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1. Wynveen C, Behmaram B, Haasler G, Rao N: Diverse histologic appearances in pulmonary mucinous cystic neoplasia: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:312
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diverse histologic appearances in pulmonary mucinous cystic neoplasia: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Primary pulmonary mucinous cystic neoplasia comprises a group of tumors, from benign cystadenoma to mucinous cystadenocarcinoma.
  • A lobectomy was performed and the resection specimen revealed a multicystic mucinous tumor.
  • Microscopically, the tumor was composed of confluent mucin-filled cystic spaces lined by columnar mucin-secreting cells which ranged from cytologically bland to moderately atypical with 'bronchioloalveolar pattern' invasion into the adjacent parenchyma.
  • Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive diffusely for Cytokeratin 7, and focally for Cytokeratin 20 and Thyroid Transcription Factor-1.
  • CONCLUSION: This case highlights the continuous spectrum of pulmonary mucinous cystic neoplasia from benign mucinous cystadenoma to malignant mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, and the probable existence of a 'borderline' mucinous cystic tumor.
  • Although molecular data are lacking to substantiate progression from benign to malignant in these neoplasms, the importance of recognizing the morphologic continuum lies in alerting pathologists to thoroughly examine specimens to rule out invasive foci in tumors with 'borderline' morphology.

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  • (PMID = 18823534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2564958
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2. Sibio S, Borrini F, Sammartino P, Accarpio F, Biacchi D, Caprio G, Iafrate F, Baccheschi AM, Cornali T, Di Giorgio A: Predominant Brenner tumor combined with struma ovarii containing a papillary microcarcinoma associated with benign peritoneal strumosis: report of a case and histologic features. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Sep;21(3):199-203
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  • [Title] Predominant Brenner tumor combined with struma ovarii containing a papillary microcarcinoma associated with benign peritoneal strumosis: report of a case and histologic features.
  • Brenner tumor and struma ovarii, two uncommon ovarian tumors arising alone or together with dermoid cysts or adenomas, are both rare entities.
  • Few published reports describe coexisting Brenner tumor and malignant struma ovarii.
  • The mass consisted predominantly of a Brenner tumor associated with struma ovarii containing a single small island of thyroid tissue that had undergone malignant transformation into a well-differentiated papillary carcinoma and also normal thyroid tissue that had spread to the peritoneum.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Struma Ovarii / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / complications. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20532676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Kim SK, Kim DL, Han HS, Kim WS, Kim SJ, Moon WJ, Oh SY, Hwang TS: Pyrosequencing analysis for detection of a BRAFV600E mutation in an FNAB specimen of thyroid nodules. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2008 Jun;17(2):118-25
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  • [Title] Pyrosequencing analysis for detection of a BRAFV600E mutation in an FNAB specimen of thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the primary means of distinguishing benign from malignant and of guiding therapeutic intervention in thyroid nodules.
  • However, 10% to 30% of cases with indeterminate cytology in FNAB need other diagnostic tools to refine diagnosis.
  • In detail, 63 (84.0%) of 75 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) samples showed positive BRAF mutation, whereas 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma, 1 medullary thyroid carcinoma, and 1 metastatic lung carcinoma did not show BRAF mutation.
  • None of 22 benign nodules had BRAF mutation in both pyrosequencing and direct DNA sequencing.
  • Out of 27 thyroid nodules classified as 'indeterminate' on cytologic examination preoperatively, 21 (77.8%) cases turned out to be malignant: 18 PTCs (including 2 follicular variant types) and 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas.
  • None of 6 benign nodules, including 3 follicular adenomas and 3 nodular hyperplasias, had BRAF mutation.
  • Although it was not statistically significant, pyrosequencing was superior to direct DNA sequencing in detecting the BRAF mutation of thyroid nodules (P=0.25).
  • CONCLUSION: Detecting BRAF mutation by pyrosequencing is more sensitive, faster, and less expensive than direct DNA sequencing and is proposed as an adjunct diagnostic tool in evaluating thyroid nodules of indeterminate cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Predictive Value of Tests


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4. Rowe LR, Bentz BG, Bentz JS: Utility of BRAF V600E mutation detection in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Cytojournal; 2006;3:10
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  • [Title] Utility of BRAF V600E mutation detection in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is widely utilized for evaluation of patients with thyroid nodules.
  • Recently, a mutation in the BRAF gene has been reported to be the most common genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • METHODS: Archival indeterminate thyroid FNAs and corresponding formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) surgical samples with PTC were identified in our patient files.
  • Amplification products that showed deviation from the wild-type genomic DNA melting peak, discordant FNA and FFPE matched pairs, and all benign control samples, underwent direct DNA sequencing.
  • RESULTS: A total of 19 indeterminate thyroid FNAs demonstrating PTC on FFPE surgical samples were included in the study.
  • Using BRAF mutation analysis, the preoperative diagnosis of PTC was confirmed in 3/19 (15.8%) FNA samples that could not be conclusively diagnosed on cytology alone.
  • Of the discordant pairs, 5/6 FNAs contained less than 50% tumor cells.
  • CONCLUSION: When used with indeterminate FNA samples, BRAF mutation analysis may be a useful adjunct technique for confirming the diagnosis of malignancy in an otherwise equivocal case.
  • However, overall tumor cell content of some archival FNA smear slides is a limiting factor for mutation detection.

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  • (PMID = 16606457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1481512
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5. Ghander C, Lussato D, Conte Devolx B, Mundler O, Taïeb D: Incidental diagnosis of struma ovarii after thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer: functional imaging studies and follow-up. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Aug;102(2):378-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidental diagnosis of struma ovarii after thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer: functional imaging studies and follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: Struma ovarii is a rare ovarian germ-cell tumor containing thyroid tissue.
  • We report an unusual case of incidental diagnosis of struma ovarii after thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer.
  • CASE: A 24-year-old woman presented with a papillary thyroid carcinoma (pT3N1).
  • After (131)I administration for thyroid remnant ablation, whole-body scan showed a thyroid bed uptake and a right pelvic uptake corresponding to an ovarian cyst on ultrasonography.
  • Histopathological analysis revealed a benign struma ovarii.
  • CONCLUSION: Only few cases of incidental scintigraphic diagnosis of struma ovarii have been described.
  • To our knowledge, it is the first case revealed after remnant ablation for thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery


6. Tei R, Morimoto T, Miyamoto K, Aketa S, Shimokawara T, Shin Y, Hironaka Y: Intradural extramedullary ganglioneuroma associated with multiple hamartoma syndrome. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2007 Nov;47(11):513-5
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  • She underwent right suboccipital craniectomy and C1-2 hemilaminectomy to remove the tumor.
  • She also suffered from multiple facial trichilemmomas, thyroid goiter, multiple polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract, and pulmonary hamartoma indicating multiple hamartoma syndrome.
  • These benign neoplasms were treated conservatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18037807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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7. Lee JM, Kim JW, Song JY, Lee JK, Lee NW, Kim SH, Lee KW: Adenocarcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma: a case report. J Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Sep;19(3):199-201
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  • Benign cystic teratoma is recognized as one of the most common tumors in women during the reproductive age and frequently is treated by pelviscopic operation.
  • Malignant transformation of a benign cystic teratoma is a rare event, and adenocarcinoma is extremely rare, and distinguishing this malignant change from benign disease preoperatively is nearly impossible even by the use of radiological imaging or various tumor markers.
  • We present a case with thyroid papillary carcinoma of follicular variant arising from mature cystic teratoma removed by laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy followed by staging laparotomy.
  • We briefly reviewed literatures with regard to malignant transformation of a benign cystic teratoma.

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  • (PMID = 19471568.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2676465
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenocarcinoma / Malignant transformation / Mature cystic teratoma / Tumor marker
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8. Oh JG, Yoon CH, Lee CW: Case of Cowden syndrome associated with eccrine angiomatous hamartoma. J Dermatol; 2007 Feb;34(2):135-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple hamartomatous tumors of ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal origin.
  • Thyroid adenoma was diagnosed at age 46.
  • Histological examination of the skin lesion on the left foot showed an increased numbers of eccrine sweat glands and blood vessels, which are characteristic histological findings of eccrine angiomatous hamartoma (EAH), a rare benign tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Eccrine Glands. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17239153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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9. Fronio G, Malecka-Tendera E, Rojek M, Janowska J: Thyroid antibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with benign thyroid nodules treated by percutaneous ethanol injections. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther; 2005 Jan;43(1):12-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid antibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with benign thyroid nodules treated by percutaneous ethanol injections.
  • OBJECTIVE: Treatment of benign thyroid tumors with percutaneous ethanol injections (PEI) is an alternative to radioiodine and surgery.
  • This procedure causes a release of large amounts of denaturated thyroglobulin within the gland which may become an autoantigen, triggering the mechanism of autoimmunization.
  • The aim of the study was to investigate whether ethanol injections can induce increased levels of thyroid autoantibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in patients with nonfunctioning or pre-toxic thyroid nodules.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients (31 F, 3 M) with single benign thyroid tumors were enrolled, 23 (20 F/3 M) with nonfunctioning nodule (group 1) and 11 (F) with pre-toxic nodule characterized by normal free thyroid hormones and low TSH (group 2).
  • Under sonographic guidance, sterile 96% ethanol solution was injected into thyroid nodules at 2-week intervals up to a dose of 0.7-1.0 ml of ethanol per 1.0 ml nodule volume.
  • RESULTS: PEI treatment decreased tumor volume by 75.8% in group 1 and by 80.4% in group 2, and normalized TSH level in 90.9% of patients with pre-toxic nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: PEI procedure is a safe method for treating nonfunctioning and pre-toxic thyroid nodules since this treatment reduces tumor size significantly without inducing long-lasting autoimmune reactions in the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Ethanol / therapeutic use. Solvents / administration & dosage. Solvents / therapeutic use. Thyroglobulin / immunology. Thyroid Nodule / drug therapy. Thyroid Nodule / immunology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15704609.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-1965
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Solvents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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10. Ishimori T, Patel PV, Wahl RL: Detection of unexpected additional primary malignancies with PET/CT. J Nucl Med; 2005 May;46(5):752-7
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  • Lesions that were newly discovered on PET/CT, had not been previously detected by other modalities, and were atypical in location for metastases on the PET/CT study were interpreted as suggestive of a new primary malignant tumor.
  • These abnormalities were compared with the final diagnosis obtained from the medical records, including pathologic reports.
  • Proven sites were lung (7 lesions), thyroid (6 lesions), colon (4 lesions), breast (2 lesions), esophagus (2 lesions), bile duct (1 lesion), and head and neck other than thyroid (1 lesion).
  • Two new lesions in the lung and the thyroid were proven malignant in 1 patient.
  • False-positive sites included thyroid (5 lesions), uterus (2 lesions), head and neck other than thyroid (2 lesions), and lung (1 lesion).
  • In 8 patients, the PET-positive lesions were considered benign after clinical follow-up of at least 8 mo.
  • In 39 patients, the follow-up record was not yet available and the final diagnosis of the detected lesion has not yet been resolved.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / statistics & numerical data. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data. Whole-Body Counting / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 15872346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Niepomniszcze H, Suárez H, Pitoia F, Pignatta A, Danilowicz K, Manavela M, Elsner B, Bruno OD: Follicular carcinoma presenting as autonomous functioning thyroid nodule and containing an activating mutation of the TSH receptor (T620I) and a mutation of the Ki-RAS (G12C) genes. Thyroid; 2006 May;16(5):497-503
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  • [Title] Follicular carcinoma presenting as autonomous functioning thyroid nodule and containing an activating mutation of the TSH receptor (T620I) and a mutation of the Ki-RAS (G12C) genes.
  • Most autonomous functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN) are benign thyroid follicular neoplasms.
  • We report a case of follicular carcinoma presenting as an AFTN causing subclinical hyperthyroidism in a 64-year-old woman who had a 6-cm hot nodule in the left thyroid lobe.
  • Genomic DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues from the tumor and extratumoral thyroid tissue.
  • We hypothesize that the combination of these two mutations might have played an important role in both the hyperfunction of the tumor and the carcinogenetic process.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, ras / genetics. Mutation. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16756473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 9007-49-2 / DNA; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
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12. Bishop JA, Sharma R, Illei PB: Napsin A and thyroid transcription factor-1 expression in carcinomas of the lung, breast, pancreas, colon, kidney, thyroid, and malignant mesothelioma. Hum Pathol; 2010 Jan;41(1):20-5
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  • [Title] Napsin A and thyroid transcription factor-1 expression in carcinomas of the lung, breast, pancreas, colon, kidney, thyroid, and malignant mesothelioma.
  • Immunohistochemistry for thyroid transcription factor-1 is widely used in the diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinomas because it marks approximately 75% of lung adenocarcinomas and is negative in most squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of other organs.
  • We performed immunohistochemistry for napsin A and thyroid transcription factor-1 using tissue microarrays of 95 adenocarcinomas, 48 squamous cell carcinomas, 6 neuroendocrine tumors of the lung, as well as 5 colonic, 31 pancreatic, and 17 breast adenocarcinomas, 38 malignant mesotheliomas, 118 renal cell carcinomas, and 81 thyroid tumors.
  • The tissue microarrays also included 15 different benign tissues.
  • Pulmonary adenocarcinomas were napsin A positive in 79 (83%) of 95 cases compared with 69 (73%) of 95 cases that were thyroid transcription factor-1 positive.
  • There were 13 napsin A-positive/thyroid transcription factor-1-negative and 2 thyroid transcription factor-1-positive/napsin A-negative tumors, increasing the number of cases that were positive with at least one of the markers to 81 (85%) of 95.
  • In the thyroid, only 2 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (5%), both with tall cell morphology, were positive for napsin A, whereas all other papillary and follicular carcinomas were negative.
  • As expected, all renal tumors were thyroid transcription factor-1 negative, and all thyroid tumors, except for one papillary carcinoma, were thyroid transcription factor-1 positive.
  • Napsin A is a sensitive marker for pulmonary adenocarcinoma and is also expressed in a subset of renal cell carcinomas, particularly of the papillary type, as well as in rare cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • The combined use of napsin A and thyroid transcription factor-1 results in improved sensitivity and specificity for identifying pulmonary adenocarcinoma in primary lung tumors and in a metastatic setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Mesothelioma / diagnosis. Mesothelioma / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Hum Pathol. 2012 Jul;43(7):1153-4; author reply 1154 [22703591.001]
  • (PMID = 19740516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; EC 3.4.23.- / Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.23.- / NAPSA protein, human
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13. Ozolins A, Narbuts Z, Strumfa I, Volanska G, Gardovskis J: Diagnostic utility of immunohistochemical panel in various thyroid pathologies. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):885-91
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of immunohistochemical panel in various thyroid pathologies.
  • BACKGROUND: For management of thyroid nodules, distinction between benign and malignant tumours is essential.
  • The study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of molecular markers in different thyroid tumours.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for CD56, HBME-1, COX-2, Ki-67, p53 and E-cadherin (E-CAD) was performed in 113 benign and 35 malignant thyroid lesions including 36 follicular adenomas (FA), 77 colloid goitres, 26 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and 9 follicular carcinomas (FC).
  • RESULTS: PTC was characterised by decreased E-CAD and CD56 expression in contrast to surrounding benign thyroid tissues.
  • HBME-1 expression was absent in benign thyroid tissues but was notably high in PTC and occasionally in FC.
  • The expression of E-CAD and CD56 in FA was significantly higher than in the surrounding thyroid tissues.
  • The role of adhesion factors in thyroid malignancies may be superior in comparison with cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD56 / genetics. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Cadherins / genetics. Cadherins / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / genetics. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20640858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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14. Kim HS, Yun KJ: Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: report of a case with diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Apr;36(4):253-6
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  • [Title] Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: report of a case with diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • Adenolipomas are rare benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid follicles.
  • A 65-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of a thyroid nodule.
  • A FNA cytology specimen showed a few benign follicular cells with adipose tissue.
  • Microscopic findings showed a solid tumor predominantly composed of mature adipose tissue intermixed with thyroid follicles.
  • The pathological diagnosis was adenolipoma of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Lipoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18335547.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Pisanu A, Di Chiara B, Reccia I, Uccheddu A: Oncocytic cell tumors of the thyroid: factors predicting malignancy and influencing prognosis, treatment decisions, and outcomes. World J Surg; 2010 Apr;34(4):836-43
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  • [Title] Oncocytic cell tumors of the thyroid: factors predicting malignancy and influencing prognosis, treatment decisions, and outcomes.
  • BACKGROUND: The distinction between malignant and benign thyroid oncocytic cell tumors (OCTs) before and during surgery still represents a diagnostic challenge.
  • A cross-sectional study of 28 patients with carcinoma and 29 patients with adenoma was performed: demographic data, tumor characteristics, diagnostic results, patient management, postoperative, and follow-up results were evaluated.
  • The mean tumor size was significantly greater for carcinomas than for adenomas (3.0 cm vs. 1.8 cm; p = 0.003).
  • Tumor multifocality, microfollicular features, and severe cytological atypia also were significantly related to malignancy (p = 0.012 and p = 0.025, respectively).
  • Older age, tumor size, thyroid capsular invasion, higher TNM stage, and AMES high risk were factors significantly related to tumor recurrence.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that larger tumor size was the only factor predictive of malignancy and influencing recurrence.
  • In the case of OCTs with larger tumor size and microfollicular features with severe cytological atypia, total thyroidectomy is strongly recommended as initial treatment also in relation with the more likely aggressive biological behavior of greater tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Cross-Sectional Studies. Decision Making. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Italy / epidemiology. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prevalence. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20041243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Koo BS, Lim HS, Lim YC, Yoon YH, Kim YM, Park YH, Rha KS: Occult contralateral carcinoma in patients with unilateral papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Apr;17(4):1101-5
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  • [Title] Occult contralateral carcinoma in patients with unilateral papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The optimal resection extent for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) confined within a unilateral lobe remains controversial.
  • The frequency, pattern, and predictive factors for occult contralateral carcinoma in these patients were analyzed with respect to the following variables: age, gender, tumor size, multifocality of primary tumor, presence of perithyroidal invasion, lymphovascular invasion or capsular invasion, presence of central lymph node metastasis, and the presence of coexistent benign nodules in the contralateral lobe based on preoperative evaluation and final pathology.
  • In multivariate analysis, multifocality of the primary tumor (P = 0.026, odds ratio = 7.714) and the presence of coexistent benign nodule in the contralateral lobe by preoperative evaluation (P = 0.036, odds ratio = 3.500) were independent predictive factors for occult contralateral PTMC presence.
  • However, there were no significant differences between the presence of occult contralateral carcinomas and age, gender, tumor size, perithyroidal invasion, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, central lymph node metastasis, and coexistent benign nodules by final pathology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, total thyroidectomy, including the contralateral lobe, should be considered for the treatment of unilateral PTMC if it presents as a multifocal tumor in the unilateral lobe and/or if nodules are found in the contralateral lobe during preoperative evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20066517.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Park YJ, Kwak SH, Kim DC, Kim H, Choe G, Park DJ, Jang HC, Park SH, Cho BY, Park SY: Diagnostic value of galectin-3, HBME-1, cytokeratin 19, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cyclin D1 and p27(kip1) in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. J Korean Med Sci; 2007 Aug;22(4):621-8
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of galectin-3, HBME-1, cytokeratin 19, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cyclin D1 and p27(kip1) in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
  • The distinction between benign and malignant thyroid tumors is critical for the management of patients with thyroid nodules.
  • We applied immunohistochemical staining for galectin-3, HBME-1, cytokeratin 19 (CK19), high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWCK), cyclin D1 and p27(kip1) in 295 thyroid lesions to determine their diagnostic accuracy.
  • The expression of all markers was significantly associated with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • The sensitivity for the diagnosis of DTC was 94.7% with galectin-3, 91.3% with HBME-1, and 90.3% with CK19.
  • Combining these markers, co-expression of galectin-3 and CK19 or galectin-3 and HBME-1 was seen in 93.2% of carcinomas but in none of the benign nodules.
  • These results suggest that 1) galectin-3 is a useful marker in the distinction between benign and malignant thyroid tumors, 2) the combined use of HBME-1 and CK19 can increase the diagnostic accuracy, and 3) the use of CK19 and HMWCK can aid in the differential diagnosis between PC and FC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Keratin-19 / analysis. Keratins / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17728499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Keratin-19; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2693809
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18. Liu W, Wei W, Winer D, Bamberger AM, Bamberger C, Wagener C, Ezzat S, Asa SL: CEACAM1 impedes thyroid cancer growth but promotes invasiveness: a putative mechanism for early metastases. Oncogene; 2007 Apr 26;26(19):2747-58
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  • [Title] CEACAM1 impedes thyroid cancer growth but promotes invasiveness: a putative mechanism for early metastases.
  • CEACAM1 is a putative tumor suppressor based on diminished expression in some solid neoplasms such as colorectal carcinoma.
  • To clarify the mechanism of action of this cell adhesion molecule, we studied thyroid carcinoma that has a spectrum of morphologies and variable behavior allowing separation of proliferation from invasion and metastasis.
  • CEACAM1 is expressed in thyroid carcinoma cell lines derived from tumors that exhibit aggressive behavior.
  • Forced CEACAM1 expression enhanced cell-matrix adhesion and migration and promoted tumor invasiveness.
  • Conversely, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated downregulation of CEACAM1 expression in MRO cells accelerated cell cycle progression and significantly enhanced tumor size in xenografted mice.
  • CEACAM1 is not appreciably expressed in normal thyroid tissue or benign thyroid tumors.
  • In a human thyroid tissue array, CEACAM1 reactivity was associated with metastatic spread but not with increased tumor size.
  • These findings identify CEACAM1 as a unique mediator that restricts tumor growth whereas increasing metastatic potential.
  • Our data highlight a complex repertoire of actions providing a putative mechanism underlying the spectrum of biologic behaviors associated with thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / physiology. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / physiology. Cell Proliferation. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Animals. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Silencing. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, SCID. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17057731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD66 antigens; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Ceacam1 protein, mouse; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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19. Riesco-Eizaguirre G, Santisteban P: A perspective view of sodium iodide symporter research and its clinical implications. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Oct;155(4):495-512
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  • The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is an intrinsic plasma membrane protein that mediates active iodide transport into the thyroid gland and into several extrathyroidal tissues, in particular the lactating mammary gland.
  • Cloning and molecular characterization of the NIS have allowed the investigation of its key role in thyroid physiology as well as its potential pathophysiological and therapeutic implications in benign and malignant thyroid diseases.
  • Similarly, elucidating the mechanisms underlying the regulation of NIS in lactating mammary gland and breast cancer, in which more than 80% of cases express endogenous NIS, may lead to findings that have novel implications for pathophysiology and therapy.
  • One is based on the reinduction of endogenous NIS expression in thyroid and breast cancer by targeting the main mechanisms involving tumoral transformation and dedifferentiation.
  • NIS offers the unique advantage that it can be used both as a reporter and as a therapeutic gene, so that it is possible to image, monitor, and treat the tumor with radioiodide, just as in differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • This review summarizes the main recent findings in NIS research that have a direct impact on diagnosis and therapeutic management.

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  • (PMID = 16990649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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20. Lardinois D, Weder W, Roudas M, von Schulthess GK, Tutic M, Moch H, Stahel RA, Steinert HC: Etiology of solitary extrapulmonary positron emission tomography and computed tomography findings in patients with lung cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Oct 1;23(28):6846-53
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  • A diagnosis was obtained in 69 of these patients, including 37 (54%) with solitary metastases and 32 (46%) with lesions unrelated to the lung primary.
  • Histopathologic examinations of these 32 lesions revealed a second clinically unsuspected malignancy or a recurrence of a previous diagnosed carcinoma in six patients (19%) and a benign tumor or inflammatory lesion in 26 patients (81%).
  • Benign tumors and inflammatory lesions included eight colon adenomas, four Warthin's tumors, one granuloma of the lower jaw, one adenoma of the thyroid gland, one compensatory muscle activity due to vocal chord palsy, two occurrences of arthritis, three occurrences of reflux esophagitis, two occurrences of pancreatitis, two occurrences of diverticulitis, one hemorrhoidal inflammation, and one rib fracture.
  • CONCLUSION: Solitary extrapulmonary FDG accumulations in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer should be analyzed critically for correct staging and optimal therapy, given that up to half of the lesions may represent unrelated malignancies or benign disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Inflammation. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16192576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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21. Gessl A, Raber W, Staudenherz A, Becherer A, Koperek O, Hofmann A: Higher frequency of thyroid tumors in the right lobe. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Sep;21(3):186-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Higher frequency of thyroid tumors in the right lobe.
  • Recently, using ultrasonography, we observed that the right lobe usually is larger compared with the left thyroid lobe.
  • Since the higher cell number in a larger right lobe may confer a higher tumor risk, we investigated the location of benign and malignant lesions to test the hypothesis of a more frequent occurrence in this lobe.
  • In 1,001 consecutive patients with benign thyroid lesions, tumors more frequently occurred in the right lobe (+21.5%, p = 0.0022).
  • Furthermore, in 1,277 thyroid cancer patients with 1,302 thyroid cancers, the right lobe more often harbored the tumor initially (+22.9%, p = 0.0009).
  • Our data show a larger proportion of both benign and malignant tumors in the right thyroid lobe.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20532675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Erkiliç S, Koçer NE: The role of cytokeratin 19 in the differential diagnosis of true papillary carcinoma of thyroid and papillary carcinoma-like changes in Graves' disease. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):63-6
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  • [Title] The role of cytokeratin 19 in the differential diagnosis of true papillary carcinoma of thyroid and papillary carcinoma-like changes in Graves' disease.
  • All types of thyroid cancers may co-exist with Graves' disease but papillary carcinoma is the most frequent.
  • The differential diagnosis between a true papillary carcinoma and foci mimicking papillary carcinoma in Graves' disease may be challenging by light microscopic features only.
  • This study is designed to determine whether CK19 is effective in the discrimination between the true papillary carcinoma of thyroid and foci resembling papillary carcinoma in Graves' disease.
  • It is known that CK19 may show faint staining in benign thyroid lesions such as adenomas.
  • Staining pattern with CK19 together with histopathological findings may be helpful in the differential diagnosis between foci mimicking papillary carcinoma and true papillary carcinoma in Graves' disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Graves Disease / diagnosis. Keratins / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16000848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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23. Kawano Y, Tamura A, Goto Y, Shinozaki K, Zaizen H, Kadota J: Incidental detection of cancers and other non-cardiac abnormalities on coronary multislice computed tomography. Am J Cardiol; 2007 Jun 1;99(11):1608-9
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  • Cancers were found in 7 patients (1.13%) on the multislice computed tomographic images, including 4 lung cancers (0.65%), 2 thyroid cancers (0.32%), and 1 hepatic cancer (0.16%).
  • In addition, nonmalignant abnormalities (nodules, tumors, or lymphadenopathies) were also found in 142 patients (23.01%), consisting of 58 postinflammatory lung nodules (9.40%), 49 hepatic cysts or hemangiomas (7.94%), 18 benign thyroid tumors (2.92%), 12 mediastinal lymphadenopathies (1.94%), 4 benign mammary gland tumors (0.65%), and 1 esophageal submucosal tumor (0.16%).
  • [MeSH-major] Coronary Artery Disease / radiography. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


24. Kang SW, Lee SC, Lee SH, Lee KY, Jeong JJ, Lee YS, Nam KH, Chang HS, Chung WY, Park CS: Robotic thyroid surgery using a gasless, transaxillary approach and the da Vinci S system: the operative outcomes of 338 consecutive patients. Surgery; 2009 Dec;146(6):1048-55
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  • [Title] Robotic thyroid surgery using a gasless, transaxillary approach and the da Vinci S system: the operative outcomes of 338 consecutive patients.
  • The authors performed robot-assisted endoscopic thyroid operations in consecutive thyroid tumor patients using the newly introduced da Vinci S surgical system.
  • Herein the authors describe the technique used and its utility for the operative management of thyroid tumors.
  • METHODS: From October 2007 to November 2008, 338 patients underwent robot-assisted endoscopic thyroid operations using a gasless, transaxillary approach.
  • CONCLUSION: Our technique of robotic thyroid surgery using a gasless, transaxillary approach is feasible and safe in selected patients with a benign or malignant thyroid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Robotics / methods. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19879615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Leto G, Incorvaia L, Badalamenti G, Tumminello FM, Gebbia N, Flandina C, Crescimanno M, Rini G: Activin A circulating levels in patients with bone metastasis from breast or prostate cancer. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2006;23(2):117-22
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  • Activin A serum concentrations were determined, by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, in 72 patients with breast cancer (BC) or prostatic cancer (PC) with (BM+) or without (BM-) bone metastases, in 15 female patients with age-related osteoporosis (OP), in 20 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and in 48 registered healthy blood donors (HS) of both sex (25 female and 23 male).
  • [MeSH-major] Activins / blood. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoporosis / blood. Prostatic Hyperplasia / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity


26. Liu YY, Morreau H, Kievit J, Romijn JA, Carrasco N, Smit JW: Combined immunostaining with galectin-3, fibronectin-1, CITED-1, Hector Battifora mesothelial-1, cytokeratin-19, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}, and sodium/iodide symporter antibodies for the differential diagnosis of non-medullary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Mar;158(3):375-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined immunostaining with galectin-3, fibronectin-1, CITED-1, Hector Battifora mesothelial-1, cytokeratin-19, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}, and sodium/iodide symporter antibodies for the differential diagnosis of non-medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: The microscopic distinction between benign and malignant thyroid lesions in clinical practice is still largely based on conventional histology.
  • This study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of galectin-3 (Gal-3), Hector Battifora mesothelial-1 (HBME-1), cytokeratin (CK)-19, CBP P300-interacting transactivator with glutamic acid E- and aspartic acid D-rich C-terminal domain (CITED-1), fibronectin (FN)-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, and intracellular sodium/iodide symporter (iNIS) immunostaining in a large panel of thyroid neoplasms.
  • METHODS: We used tissue arrays containing 177 thyroid tissues: 100 benign tissues (including normal thyroid, Graves disease, multinodular goiter, and follicular adenoma (FA)) and 77 thyroid carcinomas (including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma, and follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC)).
  • RESULTS: In general, we found overexpression of FN-1, CITED-1, Gal-3, CK-19, HBME-1, and iNIS in malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Gal-3, FN-1, and iNIS had the highest accuracy in the differential diagnosis of follicular lesions.
  • A panel of Gal-3, FN-1, and iNIS, identified by hierarchical cluster analysis, had a 98% accuracy to differentiate between FA and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that identifying optimal antibody panels with cluster analysis increases the diagnostic value in the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms, the combination of FN-1, Gal-3, and iNIS having the best accuracy (98%).

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  • (PMID = 18299472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CITED1 protein, human; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Symporters; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter
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27. Liu YY, van der Pluijm G, Karperien M, Stokkel MP, Pereira AM, Morreau J, Kievit J, Romijn JA, Smit JW: Lithium as adjuvant to radioiodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: clinical and in vitro studies. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Jun;64(6):617-24
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  • [Title] Lithium as adjuvant to radioiodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: clinical and in vitro studies.
  • OBJECTIVE: Lithium has been reported to increase radioactive iodine (RaI) doses in benign thyroid disease and in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • DESIGN: In a clinical study, 12 patients were selected with metastases of DTC who had received previous RaI therapy without lithium (control) that had not influenced tumour progression, despite RaI accumulation in metastases.
  • In an in vitro study, iodide uptake was studied in the benign rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5, in the polarized non-thyroid MDCK cell line, stably transfected with human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) to study the effects of lithium on NIS in a non-thyroid background, and the human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line FTC133-hNIS to study lithium effects in a background of DTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lithium Carbonate / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic / therapeutic use. Aged. Animals. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radiotherapy. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rats. Symporters / genetics. Symporters / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Transfection / methods. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16712662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic; 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; 2BMD2GNA4V / Lithium Carbonate
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28. Kim MJ, Kim HJ, Hong SJ, Shong YK, Gong G: Diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in aspirates of thyroid follicular lesions. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):28-34
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in aspirates of thyroid follicular lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of galectin-3 in various thyroid follicular lesions, including diffuse hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, and benign and malignant follicular neoplasms, to clarify the diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in aspirates of follicular lesions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A total of 146 follicular lesions diagnosed cytologically, obtained from patients who had undergone thyroidectomy for either benign or malignant nodules, were evaluated using Papanicolaou-stained slides and cell blocks with galectin-3 immunostaining.
  • We primarily categorized the aspirated specimens as benign, indeterminate or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm based on cellularity, architectural arrangement of the follicular cells and presence or absence of colloid.
  • Cytologic diagnoses were correlated with the results of galectin-3 and categorized into 3 groups (benign, indeterminate for malignancy, suspicious for malignancy) and compared with the corresponding histologic diagnoses.
  • RESULTS: When the histologic diagnoses were compared with the cytologic diagnoses, the accuracy in the distinction between benign and malignant cases was 79.5% except for 8 cytologically and 3 histologically indeterminate cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Galectin-3 could be used as a useful supplementary marker for cytologic diagnosis, although it was not an absolute marker in determining whether a lesion was benign or malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16514837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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29. Kołomecki K, Maciaszczyk P, Stepień H, Cywiński J, Cielecka J, Stepień T, Kuzdak K: [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):320-5
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors].
  • Blood concentration of proteins regulating both pathways of apoptosis may be useful in early diagnosis and staging of thyroid tumors.
  • The aim of study was evaluation of p53 and sFasL blood concentration in patients with benign follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was composed of 28 patients: 14 with thyroid carcinoma and 14 patients with follicular neoplasm (NF).
  • P53 and sFasL levels were evaluated before surgery and related to the histopathological diagnosis obtained post-surgery.
  • RESULTS: The analysis revealed high sFasL blood concentration in patients with follicular thyroid cancer in comparison with the group with follicular adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of sFasL serum level concentration may be useful in preoperative diagnosis of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenoma / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Fas Ligand Protein / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17006831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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30. Porpora MG, Pallante D, Ferro A, Alò PL, Cosmi EV: Asymptomatic struma ovarii: a case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol; 2005;32(3):197-8
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  • Struma ovarii is a rare ovarian neoplasm.
  • This tumor is generally benign, although malignant transformation has been reported.
  • The preoperative diagnosis is generally difficult.
  • Thyroid hormones may be produced and in a few cases asymptomatic women may develop definitive clinical hypothyroidism after resection of struma ovarii.
  • The pathologic diagnosis was struma ovarii.
  • The postoperative period was uneventful and her thyroid function remained normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis. Struma Ovarii / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16433164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-6663
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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31. Singh A, Pandey KC, Pant NK: Cavitary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of lung with metastases in skeletal muscles as presenting features: a case report and review of the literature. J Cancer Res Ther; 2010 Jul-Sep;6(3):350-2
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  • Mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs) of lung are rare neoplasms originating in bronchial submucosal glands and comprising 0.1-0.2% of primary lung cancers.
  • MECs, the most common malignancy in salivary glands, were earlier thought to occur only in salivary glands.
  • Later studies showed that they can arise as a primary in bronchus, esophagus, lacrimal glands, pancreas, thymus and thyroid gland.
  • Initially described as a benign adenoma, it is now considered to be a malignant epithelial tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21119274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
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32. Namasivayam S, Martin DR, Saini S: Imaging of liver metastases: MRI. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7:2-9
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  • Specific characterization of liver metastases in patients with primary non-hepatic tumors is crucial to avoid unnecessary diagnostic work-up for incidental benign liver lesions.
  • MR contrast agents provide critical tumor characterization and can be safely used in patients with iodine contrast allergy and renal failure.
  • The degree and nature of tumor vascularity form the basis for liver lesion characterization based on enhancement properties.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors including carcinoid and islet cell tumors, renal cell carcinoma, breast, melanoma, and thyroid carcinoma are tumors most commonly causing hypervascular hepatic metastases, which may develop early enhancement with variable degrees of washout and peripheral rim enhancement.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17293303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 31
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1804118
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33. Mete O, Rotstein L, Asa SL: Controversies in thyroid pathology: thyroid capsule invasion and extrathyroidal extension. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Feb;17(2):386-91
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  • [Title] Controversies in thyroid pathology: thyroid capsule invasion and extrathyroidal extension.
  • INTRODUCTION AND DESIGN: Endocrine pathologists, surgeons, and oncologists who manage patients with thyroid carcinomas confront many critical dilemmas.
  • Controversies surrounding diagnostic criteria that distinguish benign from malignant thyroid follicular lesions have been brought to the attention of this community.
  • In this article, we confront another controversy, the definition of a thyroid "capsule" to clarify what constitutes extrathyroidal extension (ETE) and its clinical significance in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Our review of the anatomy of the thyroid gland confirms that this structure has no defined anatomical fibrous capsule.
  • Moreover, the presence of adipose tissue within the thyroid gland and its pseudocapsule implies that thyroid tumor within fat tissue cannot be accepted as a criterion of ETE by that thyroid carcinoma.
  • While invasion of skeletal muscle is a more reliable feature of ETE, at the isthmus, these fibers can be normally present within the gland, and this criterion does not have value.
  • [MeSH-major] Connective Tissue / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 19949881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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34. Gonçalves AP, Jorge CS, Resende JP, Villela JR, Soares MM, Ramos AV: [Benign hepatic cyst mimicking thyroid carcinoma metastasis]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2009 Aug;53(6):777-82
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  • [Title] [Benign hepatic cyst mimicking thyroid carcinoma metastasis].
  • [Transliterated title] Cisto hepático benigno simulando metástase de carcinoma diferenciado de tireoide.
  • INTRODUCTION: The follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) for detecting persistent or recurrent disease is based on iodine whole body scan (WBS), the evaluation of the tumor marker thyroglobulin (Tg), the anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg) and neck ultrasonography (US).
  • Well known false-positive causes of WBS include inflammatory processes, some non-thyroid tumors, kidney or even sebaceous cysts .
  • RESULTS: We enphasize the importance of recognizing benign liver cysts mimicking DTC metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Cysts / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes. Liver Diseases / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Thyroglobulin / therapeutic use. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 19893923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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35. Kornasiewicz O, Debski M, Stepnowska M, Szałas A, Bar-Andziak E, Krawczyk M: The enzymatic activity of type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1) is low in liver hemangioma: a preliminary study. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz); 2010 Feb;58(1):77-80
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  • There has been strong evidence that the metabolism of thyroid hormones is disturbed in some neoplastic tissues such as thyroid, renal, and breast cancer.
  • However, there are few available data about D1 enzyme activity in benign tumors such as hemangioma, which is the most common primary liver tumor.
  • The results indicated that thyroid hormones play important roles not only in the regulation of cell metabolism, but also in cell growth, division, and apoptosis.
  • These finding demonstrate a low enzymatic activity of D1 in liver hemangioma and suggest an as yet unknown role of thyroid hormones in this type of benign liver tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / enzymology. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Liver / enzymology. Liver Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20049650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-4917
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type I; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2816262
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36. Collet JF, Fajac A: [Galectin-3 immunodetection in thyroid fine-needle aspirates: technical procedure and results]. Ann Pathol; 2006 Oct;26(5):347-51
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  • [Title] [Galectin-3 immunodetection in thyroid fine-needle aspirates: technical procedure and results].
  • [Transliterated title] Immunomarquage par la Galectine 3 en cytopathologie thyroïdienne: technique et résultats.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules is an excellent diagnostic tool.
  • However, in about 20% cases of the so-called undeterminate lesions, cytological findings are inconclusive as distinction between benign from malignant lesions is difficult.
  • Less than 20% of such undeterminate lesions will be malignant after histological diagnosis.
  • Several molecular markers of thyroid malignancy are under investigation, among them Galectin-3.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Nodule / chemistry. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17255922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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37. Uygur-Bayramicli O, Dabak R, Orbay E, Dolapcioglu C, Sargin M, Kilicoglu G, Guleryuzlu Y, Mayadagli A: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and CA 19-9 levels. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Oct 28;13(40):5357-9
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  • CONCLUSION: CA 19-9 is a tumor-associated antigen, which is elevated in pancreatic, upper gastrointestinal tract, ovarian hepatocellular, and colorectal cancers, as well as in inflammatory conditions of the hepatobiliary system, biliary obstruction and in thyroid diseases.
  • CA 19-9 is used in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer but is also a marker of pancreatic tissue damage that might be caused by diabetes.
  • We propose that a higher cut-off value of CA 19-9 should be used in diabetics to differentiate benign and malignant pancreatic disease, and subtle elevations of CA 19-9 in diabetics should be considered as the indication of exocrine pancreatic dysfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] CA-19-9 Antigen / blood. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / immunology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / immunology


38. Yegen G, Demir MA, Ertan Y, Nalbant OA, Tunçyürek M: Can CD10 be used as a diagnostic marker in thyroid pathology? Virchows Arch; 2009 Jan;454(1):101-5
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  • [Title] Can CD10 be used as a diagnostic marker in thyroid pathology?
  • It was reported to be expressed in various nonlymphoid cells and tissue, as well as in various types of neoplasms.
  • Recently, it has been found to be useful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the staining pattern of CD10 in various thyroid lesions, including 14 benign and 61 malignant cases, as well as in adjacent thyroid tissue.
  • CD10 was negative in normal thyroid tissue, adenomatous nodules, minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, and well-differentiated carcinoma.
  • In contrast to results of previous studies, CD10 is not useful in the classification of thyroid follicular lesions as benign or malignant, but it shows strong positivity in conventional papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Neprilysin / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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39. Kim E, Bae TS, Kwon Y, Kim TH, Chung KW, Kim SW, Ro J, Lee ES: Primary malignant teratoma with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor component in thyroid gland: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2007 Jun;22(3):568-71
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  • [Title] Primary malignant teratoma with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor component in thyroid gland: a case report.
  • Most teratomas involving the thyroid are benign and occur in children.
  • However, the adult cases reported are mostly malignant and commonly arise in the thyroid.
  • The patient underwent extensive evaluation of the thyroid gland with computed tomography (CT) scan and positron emission tomography (PET) scan, which revealed no evidence of metastatic disease.
  • This is the first case, to our knowledge, of malignant thyroid teratoma with a exuberant primitive neuroectodermal tumor component in Korea.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / complications. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Teratoma / complications. Teratoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
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40. Galusca B, Dumollard JM, Lassandre S, Niveleau A, Prades JM, Estour B, Peoc'h M: Global DNA methylation evaluation: potential complementary marker in differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia. Virchows Arch; 2005 Jul;447(1):18-23
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  • [Title] Global DNA methylation evaluation: potential complementary marker in differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia.
  • Little is known about this epigenetic event in thyroid neoplasia.
  • The study aimed to evaluate the status of global DNA methylation in several types of thyroid tumors using a monoclonal antibody specific for 5-methylcytidine (5-mc) and to define the diagnosis potential of this marker.
  • 5-mc immunostaining scores were calculated in 17 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), 6 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC), 16 follicular adenomas (FA), 19 nodular goiters (NG) and ten Hürthle cells adenomas (HCA).
  • Computerized image analysis showed a significant lower level of 5-mc immunostaining in thyroid carcinoma when compared with benign tumors or adjacent normal thyroid parenchyma (P<0.0001).
  • Overall, 5-mc accuracy to distinguish malign from benign thyroid tumors was similar to that of galectin-3 (89% versus 87%, P>0.05).
  • Among follicular neoplasia 5-mc accuracy to differentiate malign tumors trends to be higher than galectin-3 one (90% versus 66%, P=0.06).
  • These data stress the necessity of epigenetic events evaluation among thyroid nodules and propose global DNA methylation assessment as a potential diagnostic tool to combine with other valuable markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. DNA Methylation. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Epigenesis, Genetic. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 15891902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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41. Kalinichenko OV, Myshunina TM, Tron'ko MD: [B-, H- and L-cathepsin-like activity in blood plasma of patients with diseases of the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999); 2010 Mar-Apr;82(2):53-8
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  • [Title] [B-, H- and L-cathepsin-like activity in blood plasma of patients with diseases of the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands].
  • B-, H- and L-catepsine-like activity regarding Na-benzoyl-D,L-arginine-4-nitroanilide, L-leucine-4-nitroanilide and azocasein was studied in the blood plasma of patients with different diseases of thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands.
  • High B- catepsine-like activity in the blood plasma of patients with thyroid diseases was exceptionally fixed under the nodular forms of thyroid pathology, while the character of changes in L catepsine-like activity under these diseases was not so natural.
  • In diaseses of the adrenal glands the changes in the B- and L-catepsine-like activity were only shown in the blood plasma of patients with cerebral layer tumors but not the gland cortex: B-catepsine-like activity increased in the blood plasma of patients with benign or malignant tumors, and L-catepsine-like activity decreased under benign tumor from chromaffin tissue.
  • The established picture of changes in enzymatic activity in the blood plasma of patients does not allow to think that the determination of blood B- and L- catepsine-like activity can be recommended for obtaining additional information at diagnosis thyroid diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Cathepsin B / blood. Cathepsin H / blood. Cathepsin L / blood. Parathyroid Diseases / blood. Thyroid Diseases / blood

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  • (PMID = 20684245.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ukraïnsʹkyĭ biokhimichnyĭ z︠h︡urnal (1999 )
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999)
  • [Language] ukr
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.22.1 / CTSB protein, human; EC 3.4.22.1 / Cathepsin B; EC 3.4.22.15 / CTSL1 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.15 / Cathepsin L; EC 3.4.22.16 / CTSH protein, human; EC 3.4.22.16 / Cathepsin H
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42. Yu XM, Lo CY, Lam AK, Leung P, Luk JM: Serum vascular endothelial growth factor C correlates with lymph node metastases and high-risk tumor profiles in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Ann Surg; 2008 Mar;247(3):483-9
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  • [Title] Serum vascular endothelial growth factor C correlates with lymph node metastases and high-risk tumor profiles in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical relevance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF-C in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: VEGF is a potent angiogenic factor promoting tumor angioinvasion and distant metastases, whereas VEGF-C enhances nodal metastases because of its lymphangiogenic effect.
  • Although both tissues VEGF and VEGF-C have been shown to contribute to tumor metastases in PTC, the clinical relevance of serum VEGF (sVEGF) and sVEGF-C remains unknown.
  • METHODS: Preoperative serum samples collected from 85 primary PTC patients and 44 control subjects with benign thyroid diseases were measured for sVEGF and sVEGF-C levels.
  • CONCLUSIONS: sVEGF-C levels in PTC patients correlated significantly with the presence of nodal metastases and advanced tumor stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Thyroid Diseases / blood. Thyroidectomy. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood

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  • (PMID = 18376194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
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43. Algeciras-Schimnich A, Preissner CM, Theobald JP, Finseth MS, Grebe SK: Procalcitonin: a marker for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Mar;94(3):861-8
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  • [Title] Procalcitonin: a marker for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: Calcitonin (CT) is the main medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) tumor marker.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine whether PCT is suited as a MTC tumor marker by comparing the diagnostic performance of PCT with that of CT in MTC.
  • DESIGN: PCT and CT were measured in a total of 835 subjects, including normal volunteers (n = 197) and patients with active-MTC (n = 91), cured-MTC (n = 42), neuroendocrine tumors (n = 225), mastocytosis (n = 48), follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinoma (cured = 120, persistent/recurrent = 55), and benign thyroid disease (n = 57).
  • Given PCT's greater analytical stability, we conclude that it represents a promising complementary MTC tumor marker.

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  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA080117; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA80117
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Precursors; 56645-65-9 / procalcitonin; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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44. Gu LQ, Li FY, Zhao L, Liu Y, Chu Q, Zang XX, Liu JM, Ning G, Zhao YJ: Association of XIAP and P2X7 receptor expression with lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Endocrine; 2010 Oct;38(2):276-82
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  • [Title] Association of XIAP and P2X7 receptor expression with lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of XIAP and P2X7 receptor expression with the clinicopathological features of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • In this cross-sectional study, a total of 62 cases were examined, including 43 patients with PTCs and 19 with benign nodular goiters.
  • XIAP and P2X7 receptor expression were examined by immunohistochemical methods on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues.
  • In logistic regression analysis, P2X7 receptor expression, tumor size, and capsular infiltration were predictors for lymph node metastasis (P=0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Receptors, Purinergic P2X7 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20972735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2X7; 0 / X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein; 0 / XIAP protein, human
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45. Gulcelik NE, Gulcelik MA, Kuru B: Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Dec;134(12):1312-5
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  • [Title] Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and ultrasonographic features that may help in predicting malignant tumors in patients with a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on findings from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) because FNAC diagnosis of follicular neoplasm does not differentiate a benign tumor from a malignant tumor.
  • DESIGN: Prospective study of 98 patients having a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on FNAC.
  • PATIENTS: Ninety-eight patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed by FNAC as being a follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 26 patients (27%).
  • Ultrasonographic features (eg, a solid echo structure, microcalcifications, and a hypoechoic pattern) were predictive for malignant neoplasms.
  • Older age, male sex, solitary nodule, and larger nodule size were not predictive for malignant neoplasms in patients with follicular neoplasm cytologic findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19075128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Meyer EL, Wagner MS, Maia AL: [Iodothyronine deiodinases expression in thyroid neoplasias]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Jul;51(5):690-700
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  • [Title] [Iodothyronine deiodinases expression in thyroid neoplasias].
  • [Transliterated title] Expressão das iodotironinas desiodases nas neoplasias tireoidianas.
  • The iodothyronine deiodinases constitute a family of selenoenzymes that catalyze the removal of iodine from the outer ring or inner ring of the thyroid hormones.
  • The activating enzymes, deiodinases type I (D1) and type II (D2), are highly expressed in normal thyroid gland.
  • Benign or malignant neoplastic transformation of the thyroid cells is associated with changes on the expression of these enzymes, suggesting that D1 or D2 can be markers of cellular differentiation.
  • Abnormalities on the expression of both enzymes and also of the deiodinase type III (D3), that inactivates thyroid hormones, have been found in other human neoplasias.
  • So far, the mechanism or implications of these findings on tumor pathogenesis are not well understood.
  • Nevertheless, its noteworthy that abnormal expression of D2 can cause thyrotoxicosis in patients with metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma and that increased D3 expression in large hemangiomas causes severe hypothyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / physiology. Hemangioma / enzymology. Hemangioma / genetics. Humans. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / enzymology. Thyroxine / metabolism. Triiodothyronine / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17891232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type I; EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type II; EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type III; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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47. Morari EC, Silva JR, Guilhen AC, Cunha LL, Marcello MA, Soares FA, Vassallo J, Ward LS: Muc-1 expression may help characterize thyroid nodules but does not predict patients' outcome. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Dec;21(4):242-9
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  • [Title] Muc-1 expression may help characterize thyroid nodules but does not predict patients' outcome.
  • Our purpose was to evaluate MUC1 clinical utility in the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid cancer patients.
  • We studied the protein expression of MUC1 in 289 thyroid carcinomas and 121 noncancerous thyroid nodules.
  • There were 41 follicular carcinomas (FC) and 248 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) including 149 classic (CPTC), 20 tall cell (TCPTC) and 79 follicular variants (FVPTC).
  • MUC1 protein was identified in 80.2% PTC; 48.8% FC; 68.3% FVPTC; 70% TCPTC; 21.8% FA; 30% hyperplasias and 6% normal thyroid tissues.
  • MUC1 distinguished benign from malignant thyroid tissues (sensitivity = 89%; specificity = 53%).
  • q-PCR mRNA expression of MUC1 also distinguished malignant from benign nodules (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.0001).
  • We suggest that MUC1 expression may help differentiate follicular patterned thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Mucin-1 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21057891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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48. Sakorafas GH, Stafyla V, Kolettis T, Tolumis G, Kassaras G, Peros G: Microscopic papillary thyroid cancer as an incidental finding in patients treated surgically for presumably benign thyroid disease. J Postgrad Med; 2007 Jan-Mar;53(1):23-6
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  • [Title] Microscopic papillary thyroid cancer as an incidental finding in patients treated surgically for presumably benign thyroid disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) is a relatively common entity in the general population.
  • AIM: To present our experience with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma of the thyroid as an incidental finding in patients treated surgically for presumably benign thyroid disease.
  • SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of benign thyroid disease were reviewed to identify patients with PTMC.
  • Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer were excluded from this study.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The files of 380 patients who underwent surgery for presumably benign thyroid disease in our hospital from 1990 to 2002 were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients with PTMC diagnosed incidentally following thyroid surgery for presumably benign thyroid disease (27/380 or 7.1%) (multinodular goiter = 20 patients, follicular adenoma = 6 patients, diffuse hyperplasia of the thyroid = 1 patient) are presented.
  • In 11 patients (40.7%) the tumor was multifocal and in about half of them tumor foci were found in both thyroid lobes.
  • In two patients the tumor infiltrated the thyroid capsule.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PTMC is not an uncommon incidental finding after surgery for presumably benign thyroid disease (7.1% in our series).
  • The possibility of an underlying PTMC should be taken into account in the management of patients with nodular thyroid disease; total/near total thyroidectomy should be considered, at least in selected patients with presumably benign nodular thyroid disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Incidental Findings. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] J Postgrad Med. 2007 Jan-Mar;53(1):5-6 [17244961.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Postgrad Med. 2007 Jan-Mar;53(1):6-7 [17244962.001]
  • (PMID = 17244966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3859
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of postgraduate medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Postgrad Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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49. Wang X, Koch S: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography potential pitfalls and artifacts. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2009 Jul-Aug;38(4):156-69
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  • With the recent use of 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for tumor staging and treatment response, it is important to recognize many pitfalls, artifacts, and benign uptakes that are commonly encountered.
  • Normal physiology can explain many regions of increased FDG activity, as well as incidental benign tumors and benign metabolic conditions.
  • Recognition of characterization of benign causes and physiologic variants for FDG uptake are discussed to avoid improper characterization as a malignancy.
  • Also presented is the rationale for expected, benign uptake in various metabolic diseases, as well as pharmacologic methods for decreasing the artifacts caused by metabolic diseases.
  • PET/computed tomographic evaluation of the thyroid, thymus, adrenal adenomas, uterus and ovaries, infection/inflammatory changes, and postradiation/chemotherapy changes are also discussed, with expected normal changes, as well as pitfalls and artifacts.

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  • (PMID = 19464586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6302
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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50. Xu W, Wang HB, Cao HY, Fan ZM, Yue ZY, Lü ZH: [Recurrent laryngeal nerve decompression]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jun;41(6):408-11
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  • OBJECTIVE: To study the result of recurrent laryngeal nerve decompression in the treatment of functional disturbance of recurrent laryngeal nerve caused by thyroid surgery or thyroid benign tumors.
  • Seven cases of the nerve paralysis were caused by the surgery of benign thyroid tumors resection which were done by general surgeons.
  • One case of thyroid adenoma and 1 case of nodular goiter with unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis were treated with tumor resection and nerve decompression respectively.
  • Four cases of glottic insufficiency, 3 cases of nodular goiter were treated with tumor resection and nerve decompression, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the other case was treated with partial lobe resection and nerve decompression.
  • RESULTS: For the 7 cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after thyroid surgery, the motion of the paralysed vocal cord restored within 3 months in 6 cases with the interval of 1 week to 3 months between the two operations, no restoration was found in the other patient with an interval above 4 months between the two operations after 1 year follow-up.
  • For the thyroid adenoma and nodular goiter with unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, the motion of paralysed vocal cord restored within 3 months respectively after decompression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Exploration and decompression as soon as possible to the paralysed recurrent laryngeal nerve because of thyroid surgery are very important for the restoration of the function of the nerve.
  • For the functional disturbance of recurrent laryngeal nerve with thyroid neoplasm patient, early exploration and decompression of the nerve is imperative.

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  • (PMID = 16927793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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51. Demirer AN, Kemal Y, Gursoy A, Sahin M, Tutuncu NB: Clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancer in patients on dialysis for end-stage renal disease. Thyroid; 2008 Jan;18(1):45-50
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancer in patients on dialysis for end-stage renal disease.
  • BACKGROUND: The prevalence rate of thyroid cancers in patients with renal failure is variable in different studies.
  • Our aim was to determine the prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancers in the dialysis population and to evaluate the potential risk factors.
  • Then we compared the data of thyroid cancer patients on dialysis (n = 9) with the data of patients who had histopathologically verified benign thyroid disease on dialysis (n = 23) and with the histopathological data of thyroid cancer patients without ESRD.
  • RESULTS: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was the only histotype that was found in 9 of 420 (2.1%) ESRD patients on dialysis.
  • Two patients had lymphatic metastasis at diagnosis.
  • Eight PTCs were classified as tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage I and one as stage II.
  • Among the analyzed factors, age (r = 0.374, p = 0.01) and duration of dialysis (r = 0.436, p = 0.007) showed a significant positive correlation with the occurrence of thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the prevalence of thyroid cancer in patients undergoing dialysis was not higher than that in the background population.
  • Age and duration of dialysis showed a significant positive correlation with the occurrence of thyroid cancer in patients on dialysis.
  • The effect of these characteristics on prognosis of thyroid cancer in dialysis patients is needed to be further evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Renal Dialysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


52. Yüksel M, Eziddin S, Wardelmann E, Biersack HJ: 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2006 Sep;25(5):316-9
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  • [Title] 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy.
  • A patient with suspicion of a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas underwent a somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 111In-Pentetreotide.
  • 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy showed discrete uptake of the radiotracer in the head of the pancreas and focal uptake in the right upper thyroid lobe.
  • Normal thyroid tissue and thyroid disorders, such as cancers, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and adenomas often show increased uptake of 111In-pentetreotide resulting in a possible false positive interpretation in patients with neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Adding a 48h planar image might contribute to the differential diagnosis between benign or malignant lesions, as in the present case where the uptake decreased in an adenoma after 48 hours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Indium Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromogranin A / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Serotonin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17173778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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53. Kim WK, Shin JH, Kim JH, Song JW, Song HY: Management of tracheal obstruction caused by benign or malignant thyroid disease using covered retrievable self-expandable nitinol stents. Acta Radiol; 2010 Sep;51(7):768-74
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  • [Title] Management of tracheal obstruction caused by benign or malignant thyroid disease using covered retrievable self-expandable nitinol stents.
  • BACKGROUND: Curative resection is often contraindicated in patients with airway obstruction by aggressive thyroid disease.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and clinical effectiveness of covered retrievable self-expandable nitinol stents placed in patients with airway obstruction caused by benign or malignant thyroid disease.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1996 to 2009, covered retrievable self-expandable nitinol stents were placed in nine symptomatic patients with malignant (n=7) or benign (n=2) thyroid disease.
  • Stent migration, sputum retention, and tumor overgrowth occurred in 27.3% (n=3), 9.1% (n=1), and 9.1% (n=1) of the stents, respectively.
  • In two patients with benign thyroid goiters, a stable airway was maintained until total thyroidectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: Placement of covered retrievable self-expandable nitinol stents was safe and effective in patients with airway obstruction caused by benign or malignant thyroid disease.
  • In patients with benign thyroid disease, stent placement can serve as an effective bridge to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Stents. Thyroid Diseases / complications. Tracheal Stenosis / etiology. Tracheal Stenosis / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alloys. Bronchoscopy. Coated Materials, Biocompatible. Device Removal. Female. Foreign-Body Migration / therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20707660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alloys; 0 / Coated Materials, Biocompatible; 52013-44-2 / nitinol
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54. Alessio HM, Schweitzer NB, Snedden AM, Callahan P, Hagerman AE: Revisiting influences on tumor development focusing on laboratory housing. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci; 2009 May;48(3):258-62
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  • [Title] Revisiting influences on tumor development focusing on laboratory housing.
  • Tumor profiles and tumor promoting hormone prolactin were compared in female Sprague-Dawley rats (108) that were allocated into 3 groups: those housed without outside activity (SED group), with twice-weekly 1-h sessions of physical activity in large box (PA group), and with regular voluntary running-wheel exercise (EX).
  • Compared with the EX group, SED rats had more and larger tumors throughout most of their lifespan; tumor profiles of PA rats were similar to those of the SED group.
  • At 64 wk, tumors in SED animals included thyroid carcinoma, malignancy, mammary fibroadenoma, cystadenoma, and granuloma, whereas benign mammary gland cysts were most common in EX.
  • In conclusion, increased tumor number, increased tumor size, type of spontaneous tumor, and increased prolactin in rats were associated with standard laboratory housing, which limited physical activity, and were not primarily due to aging.

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  • (PMID = 19476713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R15 AG020526; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R15 AG 20526-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2696827
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55. Espadinha C, Pinto AE, Leite V: Underexpression of PPARgamma is associated with aneuploidy and lower differentiation of thyroid tumours of follicular origin. Oncol Rep; 2009 Oct;22(4):907-13
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  • [Title] Underexpression of PPARgamma is associated with aneuploidy and lower differentiation of thyroid tumours of follicular origin.
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) gene is a nuclear receptor that is involved in thyroid tumourigenesis.
  • Aneuploidy is also observed in some thyroid tumours, particularly in the more advanced cases.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of PPARgamma expression with the degree of differentiation and ploidy status of benign and malignant thyroid neoplasias.
  • DNA cytometric studies, ploidy and S-phase fraction (SPF) determination, and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of molecular markers specific for thyroid follicular cells, namely Tg (thyroglobulin), TSHR (TSH receptor) and NIS (Na+/I- symporter) were compared between thyroid lesions with positive or negative PPARgamma protein expression.
  • This study showed that underexpression of PPARgamma is associated with poor tumour differentiation, aneuploidy and higher cell proliferative activity.
  • Therapies designed to modulate expression of PPARgamma may have an impact on the growth of thyroid neoplasias.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Aneuploidy. PPAR gamma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19724872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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56. Mehrotra P, Gonzalez MA, Johnson SJ, Coleman N, Wilson JA, Davies BR, Lennard TW: Mcm-2 and Ki-67 have limited potential in preoperative diagnosis of thyroid malignancy. Laryngoscope; 2006 Aug;116(8):1434-8
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  • [Title] Mcm-2 and Ki-67 have limited potential in preoperative diagnosis of thyroid malignancy.
  • Because Mcm-2 expression has not previously been assessed in thyroid tissue, the aim of this study was to assess the expression of both proteins in a range of thyroid lesions to determine their potential value as preoperative markers of thyroid malignancy.
  • METHODS: Mcm-2 and Ki-67 protein expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues from 128 patients with histologic diagnoses of papillary carcinoma (n = 38), follicular carcinoma (n = 22), follicular adenoma (n = 33), and dominant nodules of multinodular goitre (n = 35).
  • CONCLUSION: Neither Mcm-2 or Ki-67 can currently be reliably applied as preoperative markers to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Thyroid Gland / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16885749.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105359878
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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57. Pozzi EC, Altermatt HJ, Rees TD, Bornstein MM: Exophytic mass of the gingiva as the first manifestation of metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma. J Periodontol; 2008 Jan;79(1):187-91
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  • BACKGROUND: Metastasis of a malignant tumor to the oral cavity is rare, but it can be the first manifestation of a primary tumor.
  • The intraoral healing after tumor removal was uneventful.
  • This case emphasizes that even apparently benign-looking gingival lesions in anamnestically healthy patients need to be examined histopathologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Gingival Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Homeodomain Proteins / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-7 / analysis. Mandible. Middle Aged. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18166110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of periodontology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Periodontol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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58. Chen G, Zhang FR, Ren J, Tao LH, Shen ZY, Lv Z, Yu SJ, Dong BF, Xu LY, Li EM: Expression of fascin in thyroid neoplasms: a novel diagnostic marker. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Sep;134(9):947-51
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  • [Title] Expression of fascin in thyroid neoplasms: a novel diagnostic marker.
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic significance of fascin in thyroid neoplasms.
  • METHODS: Thyroid samples from 177 cases were examined for fascin and Ki-67 expression by immunohistochemistry.
  • Fascin immunostaining was positive in 62.1% (41/66) of thyroid carcinomas and 26.4% (19/72) of thyroid adenomas; the difference being significant (P < 0.0001).
  • In thyroid papillary carcinoma, upregulation of fascin was associated with both the Ki-67 labeling index and the occurrence of lymph node metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Fascin may be a novel marker to distinguish thyroid carcinoma from benign lesions and may be involved in the proliferation and metastasis of papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Microfilament Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18343949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 146808-54-0 / fascin
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59. Fujita T, Hayashi K, Katanoda K, Matsumura Y, Lee JS, Takagi H, Suzuki S, Mizunuma H, Aso T: Prevalence of diseases and statistical power of the Japan Nurses' Health Study. Ind Health; 2007 Oct;45(5):687-94
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  • For all diseases except ovarian cancer, the prevalence of a past diagnosis increased markedly with age, and incidence rates could be predicted based on the degree of increase in prevalence between two adjacent 5-yr age groups.
  • The predicted incidence rate for uterine myoma, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension was > or =3.0 (per 1,000 women, per year), while the rate of thyroid disease, hepatitis, gallstone disease, and benign breast tumor was predicted to be > or =1.0.

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  • (PMID = 18057812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Industrial health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ind Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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60. Sands NB, Karls S, Rivera J, Tamilia M, Hier MP, Black MJ, Gologan O, Payne RJ: Preoperative serum thyroglobulin as an adjunct to fine-needle aspiration in predicting well-differentiated thyroid cancer. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Dec;39(6):669-73
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  • [Title] Preoperative serum thyroglobulin as an adjunct to fine-needle aspiration in predicting well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: when fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of a thyroid nodule yields indeterminate pathology, management decisions become complex, and other preoperative predictors of thyroid cancer must be employed to assess the risk of malignancy.
  • Although thyroglobulin (Tg) is currently accepted as the serum marker of choice in the detection of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) recurrence, its preoperative role in the workup of a thyroid nodule remains controversial.
  • In addition, mean preoperative Tg levels were found to be significantly higher in patients with WDTC compared to those with benign pathology (223 vs 53 microg/L, p = .007).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21144363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1916-0216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of otolaryngology - head & neck surgery = Le Journal d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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61. Choi YJ, Yun JS, Kim DH: Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm. Endocr J; 2009;56(3):383-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and ultrasound (US) features of malignancy in patients using cytological results of follicular neoplasm (FN) in the thyroid.
  • Patient histopathology, age, sex, tumor size, and US characteristics and the color flow pattern of the lesions were analyzed and compared between benign and carcinomas.
  • Benign included 78 FA, 8 atypical FA, and 3 Hurthle cell adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 19164864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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62. Paramo JC, Mesko T: Age, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid. Endocr Pract; 2008 May-Jun;14(4):447-51
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  • [Title] Age, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical predictors of malignancy in patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of 71 patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm who underwent thyroidectomy between January 1992 and December 2000.
  • Age, sex, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography characteristics of the lesions were assessed.
  • These clinical factors were compared between cases that had benign definitive pathologic findings and those that were found to be carcinomas on permanent sections.
  • RESULTS: Nine (13%) of the 71 follicular neoplasms were found to be carcinomas after definitive pathologic evaluation.
  • When the in-office ultrasonography findings were interpreted as benign, only 7% (3/46) of cases were malignant compared with 40% (4/10) when the ultrasonography findings were suspicious (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age and tumor size are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • Total thyroidectomy is reasonable in patients with follicular neoplasm on frozen section if they are young (<45 years old), with large (>4 cm) tumors or if there are suspicious findings on in-office ultrasonography.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18558598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Tischler V, Fritzsche FR, Wild PJ, Stephan C, Seifert HH, Riener MO, Hermanns T, Mortezavi A, Gerhardt J, Schraml P, Jung K, Moch H, Soltermann A, Kristiansen G: Periostin is up-regulated in high grade and high stage prostate cancer. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:273
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  • Metastatic prostate cancers (n = 20), hormone refractory prostate cancers (n = 19) and benign prostatic tissues (n = 38) were also analyzed.
  • RESULTS: In total, strong epithelial periostin expression was detectable in 142 of 418 (34.0%) of prostate carcinomas and in 11 of 38 benign prostate glands (28.9%).
  • Increased periostin expression in carcinoma cells was significantly associated with high Gleason score (p < 0.01) and advanced tumour stage (p < 0.05) in the test cohort.
  • Whereas periostin expression was weak or absent in the stroma around normal prostate glands, strong periostin expression in tumour stroma was found in most primary and metastatic prostate cancers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that periostin up-regulation is related to increased tumour aggressiveness in prostate cancer and might be a promising target for therapeutical interventions in primary and metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Cohort Studies. Epithelial Cells / chemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Stromal Cells / chemistry. Time Factors. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 20534149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / POSTN protein, human; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2903527
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64. Jiang B, Wu GP, Zhao YJ, Wang SC: Transcription expression and clinical significance of TTF-1 mRNA in pleural effusion of patients with lung cancer. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Dec;36(12):849-54
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  • The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic utility of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) mRNA in pleural effusions (PEs) of patients with lung cancer, especially primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PPA).
  • Transcription levels of TTF-1 were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in PEs of patients with lung cancer (56 cases) and with lung benign diseases (44 cases).
  • The expression rate of TTF-1 mRNA was significantly higher in PEs of patients with lung cancer (73.2%) than with benign lung diseases (0%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / diagnosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18855882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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65. Chiu CG, Strugnell SS, Griffith OL, Jones SJ, Gown AM, Walker B, Nabi IR, Wiseman SM: Diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in thyroid cancer. Am J Pathol; 2010 May;176(5):2067-81
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in thyroid cancer.
  • Galectin-3 (Gal-3), which has received significant recent attention for its utility as a diagnostic marker for thyroid cancer, represents the most well-studied molecular candidate for thyroid cancer diagnosis.
  • Gal-3 expression studies in thyroid tissue and cytologic tumor specimens and their methodological considerations are also discussed in this article.
  • Despite great variance in their methodology, the majority of immunohistochemical studies found that Gal-3 was differentially expressed in thyroid carcinoma compared with benign and normal thyroid specimens, suggesting that Gal-3 is a good diagnostic marker for thyroid cancer.
  • Overall, the development of Gal-3 as a diagnostic marker for thyroid cancer represents a promising avenue for future study, and its clinical application could significantly reduce the number of diagnostic thyroid operations performed for cases of indeterminant fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology, and thus positively impact the current management of thyroid nodular disease.

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  • (PMID = 20363921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MOP-43938
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3; EC 3.2.1.23 / beta-Galactosidase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2861072
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66. Shikama Y, Mizukami H, Sakai T, Yagihashi N, Okamoto K, Yagihashi S: Spindle cell metaplasia arising in thyroid adenoma: characterization of its pathology and differential diagnosis. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Feb;29(2):168-71
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  • [Title] Spindle cell metaplasia arising in thyroid adenoma: characterization of its pathology and differential diagnosis.
  • Spindle cell metaplasia in thyroid adenoma or carcinoma is rare and its pathological features are not well characterized.
  • We encountered a case of thyroid follicular adenoma associated with spindle cell metaplasia.
  • It showed "tumor in tumor appearance" and neoplastic spindle cells were positive for thyroglobulin, thyroid transcription factor-1, vimentin and focally chromogranin A and somatostatin (SS).
  • From the findings from our case, spindle cell metaplasia appears to be a benign clinical entity, suggestive of multidirectional differentiation of follicular cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16610245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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67. Kanaya H, Tanigaito Y, Shyono N, Hirabayashi H, Baba K: [A rare case of ectopic, normally functioning thyroid tissue presenting as a left submandibular mass]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2005 Sep;108(9):850-3
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  • [Title] [A rare case of ectopic, normally functioning thyroid tissue presenting as a left submandibular mass].
  • Thirty years ago, this patient underwent subtotal thyroidectomy at another hospital and her thyroid function subsequently appeared normal.
  • A clinical diagnosis of a benign tumor arising from the submandibular gland was made with enhanced CT scan, MRI and technesium scintigraphy.
  • Histological examination confirmed ectopic thyroid tissue with partial adenomatous goiter including vacuolated rich colloid in the thyroid follicles which suggested compensatory hyperplasia.
  • Because this patient presented with post-operative hypothyroidism, we concluded that this ectopic lesion had continued to secrete thyroid hormone.
  • Ectopic thyroid tissue should be considered in the differential diagnosis of swellings involving the submandibular area, especially if the ectopic tissue would be the only functioning thyroid tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / diagnosis. Submandibular Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16218443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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68. Dionigi G, Dionigi R, Bartalena L, Tanda ML, Piantanida E, Castano P, Annoni M, Boni L, Rovera F, Bacuzzi A, Vanoli P, Sessa F: [Current indications for thyroidectomy]. Minerva Chir; 2007 Oct;62(5):359-72
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  • Thyroid surgery, one of the most common interventions in endocrine surgery, is practiced by many specialists who perform this procedure exclusively.
  • Surgeons who correctly perform thyroid surgery can achieve excellent outcomes even in other areas of endocrine surgery.
  • Numerous studies have reported that the incidence of complications is high and that the rate is growing: 5% involve permanent injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve after intervention for a benign tumor, despite repeated reports that the incidence could be reduced to near zero or at least to 1%.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Ambulatory Surgical Procedures. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Graves Disease / surgery. Humans. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Thyrotoxicosis / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Video-Assisted Surgery

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  • (PMID = 17947947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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69. Kawahara I, Nakamoto M, Matsuo Y, Tokunaga Y: [Subclavian steal phenomenon associated with hypervascular thyroid tumor]. No Shinkei Geka; 2010 May;38(5):473-6
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  • [Title] [Subclavian steal phenomenon associated with hypervascular thyroid tumor].
  • We describe a rare case of hypervascular thyroid nodule presenting with features of SSP.
  • Thyroid tumor was regarded as benign by radiological findings, laboratory data, and physical examination.
  • If SSS becomes symptomatic, removal of the thyroid tumor may be indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Subclavian Steal Syndrome / etiology. Thyroid Nodule / complications

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  • (PMID = 20522919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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70. Chang YJ, Mittal V, Remine S, Manyam H, Sabir M, Richardson T, Young S: Correlation between clinical and histological findings in parathyroid tumors suspicious for carcinoma. Am Surg; 2006 May;72(5):419-26
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  • Carcinoma of the parathyroid is a rare malignancy that can be cured surgically if the proper diagnosis and treatment is given initially.
  • Our goal is to review the correlation between clinical and final histopathological findings that can arouse the suspicion of such malignancy and their true predictive value in the diagnosis.
  • Among 168 patients who underwent parathyroid excision, 14 (8.3%) had hyperplasia of the parathyroid, 121 (72%) had benign adenoma, 25 (14.8%) had other benign lesions, and 8 (4.7%) patients had primary carcinoma of the parathyroid confirmed by pathology.
  • Our mean serum calcium level was 11.57 mg/dL, which was lower than the mean level (12 mg/dL) for benign hyperparathyroidism.
  • The mean tumor size was 2.18 cm, smaller than the proposed for malignant criteria, and none of the eight patients (0%) had any symptoms of hypercalcemia at the time of diagnosis.
  • Seven of eight patients (87.5%) had frank signs of invasion together with other histological features, and two patients had associated papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Five patients from our series did not meet clinical criteria for malignancy (tumor size > 3 cm, palpable mass, and serum calcium > 14 mg/dL), but had undisputable histological findings (high mitotic pattern, fibrous trabeculae, capsular invasion, vascular invasion, and nodular involvement).
  • On the other hand, 17 patients with benign histology had tumors greater than 3 cm, and an additional 18 had palpable masses on physical examination.
  • The patients with diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma, their kindred, and those with large adenomas may benefit from genetic screening for HRTP2 gene mutations in search of early detection of tumors suspicious for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Aged, 80 and over. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16719197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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71. Rim SY, Kim SM, Choi HS: Struma ovarii showing clinical characteristics of ovarian malignancy. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Nov-Dec;15(6):1156-9
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  • Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm, composed entirely or predominantly of thyroid tissue and generally a benign germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • We experienced a rare case of a postmenopausal woman with benign struma ovarii associated with massive ascites, a complex pelvic mass.
  • No recurrence of the ascites or of the tumor has been observed during the 10-month follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16343201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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72. Zhang PJ, Gao HG, Pasha TL, Litzky L, Livolsi VA: TTF-1 expression in ovarian and uterine epithelial neoplasia and its potential significance, an immunohistochemical assessment with multiple monoclonal antibodies and different secondary detection systems. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jan;28(1):10-8
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  • [Title] TTF-1 expression in ovarian and uterine epithelial neoplasia and its potential significance, an immunohistochemical assessment with multiple monoclonal antibodies and different secondary detection systems.
  • Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is a 38-kd homeodomain containing DNA-binding protein, identified in thyroid and lung as a regulator of thyroid-specific genes and surfactant and Clara cell secretory protein gene expression.
  • TTF-1 has been used as a reliable lineage marker for lung adenocarcinoma and thyroid carcinoma in surgical pathology.
  • TTF-1 was most frequently detected in uterine malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (82%), more common in uterine tumors than ovarian tumors, and more common in surgical specimen than TMA.
  • When present, tumor cells can be rarely positive or diffusely positive for TTF-1 reactivity.
  • In addition to malignant tumors, TTF-1 was also detected in benign tumors and benign tubal and endometrial epithelia.
  • TTF 1 immunostaining has the potential to misguide a pathologist to conclude an ovarian or endometrial tumor being a lung metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19047914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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73. Abu-Amero KK, Alzahrani AS, Zou M, Shi Y: High frequency of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human thyroid carcinomas and complex I respiratory defect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Oncogene; 2005 Feb 17;24(8):1455-60
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  • [Title] High frequency of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human thyroid carcinomas and complex I respiratory defect in thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • Significant progress has been made to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine thyroid tumor development and progression.
  • The potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in thyroid tumorigenesis is not well defined.
  • In the present study, we investigated the frequency of mtDNA mutations in 24 thyroid tumor specimens (19 primary papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), one follicular thyroid carcinoma, and four multinodular hyperplasias) and four thyroid cancer cell lines by sequencing the entire coding regions of mitochondrial genome.
  • All the thyroid tumor cell lines carried sequence variations that change amino acid and have not been reported previously as normal sequence variants.
  • Flow cytometry analysis of mitochondria respiratory function in the thyroid tumor cell lines revealed a severe defect in mitochondrial complex I activity.
  • The majority of the mutations was involved in genes located in the complex I of the mitochondrial genome.
  • These data suggest that mtDNA mutations may play an important role in the thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Given that mtDNA mutation is present in the benign multinodular hyperplasia, it might be involved in the early stage of tumor development.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. Electron Transport Complex I / physiology. Mutation / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15608681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; EC 1.6.5.3 / Electron Transport Complex I
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74. Bender O, Karyagar S, Levent Balci F, Yuney E, Kamali S, Ozpacaci T, Mulazimoglu M, Uyanik E, Karyagar SS, Sari YS: Gamma probe (99m)Tc-pertechnetate assisted completion thyroidectomy vs conventional thyroidectomy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Hell J Nucl Med; 2009 May-Aug;12(2):138-41
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  • [Title] Gamma probe (99m)Tc-pertechnetate assisted completion thyroidectomy vs conventional thyroidectomy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Patients undergoing partial thyroidectomy for benign diseases may need re-operation if differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is detected on histopathology.
  • The aim of this study was to determine if using gamma probe during the above surgery in a procedure called: gamma probe completion thyroidectomy (GPCT) could support the diagnosis of DTC tissue and offer an advantage in the surgical treatment of DTC patients.
  • We have studied 100 patients who after bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy for benign disease in several hospitals, were found to have DTC histopathologically and referred to our clinic for subsequent re-operation.
  • We compared retrospectively Group I and Group II in terms of volume of residual thyroid tissue, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) values, complication rates and incidence of tumor found in the residual thyroid.
  • Volumes of residual thyroid were also significantly less in Group II (P<0.000).
  • Complications and the incidence of tumor cells found in the residual thyroid tissue between the groups were not statistically different (P>0.05).
  • In conclusion, GPCT in patients with DTC significantly increased the success of this operation in localizing and removing residual thyroid tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19675867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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75. Hou P, Ji M, Xing M: Association of PTEN gene methylation with genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway in thyroid tumors. Cancer; 2008 Nov 1;113(9):2440-7
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  • [Title] Association of PTEN gene methylation with genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway in thyroid tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway plays an important role in thyroid tumorigenesis and progression.
  • Genetic alterations, particularly PIK3CA amplification and mutations and ras mutations, are the major cause of aberrant activation of this pathway in thyroid tumors.
  • Epigenetic silencing of the PTEN gene, a negative regulator of the PI3K/AKT pathway, also occurs in thyroid tumors, but its relationship with genetic alterations in this pathway is unclear.
  • METHODS: By using quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, the authors examined PTEN methylation and its relationship with genetic alterations in the PI3K/AKT pathway in various types of thyroid tumors.
  • RESULTS: The authors found PTEN methylation to become progressively higher from benign thyroid adenoma to follicular thyroid cancer and to aggressive anaplastic thyroid cancer, which harbored activating genetic alterations in the PI3K/AKT pathway correspondingly with a progressively higher prevalence.
  • The association of PTEN methylation was seen with both overall genetic alterations and individual genetic alterations, particularly PIK3CA alterations and ras mutations, in the PI3K/AKT pathway within each of the 3 types of thyroid tumors.
  • In contrast, no such relationship was observed for the tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The authors found an interesting association of PTEN methylation with the activating genetic alterations in the PI3K/AKT pathway in thyroid tumors.
  • This finding is consistent with a model in which aberrant methylation and hence silencing of the PTEN gene, which coexists with activating genetic alterations of the PI3K/AKT pathway, may enhance the signaling of this pathway aberrantly activated by genetic alterations and hence contribute to the progression of thyroid tumors. Cancer 2008.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Methylation. Mutation / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18831514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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76. Wang EL, Qian ZR, Rahman MM, Yoshimoto K, Yamada S, Kudo E, Sano T: Increased expression of HMGA1 correlates with tumour invasiveness and proliferation in human pituitary adenomas. Histopathology; 2010 Mar;56(4):501-9
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  • [Title] Increased expression of HMGA1 correlates with tumour invasiveness and proliferation in human pituitary adenomas.
  • AIMS: High-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) is highly expressed in various benign and malignant tumours.
  • Although HMGA1 expression was frequently detected in clinically non-functioning adenomas - 90% of silent adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 76.2% of follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone and 100% of null cell adenomas - it was also detected in 48.1% of growth hormone (GH), 60% of mixed GH/prolactin (PRL), 62.5% of PRL, 66.6% of thyroid-stimulating hormone and 37.5% of ACTH adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that HMGA1 up-regulation has an important oncogenic role in pituitary tumorigenesis, as well as being a novel molecular marker of tumour proliferation and invasiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. HMGA Proteins / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Case-Control Studies. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tumor Burden. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 20459557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA Proteins
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77. Trojanowicz B, Brodauf L, Sekulla C, Lorenz K, Finke R, Dralle H, Hoang-Vu C: The role of AUF1 in thyroid carcinoma progression. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):857-71
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  • [Title] The role of AUF1 in thyroid carcinoma progression.
  • We report here that AUF1 may be involved in thyroid carcinoma progression.
  • Investigations on thyroid tissues revealed that cytoplasmic expression of AUF1 in malignant tissues was increased when compared with benign thyroid tissues.
  • In thyroid carcinoma cell lines, AUF1 was mostly detectable in the nucleus; however, in dividing cells, its increased production was also observed in the cytoplasm.
  • We found AUF1 in complexes with ARE-bearing mRNAs, previously described to be crucial for proliferation and cell cycle of thyroid carcinoma.
  • AUF1 may control the balance between stabilizing and destabilizing effects, both of which are exerted on cell cycle machinery in thyroid carcinoma.
  • Although we cannot exclude participation of other factors, thyroid carcinoma may recruit cytoplasmic AUF1 to disturb the stability of mRNAs encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, leading to uncontrolled growth and progression of tumor cells.
  • Thus, AUF1 may be considered as a new, additional marker for thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / antagonists & inhibitors. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Disease Progression. Down-Regulation / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Gene Knockdown Techniques. Genes, cdc. Humans. Protein Binding. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19574297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / hnRNP D0
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78. Chiang FY, Lin JC, Lee KW, Wang LF, Tsai KB, Wu CW, Lu SP, Kuo WR: Thyroid tumors with preoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy: clinicopathologic features and treatment outcome. Surgery; 2006 Sep;140(3):413-7
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  • [Title] Thyroid tumors with preoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy: clinicopathologic features and treatment outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this present study is to define the significance of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (RLNP) detected before surgery for thyroid diseases with regard to the incidence of malignancy, histopathologic distribution, extrathyroidal invasion, management, and prognosis.
  • METHODS: Six hundred and twenty-two patients underwent operation for various thyroid disease and were treated by the same surgeon.
  • The study was confined to 16 (3%) patients who suffered from a thyroid tumor with preoperative RLNP.
  • RESULTS: Of these 16 patients, 1 had benign thyroid disease, while the other 15 had malignancy (94%).
  • The recurrent laryngeal nerve could be dissected from the thyroid neoplasm in 3 patients, 2 of whom experienced recovery of this nerve's function postoperatively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid tumor associated with RLNP is strongly suggestive of malignancy.
  • The RLN should be preserved if it has not been invaded by the tumor, because it offers a good chance of functional recovery postoperatively.
  • Well-differentiated thyroid cancer accounts for only half of these patients who tend to present at an older age and feature a much higher incidence of upper aerodigestive tract invasion.
  • Radical excision of a resectable anaplastic or squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland offers the chance, albeit small, of long-term survival in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods. Vocal Cord Paralysis / etiology. Vocal Cord Paralysis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Laryngeal Nerves / pathology. Laryngeal Nerves / physiology. Laryngeal Nerves / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16934603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Massaro F, Dolcino M, Degrandi R, Ferone D, Mussap M, Minuto F, Giusti M: Calcitonin assay in wash-out fluid after fine-needle aspiration biopsy in patients with a thyroid nodule and border-line value of the hormone. J Endocrinol Invest; 2009 Apr;32(4):308-12
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  • [Title] Calcitonin assay in wash-out fluid after fine-needle aspiration biopsy in patients with a thyroid nodule and border-line value of the hormone.
  • Assaying calcitonin (CT) in the wash-out fluid from fine-needle aspiration biopsies (CT-FNAB) could be useful in the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • FNAB was performed in a thyroid nodule (no.
  • CT-FNAB values obtained in 37 subjects with normal serum CT (<10 ng/l) who underwent FNAB for thyroid nodules served as a negative control.
  • In patients with a thyroid nodule under evaluation for MTC, serum CT and CT-FNAB values were 14.5+/-3.9 ng/l (range 10-24 ng/l) and 16.4+/-29.8 ng/l (range 2-144 ng/l), respectively.
  • In 4 patients, CT-FNAB values were higher than the highest values found in our negative controls (30 ng/l), but cytology results were compatible with a benign thyroid lesion and pentagastrin testing was negative.
  • In conclusion, borderline CT values in patients with thyroid nodules are not rare.
  • Our experience suggests that CT-FNAB does not have the same importance as that reported in the literature for thyroglobulin and PTH assay in wash-out fluid after FNAB in malignant thyroid and hyperfunctioning parathyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calcitonin / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biological Assay. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Body Fluids / metabolism. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19636196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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80. Fukata S: [Adenomatous goiter--concept, etiology, treatment]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):2106-11
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  • Adenomatous goiter has an accompanying tumor formation due to the overgrowth of the cells of the thyroid tissue.
  • The tumor formation may be single or multiple.
  • In Japan which is iodine-rich country, adenomatous goiter is not so much concerned because its incidence is relatively low and fundamentally benign disease.
  • However, it has various interesting aspects or problems including the etiology of goiter or nodules, the progression to functioning nodules or non-functioning nodules, the development of cancer, thyroid hormone synthesis and therapeutic problems etc.

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  • (PMID = 18018578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Lithium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 76057-06-2 / Transforming Growth Factors; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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81. Pakdaman MN, Rochon L, Gologan O, Tamilia M, Garfield N, Hier MP, Black MJ, Payne RJ: Incidence and histopathological behavior of papillary microcarcinomas: study of 429 cases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Nov;139(5):718-22
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  • OBJECTIVE: We aim to present papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) incidence at a university teaching hospital, to compare characteristics of PMC in relation to size, and to assess for significant difference in PMC incidence among patients with non-PMC thyroid malignancies.
  • Incidence in patients with any non-PMC thyroid malignancy was 51.6 percent against 47.2 percent in all other patients (P = 0.203).
  • There was no significant difference in PMC incidence in patients with malignant vs benign disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 18984270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Schmid KW, Farid NR: How to define follicular thyroid carcinoma? Virchows Arch; 2006 Apr;448(4):385-93
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  • [Title] How to define follicular thyroid carcinoma?
  • The appropriate diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) still depends on its histological discrimination from follicular adenoma (including the distinction of benign from malignant oncocytic variants), papillary thyroid carcinoma (particularly from the follicular variants) and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • The introduction of the micro array technique, however, may offer the possibility of getting a better insight into the natural history, as well as predicting the clinical course, of a given thyroid nodule.
  • This review attempts to recapitulate common standards in the diagnosis of FTC, to summarise current molecular data available to distinguish FTC from other benign and malignant tumours and, finally, to outline future perspectives to define FTC on its specific genetic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Protein Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16506015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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83. Itoh A, Iwase K, Jimbo S, Yamamoto H, Yamamoto N, Kokubo M, Senda T, Nakai A, Nagagasaka A, Nagasaka T, Hibi Y, Seko T: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and presence of angiovascular cells in tissues from different thyroid disorders. World J Surg; 2010 Feb;34(2):242-8
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  • [Title] Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and presence of angiovascular cells in tissues from different thyroid disorders.
  • BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in tumor angiogenesis and other pathophysiological processes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the localization of VEGF in human thyroid tissues to clarify its involvement in proliferative processes in a variety of thyroid disorders.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis using purified rabbit polyclonal anti-human VEGF or anti-human CD34 antibody and a streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex detection system was performed on 58 tissue specimens from 53 patients with different thyroid disorders and 5 normal thyroid glands.
  • RESULTS: Vascular endothelial growth factor was not detected in normal thyroid follicular cells.
  • However, some thyroid tumor cells expressed VEGF in the cytoplasm (papillary carcinoma, 10/18; follicular carcinoma, 1/3; medullary carcinoma, 2/2; follicular adenoma, 3/11; adenomatous goiter, 2/4).
  • In benign follicular adenoma and adenomatous goiter, weak expression of VEGF was found in small areas of the tumor, whereas in malignant thyroid tumors, it was strongly expressed in many cells.
  • Angiovascular cells stained with CD34 antibody in tissues from different thyroid disorders reflected statistically significant differences in papillary carcinoma, follicular adenoma, and Graves' disease compared with normal thyroids, and such cells showed a trend toward increases in medullary carcinoma and adenomatous goiter.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because VEGF probably functions as a hypoxia-inducible angiogenic factor, overexpression of this mediator, concomitant with hypervascularity, may be induced more strongly in malignant thyroid tumors, which need more oxygen to proliferate, than in benign follicular tumors.
  • However, neither VEGF nor CD34 was expressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is an extremely poorly differentiated malignant tumor.
  • CD34 but not VEGF was expressed in the hyperplastic thyroid tissues of Graves' disease composed of nontransformed cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Thyroid Gland / cytology. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20041248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Ishikawa T, Miwa M, Uchida K: Quantitation of thyroid peroxidase mRNA in peripheral blood for early detection of thyroid papillary carcinoma. Thyroid; 2006 May;16(5):435-42
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  • [Title] Quantitation of thyroid peroxidase mRNA in peripheral blood for early detection of thyroid papillary carcinoma.
  • We applied quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect tissue-specific mRNAs in circulating cancer cells for the diagnosis of early-stage cancer.
  • By Northern blotting, the thyroid peroxidase gene (TPO) was strictly expressed in the thyroid.
  • We also used RT-PCR to examine TPO and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) mRNAs in peripheral blood in 33 thyroid papillary carcinoma patients at stages I (23 cases), II (8 cases) and III (3 cases), 49 noncancer patients with benign thyroid diseases, and 20 healthy volunteers.
  • TPO mRNA was detected in 14 of 23 (61%) cases of stage I carcinoma but only 2 of 49 cases with benign thyroid disease.
  • By real-time quantitative RT-PCR, the estimated number of thyrocytes in the circulation ranged from 0.24 and 2700 cells per milliliter of whole blood in 7 of 9 patients at stages I and II, and thyrocyte number did not correlate with tumor size or serum thyroglobulin level.
  • Our results might suggest that detection and quantification of tissue-specific mRNAs (e.g., TPO) in peripheral blood could serve as a means to identify potential tumor markers at early stages of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Iodide Peroxidase / blood. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Blotting, Northern. Blotting, Southern. Child. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16756464.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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85. Gallegos-Hernández JF, Pichardo-Romero P, Esparza-Pérez H, Reséndiz-Colosia JA, Minauro-Muñoz GG, Hernández-Hernández DM: [Value of (99m)Tc tetrofosmin scan in well-differentiated thyroid cancer]. Cir Cir; 2009 Jul-Aug;77(4):275-8; 257-9
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  • [Title] [Value of (99m)Tc tetrofosmin scan in well-differentiated thyroid cancer].
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with cold thyroid nodules without ultrasound malignant suspicion and with benign/undetermined cytology may be subjected to follow-up surveillance.
  • Our objective was to determine the 99mTc-TS negative predictive value (NPV) in patients with cold thyroid nodules.
  • METHODS: An evaluation with 99mTc-TS was conducted prior to surgery in patients with thyroid gland tumor who were candidates for surgery.
  • In 60 patients the scan showed IMA, 20/60 (33%) with carcinoma, 67% with benign nodule.
  • In this group, 3/26 (11.5%) had carcinoma and (88.4%) had a benign neoplasia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IMA-99mTc-TS is less specific in thyroid cancer; nevertheless, in WIMA patients the possibility of carcinoma is 13%.
  • 99mTc-TS may be useful in the therapeutic decision of patients with thyroid nodule with concerns about surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Organophosphorus Compounds. Organotechnetium Compounds. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • [CommentIn] Cir Cir. 2009 Nov-Dec;77(6):471-2; author reply 472-4 [20433795.001]
  • (PMID = 19919788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane
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86. Asari R, Niederle BE, Scheuba C, Riss P, Koperek O, Kaserer K, Niederle B: Indeterminate thyroid nodules: a challenge for the surgical strategy. Surgery; 2010 Sep;148(3):516-25
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  • [Title] Indeterminate thyroid nodules: a challenge for the surgical strategy.
  • BACKGROUND: Because no clinical parameter can establish the final status of a cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodule (ITN) or nodal-metastases in case of malignancy, the initial surgical strategy should define an oncologically adequate procedure with low morbidity.
  • METHODS: The prognostic relevance of sex, age, tumor sizes, multifocality, thyroid function, and recurrence was analyzed in 156 consecutive patients according to the presence of malignancy and nodal metastases.
  • First step lymphadenectomy (lymph node dissection along the recurrent laryngeal nerve before removing the thyroid lobe) was performed in 142 patients documenting 10 nodal metastases.
  • Comparing benign and malignant ITN, no association was found for sex (P = .17), age (P = 1.0), tumor sizes (P = .33, P = .12, P = .19 for < or =30 mm, < or =40 mm, and < or =50 mm, respectively), or thyroid function (P = .26).
  • [MeSH-major] Surgical Procedures, Operative / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Nodule / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Laryngeal Nerves / pathology. Laryngeal Nerves / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroidectomy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20338609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Novosel T, Ritter HE, Gupta M, Harvey A, Mitchell J, Berber E, Siperstein A, Milas M: Detection of circulating thyroid cancer cells in patients with thyroid microcarcinomas. Surgery; 2009 Dec;146(6):1081-9
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  • [Title] Detection of circulating thyroid cancer cells in patients with thyroid microcarcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Circulating thyroid cancer cells detected by peripheral blood thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) mRNA have demonstrated usefulness for thyroid cancer diagnosis and long-term surveillance.
  • METHODS: We compared clinical characteristics of 37 patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC; tumor size </=1 cm) having undetectable (-) versus detectable (+)TSHR mRNA.
  • RESULTS: 59 Of the PTMC patients, 59% had (+)TSHR mRNA levels, similar to those with tumors >1 cm (72%; P = NS) and distinctly higher than false (+) rates in benign goiters (15%; P < .001).
  • Mean tumor size (5 mm) and multifocality rates (45%) were similar in both mRNA groups.
  • CONCLUSION: This study is the first to demonstrate that TSHR mRNA, reflecting circulating thyroid cancer cells, is detectable even with thyroid microcarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / genetics. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. RNA, Messenger / blood. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / blood. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Young Adult


88. Miguel-Pérez P, Herrera-Hernández M, Padilla-Rodríguez A, Martínez-Consuegra N: [Thyroid oncocytic adenoma. A review of the morphological spectrum in four cases]. Gac Med Mex; 2007 Nov-Dec;143(6):517-22
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  • [Title] [Thyroid oncocytic adenoma. A review of the morphological spectrum in four cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma oncocítico de tiroides (adenoma de células de Hürthle). Revisión del espectro morfológico a propósito de cuatro casos.
  • In the thyroid gland, this change is a metaplastic phenomenon that takes place under different circumstances that promote cellular stress, and could even produce a true neoplasm, both benign or malignant.
  • The oncocytic adenoma, a malignant tumor will be described.
  • Tumor characteristics in all cases included: massive ischemic necrosis short after a fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed, unexpected large size, coexistence with a malignant independent neoplasm and cytological features similar to those observed in papillary carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18269084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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89. Guimarães GS, Latini FR, Camacho CP, Maciel RM, Dias-Neto E, Cerutti JM: Identification of candidates for tumor-specific alternative splicing in the thyroid. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2006 Jun;45(6):540-53
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  • [Title] Identification of candidates for tumor-specific alternative splicing in the thyroid.
  • To gain knowledge about whether alternative splicing is linked to thyroid tumorigenesis, we used our prediction database to select targets for analysis.
  • Fifteen putatively new alternative splicing isoforms were selected on the basis of their expression in thyroid libraries and/or their origin in genes previously associated with carcinogenesis.
  • Using a set of 66 normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissue samples, new splicing events were confirmed by RT-PCR for 13 of 15 genes (a validation rate of 87%).
  • Five genes (PTPN18, ABI3BP, PFDN5, SULF2, and ST5) presented new and/or additional unpredicted isoforms differentially expressed between malignant and benign or normal thyroid tissues, confirmed by sequencing.
  • In addition, real-time PCR analysis revealed that expression of an alternative PFDN5 variant was higher in malignant lesions than in benign lesions or normal tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Alternative Splicing. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16493598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms
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90. Musso-Lassalle S, Butori C, Bailleux S, Santini J, Franc B, Hofman P: A diagnostic pitfall: nodular tumor-like squamous metaplasia with Hashimoto's thyroiditis mimicking a sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia. Pathol Res Pract; 2006;202(5):379-83
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  • [Title] A diagnostic pitfall: nodular tumor-like squamous metaplasia with Hashimoto's thyroiditis mimicking a sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia.
  • Nodular tumor-like squamous metaplasia with Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an exceptional, benign condition presenting diagnostic difficulties for the pathologist.
  • The main differential diagnosis is a sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMC) with eosinophilia.
  • We present the different histological criteria, allowing us to eliminate an SMC and other neoplastic tumors of the thyroid.
  • The etiology of this tumor-like lesion, which is still under debate, is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Eosinophilia / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged


91. Ko MS, Lee JH, Shong YK, Gong GY, Baek JH: Normal and abnormal sonographic findings at the thyroidectomy sites in postoperative patients with thyroid malignancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jun;194(6):1596-609
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  • [Title] Normal and abnormal sonographic findings at the thyroidectomy sites in postoperative patients with thyroid malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: We describe typical sonography characteristics of locally recurrent tumors after thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer and the benign conditions mimicking tumor recurrence, with an emphasis on the differential diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Ultrasound is an effective imaging technique not only for the detection of locally recurrent tumors but also for the differential diagnosis of locally recurrent tumors and other abnormalities mimicking tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20489102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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92. Sahin M, Sengul A, Berki Z, Tutuncu NB, Guvener ND: Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy and ultrasonographic features of infracentimetric nodules in patients with nodular goiter: correlation with pathological findings. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(1):67-74
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  • In addition, we used sonography to assess the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules, and we evaluated the extent of disease in infracentimetric cancers.
  • The cytopathological results of 472 US-FNABs from 207 nodular goiter patients (170 women, 37 men; mean age, 51.5 +/- 13.1 yr) seen between 1999 and 2004 were categorized into five groups: inadequate, benign, suspicious, follicular neoplasm, and malignant.
  • More thyroid cancer could be detected in infracentimetric nodules that were hypoechoic or had fine calcification on ultrasonography (which may be helpful in discriminating which nodules are appropriate for FNAB) than in supracentimetric nodules.
  • In conclusion, small tumor size does not guarantee a low risk of thyroid cancer, and US-FNAB may be useful tool for diagnosing malignant infracentimetric nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16760582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
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  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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93. van Staveren WC, Solís DW, Delys L, Duprez L, Andry G, Franc B, Thomas G, Libert F, Dumont JE, Detours V, Maenhaut C: Human thyroid tumor cell lines derived from different tumor types present a common dedifferentiated phenotype. Cancer Res; 2007 Sep 1;67(17):8113-20
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  • [Title] Human thyroid tumor cell lines derived from different tumor types present a common dedifferentiated phenotype.
  • Thyrocyte-derived tumors are very interesting for cancer biology studies because from one cell type, at least five histologically characterized different benign and malignant tumor types can arise.
  • To investigate whether thyroid tumor-derived cell lines are representative in vitro models, characteristics of eight of those cell lines were investigated with microarrays, differentiation markers, and karyotyping.
  • Our results indicate that these cell lines derived from differentiated and undifferentiated tumor types have evolved in vitro into similar phenotypes with gene expression profiles the closest to in vivo undifferentiated tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cluster Analysis. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Karyotyping. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Organ Specificity / genetics. Phenotype. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyrotropin / pharmacology


94. Koh YW, Kim JW, Lee SW, Choi EC: Endoscopic thyroidectomy via a unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation for unilateral benign thyroid lesions. Surg Endosc; 2009 Sep;23(9):2053-60
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  • [Title] Endoscopic thyroidectomy via a unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation for unilateral benign thyroid lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: The usefulness of various endoscopic thyroid surgery techniques has been reviewed.
  • The feasibility and safety of endoscopic thyroid surgery was examined via a novel approach without gas insufflation.
  • A second 1.0-cm skin incision was made along the upper margin of the mammary areola on the tumor side for insertion of a 12-mm trocar.
  • RESULTS: Postoperative pathology showed 11 follicular adenomas, 1 follicular carcinoma, and 40 benign thyroid lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the aspect of invasiveness could be improved, endoscopic hemithyroidectomy via a unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation is safe and effective and appears to provide better cosmetic results and a shorter operation time than other endoscopic methods for managing selective unilateral benign thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18528625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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95. Lal G, Padmanabha L, Smith BJ, Nicholson RM, Howe JR, O'Dorisio MS, Domann FE Jr: RIZ1 is epigenetically inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in thyroid carcinoma. Cancer; 2006 Dec 15;107(12):2752-9
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  • [Title] RIZ1 is epigenetically inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Allelotype studies have suggested that chromosome 1p is frequently lost in thyroid cancers, thus suggesting that there is an important tumor suppressor at this location.
  • RIZ1 (PRDM2), located on 1p36, is a recently described tumor suppressor gene and is a member of the protein methyltransferase superfamily.
  • METHODS: RIZ1 expression was examined in a panel of thyroid tumor cell lines and primary thyroid tissues (14 normal, 19 benign, and 31 cancerous) by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • RESULTS: The authors demonstrated that RIZ1 expression is lost in thyroid tumor cell lines and is also significantly reduced in thyroid carcinomas, when compared with normal thyroid tissues (P < .0001) and benign tumors (P = .0003).
  • One hundred percent of carcinomas were methylated, compared with 33% of normal thyroid tissues (P = .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggested an important role for RIZ1 expression in thyroid tumorigenesis and identified a potential novel therapeutic target for tumors unresponsive to other therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. DNA Methylation. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. Epigenesis, Genetic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Nuclear Proteins / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Transcription Factors / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Azacitidine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase. Humans. Promoter Regions, Genetic / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism