found between PAF, lyso-PAF, PLA2 and AHA levels with respect to the TNM tumour status and the histological sub-type of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • No correlation was found between tissue PAF levels and those of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor, two angiogenic growth factors involved in thyroid cancer and that mediate their effect through PAF release in breast and colorectal cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: PAF, PAF receptor transcripts and the enzymatic activities implicated in PAF production and degradation are present in the thyroid gland.
  • While the physiological role of PAF is presently unknown in thyroid physiology, this study highlights no evidence for a potentially important role of PAF during human thyroid cancer, a result that markedly differs from breast and colorectal ones.

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  • (PMID = 15994743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / O-deacetyl platelet activating factor; 0 / Platelet Activating Factor; 0 / Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / platelet activating factor receptor; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; EC 3.1.1.- / Phospholipases A; EC 3.1.1.4 / Phospholipases A2; EC 3.1.1.47 / 1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase
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93. Gonçalves AJ, Carvalho LH, Serdeira K, Nakai MY, Malavasi TR: Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):289-91
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells.
  • In the thyroid, the appearance of cancer has been correlated with deletion of these genes.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the frequencies of these genes in patients with benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional clinical trial carried out in the Head and Neck Surgery Division, Faculdade de Medicina da Santa Casa de São Paulo.
  • METHODS: Samples of thyroid tissue were collected from 32 patients and divided into two groups: benign tumor (A) and malignant tumor (B).
  • RESULTS: The B group presented four cases of positive genotyping for both genes, seven positive for GSTT1 and negative for GSTM1, two negative for GSTT1 and positive for GSTM1, and only one case of double negative.
  • CONCLUSION: In this study, there was no relationship between the presence of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and the benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18094897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1516-3180
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.5.1.- / glutathione S-transferase T1; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; EC 2.5.1.18 / glutathione S-transferase M1
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94. Zou M, Al-Baradie RS, Al-Hindi H, Farid NR, Shi Y: S100A4 (Mts1) gene overexpression is associated with invasion and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Br J Cancer; 2005 Nov 28;93(11):1277-84
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  • [Title] S100A4 (Mts1) gene overexpression is associated with invasion and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Tumour cell invasion and metastasis are the hallmark of malignant neoplasm.
  • We previously identified S100A4 as a candidate gene involved in anaplastic thyroid cancer metastasis by microarray analysis.
  • To further determine whether S100A4 overexpression is associated with thyroid tumour invasion and metastasis, in the present study, we examined S100A4 gene expression in six benign multinodular goitres (MNG) and 28 matched samples of adjacent normal thyroid tissue (N), primary (T) and metastatic (M) papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis.
  • No S100A4 staining was observed in normal thyroid tissues and simple MNG.
  • These data suggest that overexpression of S100A4 is associated with thyroid tumour invasion and metastasis and it may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
  • [MeSH-minor] Case-Control Studies. Gene Expression Profiling. Goiter / genetics. Goiter / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16265347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins; 142662-27-9 / S100A4 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361511
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95. Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kobatake S, Satomura S, Maruyama M, Tajiri J, Kato R: Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody. Rinsho Byori; 2007 May;55(5):428-33
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  • [Title] Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody.
  • Thyroglobulin is produced only by thyroid follicular cells, and has a molecular weight of 660,000 and carbohydrate content of approximately 10%.
  • The composition of carbohydrate chains on thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma has been reported to differ from that in normal thyroid tissue.
  • In this study, heterogeneities of carbohydrate chains on thyroglobulin obtained from thyroid tissues were investigated by competitive reaction between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin monoclonal antibody.
  • The ratio of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin to thyroglobulin was significantly lower in thyroid carcinoma than in normal thyroid tissue, Graves' disease and benign thyroid tumor.
  • However, no differences between malignant and benign tissues were observed with the other lectins tested.
  • Differences in carbohydrate chain on thyroglobulin were observed between malignant and benign thyroid tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Lectins / immunology. Thyroglobulin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Humans. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17593687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Lectins; 0 / anti-thyroglobulin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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96. Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kobatake S, Satomura S, Maruyama M, Kameko F, Tajiri J, Kato R: The clinical utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum for distinguishing benign from malignant conditions of the thyroid. Clin Chim Acta; 2007 Apr;379(1-2):101-4
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  • [Title] The clinical utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum for distinguishing benign from malignant conditions of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Traditionally, the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma consists of periodic withdrawal from L-T4-suppressive therapy to allow performance of a highly sensitive serum Tg measurement to detect recurrences.
  • We investigated Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratios in serum to evaluate in usefulness for detection of thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The study was conducted on 93 serum sample from 23 healthy volunteers, 32 patients with benign thyroid tumor, 28 patients with thyroid carcinoma without metastasis, and 10 patients with thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis.
  • RESULTS: The Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratio in patients with thyroid carcinoma was significantly lower than in patients with benign thyroid tumor with serum thyroglobulin concentration >200 ng/ml.
  • Among cases of thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis, Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratios were significantly lower than in patient with thyroid carcinoma without metastasis and those with benign tumor regardless of serum thyroglobulin concentration.
  • CONCLUSION: Measurement of Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum may be useful for distinguishing between thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / pathology. Plant Lectins / immunology. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Binding, Competitive. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoassay. Male

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  • (PMID = 17270168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-8981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Plant Lectins; 0 / lentil lectin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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97. Wong KK, Zarzhevsky N, Cahill JM, Frey KA, Avram AM: Hybrid SPECT-CT and PET-CT imaging of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Br J Radiol; 2009 Oct;82(982):860-76
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  • [Title] Hybrid SPECT-CT and PET-CT imaging of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Hybrid imaging modalities such as radioiodine single photon emission CT with integrated CT ((131)I SPECT-CT) and 2-(fluorine-18)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography with integrated CT (FDG PET-CT) allow the rapid and efficient fusion of functional and anatomic images, and provide diagnostic information that may influence management decisions in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • Diagnostic localisation and therapy of these tumours are dependent upon their capacity to concentrate radioiodine ((131)I) via uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter and retention within the tumour.
  • Accurate identification of functional thyroid tissue (benign or malignant) using diagnostic (131)I planar scintigraphy complemented by SPECT-CT imaging enables the completion of post-operative staging and patient risk stratification prior to (131)I therapy administration.
  • [MeSH-major] Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiography. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Symporters. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19433487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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98. de la Torre NG, Buley I, Wass JA, Turner HE: Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in thyroid proliferative lesions: relationship to type and tumour behaviour. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Sep;13(3):931-44
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in thyroid proliferative lesions: relationship to type and tumour behaviour.
  • The role of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in thyroid cancer pathogenesis has not been elucidated.
  • Patterns for tumour behaviour and metastasic spread vary according to tumour type and whether differences in the angiogenic or lymphangiogenic phenotype influence the route for tumour metastases or determine a more aggressive behaviour has not been fully explored.
  • The angiogenic and lymphangiogenic phenotypes of a large cohort of thyroid proliferative lesions (n=191) were studied.
  • Using immunohistochemistry for CD34, lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1 (LYVE-1) (specific markers for vascular and lymphatic endothelium respectively), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), VEGF-C and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), this study analyses microvascular density (MVD), lymphatic vascular density (LVD), and expression of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors in normal thyroid (NT; n=19), multinodular goitre (n=25), toxic multinodular goitre (n=8), Graves' hyperplasia (n=22), follicular adenoma (n=54), papillary carcinoma (PC; n=27), incidental papillary microcarcinoma (PMC; n=8), follicular carcinoma (FC; n=20) and medullary carcinoma (MC; n=8).
  • MVD was decreased in proliferative lesions, benign and malignant, compared with NT (P<0.0001).
  • In contrast, VEGF-A expression was increased in thyroid carcinomas (PC, FC and MC) when compared with PMC, benign lesions and NT (P<0.0001).
  • Despite higher LVD and increased expression of VEGF-A and VEGF-C in thyroid cancers, these markers were not related to poor prognosis in terms of tumour size, multifocality and/or presence of lymphatic or distant metastases.
  • In conclusion, angiogenesis is reduced in thyroid proliferative lesions compared with NT tissue.
  • However, VEGF-A expression is upregulated in thyroid cancers.
  • Lymphangiogenesis and VEGF-C expression are increased in thyroid tumours prone to lymphatic metastases.
  • This may be an important mechanism underlying the differences in metastatic behaviour between papillary and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphangiogenesis. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16954441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
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99. Dursun AB, Demirag F, Bayiz H, Sertkaya D: Endobronchial metastases: a clinicopathological analysis. Respirology; 2005 Sep;10(4):510-4
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  • OBJECTIVE: It is important to distinguish endobronchial metastases (EBM) from both primary lung cancers and benign lesions, as treatment will differ.
  • Symptoms, primary tumour sites, recurrence interval, radiological and bronchoscopic features, and histopathological properties were assessed.
  • The primary tumour sites were: colorectal (4), breast (3), renal (3), lymphoma (3), rhabdomyosarcoma (2), bladder (1), thyroid (1) and malignant melanoma (1).
  • The mean time from the diagnosis of the primary tumour to their presentation was 3.89+/-1.09 (range, 0--19) years.
  • In five patients, EBM was diagnosed synchronously with their extra pulmonary primary tumour.
  • Histopathological examination revealed epithelial tissue at the surface of the tumour in nine cases and four of these were metaplastic.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Bronchial Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bronchial Diseases / pathology. Bronchoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16135176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1323-7799
  • [Journal-full-title] Respirology (Carlton, Vic.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respirology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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