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1. Slosar M, Vohra P, Prasad M, Fischer A, Quinlan R, Khan A: Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):149-57
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors.
  • The purpose of our study was to evaluate IMP3 expression in thyroid follicular lesions, to determine whether it has a role in differentiating among these lesions, and to understand their biological relationships.
  • We immunostained 219 thyroid lesions selected from our surgical pathology archives including 14 hyperplastic colloid nodules (CN), 19 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), two Graves disease (GD), ten Hürthle cell adenoma (HCA), 20 follicular adenoma (FA), 37 conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 60 follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC), 19 Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC), 32 follicular carcinoma (FC), and six poorly differentiated/anaplastic carcinoma.
  • In all cases, residual thyroid tissue, CN, HT, GD, HCA, and FA were completely negative for IMP3 staining.
  • No significant correlation was found between pathologic tumor characteristics and IMP3 expression in differentiated follicular pattern thyroid carcinoma.
  • With 100% specificity and 69% sensitivity for FC as compared to FA and 100% specificity for FVPC, again compared to FA, IMP3 has the potential to be diagnostically useful in differentiating malignant and benign follicular pattern thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19449140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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2. Sorrentino F, Atzeni J, Romano G, Buscemi G, Romano M: [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):277-8
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  • [Title] [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland].
  • BACKGROUND: The thyroid microcarcinoma is a tumor with maximum diameter of 10 mm (WHO).
  • The papillary microcarcinoma is the most common form of thyroid cancer, followed by follicular microcarcinoma.
  • The aim of our study is to assess the frequency of microcarcinoma, the association of benign thyroid disease himself and the controversial surgery.
  • The PTMC was associated with cancer in only 2 cases (papillary carcinoma and parathyroid carcinoma) in the remaining thyroid tissue was suffering from benign disease (20 goiters, 3 Hashimoto thyroiditis, a trabecular adenoma).
  • TALK: Controversial is still the type of surgery to be performed in case of differentiated thyroid microcarcinomas, as well as the indication is still debated to lymphadenectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid in our series, represents 57% of all thyroid cancers.
  • Microcarcinoma and benign thyroid disease association (76.92% of cases) was high.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20646369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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3. Kalinichenko OV, Myshunina TM, Tron'ko MD: [Cathepsin-like activity in blood plasma of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma]. Fiziol Zh; 2010;56(6):70-80
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  • [Title] [Cathepsin-like activity in blood plasma of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma].
  • The peculiarities of the thyroid changes depending on clinical characteristics of disease and histological structure of tumor were fixed by the studies of cathepsin-like activity in blood plasma of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • H-cathepsin-like activity had a tendence to more significant increase especially in patients with concomitant benign thyroid disease with increasing the tumor category.
  • In a case of metastatic tumor without other concomitant thyroid pathology, the degree of an increase in enzymatic activity was significantly higher comparing to the blood of patients without tumor metastases.
  • B-cathepsin-like activity in blood plasma of patients only with tumor carcinoma was at the level of that of healthy subjects.
  • B-cathepsin-like activity in blood plasma had especially significant increased under tumor T1 category that was connected with nodular goiter or adenoma in a case concominant carcinoma by other thyroid pathology.
  • In patients with carcinoma that was diagnosed against a background of concomitant pathology, the insignificant increase in L-cathepsin-like activity was not dependent on clinical features of disease, while in a case of carcinoma without concomitant pathology a degree of its increase was certainly dependent on a category of tumor T, its histological structure and the presence of oxyphilic cell metaplasia.
  • The results of the studies do not provide a rationale to consider that the cathepsin-like activity in blood of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma can be the valuable additional biochemical criterion for differential diagnosis, estimation of the severity, and other characteristics of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Cathepsins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood

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  • (PMID = 21469320.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Fiziolohichnyĭ zhurnal (Kiev, Ukraine : 1994)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fiziol Zh
  • [Language] ukr
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 3.4.- / Cathepsins
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4. Robertson A, Mansberg R, Mansberg V, Van der Wall H, Hooper M: Tumor-induced osteomalacia: a case of diagnostic dilemma. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Aug;32(8):631-4
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  • [Title] Tumor-induced osteomalacia: a case of diagnostic dilemma.
  • Tumor-induced osteomalacia is typically caused by benign mesenchymal tumors of vascular or skeletal origin.
  • Localization and resection of the FGF-23-secreting tumor offers the best chance of cure.
  • Biochemical investigations showed hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, and increased alkaline phosphatase, suggesting the presence of an FGF-23-secreting tumor.
  • Thyroid and parathyroid scintigraphy were performed and showed separate areas of focally increased tracer uptake in the neck.
  • The patient underwent octreotide scintigraphy to localize an alternative site of tumor.
  • Histopathology showed a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, a parathyroid adenoma, and an adrenal adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 17667438.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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5. Kołomecki K, Maciaszczyk P, Stepień H, Cywiński J, Cielecka J, Stepień T, Kuzdak K: [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):320-5
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors].
  • Blood concentration of proteins regulating both pathways of apoptosis may be useful in early diagnosis and staging of thyroid tumors.
  • The aim of study was evaluation of p53 and sFasL blood concentration in patients with benign follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was composed of 28 patients: 14 with thyroid carcinoma and 14 patients with follicular neoplasm (NF).
  • RESULTS: The analysis revealed high sFasL blood concentration in patients with follicular thyroid cancer in comparison with the group with follicular adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of sFasL serum level concentration may be useful in preoperative diagnosis of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenoma / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Fas Ligand Protein / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / blood

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  • (PMID = 17006831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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6. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1102-9; discussion 1109-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • We postulated that expression analysis of genes that modulate angiogenesis would identify differentially expressed genes that would help to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms and serve as markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: A complementary DNA (cDNA) array with 96 genes that modulate angiogenesis was used to identify differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm cDNA array expression data in 123 patients (4 normal thyroid, 26 hyperplastic nodules, 27 follicular adenomas, 23 follicular cancers, 18 follicular variant of papillary cancers, 25 papillary cancers).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two genes were upregulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms by cDNA array analysis, but only 13 genes had higher messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (P < or = .04).
  • Of the 13 differentially expressed genes, the combined use of angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) mRNA expression levels was best for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid neoplasms, with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 75%, and negative predictive value of 94%.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 mRNA expression was elevated in higher TNM stage neoplasms and in patients with high-risk AMES (Age, distant Metastasis, Extrathyroidal invasion, and tumor Size) differentiated thyroid cancers (P < or = .005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Angiopoietin 2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and could improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 are markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Angiogenic Proteins / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics


7. Yüksel M, Eziddin S, Wardelmann E, Biersack HJ: 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2006 Sep;25(5):316-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy.
  • A patient with suspicion of a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas underwent a somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 111In-Pentetreotide.
  • 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy showed discrete uptake of the radiotracer in the head of the pancreas and focal uptake in the right upper thyroid lobe.
  • Normal thyroid tissue and thyroid disorders, such as cancers, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and adenomas often show increased uptake of 111In-pentetreotide resulting in a possible false positive interpretation in patients with neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Adding a 48h planar image might contribute to the differential diagnosis between benign or malignant lesions, as in the present case where the uptake decreased in an adenoma after 48 hours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Indium Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17173778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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8. Cerutti JM, Latini FR, Nakabashi C, Delcelo R, Andrade VP, Amadei MJ, Maciel RM, Hojaij FC, Hollis D, Shoemaker J, Riggins GJ: Diagnosis of suspicious thyroid nodules using four protein biomarkers. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 1;12(11 Pt 1):3311-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis of suspicious thyroid nodules using four protein biomarkers.
  • PURPOSE: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, a standard method for thyroid nodule diagnosis, cannot distinguish between benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).
  • The goal of this study was to determine if antibody markers used alone or in combination could accurately distinguish between a wider variety of benign and malignant thyroid lesions in fixed sections and FNA samples.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry was done on 27 FTA, 25 FTC, and 75 other benign and malignant thyroid tissue sections using custom antibodies for chromosome 1 open reading frame 24 (C1orf24) and integral membrane protein 1 (ITM1) and commercial antibodies for DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and arginase II (ARG2).
  • RNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR in 33 thyroid lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We improved this diagnostic test by adding C1orf24 and ITM1 custom antibodies and showing use on a wider variety of thyroid pathology.
  • Use of one or more of these antibodies should improve diagnostic accuracy of suspicious thyroid nodules from both tissue sections and FNA samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16740752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA113461; United States / PHS HHS / / S98-146
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DDIT3 protein, human; 0 / FAM129A protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 147336-12-7 / Transcription Factor CHOP; EC 2.4.1.- / Hexosyltransferases; EC 2.4.99.18 / STT3A protein, human; EC 3.5.3.1 / Arginase; EC 3.5.3.1 / arginase II, human
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9. Ak I, Acikalin MF: Hyperparathyroidism with a functioning parathyroid cyst. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Sep;32(9):713-5
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  • A rare case of primary hyperparathyroidism with a functioning parathyroid cyst in whom Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy failed to detect a parathyroid tumor is presented.
  • A 62-year-old woman with primary hyperparathyroidism was referred for Tc-99m MIBI imaging to investigate a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Neck ultrasonography revealed a cystic lesion measured 30 x 42 x 35 mm on the right inferior side of the thyroid gland.
  • Pathologic diagnosis revealed a benign parathyroid cyst.

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  • (PMID = 17710026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Galusca B, Dumollard JM, Lassandre S, Niveleau A, Prades JM, Estour B, Peoc'h M: Global DNA methylation evaluation: potential complementary marker in differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia. Virchows Arch; 2005 Jul;447(1):18-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Global DNA methylation evaluation: potential complementary marker in differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia.
  • Little is known about this epigenetic event in thyroid neoplasia.
  • The study aimed to evaluate the status of global DNA methylation in several types of thyroid tumors using a monoclonal antibody specific for 5-methylcytidine (5-mc) and to define the diagnosis potential of this marker.
  • 5-mc immunostaining scores were calculated in 17 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), 6 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC), 16 follicular adenomas (FA), 19 nodular goiters (NG) and ten Hürthle cells adenomas (HCA).
  • Computerized image analysis showed a significant lower level of 5-mc immunostaining in thyroid carcinoma when compared with benign tumors or adjacent normal thyroid parenchyma (P<0.0001).
  • Overall, 5-mc accuracy to distinguish malign from benign thyroid tumors was similar to that of galectin-3 (89% versus 87%, P>0.05).
  • These data stress the necessity of epigenetic events evaluation among thyroid nodules and propose global DNA methylation assessment as a potential diagnostic tool to combine with other valuable markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. DNA Methylation. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Epigenesis, Genetic. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 15891902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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11. Melck A, Masoudi H, Griffith OL, Rajput A, Wilkins G, Bugis S, Jones SJ, Wiseman SM: Cell cycle regulators show diagnostic and prognostic utility for differentiated thyroid cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Dec;14(12):3403-11
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  • [Title] Cell cycle regulators show diagnostic and prognostic utility for differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) generally has a favorable outcome, but some patients develop local recurrence and/or distant metastases and ultimately die of their disease.
  • Molecular markers that accurately predict tumor behavior are lacking.
  • This study's aim was to ascertain the role of cell cycle regulators in predicting malignant histology and tumor behavior in DTC.
  • METHODS: Tissue microarrays consisting of 100 benign and 105 malignant thyroid lesions, plus 24 lymph node samples, were stained for p16, p21, p27, p53, p57, p63, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and mdm2.
  • Statistical analysis was used to compare the expression of the markers in benign versus DTC lesions and correlate their expression with clinicopathologic characteristics.
  • RESULTS: p16, p21, cyclin D1, and cyclin E showed significantly (P < .001) increased expression in DTCs compared with benign thyroid lesions (54.7% vs. 5%, 71.7% vs. 38%, 87.1% vs. 45.7%, and 72.3% vs. 37.4%, respectively).
  • There was no significant difference in expression between benign lesions and DTC for the remaining markers. p16 expression correlated significantly with extrathyroidal tumor extension (P = .02) and the presence of cancer in lymph nodes (P = .03).
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is a statistically significant difference in the expression of p16, p21, cyclin D1, and cyclin E between DTCs and benign thyroid lesions, and p16 expression correlates with clinicopathologic variables predicting poor outcomes for DTC.
  • These results suggest that evaluation of cell cycle derangement in thyroid tumors may serve as a useful tool for both DTC diagnosis and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle / physiology. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cyclins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Cyclin E / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Tissue Array Analysis. Tissue Fixation. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism


12. Aron M, Kapila K, Verma K: Utility of galectin 3 expression in thyroid aspirates as a diagnostic marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Jul;49(3):376-80
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  • [Title] Utility of galectin 3 expression in thyroid aspirates as a diagnostic marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Galectin-3 is a 31kD beta-galactoside binding lectin, which is known to be expressed in various neoplasms including thyroid tumors.
  • This study was conducted to study the role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules onfine needle aspirates (FNAC).
  • Galectin-3 positivity was seen in 80% of papillary carcinomas, 37.5% offollicular neoplasms and in 60% of benign nodules.
  • Three of thefollicular neoplasms that were diagnosed on histology as carcinoma were positive on cytology and one case offollicular adenoma was also positive.
  • However, since it is also expressed in a variety of benign lesions, its role as a pre-surgical markerfor differentiating benignfrom malignant thyroid nodules is limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17001889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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13. Chandan VS, Faquin WC, Wilbur DC, Khurana KK: The role of immunolocalization of CD57 and GLUT-1 in cell blocks in fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Cancer; 2006 Oct 25;108(5):331-6
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  • [Title] The role of immunolocalization of CD57 and GLUT-1 in cell blocks in fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The usefulness of CD57 and GLUT-1 immunostaining was evaluated as an adjunct to assist in the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma in fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of the thyroid.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for CD57 and GLUT-1 was performed on paraffin-embedded cell blocks of 50 thyroid FNA cases with the following cytologic diagnoses:.
  • 2) atypical cytology, cannot exclude papillary carcinoma (14 cases); and 3) benign thyroid (21 cases).
  • The remaining 8 cases negative for CD57 included surgically confirmed goiter (5 cases), adenoma (2 cases), and papillary carcinoma (1 case).
  • The follicular cells in all 21 cases with a cytologic diagnosis of benign thyroid were negative for CD57.
  • Histologic follow-up of these cases confirmed the benign cytologic diagnoses.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD57 immunostaining is a useful adjunct for the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma in cell block material.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD57 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16944537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD57; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2
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14. Zhang YF, Wang HN, Hong TP: [Ghrelin expression in the tissues of different thyroid diseases]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao; 2006 Apr 18;38(2):193-6
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  • [Title] [Ghrelin expression in the tissues of different thyroid diseases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether ghrelin, a novel endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), was expressed in the thyroid tissues of different thyroid diseases, and its implication.
  • METHODS: The paraffin-embedded specimens of thyroid tissues from 2000 to 2004 were obtained from 57 patients with different thyroid diseases, including 5 subacute thyroiditis, 8 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 7 hyperthyroidism (Graves disease), 8 nodular goiter, 5 thyroid adenoma, 3 thyroid lymphoma, 8 papillary carcinoma, 3 follicular carcinoma, 5 medullary carcinoma and 5 undifferentiated carcinoma cases.
  • The specimens of normal peri-adenoma thyroid tissues served as controls.
  • (1) ghrelin expression was undetectable in the thyroid tissues of normal control, subacute thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves disease. (2) ghrelin expression was also undetected in the tissues of nodular goiter, thyroid adenoma and thyroid lymphoma. (3) ghrelin-positive staining was found in the tumor cells of different types of thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Ghrelin is expressed in malignant epithelial thyroid neoplasms, but not in autoimmune or inflammatory thyroid diseases and benign nodular thyroid diseases.
  • The results indicate that ghrelin expression may play an important role in the occurrence and development of thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ghrelin / metabolism. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16617365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-167X
  • [Journal-full-title] Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin
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15. Choi YJ, Yun JS, Kim DH: Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm. Endocr J; 2009;56(3):383-9
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  • The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and ultrasound (US) features of malignancy in patients using cytological results of follicular neoplasm (FN) in the thyroid.
  • Patient histopathology, age, sex, tumor size, and US characteristics and the color flow pattern of the lesions were analyzed and compared between benign and carcinomas.
  • Benign included 78 FA, 8 atypical FA, and 3 Hurthle cell adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 19164864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Roberts SS, Mendonça-Torres MC, Jensen K, Francis GL, Vasko V: GABA receptor expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Dec;15(4):645-50
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  • [Title] GABA receptor expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • The role of neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors has not yet been examined in thyroid cancer.
  • To determine the possible involvement of neurotransmitter systems in thyroid carcinogenesis we characterized the patterns of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor expression in normal thyroid and thyroid tumors.
  • We examined the expression patterns of the GABAergic system in 70 human thyroid tumor samples (13 follicular adenomas, 14 follicular carcinomas, 43 papillary carcinomas) and adjacent normal thyroid by immunohistochemistry.
  • GABAergic system mRNA expression in thyroid cancer cell lines derived from primary (FTC133) and metastatic tumors (FTC236 and FTC238) was examined by real time PCR.
  • Overall, GABA receptor expression is increased in tumors compared to normal thyroid tissue.
  • Expression of GABAA receptor beta2 was detected in the vasculature of normal thyroid and thyroid tumors but not in thyroid cancer cells.
  • GABAA alpha2 was detected in metastatic-derived but not in primary-tumor derived cell lines.
  • Expression levels of GABAB R2 and GABA receptor associated protein (GABARAP) are increased in adenomas and thyroid cancer suggesting their role in early stages of thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • This study represents the first demonstration of GABA receptor expression in human thyroid tissue and suggests that the GABAergic system is involved in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Receptors, GABA / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Receptors, GABA-A / metabolism. Receptors, GABA-B / metabolism. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19381877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / GABARAP protein, human; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Receptors, GABA; 0 / Receptors, GABA-A; 0 / Receptors, GABA-B
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17. Strazisar B, Petric R, Sesek M, Zgajnar J, Hocevar M, Besic N: Predictive factors of carcinoma in 279 patients with Hürthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Jun 1;101(7):582-6
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  • [Title] Predictive factors of carcinoma in 279 patients with Hürthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Estimation of the risk of malignancy in a Hürthle cell (HC) neoplasm is important for optimum extent of thyroid surgical treatment.
  • RESULTS: The histopatological diagnoses were carcinoma, benign goiter and adenoma in 71 (25%), 68 (25%) and 140 (50%) patients, respectively.
  • Predictive factors for carcinoma, shown by chi-square test, were: age of patients, tumor diameter, thyroid volume and T(g) concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20461764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Xu L, Zhong F, Guo FF, Zhao WJ, Sun XR, Wei XF: [Expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal parenchyma, benign and malignant tumors of human thyroid]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Apr;37(4):243-9
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  • [Title] [Expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal parenchyma, benign and malignant tumors of human thyroid].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal human thyroid.
  • To compare the expression differences of motilin and it precursor mRNA between normal thyroid and intestines.
  • To study the expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in human thyroid tumors and their clinical implications.
  • METHODS: RT-PCR, Southern blot and molecular cloning were used to detect motilin transcript expression in human thyroid and mucous membrane of small intestine.
  • Real-time PCR and immunohistochemical techniques were used to quantify motilin precursor mRNA and motilin peptide in thyroid tissue samples including adenoma, medullary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma and nodular goiter. RESULTS:.
  • (1) The expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal human thyroid was primarily in the thyroid C cells. (2) RT-PCR and Southern blot showed that motilin mRNA expressed in human thyroid was identical to that expressed in duodenum with identical sequence deposited in NCBI Genbank of America. (3) Immunohistochemistry, Western blot research and real-time PCR studies showed that motilin and its precursor mRNA were expressed in normal and tumor tissues of human thyroid.
  • Thyroid tumors (acidophilic adenoma, medullary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma and nodular goiter) showed intense and diffuse immunostaining for motilin peptide.
  • Moreover, the expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in thyroid medullar carcinoma and acidophilic adenoma were significantly higher than those of normal thyroid tissue (P < 0.05).
  • The expression in thyroid follicular and papillary carcinomas were significantly lower than those of normal thyroid tissue (P < 0.05).
  • There was no difference of the expression between nodular goiter and normal thyroid tissue (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Motilin peptide and its precursor mRNA are expressed in C cells of human thyroid.
  • The expressions of both motilin and its precursor mRNA in thyroid medullary carcinoma and acidophilic adenoma are significantly increased.
  • In contrast, their expressions in thyroid follicular and papillary carcinomas are significantly decreased.
  • Motilin may regulate physiological functions of the thyroid through parafollicular cells.
  • Motilin may be involved in the pathogenesis of medullary carcinoma and acidophilic adenoma of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Motilin / metabolism. RNA Precursors / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Female. Humans. Intestines / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18844033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA Precursors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 52906-92-0 / Motilin
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19. Sakorafas GH, Stafyla V, Kolettis T, Tolumis G, Kassaras G, Peros G: Microscopic papillary thyroid cancer as an incidental finding in patients treated surgically for presumably benign thyroid disease. J Postgrad Med; 2007 Jan-Mar;53(1):23-6
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  • [Title] Microscopic papillary thyroid cancer as an incidental finding in patients treated surgically for presumably benign thyroid disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) is a relatively common entity in the general population.
  • AIM: To present our experience with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma of the thyroid as an incidental finding in patients treated surgically for presumably benign thyroid disease.
  • SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of benign thyroid disease were reviewed to identify patients with PTMC.
  • Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer were excluded from this study.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The files of 380 patients who underwent surgery for presumably benign thyroid disease in our hospital from 1990 to 2002 were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients with PTMC diagnosed incidentally following thyroid surgery for presumably benign thyroid disease (27/380 or 7.1%) (multinodular goiter = 20 patients, follicular adenoma = 6 patients, diffuse hyperplasia of the thyroid = 1 patient) are presented.
  • In 11 patients (40.7%) the tumor was multifocal and in about half of them tumor foci were found in both thyroid lobes.
  • In two patients the tumor infiltrated the thyroid capsule.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PTMC is not an uncommon incidental finding after surgery for presumably benign thyroid disease (7.1% in our series).
  • The possibility of an underlying PTMC should be taken into account in the management of patients with nodular thyroid disease; total/near total thyroidectomy should be considered, at least in selected patients with presumably benign nodular thyroid disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Incidental Findings. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] J Postgrad Med. 2007 Jan-Mar;53(1):5-6 [17244961.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Postgrad Med. 2007 Jan-Mar;53(1):6-7 [17244962.001]
  • (PMID = 17244966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3859
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of postgraduate medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Postgrad Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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20. Di Loreto C, Tell G, Pestrin M, Pandolfi M, Damante G, Puglisi F: PTEN and Egr-1 expression in thyroid proliferative lesions. Cancer Lett; 2005 Jun 16;224(1):105-9
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  • [Title] PTEN and Egr-1 expression in thyroid proliferative lesions.
  • PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene that inhibits cell cycle progression.
  • The present study evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of PTEN and Egr-1 in normal thyroid and in its benign and malignant proliferative lesions.
  • It was similar in nodular hyperplasia, adenoma and papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / physiopathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Immediate-Early Proteins / biosynthesis. Immediate-Early Proteins / genetics. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / biosynthesis. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / physiopathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / physiopathology. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Transcription Factors / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15911105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / EGR1 protein, human; 0 / Early Growth Response Protein 1; 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 3.1.3.- / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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21. Sippel RS, Elaraj DM, Khanafshar E, Zarnegar R, Kebebew E, Duh QY, Clark OH: Tumor size predicts malignant potential in Hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):702-7
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  • [Title] Tumor size predicts malignant potential in Hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • We sought to determine if the primary tumor size correlated with the risk of malignancy in patients with a preoperative FNA diagnosis of a Hürthle cell neoplasm.
  • The average tumor size was 3.2 cm, with malignant tumors being significantly larger than benign tumors (5.0 vs. 2.7 cm, p<0.01).
  • The risk of malignancy directly correlated with tumor size.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor size correlates directly with malignant potential in patients with Hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • Because the risk of malignancy is greater than 50% in patients with a tumor larger than 4 cm, consideration should be given for an initial total thyroidectomy in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 18224463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Troncone G, Iaccarino A, Russo M, Palmieri EA, Volante M, Papotti M, Viglietto G, Palombini L: Accumulation of p27(kip1) is associated with cyclin D3 overexpression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Apr;60(4):377-81
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  • [Title] Accumulation of p27(kip1) is associated with cyclin D3 overexpression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The down regulation of protein p27(kip1) (p27) in most cases of thyroid cancer has relevant diagnostic and prognostic implications.
  • However, the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma expresses more p27 than benign oxyphilic lesions do.
  • METHODS: Because high levels of cyclin D3 lead to p27 accumulation in cell lines and clinical samples of thyroid cancer, the immunocytochemical pattern of cyclin D3 in oxyphilic (n = 47) and non-oxyphilic (n = 70) thyroid neoplasms was investigated.
  • In co-immunoprecipitation experiments, the level of p27-bound cyclin D3 was much higher in oxyphilic neoplasias than in normal thyroids and other thyroid tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: These results show that increased p27 expression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma results from cyclin D3 overexpression.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Cyclins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cyclin D3. Humans. Immunoprecipitation. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCND3 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D3; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2001124
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23. Savin S, Cvejic D, Isic T, Paunovic I, Tatic S, Havelka M: The efficacy of the thyroid peroxidase marker for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma. Exp Oncol; 2006 Mar;28(1):70-4
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  • [Title] The efficacy of the thyroid peroxidase marker for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.
  • AIM: Expression of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in the thyroid gland tissue is well known as a sensitive marker of the thyroid malignancy.
  • We have evaluated immunohistochemical assay of TPO for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sections of formalin-fixed tissues obtained from 92 patients with thyroid tumors (52 follicular carcinomas and 40 follicular adenomas including the Hurthle cell type) were analyzed using a monoclonal antibody (TPO mAb 47) and the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex immunohistochemical technique.
  • Lesions with staining of more than 80% of the follicular cells/specimen were considered benign, while less than 80% were considered malignant.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that immunohistochemical assay of TPO expression has limited value for the differential diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma from thyroid follicular adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 16614712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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24. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):767-74
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with thyroid nodules have indeterminate or suspicious fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy results.
  • We hypothesized that genes that regulate cell-cycle progression would be differentially expressed in malignant versus benign thyroid nodules and could serve as diagnostic markers and markers of disease aggressiveness.
  • METHODS: We used a cDNA array with 96 cell-cycle regulatory genes to identify differentially expressed genes in pooled benign versus malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Genes up- or down-regulated by more than 2-fold in malignant thyroid neoplasms were further evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 95 patients with hyperplastic nodules (n = 19), follicular adenoma (n = 19), follicular thyroid cancer (n = 19), the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19), and papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19).
  • RESULTS: cDNA array analysis showed that cyclin B1, MCM5, MCM7, RAD9, ubiquitin C, CDK6, SKP2, and APAF1 were up-regulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative PCR showed that MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 mRNA expression were significantly higher in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms (< or = 0.0012).
  • The level of MCM7 mRNA expression was higher in T4 than in T1, T2, and T3 differentiated thyroid cancers (P < 0.0127).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 are overexpressed in malignant thyroid neoplasms of follicular cell origin.
  • These genes may be useful markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms as an adjunct to FNA biopsy.
  • MCM7 mRNA expression is higher in locally invasive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16547620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MCM5 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 139691-42-2 / rad9 protein; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM7 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7
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25. Itoh A, Iwase K, Jimbo S, Yamamoto H, Yamamoto N, Kokubo M, Senda T, Nakai A, Nagagasaka A, Nagasaka T, Hibi Y, Seko T: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and presence of angiovascular cells in tissues from different thyroid disorders. World J Surg; 2010 Feb;34(2):242-8
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  • [Title] Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and presence of angiovascular cells in tissues from different thyroid disorders.
  • BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in tumor angiogenesis and other pathophysiological processes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the localization of VEGF in human thyroid tissues to clarify its involvement in proliferative processes in a variety of thyroid disorders.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis using purified rabbit polyclonal anti-human VEGF or anti-human CD34 antibody and a streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex detection system was performed on 58 tissue specimens from 53 patients with different thyroid disorders and 5 normal thyroid glands.
  • RESULTS: Vascular endothelial growth factor was not detected in normal thyroid follicular cells.
  • However, some thyroid tumor cells expressed VEGF in the cytoplasm (papillary carcinoma, 10/18; follicular carcinoma, 1/3; medullary carcinoma, 2/2; follicular adenoma, 3/11; adenomatous goiter, 2/4).
  • In benign follicular adenoma and adenomatous goiter, weak expression of VEGF was found in small areas of the tumor, whereas in malignant thyroid tumors, it was strongly expressed in many cells.
  • Angiovascular cells stained with CD34 antibody in tissues from different thyroid disorders reflected statistically significant differences in papillary carcinoma, follicular adenoma, and Graves' disease compared with normal thyroids, and such cells showed a trend toward increases in medullary carcinoma and adenomatous goiter.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because VEGF probably functions as a hypoxia-inducible angiogenic factor, overexpression of this mediator, concomitant with hypervascularity, may be induced more strongly in malignant thyroid tumors, which need more oxygen to proliferate, than in benign follicular tumors.
  • However, neither VEGF nor CD34 was expressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is an extremely poorly differentiated malignant tumor.
  • CD34 but not VEGF was expressed in the hyperplastic thyroid tissues of Graves' disease composed of nontransformed cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Thyroid Gland / cytology. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20041248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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26. Jarząb M, Lange D: Endogenous avidin biotin activity (EABA) in thyroid pathology: immunohistochemical study. Thyroid Res; 2009 Apr 08;2(1):5
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  • [Title] Endogenous avidin biotin activity (EABA) in thyroid pathology: immunohistochemical study.
  • The aim of our investigation is to study presence of endogenous avidin biotin activity (EABA) in thyrocytes originating from various thyroid pathological lesions (neoplastic and non-neoplastic).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The immunohistochemical study was performed on paraffin-embedded specimens of surgically resected thyroid tissue from 97 patients with thyroid diseases: 65 patients with papillary carcinoma (PTC), 11 patients with nodular goiter in whom features of benign papillary hyperplasia were found, 9 with lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT), 8 with follicular adenoma, and 4 patients with follicular carcinoma.
  • Significant correlation between EABA in primary PTC tumor and EABA in lymph node metastases was stated.
  • Normal surrounding thyroid tissues showed absence or weak EABA.
  • CONCLUSION: Among thyroid lesions, false positive reactions are highly probable in papillary thyroid carcinoma and in lymphocytic thyroiditis if immunohistochemical detection is used on systems containing (strept)avidin.

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  • (PMID = 19351422.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-6614
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2678080
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27. Keita M, Kampo MI, Timbo SK, Traoré CB, Diallo M, Doumbia-Singaré K, Ag Mohamed A: [Morbidity of the tumours of the sphere head and neck in Bamako]. Mali Med; 2009;24(3):1-6
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  • Among the 60 cases, 24 tumours (40%) were malign and 36 were benign.
  • Goiter was the most found benign tumor according to the results of the hystology analysis.
  • In most cases (15 out of 36, 41.67%) the histology analysis showed an colloid adenoma Other rare tumors like rhinoscleroma (5 cases out of 36, 13.89%), nose invertus papilloma (2 cases out of 36, 5.55%) where found.
  • Other malign tumors have been found: nose and sinusal cancers and thyroid carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20093222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1993-0836
  • [Journal-full-title] Le Mali médical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mali Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mali
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28. Puskas LG, Juhasz F, Zarva A, Hackler L Jr, Farid NR: Gene profiling identifies genes specific for well-differentiated epithelial thyroid tumors. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand); 2005 Sep 5;51(2):177-86
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  • [Title] Gene profiling identifies genes specific for well-differentiated epithelial thyroid tumors.
  • Thyroid nodules are common.
  • Studies done to date have concentrated on single tumor types and thus provide no help in identifying tumor subtype specific markers.
  • To that end we have studied gene profiles of 5 types of benign and malignant thyroid nodular tissue (multinodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary and follicular carcinomas).
  • Despite the differences in the microarray panels used, we confirmed the differential regulation of 12 genes previously reported in thyroid cancer, although we found the expression of several genes to be regulated in other histological tumor subtypes than originally described.
  • SERP1, RNASE 2 and STATA5 were suppressed in papillary thyroid cancer.
  • We have thus identified new potential markers specific to malignant thyroid tumors.
  • It is apparent that a range of nodular thyroid tissue using large tumor sample numbers is necessary to establish robust markers for malignancy and to categorize tumors on the basis of small tumor samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Genes, Neoplasm. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / physiopathology. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / physiopathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / physiopathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Goiter, Nodular / physiopathology. Humans. Microscopy, Confocal. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16171553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1165-158X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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29. Wang Y, Kowalski J, Tsai HL, Marik R, Prasad N, Somervell H, Lo PK, Sangenario LE, Dyrskjot L, Orntoft TF, Westra WH, Meeker AK, Eshleman JR, Umbricht CB, Zeiger MA: Differentiating alternative splice variant patterns of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in thyroid neoplasms. Thyroid; 2008 Oct;18(10):1055-63
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  • [Title] Differentiating alternative splice variant patterns of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in thyroid neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Although fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of thyroid nodules is very sensitive in detecting thyroid malignancy, it remains ambiguous in 20-30% of cases.
  • Current biomarkers for thyroid cancer lack either the sensitivity or specificity to substantially address this clinical problem.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the gene expression patterns of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) alternative splice variants in benign and malignant thyroid tumors in an attempt to find a more reliable biomarker in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
  • METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three thyroid tumors from eight histopathological tumor types were collected from patients undergoing thyroid surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital.
  • RESULTS: Malignant thyroid tumors exhibited a greater proportion of the active full-length hTERT transcript (0.57 +/- 0.15) than inactive splice variants, alpha(-) (0.13 +/- 0.02), or beta(-)/alpha(-)beta(-) deletion transcripts (0.30 +/- 0.11; p < 0.001).
  • The opposite was observed in benign tumors, which exhibited greater proportions of beta(-)/alpha(-)beta(-) deletion transcripts (0.64 +/- 0.08) than either the full-length (0.19 +/- 0.06) or alpha(-) deletion transcripts (0.17 +/- 0.02; p < 0.001).
  • Similar results were observed among a diagnostically challenging subset of 50 thyroid tumors that were suspicious for malignancy on FNA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These differences in gene expression patterns of hTERT alternative splice variants may provide a useful adjunct to FNA diagnosis of suspicious thyroid tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18816183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21CA81162
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2857449
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30. Terada T: Brain metastasis from thyroid adenomatous nodules or an encapsulated thyroid follicular tumor without capsular and vascular invasion: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:7180
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  • [Title] Brain metastasis from thyroid adenomatous nodules or an encapsulated thyroid follicular tumor without capsular and vascular invasion: a case report.
  • Because benign-appearing thyroid nodules with metastasis are very rare, the author reports herein four thyroid nodules (one follicular adenoma and three adenomatous nodules) with brain metastasis.
  • A 75-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital because of thyroid mass.
  • Imaging modalities revealed four distinct nodules in the thyroid, and tumorectomies of all nodules were performed under the clinical diagnosis of benign thyroid nodules.
  • Grossly, one of them was a completely encapsulated tumor (35 mm in diameter).
  • Microscopically, the largest tumor was an encapsulated follicular adenoma.
  • The tumor consisted of normofollicles and microfollicles surrounded by a fibrous capsule.
  • Thus, the largest tumor was diagnosed as follicular thyroid adenoma.
  • However, six years later, the patient showed a brain metastasis of thyroid tumor composed of macrofollicles without cellular and nuclear atypia.
  • A diagnosis of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma was made.
  • The present case suggests that benign thyroid nodules can metastasize.

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  • (PMID = 19829930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740070
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31. Asaad NY, Abd El-Wahed MM, Mohammed AG: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression in thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic and prognostic role. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2006 Mar;18(1):8-16
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  • [Title] Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression in thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic and prognostic role.
  • AIM OF WORK: Therefore we thought to determine whether hTERT gene detection could serve as an adjunct in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions together with evaluation of its prognostic value.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 50 cases of primary thyroid carcinoma including; 28 papillary carcinoma, 14 follicular carcinoma, 5 anaplastic carcinoma and 3 medullary carcinoma in addition to 5 cases of nodular hyperplasia and 5 cases of follicular adenoma.
  • RESULTS: RT-PCR of hTERT gene revealed expression in 43/50 (86%) malignant thyroid cases; including 25 papillary, 11 follicular, 4 anaplastic and 3 medullary carcinoma cases.
  • On the other hand, hTERT gene expression could not be detected in either hyperplastic nodule or in follicular adenoma cases.
  • The diagnostic validity of hTERT gene detection in benign and malignant thyroid lesions was in the form of 88.3% accuracy, 86% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 90% negative predictive value.
  • In thyroid carcinoma cases, hTERT gene detection was the most independent predictor of poor survival by multivariate survival analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: Detection of hTERT gene expression should be considered in confirmation of malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Moreover it could be one of the helpful tools in addition to grade, tumor type, and age to stratify patients with thyroid carcinoma into different prognostic categories.
  • Hence, inhibition of hTERT could be of use prospectively in the era of cancer therapy as an attractive weapon in thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / enzymology. Telomerase / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17237847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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32. Ding Z, Ji J, Chen G, Fang H, Yan S, Shen L, Wei J, Yang K, Lu J, Bai Y: Analysis of mitochondrial DNA mutations in D-loop region in thyroid lesions. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2010 Mar;1800(3):271-4
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  • [Title] Analysis of mitochondrial DNA mutations in D-loop region in thyroid lesions.
  • METHODS: We analyzed the mutations at the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in patients with different thyroid lesions.
  • In particular, in order to investigate if the accumulation of mtDNA mutations play a role in tumor progression, we studied the highly variable main control region of mtDNA, the displacement-loop (D-loop) in patients with non-tumor nodular goiters, with benign thyroid adenomas, and with malignant thyroid carcinomas.
  • Total thyroid tumor or goiter samples were obtained from 101 patients, matched with nearby normal tissue and blood from the same subject.
  • RESULTS: Noticeably, mitochondrial microsatellite instability (mtMSI) was detected in 2 of 19 nodular goiters (10.53%), and 8 of 77 (10.39%) malignant thyroid carcinomas.
  • In addition, 6 patients, including 5 (6.49%) with malignant thyroid carcinomas and 1 (5.26%) with nodular goiter, were found to harbor point mutations.
  • GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that mtDNA alterations in the D-loop region could happen before tumorigenesis in thyroid, and they might also accumulate during tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. Goiter / genetics. Microsatellite Instability. Mutation. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. DNA Primers. Disease Progression. Gene Amplification. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Point Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Reference Values

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19463899.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial
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33. Letsas KP, Frangou-Lazaridis M, Skyrlas A, Tsatsoulis A, Malamou-Mitsi V: Transcription factor-mediated proliferation and apoptosis in benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Pathol Int; 2005 Nov;55(11):694-702
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  • [Title] Transcription factor-mediated proliferation and apoptosis in benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Proliferation and apoptosis-related transcription factor immunoexpression patterns were concomitantly investigated in tissue sections of normal thyroid, goiters, follicular adenomas and well-differentiated papillary and follicular carcinomas using antibodies against prothymosin alpha, E2F-1, p53, Bcl2, and Bax proteins.
  • Positive Bcl2 immunostaining was detected in all thyroid histotypes.
  • These data demonstrate that prothymosin alpha and E2F-1 are strongly involved in the proliferation processes of thyroid neoplasias.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Cell Proliferation. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Transcription Factors / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / physiopathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. E2F1 Transcription Factor / analysis. E2F1 Transcription Factor / immunology. E2F1 Transcription Factor / physiology. Female. Goiter / pathology. Goiter / physiopathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Protein Precursors / analysis. Protein Precursors / immunology. Protein Precursors / physiology. Repressor Proteins / analysis. Repressor Proteins / immunology. Repressor Proteins / physiology. Thymosin / analogs & derivatives. Thymosin / analysis. Thymosin / immunology. Thymosin / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / immunology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / immunology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / analysis. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / immunology. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16271081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCLAF1 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / E2F1 Transcription Factor; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0 / prothymosin alpha; 61512-21-8 / Thymosin
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34. Łukieńczuk T, Kaliszewski K, Zołedziewska M, Jonkisz A, Dmochowska G, Dobrut M, Rogoliński J, Dobosz T: [SNP polymorphism of LGALS3BP gene in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumours]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:45-51
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  • [Title] [SNP polymorphism of LGALS3BP gene in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumours].
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was estimation of occurrence of SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites in LGALS3BP gene in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors and analysis of correlation between their frequency and the histological type of thyroid lesions.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The studied group consisted of 58 patients, 24 with papillary thyroid carcinomas, 19 with nodular goiters and 15 with follicular adenomas.
  • There were no significant differences between patients with thyroid lesions and group of healthy controls.
  • CONCLUSION: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of LGALS3BP gene (found in NCBI) database are not characteristic for papillary thyroid cancer, follicular adenomas and nodular goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Glycoproteins / genetics. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17091456.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / LGALS3BP protein, human
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35. Zhang P, Zuo H, Nakamura Y, Nakamura M, Wakasa T, Kakudo K: Immunohistochemical analysis of thyroid-specific transcription factors in thyroid tumors. Pathol Int; 2006 May;56(5):240-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of thyroid-specific transcription factors in thyroid tumors.
  • Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), thyroid transcription factor 2 (TTF2) and paired box gene 8 (Pax8) are demonstrated to play a crucial role for the differentiation and organogenesis of thyroid follicular cells.
  • Their roles in thyroid carcinogenesis are not very clear.
  • Because dedifferentiation is a common process in thyroid carcinogenesis, thyroid-specific transcription factors seem also to be involving in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • The purpose of the present paper was to investigate their expression in a broad spectrum of follicular cell tumors in different degrees of differentiation, from well-differentiated benign follicular adenoma to anaplastic carcinoma.
  • Results of immunohistochemical staining showed that nuclear localization of these transcription factors was gradually decreased corresponding to the progressive dedifferentiation of thyroid tumors.
  • In conclusion, abnormal expression of TTF1, TTF2 and Pax8 was closely related to thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphatases. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16669872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / TTF1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / TTF2 protein, human
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36. Hou P, Ji M, Xing M: Association of PTEN gene methylation with genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway in thyroid tumors. Cancer; 2008 Nov 1;113(9):2440-7
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  • [Title] Association of PTEN gene methylation with genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway in thyroid tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway plays an important role in thyroid tumorigenesis and progression.
  • Genetic alterations, particularly PIK3CA amplification and mutations and ras mutations, are the major cause of aberrant activation of this pathway in thyroid tumors.
  • Epigenetic silencing of the PTEN gene, a negative regulator of the PI3K/AKT pathway, also occurs in thyroid tumors, but its relationship with genetic alterations in this pathway is unclear.
  • METHODS: By using quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, the authors examined PTEN methylation and its relationship with genetic alterations in the PI3K/AKT pathway in various types of thyroid tumors.
  • RESULTS: The authors found PTEN methylation to become progressively higher from benign thyroid adenoma to follicular thyroid cancer and to aggressive anaplastic thyroid cancer, which harbored activating genetic alterations in the PI3K/AKT pathway correspondingly with a progressively higher prevalence.
  • The association of PTEN methylation was seen with both overall genetic alterations and individual genetic alterations, particularly PIK3CA alterations and ras mutations, in the PI3K/AKT pathway within each of the 3 types of thyroid tumors.
  • In contrast, no such relationship was observed for the tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The authors found an interesting association of PTEN methylation with the activating genetic alterations in the PI3K/AKT pathway in thyroid tumors.
  • This finding is consistent with a model in which aberrant methylation and hence silencing of the PTEN gene, which coexists with activating genetic alterations of the PI3K/AKT pathway, may enhance the signaling of this pathway aberrantly activated by genetic alterations and hence contribute to the progression of thyroid tumors. Cancer 2008.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Methylation. Mutation / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18831514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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37. Mełeń-Mucha G: [Molecular aspects of pituitary tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 May-Jun;56(3):333-8
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  • Pituitary adenomas are common benign neoplasms, accounting for approximately 15% of intracranial tumors.
  • The progress in the studies concerning pituitary tumorigenesis is rather slow and, due to several limitations, including the anatomic inaccessibility of human pituitary gland, the lack of functional human cell lines in culture and the discrepancies between human and animal pituitary oncogenesis (in rodents pituitary hyperplasia is a prerequisite for adenoma development).
  • In humans, the majority of pituitary tumors are monoclonal in origin and derived from single mutated pituicyte, rarely hyperplasia is a prerequisite for adenoma formation.
  • As in the case of other tumors, activating mutations in oncogenes (GNAS1, PTTG) and inactivating mutations in tumor suppressor genes (MEN1, CNC1) lead to pituitary tumors development.
  • GHRH, dopamine D2 receptor, PRL receptor, estrogens, thyroid hormone receptor) and growth factors (e.g.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chromogranins. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins. Proteins. Proto-Oncogene Proteins. Securin

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  • (PMID = 16350728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 3.6.1.- / GNAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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38. Zhao J, Leonard C, Gemsenjäger E, Heitz PU, Moch H, Odermatt B: Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling. Oncol Rep; 2008 Feb;19(2):329-37
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  • [Title] Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling.
  • It is difficult to distinguish benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors by histological or cytological examination.
  • The goal of this study was to reveal gene expression variations between benign and malignant follicular lesions of the thyroid gland.
  • We investigated gene expression profiles from 24 follicular thyroid tumors (12 carcinomas and 12 adenomas) and 13 normal thyroid tissues using high-density human cDNA arrays.
  • The identification of gene expression changes was based on signal intensity ratios of tumor versus normal thyroid parenchyma.
  • Our results demonstrate a potential use of gene expression profiling for differentiating benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • A detailed investigation of the differentially expressed genes could give new insights into molecular pathways of malignant transformation of thyroid follicular neoplasm and may help to develop a molecular tool for the preoperative differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Gene Expression Profiling. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18202778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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39. Xu MR, Chen Y, Zhou SR, Chi MM, Chen SL, Liu LY: [Expressions of RASSF1A, Galectin-3 and TPO mRNA in papillary thyroid carcinoma and their clinical significance]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 May;31(5):356-60
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  • [Title] [Expressions of RASSF1A, Galectin-3 and TPO mRNA in papillary thyroid carcinoma and their clinical significance].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mRNA expressions of RASSF1A, Galectin-3 and TPO in papillary thyroid carcinoma and some other thyroid benign lesions, and evaluate their diagnostic significance.
  • METHODS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of RASSF1A, galectin-3 and TPO in the samples from 73 cases, including 23 cases with papillary thyroid cancer, 16 with nodular goiter, 29 with thyroid adenoma and 5 with Hashimoto's disease.
  • RESULTS: A statistically significant difference in the mRNA expression of RASSF1A, Galectin-3 and TPO was observed between papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular benign lesions (P<0.05).
  • However, there was no significant difference among various kinds of benign lesions (P>0.05).
  • A negative correlation of the expression of RASSF1A and Galectin-3 mRNA was found between thyroid benign lesions and malignant ones (P = 0.000).
  • While the mRNA expression of RASSF1A and TPO was positively correlated between benign and malignant lesions (P = 0.028).
  • CONCLUSION: Loss of expression of RASSF1A and TPO mRNA but high expression of Galectin-3 mRNA in papillary thyroid carcinoma are common.
  • Therefore, the products of these three genes may be closely related to the development of thyroid papillary carcinoma, and may be used as useful markers in differential diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma from the benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantigens / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Iron-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / genetics. Hashimoto Disease / metabolism. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19799084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Iron-Binding Proteins; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 1.11.1.7 / TPO protein, human; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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40. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Yasuoka H, Kakudo K, Inohara H, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Galectin-3 expression in follicular tumours: an immunohistochemical study of its use as a marker of follicular carcinoma. Pathology; 2005 Aug;37(4):296-8
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  • AIMS: Galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside binding family of lectins, has been regarded as a useful tool for discriminating malignant tumours from benign nodules of the thyroid, including the distinction between follicular carcinoma and adenoma.
  • METHODS: We immunohistochemically investigated galectin-3 expression in 260 cases of follicular tumour with various degrees of vascular or capsular invasion classified into four categories.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that galectin-3 plays a role in the transformation of follicular tumours from benign to malignant; however, when diagnosing follicular tumours, the presence of this protein should not be required for diagnosing malignant transformation in all cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16194828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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41. Koh YW, Kim JW, Lee SW, Choi EC: Endoscopic thyroidectomy via a unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation for unilateral benign thyroid lesions. Surg Endosc; 2009 Sep;23(9):2053-60
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  • [Title] Endoscopic thyroidectomy via a unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation for unilateral benign thyroid lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: The usefulness of various endoscopic thyroid surgery techniques has been reviewed.
  • The feasibility and safety of endoscopic thyroid surgery was examined via a novel approach without gas insufflation.
  • A second 1.0-cm skin incision was made along the upper margin of the mammary areola on the tumor side for insertion of a 12-mm trocar.
  • RESULTS: Postoperative pathology showed 11 follicular adenomas, 1 follicular carcinoma, and 40 benign thyroid lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the aspect of invasiveness could be improved, endoscopic hemithyroidectomy via a unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation is safe and effective and appears to provide better cosmetic results and a shorter operation time than other endoscopic methods for managing selective unilateral benign thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18528625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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42. Lyshchik A, Drozd V, Demidchik Y, Reiners C: Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US. Radiology; 2005 May;235(2):604-13
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively analyze the accuracy of various diagnostic criteria for cancer in solid thyroid nodules in children on the basis of gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasonographic (US) findings.
  • One hundred three consecutive pediatric patients with solid thyroid nodules were included in the study.
  • Thirty-five patients had thyroid cancer (mean age, 14.6 years +/- 2.6 [standard deviation]; range, 10-18 years), and 68 patients had benign thyroid nodules (mean age, 14.2 years +/- 2.9; range 9-18 years).
  • Three-dimensional US was used to determine the volume of thyroid gland and thyroid nodules.
  • Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of US criteria for thyroid cancer in lesions with diameter of 15 mm and smaller and lesions with diameter larger than 15 mm.
  • RESULTS: In thyroid nodules with diameter of 15 mm and smaller, the most reliable diagnostic criteria for malignancy were an irregular outline (sensitivity, 69.6%; specificity, 86.4%; P < .001), subcapsular location (sensitivity, 65.2%; specificity, 86.4%; P < .001), and increased intranodular vascularization (sensitivity, 69.6%; specificity, 87.9%; P < .01).
  • For thyroid nodules larger than 15 mm in diameter, the accuracy of US diagnosis was much lower than that for smaller nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: Study findings indicate that US is most helpful in diagnosis of thyroid malignancy in thyroid nodules with diameter of 15 mm and smaller, with detection of irregular tumor outline, subcapsular location, and increased intranodular vascularization.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Enhancement. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenoma / blood supply. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood supply. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15770036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Hunt JL, Yim JH, Carty SE: Fractional allelic loss of tumor suppressor genes identifies malignancy and predicts clinical outcome in follicular thyroid tumors. Thyroid; 2006 Jul;16(7):643-9
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  • [Title] Fractional allelic loss of tumor suppressor genes identifies malignancy and predicts clinical outcome in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • Thyroid follicular tumors can be challenging diagnostically and clinically, because the cytologic and histologic features can be subtle and prognosis is also difficult to predict.
  • In this study, we analyzed thyroid follicular tumors with known long-term follow-up for a molecular panel of tumor suppressor genes to determine whether this molecular approach has prognostic significance.
  • Microdissection and DNA extraction were performed from tumor and normal tissue.
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for 13 short tandem repeats at or near tumor suppressor genes.
  • The mean FAL for benign tumors (14%) was significantly different from that of malignant tumors (56%, p < 0.001).
  • Patients with a follicular tumor who had no evidence of disease recurrence had a mean FAL of 22% and those with disease recurrence or death from disease had a mean of 78% (p < 0.002).
  • Based on these results, a tumor suppressor gene panel for allelic imbalance in follicular-derived tumors (FTT) may correlate with both malignancy and outcome in patients with follicular-derived carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / therapy. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / therapy. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Loss of Heterozygosity. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16889487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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44. Young O, Crotty T, O'Connell R, O'Sullivan J, Curran AJ: Levels of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia. Head Neck; 2010 Jun;32(6):750-6
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  • [Title] Levels of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: This study assessed the presence of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia.
  • METHODS: Using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, we assessed levels of DNA damage (8-oxo-dG) and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE) in 71 follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), 45 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and 17 follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and matched normal thyroid tissue.
  • In contrast, a higher level of 4-HNE expression was detected in normal thyroid tissue compared with matched tumor tissue (p < .001 for all groups).
  • CONCLUSION: High levels of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia indicates this damage is an early event that may influence disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. DNA Damage. Lipid Peroxidation. Thyroid Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2010.
  • (PMID = 19998441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aldehydes; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 29343-52-0 / 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; 88847-89-6 / 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine; G9481N71RO / Deoxyguanosine
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45. Than TH, Swethadri GK, Wong J, Ahmad T, Jamil D, Maganlal RK, Hamdi MM, Abdullah MS: Expression of Galectin-3 and Galectin-7 in thyroid malignancy as potential diagnostic indicators. Singapore Med J; 2008 Apr;49(4):333-8
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  • [Title] Expression of Galectin-3 and Galectin-7 in thyroid malignancy as potential diagnostic indicators.
  • INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that Galectin-3 (Gal-3) and Galectin-7 (Gal-7) are potential tumour markers for differentiating thyroid carcinoma from its benign counter part.
  • Although the value of Gal-3 has been studied extensively, there is little knowledge regarding the expression of Gal-7 in thyroid malignancy.
  • METHODS: We initiated an immunohistochemical (IHC) study on the expression of Gal-3 and Gal-7 on various thyroid lesions.
  • Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded thyroid tissues were stained for IHC expression of Gal-3 and Gal-7 using monoclonal anti-human Gal-3 antibody and anti-human Gal-7 antibody (R&D Systems Inc, MN, USA).
  • RESULTS: A total of 95 cases were collected, including 32 benign and 63 malignant thyroid lesions.
  • These contained 37 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma, nine cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma follicular variant, 16 cases of follicular carcinoma, one case of anaplastic carcinoma, 14 cases of follicular adenomas and 18 cases of nodular goitre.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that the IHC localisation of Gal-3 is a useful marker in conjunction with routine haematoylin and eosin staining in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions, while there is no significant adjunct diagnostic value in Gal-7 for thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Galectins / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 18418527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Galectins; 0 / LGALS7 protein, human
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46. Choi KH, Baek HA, Park HS, Jang KY, Jin GY, Kim MH, Lee YC, Moon WS, Chung MJ: Sclerosing hemangioma, presenting as a pneumonic pattern with mucinous adenomatous hyperplasia of the lung. Pathol Int; 2008 Nov;58(11):735-40
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  • Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma is generally considered a rare neoplasm presenting as a solitary benign nodule.
  • Because this lesion did not have expression of thyroid transcription factor-1, it is described as mucinous adenomatous hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Pulmonary Sclerosing Hemangioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Pneumonia / pathology. Radiography, Thoracic. Transcription Factors / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18844941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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47. Krause K, Eszlinger M, Gimm O, Karger S, Engelhardt C, Dralle H, Fuhrer D: TFF3-based candidate gene discrimination of benign and malignant thyroid tumors in a region with borderline iodine deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Apr;93(4):1390-3
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  • [Title] TFF3-based candidate gene discrimination of benign and malignant thyroid tumors in a region with borderline iodine deficiency.
  • BACKGROUND: With the advent of microarray technology, increasing numbers of marker genes are proposed to distinguish benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • In this paper, we re-evaluate the diagnostic potential of 10 proposed candidate genes in benign and malignant thyroid pathologies in a region with borderline iodine deficiency.
  • METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was performed for CCND2, PLAB, PCSK2, HGD1, TFF3, B4GALT, LGALS3, ETS1, ADM3, and TG in 150 thyroid specimens, including 52 benign thyroid nodules (28 follicular adenoma and 24 adenomatous nodules), 52 corresponding normal thyroid tissues, 20 follicular carcinomas, 20 papillary carcinomas, and six undifferentiated carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: On a single-gene basis, significant differences in mRNA expression were found for TFF3, PLAB, and ADM3 in benign thyroid nodules and thyroid malignancy.
  • Using two-marker gene sets, we identified 11 combinations, which allowed both a distinction of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and a discrimination of follicular adenoma and carcinoma.
  • However, for cancer prediction, analysis of a minimum of six genes per sample was necessary and allowed correct prediction of a benign thyroid lesion and thyroid cancer with 94% accuracy in the most discriminative set (TFF3/PLAB/TG/ADM3/HGD1/LGALS3).
  • CONCLUSION: We confirm the applicability of a number of recently proposed marker genes for the distinction of benign and malignant thyroid tumor and suggest that their diagnostic usefulness is independent of the iodide supply.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine / deficiency. Peptides / genetics. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18198227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TFF3 protein, human; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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48. Pavlov AV, Aleksandrov IuK, Beliakov IE, Korableva TV: [Morphological analysis of genetically damaged thyrocytes in nodular pathology of the thyroid gland]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2007;166(2):58-61
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  • [Title] [Morphological analysis of genetically damaged thyrocytes in nodular pathology of the thyroid gland].
  • The smears of isolated thyrocytes with micronuclei taken from 25 patients with nodular pathology of the thyroid gland were investigated.
  • In all kinds of benign nodular pathology the number of micronucleated thyrocytes comes to 0.1-0.3%.
  • These values correspond to the spontaneous level of the content of aberrant thyrocytes in the thyroid gland of highly specialized cell populations.
  • In papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland the average occurrence of micronucleated thyrocytes in the tumor nodule was about 0.4%.
  • In the tissue outside the tumor taken from both the same and the opposite lobes, the content of cells with micronuclei proved to be substantially higher--0.93-1%.
  • So, the marked increase of the concentration of genetically damaged cells in the thyroid parenchyma proved to be characteristic of the carcinoma of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17665578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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49. Máximo V, Lima J, Soares P, Botelho T, Gomes L, Sobrinho-Simões M: Mitochondrial D-Loop instability in thyroid tumours is not a marker of malignancy. Mitochondrion; 2005 Oct;5(5):333-40
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  • [Title] Mitochondrial D-Loop instability in thyroid tumours is not a marker of malignancy.
  • Despite the numerous studies describing a high frequency of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) somatic mutations in many types of human primary tumors the mechanisms that generate such mutations and the role of mtDNA mutations in tumor development remain unclear.
  • We present the results obtained in the study of mtDNA displacement-loop (D-Loop) region in a series of 66 thyroid tumors, and respective adjacent parenchyma, including benign (adenomas, n=30) and malignant tumors (follicular carcinomas, n=17 and papillary carcinomas, n=19).
  • We conclude that mutations in the mtDNA D-Loop region are frequent in benign and malignant thyroid tumors and cannot be considered a marker of malignancy.
  • Our study shows, furthermore, two repetitive regions (D310 and D514) that appear to be susceptible to mutation in thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Mitochondria / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Base Sequence. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. DNA / metabolism. DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. DNA, Mitochondrial / metabolism. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation. Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid

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  • (PMID = 16183030.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-7249
  • [Journal-full-title] Mitochondrion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mitochondrion
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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50. Niedźwiecki S, Stepień T, Kuzdak K, Stepień H, Krupiński R, Seehofer D, Rayes N, Ulrich F: Serum levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in thyroid cancer patients. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2008 May;393(3):275-80
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  • [Title] Serum levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in thyroid cancer patients.
  • Therefore, we performed a prospective study, analyzing IL-1ra in thyroid cancer patients.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured preoperative IL-1ra serum levels of 52 consecutive patients with thyroid cancer, 15 with benign adenoma and 27 healthy volunteers.
  • Future efforts should focus on the possible application of IL-1ra as a biomarker for the above-mentioned thyroid malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / blood. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Medullary / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reference Values. Sex Factors. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2009 Mar;394(2):401-2; author reply 403 [18825404.001]
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  • (PMID = 18064485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IL1RN protein, human; 0 / Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein
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51. Carney JA, Hirokawa M, Lloyd RV, Papotti M, Sebo TJ: Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid gland are almost all benign. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Dec;32(12):1877-89
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid gland are almost all benign.
  • In 1987, Carney et al reported 11 thyroid tumors with the following features: circumscription or encapsulation, trabecular architecture with intratrabecular hyalin and colloid, polygonal and spindle cells, nuclei with frequent grooves and cytoplasmic inclusions, occasional psammoma bodies, and a low mitotic rate.
  • Subsequently, the nuclear features of the neoplasm led to the introduction of 2 modified titles for it, hyalinizing trabecular tumor and hyalinizing trabecular neoplasm.
  • Later, discovery of RET/PTC mutations in the tumor resulted in it being designated as a type of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • One tumor showed vascular and capsular invasion, and pulmonary metastasis.
  • We conclude that the overwhelming majority of hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid behave as benign neoplasms and that, at this time, hyalinizing trabecular adenoma is the most appropriate title for them.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18813121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Maizlin ZV, Wiseman SM, Vora P, Kirby JM, Mason AC, Filipenko D, Brown JA: Hurthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid: sonographic appearance and histologic characteristics. J Ultrasound Med; 2008 May;27(5):751-7; quiz 759
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  • [Title] Hurthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid: sonographic appearance and histologic characteristics.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the sonographic features of Hürthle cell neoplasms (HCNs) of the thyroid.
  • Two tumors (13%) were predominantly hypoechoic with isoechoic areas to thyroid parenchyma.
  • Two (13%) neoplasms were isoechoic to thyroid parenchyma.
  • One tumor was avascular on Doppler examination.
  • Twelve HCNs were benign, and 3 were malignant on pathologic examination.
  • Pathologic criteria differentiating benign and malignant HCNs (absence or presence of a capsular breach, vascular or extrathyroidal tissue invasion, nodal involvement, and distant metastasis) are beyond the resolution of sonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy and require removal of the entire lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / ultrasonography. Female. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Regional Blood Flow / physiology. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 18424651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Sillery JC, Reading CC, Charboneau JW, Henrichsen TL, Hay ID, Mandrekar JN: Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jan;194(1):44-54
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate sonography of thyroid follicular neoplasms for features that would aid in distinguishing follicular carcinoma from follicular adenoma and for any imaging features that distinguish the Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma from classic follicular carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort consisted of patients with the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma and patients with the diagnosis of follicular adenoma.
  • Fifty-two control patients (10 men and 42 women; median age, 46.5 years) were selected from a random sampling of all cases of follicular adenoma during the same time period.
  • All study patients and control patients underwent surgical resection and pathologic analysis of their thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Hypoechoic appearance (82% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 50% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; odds ratio [OR]), 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7), absence of halo (64% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 42% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9), absence of cystic change (90% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 69% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), greater patient age (median age of 59.5 years for follicular carcinoma patients vs 46.5 years for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), size of the tumor (median size of 11.75 mL for follicular carcinoma patients vs 5.95 mL for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), and male sex (50% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 19.2% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.9) were more frequently associated with follicular thyroid cancer than with benign adenoma.
  • There was no association between tumor volume, sex, sonographic halo, refractive shadowing, echogenicity, visible invasion, lymph node enlargement, adjacent nonfollicular suspicious lesions, vascularity subtype, and cystic change between the subgroups of follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The sonographic features of follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are very similar, but larger lesion size, lack of a sonographic halo, hypoechoic appearance, and absence of cystic change favored a follicular carcinoma diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20028904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Miguel-Pérez P, Herrera-Hernández M, Padilla-Rodríguez A, Martínez-Consuegra N: [Thyroid oncocytic adenoma. A review of the morphological spectrum in four cases]. Gac Med Mex; 2007 Nov-Dec;143(6):517-22
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  • [Title] [Thyroid oncocytic adenoma. A review of the morphological spectrum in four cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma oncocítico de tiroides (adenoma de células de Hürthle). Revisión del espectro morfológico a propósito de cuatro casos.
  • In the thyroid gland, this change is a metaplastic phenomenon that takes place under different circumstances that promote cellular stress, and could even produce a true neoplasm, both benign or malignant.
  • The oncocytic adenoma, a malignant tumor will be described.
  • Tumor characteristics in all cases included: massive ischemic necrosis short after a fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed, unexpected large size, coexistence with a malignant independent neoplasm and cytological features similar to those observed in papillary carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18269084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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55. Spielhagen C, Stier A, Hegenscheid K, Vogelgesang S, Lerch MM, Wallaschofski H: [Rare cause of hypercalcemia]. Internist (Berl); 2009 Mar;50(3):361-7
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  • After undergoing CT-guided biopsy of a metastasis, histology revealed an endocrine primary tumor with low parathyroid hormone expression.
  • In view of the history, clinical and biochemical findings we diagnosed a recently metastasized functioning parathyroid carcinoma, which eight years previously has been labeled as a benign atypical thyroid adenoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is an uncommon tumor.
  • Patients with parathyroid carcinoma mostly die from uncontrollable hypercalcemia rather than from other tumor-related complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [ISSN] 1432-1289
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
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  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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56. Guerra LN, Miler EA, Moiguer S, Karner M, Orlandi AM, Fideleff H, Burdman JA: Telomerase activity in fine needle aspiration biopsy samples: application to diagnosis of human thyroid carcinoma. Clin Chim Acta; 2006 Aug;370(1-2):180-4
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  • [Title] Telomerase activity in fine needle aspiration biopsy samples: application to diagnosis of human thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by fine needle aspiration biopsy is a well known problem in thyroid pathology.
  • METHODS: We evaluated telomerase activity (TA) in 85 fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) samples from patients with thyroid nodules.
  • Surgery samples from patients with tumor or follicular adenomas were also analyzed.
  • Tumor tissues from patients with follicular or papillary thyroid carcinomas presented TA >10 Units, whereas follicular adenoma tissues (benign nodules) showed no TA.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results showed a good correlation between TA in FNAB samples and tumor/nodule thyroid tissue.
  • This suggested that use of TA as a biological marker of malignancy might be a useful tool in the diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinomas or follicular thyroid adenomas using FNAB samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Telomerase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Humans. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Chim Acta. 2007 Sep;384(1-2):188
  • (PMID = 16600201.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-8981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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57. Lardinois D, Weder W, Roudas M, von Schulthess GK, Tutic M, Moch H, Stahel RA, Steinert HC: Etiology of solitary extrapulmonary positron emission tomography and computed tomography findings in patients with lung cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Oct 1;23(28):6846-53
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  • Histopathologic examinations of these 32 lesions revealed a second clinically unsuspected malignancy or a recurrence of a previous diagnosed carcinoma in six patients (19%) and a benign tumor or inflammatory lesion in 26 patients (81%).
  • Benign tumors and inflammatory lesions included eight colon adenomas, four Warthin's tumors, one granuloma of the lower jaw, one adenoma of the thyroid gland, one compensatory muscle activity due to vocal chord palsy, two occurrences of arthritis, three occurrences of reflux esophagitis, two occurrences of pancreatitis, two occurrences of diverticulitis, one hemorrhoidal inflammation, and one rib fracture.
  • CONCLUSION: Solitary extrapulmonary FDG accumulations in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer should be analyzed critically for correct staging and optimal therapy, given that up to half of the lesions may represent unrelated malignancies or benign disease.

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  • (PMID = 16192576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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58. Rippe V, Dittberner L, Lorenz VN, Drieschner N, Nimzyk R, Sendt W, Junker K, Belge G, Bullerdiek J: The two stem cell microRNA gene clusters C19MC and miR-371-3 are activated by specific chromosomal rearrangements in a subgroup of thyroid adenomas. PLoS One; 2010;5(3):e9485
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  • [Title] The two stem cell microRNA gene clusters C19MC and miR-371-3 are activated by specific chromosomal rearrangements in a subgroup of thyroid adenomas.
  • Thyroid adenomas are common benign human tumors with a high prevalence of about 5% of the adult population even in iodine sufficient areas.
  • In 4/5 cell lines established from thyroid adenomas with 19q13.4 rearrangements and 5/5 primary adenomas with that type of rearrangement both the C19MC and miR-371-3 cluster were found to be significantly overexpressed compared to controls lacking that particular chromosome abnormality.
  • In depth molecular characterization of the breakpoint in a cell line from one adenoma of this type reveals the existence of large Pol-II mRNA fragments as the most likely source of up-regulation of the C19MC cluster.
  • Of note, the expression of miRNAs miR-520c and miR-373 is known to characterize stem cells and in terms of molecular oncology has been implicated in invasive growth of epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo thus allowing to delineate a distinct molecular subtype of thyroid adenomas.
  • Besides thyroid adenomas rearrangements of 19q13.4 are frequently found in other human neoplasias as well, suggesting that activation of both clusters might be a more general phenomenon in human neoplasias.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Chromosomes / ultrastructure. Gene Rearrangement. MicroRNAs / genetics. Multigene Family. Stem Cells / cytology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Molecular Sequence Data. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20209130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ GQ334687/ GQ334688
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MIRN371 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2831057
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59. Rohan S, Tu JJ, Kao J, Mukherjee P, Campagne F, Zhou XK, Hyjek E, Alonso MA, Chen YT: Gene expression profiling separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport and cell junction proteins as differentially expressed genes. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Dec 1;12(23):6937-45
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  • PURPOSE: To compare gene expression profiles of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign oncocytoma, aiming at identifying differentially expressed genes.
  • Candidate genes that showed consistent differential expression were validated by reverse transcription-PCR using 25 fresh-frozen and 15 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples.
  • Five of these genes, AP1M2, MAL2, PROM2, PRSS8, and FLJ20171, were shown to effectively separate these two tumor groups by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR using fresh tissue samples, with similar trends seen on formalin-fixed tissues.
  • Functional analyses suggest that genes encoding tight junction proteins and vesicular membrane trafficking proteins, normally expressed in distal nephrons, are retained in chromophobe RCC and lost or consistently down-regulated in oncocytoma, indicating that these two tumor types, believed to be both derived from distal tubules, are likely distinctive in their histogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Vesicular Transport Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17145811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AP1M2 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Protein Complex 1; 0 / Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits; 0 / FLJ20171 protein, human; 0 / MAL2 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Myelin and Lymphocyte-Associated Proteolipid Proteins; 0 / PROM2 protein, human; 0 / Proteolipids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / prostasin
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60. Nosé V, Volante M, Papotti M: Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: an update. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(1):1-8
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: an update.
  • Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT) is a rare thyroid tumor of follicular cell origin with a trabecular pattern of growth and marked intratrabecular hyalinization.
  • This tumor is known to share morphological and architectural similarities with paraganglioma and medullary thyroid carcinoma, as well as the nuclear features and RET/PTC1 translocations of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Whether the presence of RET alterations in HTT are sufficient molecular proof of its relationship with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is still to be defined.
  • Of great interest is the characteristic strong peripheral cytoplasmic and membranous staining of the tumor cells with MIB1 immunostain, not seen in any other thyroid neoplasm.
  • Although cases of malignant HTT have been recorded, HTT should be considered a benign neoplasm or, at most, a neoplasm of extremely low malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calcitonin / analysis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Chromogranin A / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Paraganglioma / pathology. Sex Characteristics

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  • (PMID = 17960500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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61. Weber F, Aldred MA, Morrison CD, Plass C, Frilling A, Broelsch CE, Waite KA, Eng C: Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;90(2):1149-55
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  • [Title] Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • The two most common subtypes of thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma, have been extensively studied, but our fundamental understanding of the molecular events in thyroid epithelial oncogenesis is still limited.
  • Unreported data from our previous published global gene expression analysis revealed that the tumor suppressor gene aplysia ras homolog I (ARHI) is frequently underexpressed in FTCs.
  • In this study, we elucidated the frequency and mechanism of ARHI silencing in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia.
  • We demonstrated that underexpression of ARHI occurs principally in FTCs (P = 0.0018), including its oncocytic variant (11 of 13), even at minimally invasive stage but not classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (two of seven) or follicular adenoma (FA) (three of 14).
  • Therefore, our data suggest that silencing of the putative maternally imprinted tumor suppressor gene ARHI, primarily by large genomic deletion in conjunction with hypermethylation of the genomically imprinted allele, serves as a key early event in follicular thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Gene Silencing. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genomic Imprinting / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15546898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA16059
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / DIRAS3 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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62. Beil CM, Keberle M: Oral and oropharyngeal tumors. Eur J Radiol; 2008 Jun;66(3):448-59
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  • There is a large variability of tumors and tumor-like lesions, which are located in the oral cavity and oropharynx.
  • About 10% of all oral and oropharyngeal tumors are benign.
  • Congenital lesions, like vascular malformations, lingual thyroid or (epi-)dermoid cyst, usually become present in youth or childhood.
  • Acquired lesions can be inflammatory (abscess) or neoplastic (pleomorphic adenoma and hemangioma).

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  • (PMID = 18457933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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63. Matsuo SE, Fiore AP, Siguematu SM, Ebina KN, Friguglietti CU, Ferro MC, Kulcsar MA, Kimura ET: Expression of SMAD proteins, TGF-beta/activin signaling mediators, in human thyroid tissues. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Jun;54(4):406-12
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  • [Title] Expression of SMAD proteins, TGF-beta/activin signaling mediators, in human thyroid tissues.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of SMAD proteins in human thyroid tissues since the inactivation of TGF-beta/activin signaling components is reported in several types of cancer.
  • Although TGF-beta and activin exert antiproliferative roles in thyroid follicular cells, thyroid tumors express high levels of these proteins.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protein expression of SMADs was evaluated in multinodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary and follicular carcinomas by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: The expression of pSMAD2/3, SMAD4 and SMAD7 was observed in both benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • Although pSMAD2/3, SMAD4 and SMAD7 exhibited high cytoplasmic staining in carcinomas, the nuclear staining of pSMAD2/3 was not different between benign and malignant lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The finding of SMADs expression in thyroid cells and the presence of pSMAD2/3 and SMAD4 proteins in the nucleus of tumor cells indicates propagation of TGF-beta/activin signaling.
  • However, the high expression of the inhibitory SMAD7, mostly in malignant tumors, could contribute to the attenuation of the SMADs antiproliferative signaling in thyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Activins / physiology. Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Humans. Signal Transduction / physiology. Smad2 Protein / analysis. Smad3 Protein / analysis. Smad4 Protein / analysis. Smad7 Protein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20625653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SMAD2 protein, human; 0 / SMAD3 protein, human; 0 / SMAD4 protein, human; 0 / SMAD7 protein, human; 0 / Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated; 0 / Smad2 Protein; 0 / Smad3 Protein; 0 / Smad4 Protein; 0 / Smad7 Protein; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 104625-48-1 / Activins
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64. van Staveren WC, Solís DW, Delys L, Duprez L, Andry G, Franc B, Thomas G, Libert F, Dumont JE, Detours V, Maenhaut C: Human thyroid tumor cell lines derived from different tumor types present a common dedifferentiated phenotype. Cancer Res; 2007 Sep 1;67(17):8113-20
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  • [Title] Human thyroid tumor cell lines derived from different tumor types present a common dedifferentiated phenotype.
  • Thyrocyte-derived tumors are very interesting for cancer biology studies because from one cell type, at least five histologically characterized different benign and malignant tumor types can arise.
  • To investigate whether thyroid tumor-derived cell lines are representative in vitro models, characteristics of eight of those cell lines were investigated with microarrays, differentiation markers, and karyotyping.
  • Our results indicate that these cell lines derived from differentiated and undifferentiated tumor types have evolved in vitro into similar phenotypes with gene expression profiles the closest to in vivo undifferentiated tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cluster Analysis. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Karyotyping. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Organ Specificity / genetics. Phenotype. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyrotropin / pharmacology


65. Machiavelli GA, Pauni M, Heredia Sereno GM, Szijan I, Basso A, Burdman JA: T3 receptors in human pituitary tumors. Neurol Res; 2009 Nov;31(9):928-30
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  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to investigate the synthesis of T3 receptors in human tumors of the anterior pituitary gland, its relationship with the hormone synthesized and/or secreted by the tumor and the post-surgical evolution of the patient.
  • METHODS: Patients were evaluated clinically and by magnetic nuclear resonance to classify the adenoma according to their size.
  • They were present in different histological specimens, the tumors were grades 1-4 according to their size, and there was no relationship between the size of the tumor and the presence of T3 receptor RNAs.
  • DISCUSSION: The presence of thyroid hormone receptors in pituitary tumors is in line with two important characteristics of these tumors: they are histologically benign and well differentiated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Thyroid Hormone / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19138463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-1328
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Thyroid Hormone; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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66. Evenson A, Mowschenson P, Wang H, Connolly J, Mendrinos S, Parangi S, Hasselgren PO: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg; 2007 Jun;193(6):707-12
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma (HTA) is an uncommon benign thyroid tumor that can present as a solitary thyroid nodule, a prominent nodule in a multinodular goiter, or as an incidental finding in a thyroidectomy specimen.
  • METHODS: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 7 patients presenting with a solitary thyroid nodule (n = 4) or a multinodular goiter (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although HTA is a rare condition of the thyroid, the surgeon needs to be aware of this entity to be able to better discuss the pathological findings with the patient, particularly since some pathologists and endocrinologists believe that HTA may represent a malignant neoplasm of low metastatic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17512281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Krzysztof K, Wiktor B, Tadeusz Ł, Waldemar B, Magdalena K, Janusz D: Neuroendocrine tumours--analysis of own material--a nine--year retrospective study. Hepatogastroenterology; 2010 Mar-Apr;57(98):236-41
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  • The aim of this study was to present the author's observations of the histological tumor types, occurrence and its surgical treatment.
  • Ultrasonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal cavity, pelvis, thorax or neck--depend on the tumor localization--were done in every individual.
  • All cases were subjected to surgical procedure with an aim to resect the tumour completely.
  • RESULTS: In the present study were observed 6 cases of carcinoids localized in ileum, cecum and sigmoid colon, 1 case of gastrinoma in pancreatic head localization, 1 case of insulinoma localized in pancreatic tail, 1 case of vipoma localised in pancreatic head, 2 cases of nesidioblastoma and 1 case of microcystic adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation in pancreatic tail localization and 1 case of nonspecific apudoma observed in ileum.
  • In the study we have also 11 cases of medullary thyroid carcinomas.
  • In adrenal glands we observed 10 benign and 1 malignant pheochromocytoma (one bilateral female case with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2A).

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  • (PMID = 20583420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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68. Lo CY, Lam KY, Leung PP, Luk JM: High prevalence of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Apr;152(4):545-50
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  • [Title] High prevalence of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) seems to play a role in the development and carcinogenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Its incidence of expression and potential application as a tumor marker remain to be elucidated.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for COX-2 expression was performed for 30 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and 40 benign thyroid specimens.
  • RESULTS: COX-2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 27 of 30 (90%) PTC but was absent in 40 benign thyroid specimens, including 27 nodular hyperplasia, 7 follicular adenoma and 6 lymphocytic thyroiditis.
  • Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that the level of COX-2 mRNA expression was significantly higher in PTC than in both the adjacent non-cancerous tissues and the benign thyroid specimens.
  • CONCLUSION: COX-2 is frequently expressed in PTC but not in benign thyroid specimens.

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  • (PMID = 15817909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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69. Fryknäs M, Wickenberg-Bolin U, Göransson H, Gustafsson MG, Foukakis T, Lee JJ, Landegren U, Höög A, Larsson C, Grimelius L, Wallin G, Pettersson U, Isaksson A: Molecular markers for discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors. Tumour Biol; 2006;27(4):211-20
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  • [Title] Molecular markers for discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify molecular markers useful for the diagnostic discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • METHODS: A panel of thyroid tumors was characterized with expression profiling using cDNA microarrays.
  • A robust algorithm for gene selection was developed to identify molecular markers useful for the classification of heterogeneous tumor classes.
  • The study included tumor tissue specimens from 10 patients with benign follicular adenomas and from 10 with malignant tumors.
  • Several of the identified genes, for example DIO1, CITED1, CA12 and FN1, have previously been observed as differentially expressed in various thyroid tumors.
  • These genes have the potential for molecular classification of follicular thyroid tumors and for providing improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in thyroid malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Genetic Markers. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16675914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Genetic Markers
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70. Oh JG, Yoon CH, Lee CW: Case of Cowden syndrome associated with eccrine angiomatous hamartoma. J Dermatol; 2007 Feb;34(2):135-7
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  • Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple hamartomatous tumors of ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal origin.
  • Thyroid adenoma was diagnosed at age 46.
  • Histological examination of the skin lesion on the left foot showed an increased numbers of eccrine sweat glands and blood vessels, which are characteristic histological findings of eccrine angiomatous hamartoma (EAH), a rare benign tumor.

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  • (PMID = 17239153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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71. Chang YJ, Mittal V, Remine S, Manyam H, Sabir M, Richardson T, Young S: Correlation between clinical and histological findings in parathyroid tumors suspicious for carcinoma. Am Surg; 2006 May;72(5):419-26
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  • Among 168 patients who underwent parathyroid excision, 14 (8.3%) had hyperplasia of the parathyroid, 121 (72%) had benign adenoma, 25 (14.8%) had other benign lesions, and 8 (4.7%) patients had primary carcinoma of the parathyroid confirmed by pathology.
  • Our mean serum calcium level was 11.57 mg/dL, which was lower than the mean level (12 mg/dL) for benign hyperparathyroidism.
  • The mean tumor size was 2.18 cm, smaller than the proposed for malignant criteria, and none of the eight patients (0%) had any symptoms of hypercalcemia at the time of diagnosis.
  • Seven of eight patients (87.5%) had frank signs of invasion together with other histological features, and two patients had associated papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Five patients from our series did not meet clinical criteria for malignancy (tumor size > 3 cm, palpable mass, and serum calcium > 14 mg/dL), but had undisputable histological findings (high mitotic pattern, fibrous trabeculae, capsular invasion, vascular invasion, and nodular involvement).
  • On the other hand, 17 patients with benign histology had tumors greater than 3 cm, and an additional 18 had palpable masses on physical examination.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Aged, 80 and over. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16719197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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72. Pujani M, Arora B, Pujani M, Singh SK, Tejwani N: Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Jul-Sep;47(3):304-7
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  • [Title] Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Specific criteria are used to diagnose thyroid neoplasms; however, the distinction between certain neoplasms, such as follicular adenoma and carcinoma, could be difficult.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the role of the proliferative marker Ki-67 in nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the thyroid, with a special emphasis on the distinction between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred cases of thyroid lesions, including 50 nonneoplastic and 50 neoplastic lesions, were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Pt.
  • RESULTS: Ki-67 labeling index (LI) showed a progressive rise from multinodular goiter to benign to malignant neoplasms.
  • A statistically significant difference was observed in Ki-67 counts between multinodular goiter vs papillary carcinoma (P < 0.05) and follicular adenoma vs follicular carcinoma (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, Ki-67 was found to be useful in differentiating between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, but since the sample size of our study was small, larger studies are needed to confirm this observation as well as to assign a cutoff value for differentiating benign from malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Cancer. 2011 Jul-Sep;48(3):378 [21921351.001]
  • (PMID = 20587907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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73. Singh A, Pandey KC, Pant NK: Cavitary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of lung with metastases in skeletal muscles as presenting features: a case report and review of the literature. J Cancer Res Ther; 2010 Jul-Sep;6(3):350-2
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  • Later studies showed that they can arise as a primary in bronchus, esophagus, lacrimal glands, pancreas, thymus and thyroid gland.
  • Initially described as a benign adenoma, it is now considered to be a malignant epithelial tumor.

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  • (PMID = 21119274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
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74. Cerutti JM: [Nodule diagnosed as follicular patterned lesion: are biomarkers the promise?]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Jul;51(5):832-42
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  • There are an increasing number of thyroid nodules found by ultrasound and sampled by fine needle aspiration (FNA).
  • A clinical problem is the accurate distinction between benign and malignant forms of follicular lesion.
  • In this review we discuss the thyroid lesions that are common sources of diagnostic error, and grouped together as follicular patterned lesion, and the molecular markers identified by us and others, and that are able to distinguish the benign from the malignant ones.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Arginine / genetics. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. PPAR gamma / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Transcription Factor CHOP

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  • (PMID = 17891248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DDIT3 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 147336-12-7 / Transcription Factor CHOP; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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75. Wang EL, Qian ZR, Rahman MM, Yoshimoto K, Yamada S, Kudo E, Sano T: Increased expression of HMGA1 correlates with tumour invasiveness and proliferation in human pituitary adenomas. Histopathology; 2010 Mar;56(4):501-9
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  • [Title] Increased expression of HMGA1 correlates with tumour invasiveness and proliferation in human pituitary adenomas.
  • AIMS: High-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) is highly expressed in various benign and malignant tumours.
  • The development of pituitary adenoma in Hmga1 transgenic mice has been reported.
  • Although HMGA1 expression was frequently detected in clinically non-functioning adenomas - 90% of silent adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 76.2% of follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone and 100% of null cell adenomas - it was also detected in 48.1% of growth hormone (GH), 60% of mixed GH/prolactin (PRL), 62.5% of PRL, 66.6% of thyroid-stimulating hormone and 37.5% of ACTH adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that HMGA1 up-regulation has an important oncogenic role in pituitary tumorigenesis, as well as being a novel molecular marker of tumour proliferation and invasiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. HMGA Proteins / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Case-Control Studies. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tumor Burden. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 20459557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA Proteins
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76. Kameyama K, Ito K, Takami H: [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1973-8
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  • [Title] [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor].
  • True benign neoplasm of the thyroid gland is only follicular adenoma, which is a tumor derived from follicular cells.
  • Follicular adenoma is well-circumscribed, with no evidence of capsular or vascular invasion.
  • The architectural pattern of follicular adenoma varies from trabecular to macrofollicular, and in most instances more than one architectural pattern is observed in one tumor.
  • Adenomatous goiter, a hyperplastic lesion of follicles, is the most common tumorous lesion of thyroid gland.
  • Mature or immature teratoma is also observed in the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18018557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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77. Raggio E, Camandona M, Solerio D, Martino P, Franchello A, Orlandi F, Gasparri G: The diagnostic accuracy of the immunocytochemical markers in the pre-operative evaluation of follicular thyroid lesions. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jun;33(6):378-81
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  • [Title] The diagnostic accuracy of the immunocytochemical markers in the pre-operative evaluation of follicular thyroid lesions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 100 patients suffering from thyroid nodular disease submitted to thyroidectomy from 2006 to 2007 in our Institution.
  • The GAL3 expression in neoplastic and benign lesions was significantly different (GAL3+ in 16 out of 29 neoplastic lesions, GAL3+ 0 out of 31 benign lesions, p<0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Biomarkers / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Keratin-19 / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19625759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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78. He CN, He L, Cheng JQ, Chen SC, Zhao HF, Zhai JP, Zhang J: [Expression of Twist in papillary thyroid carcinomas and its roles in differential diagnosis]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Jan;37(1):35-9
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  • [Title] [Expression of Twist in papillary thyroid carcinomas and its roles in differential diagnosis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study Twist expression in thyroid papillary carcinoma (PTC) by immunohistochemistry and to assess its usefulness as marker in the differential diagnosis of PTC, follicular adenomas (FA) and benign papillary lesions (BPL).
  • Immunohistochemical staining of Twist has important significance in the differential diagnosis of thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Twist Transcription Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Diagnosis, Differential. Galectin 3 / genetics. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-19 / genetics. Keratins / genetics. Keratins / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18509983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / TWIST1 protein, human; 0 / Twist Transcription Factor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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79. Camera A, Magri F, Fonte R, Villani L, Della Porta MG, Fregoni V, Manna LL, Chiovato L: Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):1033-6
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  • [Title] Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule.
  • BACKGROUND: Most solitary hyperfunctiong regions on thyroid scan consist of benign tissue.
  • SUMMARY: A 56-year-old man was referred to our Endocrine Unit in May 2009 due to the incidental discovery of a large left thyroid lobe nodule by a computed tomography study.
  • This had been performed to search for a primitive tumor in a patient with bone metastasis.
  • He was clinically and biochemically thyrotoxic with no evidence of humoral thyroid autoimmunity.
  • The nodule had a dyshomogenous appearance at neck ultrasonography, with multiple hypoechogenic areas and calcifications. (99m)-Technetium thyroid scintiscan revealed a hot nodule with suppression of the contralateral lobe.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated the presence of neoplastic cells not of thyroid origin.
  • Histological analysis of the surgical specimen led to a diagnosis of Burkitt-like large B-cell lymphoma harbored within a thyroid adenoma.
  • After further staging, the final diagnosis was stage IV E Burkitt-like lymphoma with the involvement of the bone and the thyroid.
  • This is the first description of an aggressive Burkitt-like lymphoma that infiltrated an hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma, thus presenting as a hot nodule at thyroid scintiscan.
  • In our patient there was no humoral or histological evidence of thyroid autoimmunity, thus suggesting a metastatic seeding of the lymphoma within the hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Involvement of the thyroid gland by Burkitt-like lymphoma is extremely rare as is close localization of malignancy and a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20825299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7440-26-8 / Technetium; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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80. Lee KJ, Jung YS, Kim WH, Yoon TI, Joo HJ, Soh EY: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human thyroid disease. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Feb;31(2):111-8
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human thyroid disease.
  • Therefore, the goals of the present study were to determine the possible involvement of COX-2 in human thyroid diseases.
  • METHODS: We used immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis to characterize the expression of COX-2 proteins in thyroid tissues from 64 patients with thyroiditis, benign tumors, and malignant tumors with or without metastasis.
  • RESULTS: COX-2 proteins were not expressed in normal thyroid tissues.
  • However, each type of tumor tissue showed intense bands of COX-2 protein expression in Western blot analyses, and the immunoreactivity scores were 7.67+/-1.17 (SD) for thyroiditis, 7.87+/-0.9 for benign tumors, 7.53+/-1.53 for follicular cancer, 7.63+/-1.11 for papillary cancer without metastasis, and 7.17+/-1.55 for papillary cancer with metastasis.
  • No significant differences were found in the levels of COX-2 expression between different tumor tissue types.
  • CONCLUSION: No significant correlations were observed between clinical and/or pathological characteristics of thyroid tumors and the intensity of COX-2 protein expression.
  • In addition, we found no difference in COX-2 protein expression between thyroiditis and thyroid tumors.
  • Thus, up-regulation of COX-2 protein synthesis in human thyroid diseases does not appear to be of clinical significance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18362501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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81. Abbasova SG, Vysotskii MM, Ovchinnikova LK, Obusheva MN, Digaeva MA, Britvin TA, Bahoeva KA, Karabekova ZK, Kazantzeva IA, Mamedov UR, Manuchin IB, Davidov MI: Cancer and soluble FAS. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2009 Oct;148(4):638-42
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  • A test system developed by the authors was used to measure serum concentrations of soluble Fas in patients with malignant and benign tumors of different location and morphology.
  • No appreciable differences in the concentrations of soluble Fas were detected in malignant and benign tumors of the mammary gland, bones, ovaries, and adrenals.
  • In thyroid cancer, soluble Fas levels were higher than in benign and hyperplastic processes in this organ.
  • High level of soluble Fas is associated with late stages of the disease (ovarian cancer, cancer of the corpus uteri, adrenocortical and colorectal cancer) and with poor differentiation of the tumor (ovarian cancer and cancer of the corpus uteri), with local metastases (colorectal and adrenocortical cancer), and with tumor invasion into the myometrial tissue, intestinal wall, and adjacent tissues (cancer of the corpus uteri and colorectal cancer).
  • Soluble Fas levels depended on tumor histogenesis in malignant and benign ovarian tumors.
  • High concentration of soluble Fas was detected in large tumors in patients with ovarian cancer, cancer of the corpus uteri, colorectal cancer, thyroid cancer and adenoma, and in adrenocortical cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20396760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-8221
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95
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82. Snarska J, Szajda SD, Knaś M, Mroczko B, Borzym-Kluczyk M, Kamiński F, Zwierz P, Zwierz K: [Usefulness of detecting cancer procoagulant activity and thyrotropic hormone concentration in the differentiation of tumor-like changes in the thyroid]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(5-6):332-5
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of detecting cancer procoagulant activity and thyrotropic hormone concentration in the differentiation of tumor-like changes in the thyroid].
  • Epidemiological studies have shown the increased incidence of malignant cancer of the thyroid gland observed in the last decade.
  • This increase is connected with the elevated number of benign tumor-like/tuberous changes in the thyroid gland.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of detecting cancer procoagulant activity (CP) and thyrotropic hormone concentration (TSH) in the differentiation of tumor-like changes in the thyroid gland.
  • The study included 15 patients (12 women and 3 men) with adenoma glandulae thyreoideae or nodular changes in the character of struma nodosa hyperplastica and 12 patients (11 women and 1 man) with carcinoma glandulae thyreoideae.
  • The results of our study indicate that the determination of CP activity can be used in the differential diagnosis of tumor-like changes of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cysteine Endopeptidases / blood. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blood Coagulation Factors / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17017477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Blood Coagulation Factors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.22.26 / cancer procoagulant
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83. Lappinga PJ, Kip NS, Jin L, Lloyd RV, Henry MR, Zhang J, Nassar A: HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Oct 25;118(5):287-97
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  • [Title] HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of thyroid nodules with an indeterminate diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) (eg, "suspicious for follicular neoplasm") prove to be benign at the time of surgical resection.
  • Ancillary tests in current use are limited in their ability to improve the preoperative detection of malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • Studies using paraffin-embedded tissue have indicated that high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression is present in a high percentage of malignant thyroid neoplasms but not in benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • In the current study, the ability of HMGA2 overexpression analysis to preoperatively distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on suspicious cytologic smears was evaluated.
  • METHODS: Patients who underwent thyroid FNA and subsequent thyroid resection from 2001 through 2007 were identified.
  • With an HMGA2 overexpression change of 5.9-fold or greater compared with a thyroid tumor cell line as a positive cutoff, the test was found to have the following overall performance for detecting malignant nodules: sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 97%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 84%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HMGA2 mRNA expression analysis can be performed on cytologic smears and demonstrates a high specificity and positive predictive value and relatively high sensitivity and negative predictive value for detecting malignancy in "suspicious" thyroid aspirate specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. HMGA2 Protein / genetics. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20597139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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84. Hemerly JP, Bastos AU, Cerutti JM: Identification of several novel non-p.R132 IDH1 variants in thyroid carcinomas. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Nov;163(5):747-55
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  • [Title] Identification of several novel non-p.R132 IDH1 variants in thyroid carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether IDH1 had somatically acquired mutations in thyroid carcinomas.
  • DESIGN: Exons 4 and 6 of IDH1 were sequenced in a large panel of thyroid tumours (n=138) and compared with the patients normal DNA (n=26).
  • RESULTS: We identified four novel and two previously described non-synonymous variants in thyroid carcinomas, which were absent in benign tumours and paired normal thyroid.
  • Although IDH1 variants occurred at higher frequency in follicular thyroid carcinomas, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas than the observed variants in classical PTC (15/72 vs 3/37), it was not significant (P=0.1).
  • CONCLUSION: IDH1-acquired genetic alterations are highly prevalent in thyroid carcinomas (16%).
  • Our findings not only extend our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying pathogenesis of thyroid tumours, but also emphasize the biological differences between tumour types.

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  • (PMID = 20702649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
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85. Prasad ML, Pellegata NS, Huang Y, Nagaraja HN, de la Chapelle A, Kloos RT: Galectin-3, fibronectin-1, CITED-1, HBME1 and cytokeratin-19 immunohistochemistry is useful for the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jan;18(1):48-57
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  • [Title] Galectin-3, fibronectin-1, CITED-1, HBME1 and cytokeratin-19 immunohistochemistry is useful for the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors.
  • The diagnosis of thyroid tumors is critical for clinical management; however, tumors with follicular architecture often present problems.
  • We evaluated the diagnostic use of the protein expression of four genes that were found to be upregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma compared to normal thyroid (LGALS3, FN1, CITED1 and KRT19), and of the mesothelial cell surface protein recognized by monoclonal antibody HBME1 in thyroid tumors.
  • The expression of all five proteins was significantly associated with malignancy, and highly specific (> or = 90%) for carcinoma compared to adenoma.
  • Coexpression of FN1 and GAL3 (FN1+ GAL3+, 70/85) or FN1 and HBME1 (FN1+ HBME1+, 53/85) was restricted to carcinomas, while their concurrent absence (FN1- GAL3- or FN1- HBME1-, 18/21 adenoma) was highly specific (96%) for benign lesions.
  • An immunohistochemical panel consisting of GAL3, FN1 and HBME1 may be useful in the diagnosis of follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fibronectins / analysis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Nuclear Proteins. Statistics as Topic. Trans-Activators / analysis. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 15272279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00034
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CITED1 protein, human; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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86. Pauzar B, Staklenac B, Loncar B: Fine needle aspiration biopsy of follicular thyroid tumors. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):87-91
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration biopsy of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • US-guided fine needle aspiration cytology is currently the best diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules.
  • The aim of this research was to make a detailed and objective determination of the morphological characteristics of cells in cytological smears in an attempt to distinguish benign from malignant follicular tumors.
  • The statistical analysis of cytological parameters has indicated that none of the cytological parameters alone is discriminating enough between non-tumor and tumor changes, or benign and malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • The analysis of age, sex, nodule size and ultrasound findings has not shown the correlation between any of these parameters with the malignant or benign follicular tumors.
  • The cytological analysis of the smears for patients with follicular tumors, in combination with clinical data and other diagnostic methods, contributes to more precise diagnostics, but is not sufficient for the differentiation between benign and malignant follicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20432738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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87. Besic N, Sesek M, Peric B, Zgajnar J, Hocevar M: Predictive factors of carcinoma in 327 patients with follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Med Sci Monit; 2008 Sep;14(9):CR459-67
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  • [Title] Predictive factors of carcinoma in 327 patients with follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • The specific aim was to discover whether preoperative serum thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration in patients with thyroid neoplasm can differentiate between those with thyroid carcinoma and those with benign disease.
  • RESULTS: The histopathological diagnoses were carcinoma, benign goiter, and adenoma in 119 (36%), 104 (32%), and 104 (32%) patients, respectively.
  • The independent predictors of malignancy as shown by multivariate logistic regression were tumor diameter and preoperative Tg concentration.
  • Thyroid carcinoma was more common in the patients with follicular neoplasm and serum Tg concentration over 300 ng/ml than in those with lower Tg concentrations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Predictors of malignancy were tumor diameter and preoperative Tg concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18758416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1643-3750
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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88. Kobayashi K, Fukata S, Miyauchi A: Diagnosis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid: role of sonography in preoperative diagnosis of follicular nodules. J Med Ultrason (2001); 2005 Dec;32(4):153-8
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid: role of sonography in preoperative diagnosis of follicular nodules.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate sonographic examination, as well as other clinical tests, for clarifying the parameters for predicting follicular carcinoma in follicular nodules of the thyroid.
  • Nine hundred and ten consecutive patients with follicular nodules were pathologically classified as having follicular carcinoma (109 patients) or benign tumor (811 patients).
  • Benign tumors included follicular adenoma (237 patients) and adenomatous thyroid nodules (574 patients).
  • A case-control study was performed for follicular carcinomas and benign tumors.
  • "Thyroglobulin 1000 ng/ml≦", "cytology class 3≦", and a "solid pattern", "low-echoic level of internal echo", and "jagged borders" of follicular carcinomas were found to be significantly higher than those of benign tumors.
  • We concluded that thyroglobulin 1000 ng/ml≦ and cytology class 3≦ in clinical features, and a solid pattern, low-echoic level, and jagged borders on sonography, indicated an increased risk of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid in follicular nodules.

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  • [Cites] Thyroid. 1998 May;8(5):377-83 [9623727.001]
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  • (PMID = 27277482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-4523
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical ultrasonics (2001)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Ultrason (2001)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cytology / follicular carcinoma / sonography / thyroglobulin / thyroid
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89. Hussein HA, Mebeed AH, Saber TKh, Farhat IG: Hyperparathyroidism with bone tumor-like presentation, approach for diagnosis and surgical intervention. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2009 Mar;21(1):1-11
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  • [Title] Hyperparathyroidism with bone tumor-like presentation, approach for diagnosis and surgical intervention.
  • AIM OF WORK: This work aims to find out a clinical approach for diagnosis of cases with hyperparathyroidism presented with bone tumor like condition as first and main presentation in order to differentiate primary bone tumors or secondary bone metastases from different types of hyperparathyroidism and to clear out the indications and type of surgery in such cases.
  • During this period we followed 45 cases of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) presented with a main complaint of bone tumor-like lesion.
  • RESULTS: Preoperative diagnosis was: 80% cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), 15.5% cases of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT), 4.5% tertiary hyperparathyroidism (tHPT), benign adenoma in 73.3%, diffuse hyperplasia in 8.8% and one case of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Neck ultrasound localized 29/38 adenoma (sensitivity = 73.3%), sestamibi localized 23/38 including another 2 cases of diffuse hyperplasia not detected by ultrasound (sensitivity = 63.8%), C-T scan detected adenoma in upper mediastinum.
  • Intraoperative ultrasound was useful in detection of 2 additional cases in the thyroid lobe tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: Hyperparathyroidism should be suspected in all cases with bone tumor-like presentation or even in earlier disease complain of bony or muscle aches.
  • KEY WORDS: Hyperparathyroidism - Bone tumor-like presentation - Diagnosis - Surgical approach.

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  • (PMID = 20601966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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90. Gerhard R, Nonogaki S, Fregnani JH, Soares FA, Nagai MA: NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010 Jun;65(8):757-62
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  • [Title] NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry.
  • Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined.
  • METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant), follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody.
  • RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P < 0.001).
  • A combined analysis showed higher immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 in malignant lesions (classical pattern and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas, follicular carcinomas, and metastases of thyroid carcinomas) compared to benign thyroid lesions (goiter and follicular adenomas) (P = 0.043).
  • In thyroid carcinomas, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression was significantly correlated with a more advanced TNM stage (P = 0.007) and age, metastasis, tumor extent, and size (AMES) high-risk group (P = 0.012).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid carcinomas showed increased immunohistochemical N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression compared to normal and benign thyroid lesions and is correlated with more advanced tumor stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20835551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; Thyroid cancer, papillary
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2933120
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Immunohistochemistry / NDRG1 / Thyroid Carcinoma / Thyroid Gland / Tissue Microarray
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91. Bongiovanni M, Gremaud M, Moulin CS, Scheidegger C, Biton C, Clément S: Macrofollicular variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma: a clinical, cytologic, morphologic, and image analysis study of a unique case. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Apr;13(2):101-5
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  • [Title] Macrofollicular variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma: a clinical, cytologic, morphologic, and image analysis study of a unique case.
  • Thyroid lesions composed of large follicles that contain abundant colloid are usually regarded as benign hyperplastic or adenomatous nodules both by fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology.
  • In such cases, the pathologist is less likely to request a complete inclusion of the capsule into paraffin block and to look for vascular and/or capsular invasion, the only criteria that permit the differential diagnosis between a benign nodule and a follicular carcinoma.
  • We report the first case of a follicular thyroid carcinoma composed predominantly (>90%) of macrofollicles with a surface area that was up to 5 times larger than the surface area of normal follicles, as calculated with an image analysis system.
  • The tumor was classified as a minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, macrofollicular variant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 19302958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Miyakawa M, Onoda N, Etoh M, Fukuda I, Takano K, Okamoto T, Obara T: Diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by the vascular pattern and velocimetric parameters using high resolution pulsed and power Doppler ultrasonography. Endocr J; 2005 Apr;52(2):207-12
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by the vascular pattern and velocimetric parameters using high resolution pulsed and power Doppler ultrasonography.
  • The aim of this study was to define the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by the vascular pattern and velocimetric parameters using high resolution pulsed and power Doppler ultrasonography (US).
  • We compared the vascular pattern and the velocimetric parameters, such as peak systolic velocity (Vmax), end-diastolic velocity (Vmin), pulsatility index (PI), or resistance index (RI) between follicular adenoma (FA, n = 25) and follicular carcinoma (FC, n = 10) and analysed them by means of receiver characteristics curves (ROC).
  • These color flow imagings by power Doppler US were suggested to be a reliable tool for the differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular tumor with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 92%.
  • In conclusion, the evaluation of the vascular pattern and the velocimetric parameters using pulsed and power Doppler ultrasound may provide important information that is useful in making correct differential diagnosis of malignant or benign thyroid follicular tumor preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood supply. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed


93. Bogdańska M, Górnicka B, Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska B, Koperski L, Morton M, Wasiutyński A: [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):314-9
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  • [Title] [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms].
  • INTRODUCTION: Estimation of malignancy in thyroid follicular neoplasms is a common diagnostic problem, thus revealing of differences in expression of some antigens in both benign and malignant lesions seems to be essential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Antigens, CD15 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17006830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen
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94. Garcia EA, Simões K, Wakamatsu A, Ressio RA, Alves VA, Longatto-Filho A, Camargo RS: Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):101-7
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  • [Title] Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine neoplasia worldwide.
  • In order to evaluate the value of LVD in benign and malignant thyroid lesions, we analyzed 110 thyroidectomy specimens using D2-40, a specific marker for lymphatic vessels and vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), the most potent molecule of lymphatic proliferation.
  • Follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma showed an important difference of intra- (p = 0.019) and peritumoral (p = 0.033) LVD.
  • VEGF-C was more markedly expressed in malignancies than in benign lesions (p = 0.0001).
  • Almost all cancers with high positive VEGF-C expression also exhibited increased peritumoral LVD (p = 0.049) when compared with the benign lesions.
  • Indeed, the high peritumoral LVD of malignant thyroid lesions is an important finding for surgery planning and supports the practice of total thyroidectomy in malignant thyroid neoplasm's since the lymphatic peritumoral vessels definitely are an escape path for tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20336393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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95. Arora N, Scognamiglio T, Zhu B, Fahey TJ 3rd: Do benign thyroid nodules have malignant potential? An evidence-based review. World J Surg; 2008 Jul;32(7):1237-46
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  • [Title] Do benign thyroid nodules have malignant potential? An evidence-based review.
  • BACKGROUND: Benign thyroid tumors account for most nodular thyroid disease.
  • Determination of whether a thyroid nodule is benign or malignant is a major clinical dilemma and underlies the decision to proceed to surgery in many patients.
  • Although the accuracy of thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has reduced the need for surgery over the years, questions regarding how to follow FNA-designated benign nodules remain unresolved.
  • This is true at least in part because of uncertainty over whether some benign nodules harbor malignant potential.
  • RESULTS: Review of our recent 10-year experience indicates that 2% of thyroid malignancies arise within a preexisting benign thyroid nodule.
  • In addition, both cytologic and molecular tumor markers, including Gal-3, CITED1, HBME-1, Ras, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPAR gamma, have been identified in some histopathologically classified benign nodules.
  • Gene expression profiling suggests that follicular adenomas and Hürthle cell adenomas have similarities to both benign and malignant tumors, suggesting that some of these tumors are premalignant.
  • CONCLUSION: Some benign thyroid nodules have malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Needle. Humans. Hyperplasia. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18327528.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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96. Mehrotra P, Gonzalez MA, Johnson SJ, Coleman N, Wilson JA, Davies BR, Lennard TW: Mcm-2 and Ki-67 have limited potential in preoperative diagnosis of thyroid malignancy. Laryngoscope; 2006 Aug;116(8):1434-8
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  • [Title] Mcm-2 and Ki-67 have limited potential in preoperative diagnosis of thyroid malignancy.
  • Because Mcm-2 expression has not previously been assessed in thyroid tissue, the aim of this study was to assess the expression of both proteins in a range of thyroid lesions to determine their potential value as preoperative markers of thyroid malignancy.
  • METHODS: Mcm-2 and Ki-67 protein expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues from 128 patients with histologic diagnoses of papillary carcinoma (n = 38), follicular carcinoma (n = 22), follicular adenoma (n = 33), and dominant nodules of multinodular goitre (n = 35).
  • CONCLUSION: Neither Mcm-2 or Ki-67 can currently be reliably applied as preoperative markers to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Thyroid Gland / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16885749.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105359878
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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97. Paulino AC, Fowler BZ: Secondary neoplasms after radiotherapy for a childhood solid tumor. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Mar;22(2):89-101
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  • [Title] Secondary neoplasms after radiotherapy for a childhood solid tumor.
  • This study was conducted to determine the outcome of patients who develop a second neoplasm after radiotherapy (RT) for a childhood solid tumor.
  • From 1956 to 1998, 429 children with a malignant solid tumor were treated at a single radiation oncology facility.
  • There were 14 malignant neoplasms in 13 (3.0%) and 14 benign neoplasms in 11 patients (2.6%).
  • The types of initial solid tumors treated with RT were Ewing sarcoma in 6, Wilms tumor in 6, medulloblastoma in 5, neuroblastoma in 3, and other in 3.
  • For the 14 malignant neoplasms, the median time interval from initial tumor to second malignancy was 10.1 years.
  • The 14 benign neoplasms appeared at a median time of 16.9 years and included cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in 3, osteochondroma in 3, thyroid adenoma in 1, duodenal adenoma in 1, lipoma in 1, cherry angioma in 1, uterine leiomyoma in 1, ovarian cystadenofibroma in 1, and giant cell tumor in 1.
  • Only 5 (36%) of the 14 benign tumors occurred in the RT field, with osteochondroma being the most common.


98. Sato T, Harao M, Nakano S, Jotsuka T, Suda N, Yamashita J: Circulating tumor cells detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for carcinoembryonic antigen mRNA: distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from adenoma. Surgery; 2005 May;137(5):552-8
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  • [Title] Circulating tumor cells detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for carcinoembryonic antigen mRNA: distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: We prospectively tested whether circulating tumor cells could be detected in peripheral blood of patients with thyroid tumors by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) messenger RNA (mRNA).
  • METHODS: We assayed for CEA mRNA by RT-PCR in peripheral blood sampled before and 2 to 3 weeks after curative surgery for thyroid tumors in 121 patients.
  • Of 121 preoperative samples from patients with thyroid tumor, 6 were positive (5.0%).
  • Preoperative frequencies of CEA mRNA positivity in benign tumor, papillary carcinoma, follicular variant papillary carcinoma, minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, and widely invasive follicular carcinoma were 0%, 0%, 0%, 44.4% (4/9), and 50.0% (2/4), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR detection of tumor cells in preoperative blood often can distinguish malignant from benign follicular thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15855928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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99. Saleh HA, Jin B, Barnwell J, Alzohaili O: Utility of immunohistochemical markers in differentiating benign from malignant follicular-derived thyroid nodules. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:9
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  • [Title] Utility of immunohistochemical markers in differentiating benign from malignant follicular-derived thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are common among adults though only a small percentage is malignant, which can histologically mimic benign nodules.
  • Accurate diagnosis of these thyroid nodules is critical for the proper clinical management.
  • METHODS: We investigated immunoexpression in 98 surgically removed benign thyroid nodules including 52 hyperplastic nodules (HN) and 46 follicular/Hurthle cell adenomas (FA), and 54 malignant tumors including 22 follicular carcinoma (FC), 20 classic papillary carcinoma (PTC), and 12 follicular variant papillary carcinoma (FVPC).
  • RESULTS: The staining results showed that malignant tumors express galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19 and Ret oncoprotein significantly more than benign nodules.
  • The sensitivity of these markers for the distinction between benign and malignant lesions ranged from 83.3% to 87%.
  • Immunoexpression was usually diffuse and strong in malignant tumors, and focal and weak in the benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that these immunomarkers are significantly more expressed in malignant tumors compared to benign lesions and may be of additional diagnostic value when combined with routine histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Carcinoma. Diagnosis, Differential. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Hyperplasia. Keratin-19 / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20181018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; Thyroid cancer, Hurthle cell; Thyroid cancer, papillary
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2831001
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100524
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100. Wang LH, Zhao YJ, Wang XY, Yuan P, Xu WQ, Xiao JC, Xu JP, Luo BR: [Significance of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Sep;27(9):547-50
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  • [Title] [Significance of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the difference of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression between benign and malignant thyroid nodules, and to evaluate their clinical value in distinguishing thyroid cancer from benign thyroid nodules.
  • METHODS: The expression of galectin-3 and CD44v6 was immunohistochemically detected by the ABC method in 143 benign and malignant thyroid nodule samples.
  • RESULTS: Expression of these two markers in benign thyroid nodules: galectin-3 was negative in 10 cases of para-cancer normal tissue and 14 cases of benign nodules found in the other benign thyroid disease.
  • CD44v6 was negative in 10 cases of para-cancer normal tissue, but positive in 4 of 14 nodular lesions found in benign thyroid diseases (28.6%).
  • The two markers in malignant lesions: galectin-3 was positive in 50 of 52 thyroid adenocarcinoma (96.2%), CD44v6 was positive in 42 of 52 thyroid adenocarcinoma (80.8%).
  • The positive rate of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression in thyroid cancer was significantly higher than that in benign thyroid nodule and normal tissue (P < 0.001).
  • The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of galectin-3 combined with CD44v6 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodule were 80.8%, 93.4%, 88.8%; they were 96.2%, 90.1%, 92.3% for Galectin-3 alone.
  • CONCLUSION: The immunohistochemical expression of galectin-3 and CD44v6 by the ABC method is significantly higher in thyroid cancers than in benign thyroid nodules, especially galectin-3 in thyrocyte being helpful in differentiating benign thyroid nodule from thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 16438854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD44v6 antigen; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Glycoproteins
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