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6. Lindroth K, Fernández C: The role of Blimp-1 in the GC reaction: differential expression of Blimp-1 upon immunization with TD and TI antigens. Immunol Lett; 2007 Nov 15;113(2):70-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Humoral responses against thymus-dependent (TD) antigens are characterized by Ig class switch, somatic hypermutations (SHM) and generation of memory.
  • Some thymus-independent (TI) antigens, such as native dextran B512 (Dx) can also induce formation of GCs, but the responses do not undergo substantial affinity maturation or induction of memory.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibody Formation. Female. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Nude. Plasma Cells / immunology. Plasma Cells / metabolism. Thymus Gland / immunology. Thymus Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17850884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-2478
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, T-Independent; 0 / Prdm1 protein, mouse; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors
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7. Jasinski JM, Yu L, Nakayama M, Li MM, Lipes MA, Eisenbarth GS, Liu E: Transgenic insulin (B:9-23) T-cell receptor mice develop autoimmune diabetes dependent upon RAG genotype, H-2g7 homozygosity, and insulin 2 gene knockout. Diabetes; 2006 Jul;55(7):1978-84
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  • Both pathogenic and protective T-cell clones recognizing the B:9-23 peptide have been produced.
  • Disease progression is heterogeneous and is modified by a series of genetic factors including heterozygosity (H-2(g7)/H-2(q)) versus homozygosity for H-2(g7), the presence of additional T-/B-cell receptor-rearranged genes (RAG(+) versus RAG(-/-)), and the insulin 2 gene knockout (the insulin gene expressed in the NOD thymus).


8. Rodgers T, Rowland M: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling 2: predicting the tissue distribution of acids, very weak bases, neutrals and zwitterions. J Pharm Sci; 2006 Jun;95(6):1238-57
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  • The predictability of Kpu values using mechanistically derived equations has been investigated for 7 very weak bases, 20 acids, 4 neutral drugs and 8 zwitterions in rat adipose, bone, brain, gut, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, skin, spleen and thymus.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association
  • [ErratumIn] J Pharm Sci. 2007 Nov;96(11):3153-4
  • (PMID = 16639716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3549
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Octanols; 0 / Phospholipids; 059QF0KO0R / Water
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9. Dazzi F, Ramasamy R, Glennie S, Jones SP, Roberts I: The role of mesenchymal stem cells in haemopoiesis. Blood Rev; 2006 May;20(3):161-71
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  • In the bone marrow the most important elements of the niche appear to be osteoblasts, whilst a less defined population of fibroblasts regulates the maturation of immature T cells in the thymus.

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  • (PMID = 16364518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-960X
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Cytokines
  • [Number-of-references] 121
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10. Geerdink LM, Busari JO: [Diagnostic image. A girl with a distended and painful abdomen]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2009 May 16;153(20):985
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  • A 17-month-old girl was admitted with dyspnoea and a distended and painful abdomen, due to infiltration of leukemic white blood cells in the thymus and organomegaly based on T-cell acute lymphatic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration / complications. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Spleen / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Abdominal Pain / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Infant. Radiography, Thoracic

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  • (PMID = 19490715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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11. Zavitsanou K, Nguyen V, Greguric I, Chapman J, Ballantyne P, Katsifis A: Detection of apoptotic cell death in the thymus of dexamethasone treated rats using [123I]annexin V and in situ oligonucleotide ligation. J Mol Histol; 2007 Aug;38(4):313-9
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  • [Title] Detection of apoptotic cell death in the thymus of dexamethasone treated rats using [123I]annexin V and in situ oligonucleotide ligation.
  • In the present study we aimed to establish an animal model of dexamethasone (DEX)-induced apoptosis in the thymus of rats.
  • ISOL demonstrated a 62- and 90-fold increase of apoptotic index at 6 and 11 h after DEX administration respectively, in the outer part of the thymic lobule (cortex) and a 25- and 54-fold increases in the inner part of the thymic lobule (medulla) in the corresponding treatment groups.
  • In the biodistribution study, [(123)I]Annexin V uptake was significantly increased in the thymus of rats 11 h after DEX administration (by 1.3- to 1.4-fold) and significantly decreased at the 6-h time point.
  • [MeSH-major] Annexin A5 / analysis. Annexin A5 / metabolism. Apoptosis. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Genetic Techniques. Thymus Gland / cytology. Thymus Gland / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17605081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Histol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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12. Zuckerman NS, Howard WA, Bismuth J, Gibson K, Edelman H, Berrih-Aknin S, Dunn-Walters D, Mehr R: Ectopic GC in the thymus of myasthenia gravis patients show characteristics of normal GC. Eur J Immunol; 2010 Apr;40(4):1150-61
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  • [Title] Ectopic GC in the thymus of myasthenia gravis patients show characteristics of normal GC.
  • Young patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) frequently have ectopic GC in their thymus.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Germinal Center / pathology. Myasthenia Gravis / pathology. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20104489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-4141
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Ceredig R, Bosco N, Rolink AG: The B lineage potential of thymus settling progenitors is critically dependent on mouse age. Eur J Immunol; 2007 Mar;37(3):830-7
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  • [Title] The B lineage potential of thymus settling progenitors is critically dependent on mouse age.
  • The nature and lineage potential, particularly that for B cells, of thymus settling progenitors (TSP) in the adult mouse has been the subject of considerable debate.
  • Lack of B cell potential would suggest pre-thymic, whereas its presence would suggest intra-thymic loss of B cell potential.
  • Using limiting dilution analysis (LDA) in vitro and transfer experiments in vivo, we show that the B cell potential of TSP is critically dependent on mouse age, reaching a maximum of about 1 in 20 cells at birth, decreasing 50-fold in adult mice.
  • Furthermore, using LDA, we show that Notch ligand signaling of TSP results in the loss of B cell potential with a half-life of approximately 12 h.
  • Taken together, these results indicate that loss of B cell potential by TSP is an intra-thymic event and highlight the developmental pressure acting on the immune system to rapidly colonize primary lymphoid organs with functional progenitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / immunology. B-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. Cell Lineage / immunology. Cell Movement / immunology. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / immunology. Thymus Gland / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17295389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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1
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4. Kashanian S, Shahabadi N, Roshanfekr H, Shalmashi K, Omidfar K: DNA binding studies of PdCl2(LL) (LL = chelating diamine ligand: N,N-dimethyltrimethylenediamine) complex. Biochemistry (Mosc); 2008 Aug;73(8):929-36
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  • The interaction of native calf thymus DNA with the Pd(II) complex, PdCl2(LL) (LL = chelating diamine ligand: N,N-dimethyltrimethylenediamine), in 10 mM Hepes aqueous solutions at neutral pH has been monitored as a function of metal complex/DNA molar ratio by UV absorption spectrophotometry, circular dichroism (CD), viscosimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopy.
  • In particular, this complex showed absorption hypochromism and then hyperchromism, increase in melting temperature, and some structural changes in specific viscosity when bound to calf thymus DNA.

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  • (PMID = 18774940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2979
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochemistry Mosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diamines; 0 / Ligands; 5TWQ1V240M / Palladium; 9007-49-2 / DNA; N9214IR8N7 / palladium chloride
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15. Yalçinbaş YK, Erek E, Salihoğlu E, Sarioğlu A, Sarioğlu T: A rare cause of respiratory distress in infants: tracheal compression due to anomalous course of innominate artery. Turk J Pediatr; 2006 Jan-Mar;48(1):93-5
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  • Patent foramen ovale and thymus hyperplasia were detected on echocardiographic examination.
  • Thorax computerized tomography (CT) revealed tracheal compression of more than 50% at innominate artery level and aberrant position of the hyperplastic thymus.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachiocephalic Trunk / abnormalities. Thymus Gland / abnormalities. Tracheal Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16562796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4301
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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16. Chinn IK, Devlin BH, Li YJ, Markert ML: Long-term tolerance to allogeneic thymus transplants in complete DiGeorge anomaly. Clin Immunol; 2008 Mar;126(3):277-81
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  • [Title] Long-term tolerance to allogeneic thymus transplants in complete DiGeorge anomaly.
  • Thymus transplantation in subjects with complete DiGeorge anomaly using postnatal allogeneic HLA-nonmatched cultured thymus tissue provides immunoreconstitution.
  • Tolerance of the newly developed T cells toward the donor thymus has not previously been studied.
  • Mixed lymphocyte cultures were used to test 12 thymus transplant recipients for long-term tolerance toward their thymus allografts.
  • Two subjects tested for responses toward thymus donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed significantly less reactivity toward the donors compared to responses against third-party allogeneic cells.
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 10 other subjects were less responsive toward cryopreserved donor thymic cells than toward allogeneic cells (P=0.00007).
  • Adult control peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferated strongly in response to the donor thymic cells.
  • This study provides in vitro evidence for long-term tolerance of complete DiGeorge anomaly thymus transplantation recipients toward their HLA-nonmatched thymus grafts.
  • [MeSH-major] DiGeorge Syndrome / immunology. DiGeorge Syndrome / surgery. Thymus Gland / immunology. Thymus Gland / transplantation. Transplantation Tolerance / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18155964.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6616
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI047040; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000030-440796; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI047040-03; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000030-430753; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007062; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI047040-08; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024128-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI047040-06; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI060967-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI047040-04; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI047040-09; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000030-360558; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI047040-10; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024128; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI047040-05; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000030; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI 47040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI047040-02; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K12 HD043494; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI 007062-28A2; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54 RR 023469; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI047040-07; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI060967; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007062-28A2; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI047040-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI060967-02
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS45228; NLM/ PMC2562745
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17. Meissner EG, Zhang L, Jiang S, Su L: Fusion-induced apoptosis contributes to thymocyte depletion by a pathogenic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope in the human thymus. J Virol; 2006 Nov;80(22):11019-30
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  • [Title] Fusion-induced apoptosis contributes to thymocyte depletion by a pathogenic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope in the human thymus.
  • Of particular importance is how CD4(+) T cells are depleted within the lymphoid organs, including the lymph nodes and thymus.
  • Herein we characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of an envelope from a rapid progressor (R3A Env) in the NL4-3 backbone (NL4-R3A) which is able to efficiently replicate and deplete CD4(+) thymocytes in the human fetal-thymus organ culture (HF-TOC).
  • Together, our data support a model whereby pathogenic envelope-dependent fusion contributes to thymocyte depletion in HIV-1-infected thymus, correlated with induction of apoptosis in both p24(+) and p24(-) thymocytes.

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  • (PMID = 16956934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI053804; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI041356; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007419; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32-AI07419; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI041356; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI53804
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / HIV Core Protein p24; 0 / HIV Envelope Protein gp41; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Quinolines; 0 / peptide C34; 0 / sequinavir; 19OWO1T3ZE / enfuvirtide; 7006-34-0 / Asparagine; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1642149
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18. Rasooly R, Do PM, Griffey SM, Vilches-Moure JG, Friedman M: Ingested Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) causes histopathological changes in kidney, spleen, and thymus tissues and mortality in mice. J Agric Food Chem; 2010 Aug 25;58(16):9281-6
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  • [Title] Ingested Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) causes histopathological changes in kidney, spleen, and thymus tissues and mortality in mice.
  • Detailed histopathological evaluation of stained tissues by light microscopy revealed severe histopathological changes in kidneys, spleen, and thymus but not in the pancreas, lymph nodes, heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney / drug effects. Shiga Toxin 2 / toxicity. Spleen / drug effects. Thymus Gland / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20681531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5118
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Shiga Toxin 2
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19. Miyake A, Ibuki K, Suzuki H, Horiuchi R, Saito N, Motohara M, Hayami M, Miura T: Early virological events in various tissues of newborn monkeys after intrarectal infection with pathogenic simian human immunodeficiency virus. J Med Primatol; 2005 Oct;34(5-6):294-302
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  • In our previous study of simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected adult monkeys, immature CD4CD8 double-positive T cells in the thymus and jejunum decreased faster than mature CD4 single-positive T cells.
  • The infectious viruses were more abundantly detected in the thymus than in other tissues at both 13 and 26 days post-infection (dpi).
  • However, mature CD4(+) T cells in the thymus declined after 13 dpi and immature CD3(-) CD4 single-positive T cells remained at 26 dpi.
  • These results suggested that many immature CD4(+) T cells in the thymus of newborns support the production of infectious viruses even after the depletion of mature CD4(+) T cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. DNA Primers. Flow Cytometry / veterinary. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / veterinary. Thymus Gland / virology. Time Factors. Viremia / genetics. Virus Replication / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16128924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-2565
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical primatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Primatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers
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20. Ribeiro VS, Hasan M, Wilson A, Boucontet L, Pereira P, Lesjean-Pottier S, Satoh-Takayama N, Di Santo JP, Vosshenrich CA: Cutting edge: Thymic NK cells develop independently from T cell precursors. J Immunol; 2010 Nov 1;185(9):4993-7
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  • [Title] Cutting edge: Thymic NK cells develop independently from T cell precursors.
  • Although NK cells in the mouse are thought to develop in the bone marrow, a small population of NK cells in the thymus has been shown to derive from a GATA3-dependent pathway.
  • Characteristically, thymic NK cells express CD127 and few Ly49 molecules and lack CD11b.
  • Because these NK cells develop in the thymus, the question of their relationship to the T cell lineage has been raised.
  • Using several different mouse models, we find that unlike T cells, thymic NK cells are not the progeny of Rorc-expressing progenitors and do not express Rag2 or rearrange the TCRγ locus.
  • We further demonstrate that thymic NK cells develop independently of the Notch signaling pathway, supporting the idea that thymic NK cells represent bona fide NK cells that can develop independently of all T cell precursors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation / immunology. Cell Lineage / immunology. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / cytology. Killer Cells, Natural / cytology. Thymus Gland / cytology


26. Park IK, Kim JN, Lee YS, Lee SG, Ahn YJ, Shin SC: Toxicity of plant essential oils and their components against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae). J Econ Entomol; 2008 Feb;101(1):139-44
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  • ], mandarine (Citrus reticulate Blanco), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt), cade (Juniperus oxycedrus L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), and thyme red [Thymus vulgaris (L.)] oils at 30 X 10-3 mg/1 air.

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  • (PMID = 18330128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0493
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of economic entomology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Econ. Entomol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insecticides; 0 / Oils, Volatile
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27. Patil V, Kumar A, Kuruppath S, Nandi D: Peptidase N encoded by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium modulates systemic infection in mice. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol; 2007 Nov;51(2):431-42
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  • In addition, S. typhimurium replicated in the thymus and greatly reduced the number of immature CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / microbiology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / microbiology. Colony Count, Microbial. Female. Gene Deletion. Lymph Nodes / microbiology. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Spleen / microbiology. Survival Analysis. Thymus Gland / microbiology. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17877733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0928-8244
  • [Journal-full-title] FEMS immunology and medical microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 148265-34-3 / pepN protein, Bacteria; EC 3.4.11.- / Aminopeptidases
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28. Swat W, Montgrain V, Doggett TA, Douangpanya J, Puri K, Vermi W, Diacovo TG: Essential role of PI3Kdelta and PI3Kgamma in thymocyte survival. Blood; 2006 Mar 15;107(6):2415-22
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  • Surprisingly, genetic deletion of the p110delta and p110gamma catalytic subunits resulted in a dramatic reduction in thymus size, cellularity, and lack of corticomedullary differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 16304053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL75805-01A2; United States / PHS HHS / / HLA106107702
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / Class Ib Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase; EC 2.7.1.137 / Pik3cd protein, mouse; EC 2.7.1.153 / Pik3cg protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1895732
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29. Arora K, Chaubey A, Singhal R, Singh RP, Pandey MK, Samanta SB, Malhotra BD, Chand S: Application of electrochemically prepared polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulphonate films to DNA biosensor. Biosens Bioelectron; 2006 Mar 15;21(9):1777-83
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  • Double stranded calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was physisorbed onto polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulphonate (PPY-PVS) films electrochemically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plates.

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  • (PMID = 16226454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5663
  • [Journal-full-title] Biosensors & bioelectronics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biosens Bioelectron
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracenes; 0 / Chlorophenols; 0 / Coated Materials, Biocompatible; 0 / Membranes, Artificial; 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Polyvinyls; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / Sulfonic Acids; 26101-52-0 / lyapolate; 30604-81-0 / polypyrrole; 8240818JGU / 2-anthramine; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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30. Zorn E, Kim HT, Lee SJ, Floyd BH, Litsa D, Arumugarajah S, Bellucci R, Alyea EP, Antin JH, Soiffer RJ, Ritz J: Reduced frequency of FOXP3+ CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Blood; 2005 Oct 15;106(8):2903-11
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  • T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assays for the evaluation of thymus activity revealed fewer TRECs in both transplant groups compared with healthy donors (P < .001 and P = .02, respectively) although no difference was observed between patients with or without cGVHD (P = .13).

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  • (PMID = 15972448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI29530; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL70149
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1895303
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31. Li W, Yu ZX, Kotin RM: Profiles of PrKX expression in developmental mouse embryo and human tissues. J Histochem Cytochem; 2005 Aug;53(8):1003-9
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  • Using Western blots to detect PrKX, total protein extracts from eight different adult or fetal human tissues including brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, spleen, and thymus were analyzed.

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  • (PMID = 15879576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / PRKX protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
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32. Lynge E, Afonso N, Kaerlev L, Olsen J, Sabroe S, Ahrens W, Eriksson M, Guénel P, Merletti F, Stengrevics A, Suarez-Varela M, Costa-Pererra A, Vyberg M: European multi-centre case-control study on risk factors for rare cancers of unknown aetiology. Eur J Cancer; 2005 Mar;41(4):601-12
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  • To search for occupational risk factors, we conducted a case-control study in nine European countries of cancers of the small intestine, male gall bladder, thymus, bone, male breast, melanoma of the eye, and mycosis fungoides.

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  • (PMID = 15737566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Weinstein DA, Gogal RM Jr, Mustafa A, Prater MR, Holladay SD: Mid-gestation exposure of C57BL/6 mice to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin causes postnatal morphologic changes in the spleen and liver. Toxicol Pathol; 2008 Jul;36(5):705-13
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  • The thymus, spleen, and liver of the pups were examined histologically, and cell surface antigen expression was assessed on postnatal days (PNDs) 1, 14, 25, and 46.
  • In addition to the expected decrease in thymic weight on PND 1, TCDD caused an increase in splenic weight on PND 14 and in hepatic weight on PNDs 14 and 25.
  • The apoptotic index was increased and the corticomedullary border poorly defined in thymuses of TCDD-exposed mice on PND 1, but not at later endpoints.
  • These results suggest that late-gestation thymic architectural changes caused by TCDD resolve shortly after birth: however, abnormalities in other immunologically important areas may appear later in postnatal life.

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  • (PMID = 18648101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-1601
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / R21-PAR-03-121
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Teratogens; DO80M48B6O / Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
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34. den Bakker MA, Oosterhuis JW: Tumours and tumour-like conditions of the thymus other than thymoma; a practical approach. Histopathology; 2009 Jan;54(1):69-89
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  • [Title] Tumours and tumour-like conditions of the thymus other than thymoma; a practical approach.
  • Masses within the thymus and mediastinum are frequently biopsied to establish a diagnosis.
  • The specimens sent for histopathological analysis are typically small (needle) biopsy specimens on which the pathologist is challenged to provide a classifying diagnosis.
  • Despite the fact that the pathology of the anterior mediastinum is predominantly centred on the thymus and it thus might be expected that the range of possible diagnoses is limited, the list of disease entities is in fact extensive, encompassing hyperplastic conditions and both benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • In addition to primary thymic epithelial tumours, a number of less common diseases typical for this location may be encountered, including extragonadal germ cell tumours, lymphomas, soft tissue tumours and a number of conditions which may simulate a tumour, such as cysts and inflammatory conditions.
  • In this review, the disease entities that may be encountered in biopsy material from anterior mediastinal/thymic processes are discussed and an approach to tackle the differential diagnosis is provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymus Gland / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Thymoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19054157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 176
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35. Kuvibidila SR, Gardner R, Velez M, Yu L: Iron deficiency, but not underfeeding reduces the secretion of interferon-gamma by mitogen-activated murine spleen cells. Cytokine; 2010 Dec;52(3):230-7
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  • IFN-γ positively correlated with indicators of iron status, body, and thymus weights (r=0.238-0.472; p<0.05).

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20850986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0023
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytokine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytokine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mitogens; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; E1UOL152H7 / Iron
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36. Wolff AS, Oftedal BE, Kisand K, Ersvaer E, Lima K, Husebye ES: Flow cytometry study of blood cell subtypes reflects autoimmune and inflammatory processes in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I. Scand J Immunol; 2010 Jun;71(6):459-67
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  • Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I) is a recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene.
  • AIRE is expressed in medullary epithelial cells where it activates transcription of organ-specific proteins in thymus, thereby regulating autoimmunity.

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  • (PMID = 20500699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APECED protein; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Transcription Factors
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37. van Delft MF, Smith DP, Lahoud MH, Huang DC, Adams JM: Apoptosis and non-inflammatory phagocytosis can be induced by mitochondrial damage without caspases. Cell Death Differ; 2010 May;17(5):821-32
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  • However, despite the severely blunted apoptosis in cells from Casp9(-/-) mice, some organs with copious apoptosis, such as the thymus, appear unaffected.


38. Guenthner CJ, Bickar D, Harrington ME: Heme reversibly damps PERIOD2 rhythms in mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus explants. Neuroscience; 2009 Dec 1;164(2):832-41
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  • In contrast, heme and HO inhibition did not damp luminescence rhythms in thymus and esophagus explants and had only a small effect on PER2::LUC damping in spleen explants, suggesting that heme's effects are tissue-specific.

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  • (PMID = 19698763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroscience
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA125215-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA125215; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA125215-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21CA125215
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Agents; 0 / Per2 protein, mouse; 0 / Period Circadian Proteins; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 42VZT0U6YR / Heme; 743LRP9S7N / Hemin; 79236-56-9 / N-methylprotoporphyrin IX; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 1.14.99.3 / Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS140736; NLM/ PMC2762007
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39. Catón J, Luder HU, Zoupa M, Bradman M, Bluteau G, Tucker AS, Klein O, Mitsiadis TA: Enamel-free teeth: Tbx1 deletion affects amelogenesis in rodent incisors. Dev Biol; 2009 Apr 15;328(2):493-505
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  • TBX1 is a principal candidate gene for DiGeorge syndrome, a developmental anomaly that affects the heart, thymus, parathyroid, face, and teeth.

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  • (PMID = 19233155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-564X
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE017654-01A1; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K08 DE017654; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K08 DE017654-01A1; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K08-DE017654
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Amelogenin; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Spry2 protein, mouse; 0 / Spry4 protein, mouse; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 0 / Tbx1 protein, mouse; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS203203; NLM/ PMC2880856
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40. Xu L, Chen H, Xu H, Yang X: Anti-tumour and immuno-modulation effects of triptolide-loaded polymeric micelles. Eur J Pharm Biopharm; 2008 Nov;70(3):741-8
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  • [Title] Anti-tumour and immuno-modulation effects of triptolide-loaded polymeric micelles.
  • Triptolide (TP) possesses both anti-tumour and immuno-suppressive activities.
  • The anti-tumour and immuno-modulation effects of TP-PM were evaluated in sarcoma 180-bearing mice and A2780 cells.
  • TP-PM could significantly inhibit tumour growth via intravenous injections at the dose levels of 0.0375, 0.075 and 0.15 mg/kg, and their inhibition rates were 42.5%, 46.0% and 49.9%, respectively; they showed similar cytotoxicity against A2780 cells compared to that of TP.
  • Simultaneously, TP-PM had no effect on the thymus index, spleen index, spleen lymphocyte proliferation and the TNF-alpha and IL-2 levels in serum as compared with TP.
  • Therefore, TP encapsulated in polymeric micelles does not demonstrate immuno-suppressive activity but does not lose its anti-tumour effect.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Compounding. Drug Stability. Epoxy Compounds / administration & dosage. Epoxy Compounds / chemistry. Epoxy Compounds / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Mice. Particle Size. Solubility. Technology, Pharmaceutical / methods. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18761405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-6411
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pharm Biopharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Diterpenes; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Epoxy Compounds; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Micelles; 0 / Phenanthrenes; 0 / Polyesters; 0 / methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide); 19ALD1S53J / triptolide; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols
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41. Coumans B, Grisar T, Nahon JL, Lakaye B: Effect of ppMCH derived peptides on PBMC proliferation and cytokine expression. Regul Pept; 2007 Oct 4;143(1-3):104-8
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  • The mRNA encoding prepro-Melanin concentrating hormone (ppMCH) is mainly expressed in the central nervous system but has also been detected at lower amount in many peripheral tissues including spleen and thymus.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cells, Cultured. Humans. Interferon-gamma / metabolism. Interleukin-2 / metabolism. Interleukin-2 / pharmacology. Interleukin-4 / metabolism. Peptide Fragments / pharmacology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17537530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-0115
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Pept.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Hypothalamic Hormones; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Melanins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / melanin-concentrating-hormone precursor (129-145)-glutamyl-isoleucinamide; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4; 67382-96-1 / melanin-concentrating hormone; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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42. Wang CP, Wu YL: [Study on mechanism underlying the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by Keshiling]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi; 2006 Jan;31(2):155-8
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  • The ConA and LPS-induced lymphocytes proliferation and the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) secreted by thymus were determined by MTT assay.

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  • (PMID = 16570809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-5302
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Materia Medica; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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43. Luna A, Julián JF, Alba A, Garcia-Cuyás F, Broggi MA, Ciancio G, Pujol-Borrell R, Fernández-Llamazares J, Vives-Pi M: Syngeneic islet transplantation into seminal vesicles of diabetic rats. J Invest Surg; 2005 Jan-Feb;18(1):13-8
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  • Transplantation into different sites has been investigated, among them those that are immuno-logically privileged (e.g., thymus, uterus, brain, anterior eye chamber, and testicle).

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  • (PMID = 15804947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-1939
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of investigative surgery : the official journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Invest Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose
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44. Ina Y, Sakai K: Further study of prolongation of life span associated with immunological modification by chronic low-dose-rate irradiation in MRL-lpr/lpr mice: effects of whole-life irradiation. Radiat Res; 2005 Apr;163(4):418-23
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  • Also obtained were a time course and a radiation dose-rate response for the activation of the immune system as indicated by a significant increase in CD4+ CD8+ T cells in the thymus and CD8+ T cells in the spleen and also by a significant decrease in CD3+ CD45R/B220+ cells and CD45R/B220+ CD40+ cells in the spleen.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptation, Physiological / immunology. Disease Susceptibility / immunology. Longevity / immunology. Longevity / radiation effects. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / deficiency

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  • (PMID = 15799698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-7587
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Fas protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
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45. Chen YT, Kung JT: CD1d-independent developmental acquisition of prompt IL-4 gene inducibility in thymus CD161(NK1)-CD44lowCD4+CD8- T cells is associated with complementarity determining region 3-diverse and biased Vbeta2/Vbeta7/Vbeta8/Valpha3.2 T cell receptor usage. J Immunol; 2005 Nov 15;175(10):6537-50
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  • [Title] CD1d-independent developmental acquisition of prompt IL-4 gene inducibility in thymus CD161(NK1)-CD44lowCD4+CD8- T cells is associated with complementarity determining region 3-diverse and biased Vbeta2/Vbeta7/Vbeta8/Valpha3.2 T cell receptor usage.
  • We show in this study that thymus CD161-CD44lowCD4+CD8- T cells promptly produce IL-4 upon TCR stimulation, a response that displays biased Vbeta(2/7/8) and Valpha3.2 TCR usage.
  • The association of Vbeta family bias and IL-4 inducibility in thymus CD161-CD44lowCD4+CD8- T cells is found for B6, B10, BALB/c, CBA, B10.A(4R), and ICR mouse strains.
  • The development of thymus CD161-CD44lowCD4+CD8- T cells endowed with IL-4 inducibility and their associated use of Vbeta(2/7/8) are beta2-microglobulin-, CD1d-, and p59fyn-independent.
  • Thymus CD161-CD44lowCD4+CD8- T cells produce low and no IFN-gamma inducibility in response to TCR stimulation and to IL-12 + IL-18, respectively, and they express diverse complementarity determining region 3 sequences for both TCR-alpha- and -beta-chains.
  • The more prevalent nature of this unique T cell subset in the thymus than the periphery implies roles it might play in intrathymic T cell development and may provide a framework upon which mechanisms of developmentally regulated IL-4 gene inducibility can be studied.

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  • (PMID = 16272308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1767
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD1; 0 / Antigens, CD1d; 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Complementarity Determining Regions; 0 / Galactosylceramides; 0 / Interleukins; 0 / Lectins, C-Type; 0 / NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily B; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta; 0 / alpha-galactosylceramide; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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46. Yoshida M, Gotoh K, Fujii M, Shimada H, Touma M, Hosono M: Adrenal participation in thymocyte death by anti-CD3 antibodies in vivo. Microbiol Immunol; 2007;51(2):243-51
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  • The deletion of CD4- and CD8-double-positive (DP) cells in the thymus after treatment with anti-CD3 antibodies has long been considered as a useful model for clonal deletion during T cell development, although it was reported that DP cell death was not observed in neonates where self-tolerance should be developing.
  • Due to the similar susceptibility to the antibody-treatment in vitro between neonatal and adult thymocytes, critical factors may be outside rather than within the thymus.
  • Indeed, newborn thymus lobes transplanted into recipients of different ages showed an increased susceptibility to the thymo-toxicity as the age of the recipient increased.
  • Therefore, the thymocyte death by anti-CD3 antibodies in vivo may not be due to the T cellreceptor mediated selection in the thymus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / immunology. Antibodies / immunology. Antigens, CD3 / immunology. Apoptosis / immunology. T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Thymus Gland / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17310093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-5600
  • [Journal-full-title] Microbiology and immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Microbiol. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antimetabolites; ZS9KD92H6V / Metyrapone
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47. Aoki K, Harashima A, Sano M, Yokoi T, Nakamura S, Kibata M, Hirose T: A thymus-specific noncoding RNA, Thy-ncR1, is a cytoplasmic riboregulator of MFAP4 mRNA in immature T-cell lines. BMC Mol Biol; 2010 Dec 16;11:99
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  • [Title] A thymus-specific noncoding RNA, Thy-ncR1, is a cytoplasmic riboregulator of MFAP4 mRNA in immature T-cell lines.
  • We investigated the characteristics and function of ncRNAs that were specifically expressed in the thymus, the site of T-cell selection and maturation.
  • RESULTS: Expression profiling of 10 thymus-specific ncRNAs in 17 T-cell leukemia cell lines derived from various stages of T-cell maturation revealed that HIT14168 ncRNA, named Thy-ncR1, was specifically expressed in cell lines derived from stage III immature T cells in which the neighbouring CD1 gene cluster is also specifically activated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Precursor Cells, T-Lymphoid / metabolism. RNA, Untranslated / metabolism. Thymus Gland / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Alternative Splicing. Antigens, CD1 / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Knockdown Techniques. Humans. RNA Interference. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21162727.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2199
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD1; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / MFAP4 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Untranslated; 0 / Trans-Activators; EC 3.6.4.13 / UPF1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3023731
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48. Siatis NG, Kimbaris AC, Pappas CS, Tarantilis PA, Daferera DJ, Polissiou MG: Rapid method for simultaneous quantitative determination of four major essential oil components from oregano (Oreganumsp.) and thyme (Thymus sp.) using FT-Raman spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem; 2005 Jan 26;53(2):202-6
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  • [Title] Rapid method for simultaneous quantitative determination of four major essential oil components from oregano (Oreganumsp.) and thyme (Thymus sp.) using FT-Raman spectroscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Oils, Volatile / analysis. Origanum / chemistry. Spectrum Analysis, Raman / methods. Thymus Plant / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15656649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oils, Volatile
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49. Habbe N, Waldmann J, Bartsch DK, Fendrich V, Rothmund M, Langer P: Multimodal treatment of sporadic and inherited neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus. Surgery; 2008 Nov;144(5):780-5
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  • [Title] Multimodal treatment of sporadic and inherited neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus (NETT) are a rare tumor entity of the anterior mediastinum.
  • They belong to the category of foregut carcinoids and are often associated with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome.
  • All patients underwent tumor resection via sternotomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19081021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Zhang L, Kovalev GI, Su L: HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis in a novel humanized mouse model. Blood; 2007 Apr 1;109(7):2978-81
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  • Normal human T, B, and dendritic cells are present in peripheral blood, thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes.
  • High levels of productive infection occur in the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes.

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  • (PMID = 17132723.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI/GM 48407; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI041356; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA99939; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI50410
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  • [Publication-country] United States
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1852218
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51. Ziegler SF: FOXP3: of mice and men. Annu Rev Immunol; 2006;24:209-26
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  • Tolerance to self-antigens is generated through two fundamental mechanisms: (a) elimination of self-reactive cells in the thymus during selection and (b) generation of a variety of peripheral regulatory cells to control self-reactive cells that escape the thymus.

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  • (PMID = 16551248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-0582
  • [Journal-full-title] Annual review of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Annu. Rev. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI059926; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI48779; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK068312
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Foxp3 protein, mouse; 0 / Protein Isoforms
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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52. Oberholzer C, Tschoeke SK, Moldawer LL, Oberholzer A: Local thymic caspase-9 inhibition improves survival during polymicrobial sepsis in mice. J Mol Med (Berl); 2006 May;84(5):389-95
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  • [Title] Local thymic caspase-9 inhibition improves survival during polymicrobial sepsis in mice.
  • Local injections of Z-LEHD-fmk, a specific caspase-9 inhibitor, into thymi of septic mice led to the complete inhibition of caspase-9, decreased apoptosis of resident tissue cells, and, in addition, reduced further downstream caspase-3 activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Caspase Inhibitors. Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Sepsis / drug therapy. Sepsis / mortality. Thymus Gland / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 16453149.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-2716
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P30 HL-59412; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R37 GM-40586
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones; 0 / Caspase Inhibitors; 0 / Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / benzyloxycarbonyl-leucyl-glutamyl-histidyl-aspartic acid fluoromethyl ketone; 0 / benzyloxycarbonylvalyl-alanyl-aspartyl fluoromethyl ketone; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 9
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53. Hammady T, El-Gindy A, Lejmi E, Dhanikula RS, Moreau P, Hildgen P: Characteristics and properties of nanospheres co-loaded with lipophilic and hydrophilic drug models. Int J Pharm; 2009 Mar 18;369(1-2):185-95
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  • All-trans retinoic acid (RA) was selected as a lipophilic drug model whereas calf thymus DNA was chosen as a water-soluble model.

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  • (PMID = 19071201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3476
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Emulsions; 0 / Polyesters; 24980-41-4 / polycaprolactone; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 9007-49-2 / DNA; 91080-16-9 / calf thymus DNA
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54. Dubessy C, Cartier D, Lectez B, Bucharles C, Chartrel N, Montero-Hadjadje M, Bizet P, Chatenet D, Tostivint H, Scalbert E, Leprince J, Vaudry H, Jégou S, Lihrmann I: Characterization of urotensin II, distribution of urotensin II, urotensin II-related peptide and UT receptor mRNAs in mouse: evidence of urotensin II at the neuromuscular junction. J Neurochem; 2008 Oct;107(2):361-74
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  • In periphery, both mRNAs were expressed in skeletal muscle, testis, vagina, stomach, and gall bladder, whereas only URP mRNA could be detected in the seminal vesicle, heart, colon, and thymus.


55. Metcalf D, Glaser S, Mifsud S, Di Rago L, Robb L: The preleukemic state of mice reconstituted with Mixl1-transduced marrow cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 Dec 11;104(50):20013-8
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  • Organs from mice repopulated by marrow cells transduced either with Mixl1 or the control murine stem cell virus vector exhibited a capacity to produce IL-3 in vitro, activity being highest with the lungs, marrow, bladder, and thymus.

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  • [Cites] Leukemia. 2001 Aug;15(8):1248-55 [11480567.001]
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  • (PMID = 18056627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA022556; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA022556; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA22556
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-3; 0 / Mixl1 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2148414
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56. Feig C, Peter ME: How apoptosis got the immune system in shape. Eur J Immunol; 2007 Nov;37 Suppl 1:S61-70
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  • Moreover, cell death also plays a key, and essential, role in the education of immune cells in the thymus and the bone marrow, where autoreactive cells are eliminated, thereby establishing tolerance to self tissues.

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  • (PMID = 17972347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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57. Seggewiss R, Einsele H: Hematopoietic growth factors including keratinocyte growth factor in allogeneic and autologous stem cell transplantation. Semin Hematol; 2007 Jul;44(3):203-11
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  • The aim of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is to cure patients of malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and immunodeficiency disorders by redirecting the immune system: the often described graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) or graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects.
  • In addition, there are approaches to promote the thymic-dependent development of naive T cells, which are prepared for the interaction with a multitude of pathogens.
  • Examples are the application of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), neuroendocrine hormones such as growth hormone or prolactin, sex hormone ablation, or the invention of a three-dimensional artificial thymus based on a cytomatrix.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroblast Growth Factor 7 / therapeutic use. Graft vs Host Disease / immunology. Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Thymus Gland / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17631184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors; 126469-10-1 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 7; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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58. Lambe T, Leung JC, Ferry H, Bouriez-Jones T, Makinen K, Crockford TL, Jiang HR, Nickerson JM, Peltonen L, Forrester JV, Cornall RJ: Limited peripheral T cell anergy predisposes to retinal autoimmunity. J Immunol; 2007 Apr 1;178(7):4276-83
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  • In this manner, we have tracked autoreactive CD4(+) T cells from their development in the thymus to their involvement in uveoretinitis and compared tolerogenic mechanisms induced in a variety of organs to the same self-Ag.

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  • (PMID = 17371984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1767
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY016470; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APECED protein; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Retinol-Binding Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / interstitial retinol-binding protein; EC 3.2.1.- / hen egg lysozyme; EC 3.2.1.17 / Muramidase
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59. Park EJ, Park KC, Eo H, Seo J, Son M, Kim KH, Chang YS, Cho SH, Min KU, Jin M, Kim S: Suppression of spontaneous dermatitis in NC/Nga murine model by PG102 isolated from Actinidia arguta. J Invest Dermatol; 2007 May;127(5):1154-60
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  • The number of eosinophils and the expression of eotaxin and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine were decreased by PG102T or PG102E.

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  • (PMID = 17195015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ccl11 protein, mouse; 0 / Chemokine CCL11; 0 / Chemokines, CC; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / PG102E extract; 0 / PG102T extract; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Plant Preparations; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 37341-29-0 / Immunoglobulin E
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60. Lee WK, Kim YM, Malik N, Ma C, Westphal H: Cloning and characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the Ehox gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2006 Mar 3;341(1):225-31
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  • The paired-like homeobox-containing gene Ehox plays a role in embryonic stem cell differentiation and is highly expressed in the developing placenta and thymus.

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  • (PMID = 16414020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCAAT-Binding Factor; 0 / Ehox protein, mouse; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / nuclear factor Y
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61. Harris JM, Hazenberg MD, Poulin JF, Higuera-Alhino D, Schmidt D, Gotway M, McCune JM: Multiparameter evaluation of human thymic function: interpretations and caveats. Clin Immunol; 2005 May;115(2):138-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiparameter evaluation of human thymic function: interpretations and caveats.
  • To study factors involved in immune reconstitution, we have measured thymic abundance by CT scans, circulating naive-phenotype CD4+ T cells by flow cytometry, and T cell receptor (TCR) rearrangement excision circles (TRECs) by quantitative PCR in 40 virologically suppressed, HIV-infected adults and 33 age-matched, HIV-uninfected controls.
  • In HIV-uninfected subjects, naive T cell numbers, thymic abundance, and the frequency of circulating naive CD4+ T cells bearing TRECs decreased with age, as expected.
  • Virologically suppressed HIV-infected subjects had higher TREC frequencies, and subjects over the age of 39 were more likely to have abundant thymus compared to age-matched, HIV-uninfected adults.
  • Nevertheless, all HIV-infected subjects had reduced absolute numbers of naive T cells, irrespective of thymic size, age, or TREC frequencies.
  • These data illustrate the complex relationship between these measures of thymic size and function and underscore the need to develop more definitive measures of thymic function in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. HIV Infections / immunology. HIV-1. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. Thymus Gland / immunology

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Immunol. 2005 May;115(2):115-7 [15885631.001]
  • (PMID = 15885636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6616
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI 050435; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI 43864; United States / PHS HHS / / R37 40312
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Miller EN, Rupp AL, Lindberg MK, Wiese TJ: Tissue distribution of L-fucokinase in rodents. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol; 2005 Mar;140(3):513-20
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  • The metabolism of fucose is incompletely understood, but fucose can be synthesized de novo or salvaged.
  • Some activity was found in all tissues examined (liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, brain, muscle, thymus, white adipose, testes, eye, aorta, small intestine, and submaxillary gland).

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  • (PMID = 15694600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-4959
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3713-31-3 / Fucose; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor); EC 2.7.1.52 / fucokinase
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63. Edler M, Jakubowski N, Linscheid M: Styrene oxide DNA adducts: quantitative determination using 31P monitoring. Anal Bioanal Chem; 2005 Jan;381(1):205-11
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  • The absolute limit of detection, 45 fmol, corresponds to detection of three modified nucleotides among 10(7) native nucleotides (the calculation is based on use of 50 microg calf thymus DNA).

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  • (PMID = 15599716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-2642
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal Bioanal Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Adducts; 0 / Epoxy Compounds; 0 / Phosphorus Isotopes; 9QH06NGT6O / styrene oxide
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64. Hüser N, Tertilt C, Gerauer K, Maier S, Traeger T, Assfalg V, Reiter R, Heidecke CD, Pfeffer K: CCR4-deficient mice show prolonged graft survival in a chronic cardiac transplant rejection model. Eur J Immunol; 2005 Jan;35(1):128-38
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  • Reverse transcription-PCR showed transcription of macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, the cognate chemokine ligands of CCR4, within the graft.

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  • (PMID = 15593118.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Antigens, Ly; 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Ccl17 protein, mouse; 0 / Ccl22 protein, mouse; 0 / Ccr4 protein, mouse; 0 / Chemokine CCL17; 0 / Chemokine CCL22; 0 / Chemokines, CC; 0 / Klrb1c protein, mouse; 0 / Lectins, C-Type; 0 / NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily B; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell; 0 / Receptors, CCR4; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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65. Amat N, Upur H, Ablimit A, Matsidik A, Yusup A, Kijjoa A: Immunomodulatory effects of Abnormal Savda Munsiq, a traditional Uighur medicine, on the combined stress mice. J Ethnopharmacol; 2009 Feb 25;122(1):42-7
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  • RESULTS: Oral administration of ASMq was found to increase the thymus and spleen indices, lymphocytes proliferation induced by Con A and LPS, the percentage of CD4(+) in thymus, spleen and peripheral blood and restore the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. CD4-CD8 Ratio. Electroshock. Hemolysin Proteins / metabolism. Immunoglobulins / metabolism. Interferon-beta / metabolism. Interleukin-2 / metabolism. Interleukin-6 / metabolism. Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects. Macrophages, Peritoneal / physiology. Male. Medicine, Traditional. Mice. Mice, Inbred ICR. Spleen / drug effects. Thymus Gland / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19101620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7573
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ethnopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ethnopharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemolysin Proteins; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Plant Extracts; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta
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66. Abu-Ghazaleh BM: Inhibition of growth and caseinase production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli 28 by combination of low pH and NaCl, potassium sorbate or Thymus vulgaris extract. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung; 2010 Jun;57(2):95-108
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  • [Title] Inhibition of growth and caseinase production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli 28 by combination of low pH and NaCl, potassium sorbate or Thymus vulgaris extract.
  • This study investigated the effect of combination of low pH and some preservatives (e.g. sodium chloride, potassium sorbate or Thymus vulgaris extract) on the growth and caseinase production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli at 31 degrees C and 7 degrees C.
  • [MeSH-major] Escherichia coli / growth & development. Food Preservatives / pharmacology. Metalloendopeptidases / biosynthesis. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Pseudomonas aeruginosa / growth & development. Sodium Chloride / pharmacology. Sorbic Acid / pharmacology. Thymus Plant

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  • (PMID = 20587383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1217-8950
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media; 0 / Food Preservatives; 0 / Plant Extracts; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; EC 3.4.24.- / Metalloendopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.- / caseinase; X045WJ989B / Sorbic Acid
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67. Phillips AC, Burns VE, Carroll D, Ring C, Drayson M: The association between life events, social support, and antibody status following thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccinations in healthy young adults. Brain Behav Immun; 2005 Jul;19(4):325-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The association between life events, social support, and antibody status following thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccinations in healthy young adults.
  • This study determined whether stressful life events and social support were related to antibody status following both thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccinations.
  • Taking into account baseline antibody titre, high life events scores prior to vaccination were associated with lower responses to the B/Shangdong influenza strain at both five weeks and five months and meningococcal C at five weeks.

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  • [CommentIn] Brain Behav Immun. 2005 Jul;19(4):309-10 [15944069.001]
  • (PMID = 15944072.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-1591
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain, behavior, and immunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Behav. Immun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Influenza Vaccines; 0 / Meningococcal Vaccines; 0 / Polysaccharides, Bacterial; 0 / meningococcal group A polysaccharide; 0 / meningococcal group C polysaccharide
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68. Flesarova S, Lukac N, Danko J, Massanyi P: Bendiocarbamate induced structural alterations in rabbit thymus after experimental peroral administration. J Environ Sci Health B; 2007 Mar-Apr;42(3):329-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bendiocarbamate induced structural alterations in rabbit thymus after experimental peroral administration.
  • In this study histological structure of rabbit thymus after bendiocarbamate (2,3-isopropyledene-dioxyphenyl methylcarbamate) administration was studied.
  • Quantitative evaluation showed that in the control group thymus cortex forms 57.94 +/- 7.10% and medulla 35.94+/- 7.38%.
  • Results of this study suggest negative effect of bendiocarbamate on the formation of thymus structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Insecticides / pharmacology. Phenylcarbamates / pharmacology. Thymus Gland / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17454387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-1234
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Environ Sci Health B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insecticides; 0 / Phenylcarbamates; QFH0ZU0A5U / bendiocarb
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69. Olin MR, Roy S, Molitor T: In vivo morphine treatment synergistically increases LPS-induced caspase activity in immune organs. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol; 2010 Dec;5(4):546-52
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  • However, morphine significantly enhanced the LPS-induced caspase activity in spleen, thymus, and bone marrow-derived immune cells.

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  • (PMID = 20390371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-1904
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroimmune Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA012104; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA011806; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA12104; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / K02 DA015349; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / T32 DA07097; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA022935; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA015349
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS436290; NLM/ PMC3565582
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70. Martin CH, Woll PS, Ni Z, Zúñiga-Pflücker JC, Kaufman DS: Differences in lymphocyte developmental potential between human embryonic stem cell and umbilical cord blood-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells. Blood; 2008 Oct 1;112(7):2730-7
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  • Here, we demonstrate that despite expressing functional Notch-1, CD34(+) cells from hESCs did not derive T cells when cocultured with OP9 cells expressing Delta-like 1, or in fetal thymus organ culture. hESC-derived CD34(+) cells also did not produce B cells in vitro.


71. Levine JM, Weiner M, Kelly KM: Routine use of PET scans after completion of therapy in pediatric Hodgkin disease results in a high false positive rate. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Nov;28(11):711-4
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  • Identifiable etiologies of FP scans included: fibrosis, progressive transformation of germinal centers, abdominal wall hernia, appendicitis, thymus and HIV associated lymphadenopathy.

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  • [CommentIn] J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007 Sep;29(9):667 [17805052.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007 Sep;29(9):667-8 [17805051.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009 Jan;31(1):74-5 [19125095.001]
  • (PMID = 17114956.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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72. Al-Jenaidi F, Makitie O, Grunebaum E, Sochett E: Parathyroid gland dysfunction in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Horm Res; 2007;67(3):117-22
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  • BACKGROUND: 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterized by conotruncal cardiac defects and hypoplasia of parathyroid glands and thymus, which result in variable hypoparathyroidism (HPT) and immune deficiency.
  • Patients with complete HPT presented with hypocalcemia later (median age at diagnosis 2.4 vs. 0.0 years) and more often with a hypocalcemic seizure than patients with partial HPT (73 vs. 29%).

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  • (PMID = 17057408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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73. Chinen J, Finkelman F, Shearer WT: Advances in basic and clinical immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 2006 Aug;118(2):489-95
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  • The function of the thymus Hassall's corpuscles was reported to be the generation of T regulatory cells.

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  • [ErratumIn] J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Oct;118(4):956
  • (PMID = 16890776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-6749
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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74. Kurschus FC, Oelert T, Liliensiek B, Buchmann P, Wraith DC, Hämmerling GJ, Arnold B: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice expressing the autoantigen MBP 1-10 covalently bound to the MHC class II molecule I-Au. Int Immunol; 2006 Jan;18(1):151-62
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  • Most autoantigens implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS) are expressed not only in the central nervous system (CNS) but also in the thymus and the periphery.
  • In double transgenic mice we found strong thymic deletion and residual peripheral T cells were refractory to antigen stimulation in vitro.

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  • (PMID = 16361316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-8178
  • [Journal-full-title] International immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 074731; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 091074; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class II; 0 / Myelin Basic Protein; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2615481; NLM/ UKMS33
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75. Halin C, Scimone ML, Bonasio R, Gauguet JM, Mempel TR, Quackenbush E, Proia RL, Mandala S, von Andrian UH: The S1P-analog FTY720 differentially modulates T-cell homing via HEV: T-cell-expressed S1P1 amplifies integrin activation in peripheral lymph nodes but not in Peyer patches. Blood; 2005 Aug 15;106(4):1314-22
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  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptor S1P1 control T-cell egress from thymus and secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs).

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  • (PMID = 15870184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL056949; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL48675; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL54936; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL56949
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Integrins; 0 / Lysophospholipids; 0 / Propylene Glycols; 26993-30-6 / sphingosine 1-phosphate; G926EC510T / Fingolimod Hydrochloride; NGZ37HRE42 / Sphingosine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1895188
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76. Maroun LL, Graem N: Autopsy standards of body parameters and fresh organ weights in nonmacerated and macerated human fetuses. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2005 Mar-Apr;8(2):204-17
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  • We found that weights of the liver, thymus, and spleen markedly decrease with increasing maceration.

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  • (PMID = 15747100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Ahmad R, Haldar C: Photoperiodic regulation of MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor expression in spleen and thymus of a tropical rodent Funambulus pennanti during reproductively active and inactive phases. Chronobiol Int; 2010 May;27(3):446-62
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  • [Title] Photoperiodic regulation of MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor expression in spleen and thymus of a tropical rodent Funambulus pennanti during reproductively active and inactive phases.
  • In the present study, we accessed the high affinity membrane melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 expression dynamics in lymphoid organs (i.e., spleen and thymus) of a seasonally breeding rodent Funambulus pennanti during two major reproductive phases (i.e., active and inactive), when the internal hormonal (melatonin and gonadal steroid) as well as the ecological conditions were entirely different.
  • Photoperiod regulates circulatory melatonin level; hence, we noted the effect of different photoperiodic regimes (long; 16L:8D and short; 10L:14D photoperiod) equivalent to summer and winter daylength on membrane melatonin receptor MT1 and MT2 expression in spleen and thymus.
  • Differential immunoreactivity of MT1 and MT2 receptor in spleen and thymus of F. pennanti suggests an involvement of both the receptor types in signal transduction of photoperiod for seasonal immunomodulation, because in the tropical zone, a slight difference (1:45-2 h) in daylength may change reproductive physiology and immunity of animals for adaptation.
  • On the other hand, under short daylength, expression of MT1 and MT2 receptor increased in both spleen and thymus along with concomitant increase in circulatory melatonin level.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Immunomodulation. Lymphoid Tissue / metabolism. Male. Melatonin / metabolism. Melatonin / pharmacology. Melatonin / physiology. Receptor, Melatonin, MT1 / metabolism. Receptor, Melatonin, MT1 / physiology. Receptors, Melatonin / metabolism. Rodentia / metabolism. Seasons. Signal Transduction / physiology. Spleen / drug effects. Spleen / metabolism. Spleen / physiology. Testosterone / metabolism. Testosterone / pharmacology. Thymus Gland / metabolism. Thymus Gland / physiology

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TESTOSTERONE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .
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  • (PMID = 20524795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-6073
  • [Journal-full-title] Chronobiology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chronobiol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Melatonin, MT1; 0 / Receptor, Melatonin, MT2; 0 / Receptors, Melatonin; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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78. Figueiredo AC, Barroso JG, Pedro LG, Salgueiro L, Miguel MG, Faleiro ML: Portuguese Thymbra and Thymus species volatiles: chemical composition and biological activities. Curr Pharm Des; 2008;14(29):3120-40
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  • [Title] Portuguese Thymbra and Thymus species volatiles: chemical composition and biological activities.
  • Thymbra capitata and Thymus species are commonly known in Portugal as thyme and they are currently used as culinary herbs, as well as for ornamental, aromatizing and traditional medicinal purposes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antifungal Agents. Antioxidants. Oils, Volatile. Plant Oils. Thymus Plant

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Antioxidants.
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  • (PMID = 19075695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pharmaceutical design
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Pharm. Des.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Oils, Volatile; 0 / Plant Oils
  • [Number-of-references] 142
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79. Earl LA, Bi S, Baum LG: N- and O-glycans modulate galectin-1 binding, CD45 signaling, and T cell death. J Biol Chem; 2010 Jan 22;285(4):2232-44
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  • Galectin-1, a beta-galactoside-binding protein highly expressed in the thymus, induces apoptosis of specific thymocyte subsets and activated T cells.

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  • (PMID = 19920154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-351X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM63281; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI052031; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI028697; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM063281; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / U54 GM062116; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI52031
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 1; 0 / Polysaccharides; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; EC 3.1.3.- / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45; EC 3.1.3.48 / Ptprc protein, mouse; GZP2782OP0 / N-Acetylneuraminic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807281
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80. Li Y, Yang SL, Tang ZL, Cui WT, Mu YL, Chu MX, Zhao SH, Wu ZF, Peng KM, Li K: Partial molecular characterization, expression pattern, polymorphism and association analysis of porcine SKP2 gene. Mol Biol Rep; 2010 Mar;37(3):1309-17
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  • Quantitative RT-PCR analysis displayed that the tissue expression level of porcine SKP2 fluctuated remarkably in a large range, and it expressed in thymus with the highest level and in longissimus dorsi muscle with the lowest level.

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  • [ISSN] 1573-4978
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular biology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Biol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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81. Holm D, Fink DR, Grønlund J, Hansen S, Holmskov U: Cloning and characterization of SCART1, a novel scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type I transmembrane molecule. Mol Immunol; 2009 May;46(8-9):1663-72
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  • Quantitative real-time PCR analyses on murine tissues showed high mSCART1 mRNA expression in the lymph node, the trachea, and the lung, and low expression was found in the thymus, the spleen, the skin, and in tissues throughout the gastrointestinal tract.

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  • (PMID = 19297026.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9142
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / SCART1 protein, mouse; 0 / Scavenger Receptors, Class B; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine
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82. Williams KM, Hakim FT, Gress RE: T cell immune reconstitution following lymphodepletion. Semin Immunol; 2007 Oct;19(5):318-30
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  • This is due to the fact that de novo T cell production is impaired following cytoreductive regimens.
  • (1) thymus derived through active thymopoiesis and (2) peripherally expanded clones through homeostatic proliferation.
  • During recovery from lymphopenia, the thymic pathway is commonly compromised in adults and T cells rely upon peripheral expansion to restore T cell numbers.
  • Alternatively, the high homeostatic proliferation following lymphopenia may facilitate expansion of anti-tumor immunity.
  • This insight has permitted the manipulation of the immune system to maximize anti-tumor immunity through lymphopenia and led to an appreciation of mechanisms that underlie graft versus host disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cytokines / physiology. Cytotoxicity, Immunologic. Graft vs Host Disease / etiology. Homeostasis. Humans. Interleukin-15 / pharmacology. Interleukin-7 / pharmacology. Lymphocyte Activation. Lymphopoiesis. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / physiology. Thymus Gland / physiology. Transforming Growth Factor beta / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18023361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1044-5323
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC010525-04; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Interleukin-15; 0 / Interleukin-7; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • [Number-of-references] 145
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS36484; NLM/ PMC2180244
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83. Tracz MJ, Juncos JP, Grande JP, Croatt AJ, Ackerman AW, Rajagopalan G, Knutson KL, Badley AD, Griffin MD, Alam J, Nath KA: Renal hemodynamic, inflammatory, and apoptotic responses to lipopolysaccharide in HO-1-/- mice. Am J Pathol; 2007 Jun;170(6):1820-30
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  • In addition, LPS provoked widespread apoptosis of immune cells in the spleen and thymus in HO-1(-/-) mice but not in HO-1(+/+) mice.

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  • (PMID = 17525251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 47060; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK016105; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK047060; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK068545; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI062261; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 16105; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R56 AI040384; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 68545; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 40384; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI040384; United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / AT 62261; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R37 DK047060
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / NF-kappa B; EC 1.14.99.3 / Heme Oxygenase-1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1899452
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84. Benson MJ, Erickson LD, Gleeson MW, Noelle RJ: Affinity of antigen encounter and other early B-cell signals determine B-cell fate. Curr Opin Immunol; 2007 Jun;19(3):275-80
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  • Three possible effector fates await the naïve follicular B cell following antigen stimulation in thymus-dependent reactions.
  • We hypothesize that graded interferon regulatory factor-4 levels driven by signals to B cells, including B-cell receptor signal strength, are responsible for this branch point in the B-cell terminal differentiation pathway.

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  • (PMID = 17433651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0952-7915
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Immunol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI026296; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI026296-09; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI26296; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI026296; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI026296-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Antigens, CD40; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell
  • [Number-of-references] 46
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS175826; NLM/ PMC2827202
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85. Weinmann A, Galle PR, Teufel A: In silico characterization of an Iroquois family-related homeodomain protein. Int J Mol Med; 2005 Sep;16(3):443-8
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  • Preliminary expression profiling by biocomputational means predicted a rather broad expression profile with expression in the bone marrow, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, prostate, skeletal muscle, spinal cord, spleen and thymus.

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  • (PMID = 16077953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Zebrafish Proteins; 0 / irx1a protein, zebrafish
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86. Ströbel P, Marino M, Feuchtenberger M, Rouzière AS, Tony HP, Wulbrand U, Förster R, Zettl A, Lee Harris N, Kreipe H, Laeng RH, Müller-Hermelink HK, Marx A: Micronodular thymoma: an epithelial tumour with abnormal chemokine expression setting the stage for lymphoma development. J Pathol; 2005 Sep;207(1):72-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Micronodular thymoma: an epithelial tumour with abnormal chemokine expression setting the stage for lymphoma development.
  • The aetiology of primary B-cell lymphomas of the thymus is enigmatic.
  • Although thymic follicular lymphoid hyperplasia (TFH) is commonly associated with myasthenia gravis (MG), lymphoma is not a complication of this condition.
  • The present paper reports a high frequency of monoclonal B-cell populations (6 of 18 cases; 33%) in micronodular thymoma (MNT), a peculiar thymic epithelial neoplasm with a B-cell-rich stroma, while B cells were consistently polyclonal in TFH (25 cases) and other types of thymomas (15 cases) (p < 0.001).
  • Sequencing of the monoclonal IgH chain revealed partially overlapping VDJ gene usage in MNT and thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas.
  • It is concluded that abnormal chemokine expression in an epithelial tumour, MNT, can promote the recruitment of MALT, the emergence of monoclonal B cells, and, eventually, the subsequent development of mediastinal lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemokines / metabolism. Mediastinal Neoplasms / immunology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / immunology. Thymoma / immunology. Thymus Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. B-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. Dendritic Cells / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte. Humans. Hyperplasia / immunology. Immunophenotyping. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Macrophages / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. Thymus Gland / immunology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15965907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokines
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87. Tomoyasu M, Tanita T, Nakajima T, Deguchi H, Koizumi J, Horie K, Nagumo T, Sasaki H, Mizuno M, Kawazoe K: Successful repair using innominate vein flap, pericardial flap and thymus pedicle flap for tracheo-innominate artery fistula. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2007 Apr;13(2):143-6
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  • [Title] Successful repair using innominate vein flap, pericardial flap and thymus pedicle flap for tracheo-innominate artery fistula.
  • We report on a successful surgical management of one case by patch closure with an innominate vein flap, wrapping of the innominate artery with a pericardial flap, and interposition of a thymus pedicle flap between the innominate artery and the trachea.

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  • (PMID = 17505427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-1098
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official journal of the Association of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons of Asia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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88. Taub DD, Murphy WJ, Longo DL: Rejuvenation of the aging thymus: growth hormone-mediated and ghrelin-mediated signaling pathways. Curr Opin Pharmacol; 2010 Aug;10(4):408-24
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  • [Title] Rejuvenation of the aging thymus: growth hormone-mediated and ghrelin-mediated signaling pathways.
  • One of the major fundamental causes for the aging of the immune system is the structural and functional involution of the thymus, and the associated decline in de novo naïve T-lymphocyte output.
  • While the precise mechanisms responsible for age-associated thymic involution remain unknown, a variety of theories have been forwarded including the loss of expression of various growth factors and hormones that influence the lymphoid compartment and promote thymic function.
  • Extensive studies examining two hormones, namely growth hormone (GH) and ghrelin (GRL), have demonstrated their contributions to thymus biology.
  • In the current review, we discuss the literature supporting a role for these hormones in thymic physiology and age-associated thymic involution and their potential use in the restoration of thymic function in aged and immunocompromised individuals.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / physiology. Ghrelin / physiology. Growth Hormone / physiology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Thymus Gland / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  • (PMID = 20595009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 AG000758-10; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 AG000758-11
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS204507; NLM/ PMC2914845
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89. Tanaskovic S, Fernandez S, Price P, Lee S, French MA: CD31 (PECAM-1) is a marker of recent thymic emigrants among CD4+ T-cells, but not CD8+ T-cells or gammadelta T-cells, in HIV patients responding to ART. Immunol Cell Biol; 2010 Mar-Apr;88(3):321-7
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  • [Title] CD31 (PECAM-1) is a marker of recent thymic emigrants among CD4+ T-cells, but not CD8+ T-cells or gammadelta T-cells, in HIV patients responding to ART.
  • Evaluation of the function of thymopoiesis in T-cell production in individual patients requires a simple marker of T-cells that have recently emigrated from the thymus.
  • Here, we address whether expression of CD31 on CD4(+) T-cells, CD8(+) T-cells, regulatory T-cells and gammadelta T-cells correlates with other indicators of thymus function.
  • CD31 expression was assessed by flow cytometry, T-cell receptor excision circles content by real-time PCR and thymic volume by spiral computed tomography.
  • Proportions of CD4(+) T-cells expressing CD45RA and CD31 declined with age in HIV patients (P=0.03) and healthy controls (P<0.0001), and correlated directly with other markers of thymus function.
  • In controls, proportions of CD8(+) T-cells expressing CD45RA and CD31 declined with age (P=0.003) and correlated directly with some markers of thymus function, but this was not seen in HIV patients.
  • Proportions of CD45RA(+) CD31(+) gammadelta T-cells were higher in patients than controls (P=0.007) and did not correlate with thymus volume.
  • These data support the use of CD31 as a marker of recent thymic origin in CD4(+) T-cells, but not CD8(+) T-cells in HIV patients receiving ART.
  • In such patients, CD31 expression is unlikely to indicate thymic origin in gammadelta T-cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD45 / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD45 / immunology. Biomarkers / metabolism. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Lymphopoiesis / drug effects. Lymphopoiesis / immunology. Male. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thymus Gland / immunology. Thymus Gland / metabolism. Thymus Gland / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed

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  • (PMID = 20065992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1711
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunology and cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunol. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45
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90. Na IK, Lu SX, Yim NL, Goldberg GL, Tsai J, Rao U, Smith OM, King CG, Suh D, Hirschhorn-Cymerman D, Palomba L, Penack O, Holland AM, Jenq RR, Ghosh A, Tran H, Merghoub T, Liu C, Sempowski GD, Ventevogel M, Beauchemin N, van den Brink MR: The cytolytic molecules Fas ligand and TRAIL are required for murine thymic graft-versus-host disease. J Clin Invest; 2010 Jan;120(1):343-56
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  • [Title] The cytolytic molecules Fas ligand and TRAIL are required for murine thymic graft-versus-host disease.
  • Thymic graft-versus-host disease (tGVHD) can contribute to profound T cell deficiency and repertoire restriction after allogeneic BM transplantation (allo-BMT).
  • However, the cellular mechanisms of tGVHD and interactions between donor alloreactive T cells and thymic tissues remain poorly defined.
  • Using clinically relevant murine allo-BMT models, we show here that even minimal numbers of donor alloreactive T cells, which caused mild nonlethal systemic graft-versus-host disease, were sufficient to damage the thymus, delay T lineage reconstitution, and compromise donor peripheral T cell function.
  • We found that radiation in BMT conditioning regimens upregulated expression of the death receptors Fas and death receptor 5 (DR5) on thymic stromal cells (especially epithelium), while decreasing expression of the antiapoptotic regulator cellular caspase-8-like inhibitory protein.
  • Donor alloreactive T cells used the cognate proteins FasL and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) (but not TNF or perforin) to mediate tGVHD, thereby damaging thymic stromal cells, cytoarchitecture, and function.

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  • (PMID = 19955659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-8238
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL069929; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107096; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01-CA33049; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UC6 AI058607; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI 07621; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI080455; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007621; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA033049; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA008748; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01-HL069929; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA107096; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01-AI080455
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Receptors, OX40; 0 / Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / Tnfrsf4 protein, mouse; 0 / Tnfsf10 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2798682
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91. Kondo T, Takiguchi M: Human memory CCR4+CD8+ T cell subset has the ability to produce multiple cytokines. Int Immunol; 2009 May;21(5):523-32
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  • CCR4(+)CD8(+) T cells effectively produced IL-4, IFN-gamma, IL-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, indicating that they are memory T cells having the ability to secrete type 1 and type 2 cytokines.
  • These cells also showed chemotaxic activity in response to CC chemokine receptor ligand (CCL)17/thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and CCL22/macrophage-derived chemokine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Migration Assays. Chemotaxis / physiology. Granzymes / immunology. Granzymes / metabolism. Humans. Immunologic Memory / immunology. Interleukin-2 / biosynthesis. Interleukin-2 / immunology. Interleukin-4 / biosynthesis. Interleukin-4 / immunology. Perforin / immunology. Perforin / metabolism. Receptors, CCR4 / immunology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / biosynthesis. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19261691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2377
  • [Journal-full-title] International immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCL22 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CCL17; 0 / Chemokine CCL22; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Receptors, CCR4; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 126465-35-8 / Perforin; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4; EC 3.4.21.- / Granzymes
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92. Gray DH, Tull D, Ueno T, Seach N, Classon BJ, Chidgey A, McConville MJ, Boyd RL: A unique thymic fibroblast population revealed by the monoclonal antibody MTS-15. J Immunol; 2007 Apr 15;178(8):4956-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A unique thymic fibroblast population revealed by the monoclonal antibody MTS-15.
  • T cell differentiation in the thymus is dependent upon signals from thymic stromal cells.
  • Most studies into the nature of these signals have focused only on the support provided by the thymic epithelium, but there is an emerging view that other stromal cells such as mesenchymal fibroblasts may also be involved.
  • In this study, we describe a new surface marker of thymic stroma, MTS-15, and demonstrate its specificity for fibroblasts and a subset of endothelial cells.
  • Transcriptional analysis of purified MTS-15(+) thymic fibroblasts revealed a unique expression profile for a number of chemokines and growth factors important to thymocyte and epithelial cell development.
  • In a model of cyclophosphamide-induced thymic involution and regeneration, fibroblasts were found to expand extensively and express growth factors important to epithelial proliferation and increased T cell production just before thymic regeneration.
  • Overall, this study identifies a useful marker of thymic fibroblasts and highlights this subpopulation as a key player in thymic function by virtue of their support of both thymocytes and epithelial cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Fibroblasts / chemistry. Stromal Cells / chemistry. Thymus Gland / cytology

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  • (PMID = 17404277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1767
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Interleukin-6
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93. Ernst E, Schmidt K, Baum M: Complementary/Alternative therapies for the treatment of breast cancer. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials and a critique of current terminology. Breast J; 2006 Nov-Dec;12(6):526-30
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  • Review methods included a systematic review of RCTs involving breast cancer patients treated with ACCs, survival, parameters indicative of tumor burden, disease progression, cancer recurrence, and cancer cure.
  • The treatments tested included various methods of psychosocial support such as group support therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy cognitive existential group therapy, a combination of muscle relaxation training and guided imagery, the Chinese herbal remedy Shi Quan Da Bu Tang, thymus extract, transfer factor, melatonin, and factor AF2.


94. Levings MK, Allan S, d'Hennezel E, Piccirillo CA: Functional dynamics of naturally occurring regulatory T cells in health and autoimmunity. Adv Immunol; 2006;92:119-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells differentiate in the normal thymus as a functionally distinct subpopulation of T cells bearing a broad T cell receptor repertoire endowing these cells with the capacity to recognize a wide spectrum of self-Ag and non-self-Ag specificities.

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  • (PMID = 17145303.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2776
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 157
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95. Ferrando-Martínez S, Franco JM, Hernandez A, Ordoñez A, Gutierrez E, Abad A, Leal M: Thymopoiesis in elderly human is associated with systemic inflammatory status. Age (Dordr); 2009 Jun;31(2):87-97
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  • However, as far as we know, the extent of lymphopoiesis in the thymus of elderly humans remains unclear.
  • To this effect, we have analyzed 65 adult human thymuses (from 36 to 81 years; median age 68.6 years) obtained from patients who underwent cardiac surgery.
  • Our results show a correlation between CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) cells and both the age (inverse) and percentage (direct) of peripheral naive T cells, indicating that the thymus is still able to affect the peripheral lymphocyte pool even in the elderly.
  • In conclusion, the thymus maintains, even in the elderly, an active thymopoiesis that rejuvenates the peripheral naive T-cell pool.

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  • (PMID = 19507053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1574-4647
  • [Journal-full-title] Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Age (Dordr)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2693727
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96. Zhang XM, Li GX, Li DH, Min SG, Sun Y: [Interaction between carbaryl and calf thymus DNA enhanced via Cu2+]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi; 2007 Mar;27(3):517-20
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  • [Title] [Interaction between carbaryl and calf thymus DNA enhanced via Cu2+].
  • The interaction between carbaryl and calf thymus DNA with Cu2+ was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) and UV spectrum.
  • The experimental results showed that the carbaryl can be intercalated into the twin-screw structure of calf thymus DNA, forming ctDNA-carbaryl adducts.
  • The interaction of the carbaryl and ctDNA was driven mainly by electrostatic force which was enhanced by Cu2+, thus the contribution of deltaH to deltaG increased in the presence of Cu2+ So the interaction between carbaryl and calf thymus DNA was enhanced via Cu+.

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CARBARYL .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. COPPER, ELEMENTAL .
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  • (PMID = 17554912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Guang pu xue yu guang pu fen xi = Guang pu
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cations, Divalent; 789U1901C5 / Copper; 9007-49-2 / DNA; 91080-16-9 / calf thymus DNA; R890C8J3N1 / Carbaryl
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97. Nonaka M, Ogihara N, Fukumoto A, Sakanushi A, Pawankar R, Yagi T: Combined stimulation of nasal polyp fibroblasts with poly IC, interleukin 4, and tumor necrosis factor alpha potently induces production of thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Jun;134(6):630-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined stimulation of nasal polyp fibroblasts with poly IC, interleukin 4, and tumor necrosis factor alpha potently induces production of thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of cytokines and poly IC on the expression of thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), a potent chemoattractant for helper T-cell type 2 (T(H)2) cells, in nasal polyp fibroblasts.
  • RESULTS: Combined stimulation with interleukin 4 (IL-4) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or with poly IC and IL-4 induced TARC production.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cells, Cultured. Humans. Interleukin-4 / pharmacology. Poly I-C / pharmacology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18559731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / CCL17 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CCL17; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C
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98. Saade M, Irla M, Yammine M, Boulanger N, Victorero G, Vincentelli R, Penninger JM, Holländer GA, Chauvet S, Nguyen C: Spatial (Tbata) expression in mature medullary thymic epithelial cells. Eur J Immunol; 2010 Feb;40(2):530-8
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  • [Title] Spatial (Tbata) expression in mature medullary thymic epithelial cells.
  • The Spatial gene is expressed in highly polarized cell types such as testis germ cells, brain neurons and thymic epithelial cells (TEC).
  • Its expression was documented in testis and brain but poorly characterized in thymus.
  • Here, we characterize for the first time Spatial-expressing TEC throughout ontogeny and adult mouse thymus.
  • Spatial is expressed in thymic-fated domain by embryonic day E10.5 and persists in subcapsular, cortical, medullary epithelial cells and in MTS24(+) progenitor TEC.
  • Using mouse strains in which thymocyte development is blocked at various stages, we show that Spatial expression is independent of thymocyte-derived signals during thymus organogenesis.
  • Analyses on purified thymic cell subsets show that Spatial short isoforms are expressed in cortical TEC (cTEC) and mature medullary TEC (mTEC).
  • Aire- and RANKL-deficient mice revealed that Spatial expression is drastically reduced in the thymus of these mutants.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Thymus Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19918778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-4141
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APECED protein; 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Mts24 protein, mouse; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / Tnfrsf11a protein, mouse; 0 / Tnfsf11 protein, mouse; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / spatial protein, mouse
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99. Zhang B, Zhang A, Qu Y, Liu J, Niu Z, Zhao Y: Development of mouse CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in xenogeneic pig thymic grafts. Transpl Immunol; 2009 Jan;20(3):180-5
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  • [Title] Development of mouse CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in xenogeneic pig thymic grafts.
  • Xenogeneic thymus transplantation is an effective strategy to induce tolerance to donors mainly by clonal depletion of reactive T cells.
  • Recent studies have shown that functional mouse CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) could efficiently populate in the periphery of athymic mice after grafting with neonatal pig thymus.
  • However, it is still unknown whether xenogeneic thymus grafts could directly support the development of mouse CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells as an autogeneic counterpart.
  • Our results show that the percentages of mouse CD4(+)CD8(-)CD25(+) thymocytes are similar among auto- and xenogeneic thymic grafts in thymic mouse recipients.
  • Mouse CD4(+)CD8(-)CD25(+) thymocytes maturing in xenogeneic thymic grafts exhibit similar expressions of Foxp3, TCR, CTLA-4 and GITR as those in autogeneic thymic grafts.
  • Moreover, mouse CD4(+)CD8(-)CD25(+) thymocytes maturing in xenogeneic thymic grafts showed a significant immunosuppressive function on the proliferation of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells stimulated with Con A or allogeneic antigens, although they showed weaker effects than those maturing in autogeneic thymic grafts.
  • Therefore, the present data provides direct evidence for the ability of xenogeneic porcine thymus grafts to support the development of mouse naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Swine / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology. Thymus Gland / immunology. Thymus Gland / transplantation. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 18845256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0966-3274
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplant immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transpl. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Foxp3 protein, mouse; 0 / Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit
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100. Camele I, De Feo V, Altieri L, Mancini E, De Martino L, Luigi Rana G: An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants. J Med Food; 2010 Dec;13(6):1515-23
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  • Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae).

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  • (PMID = 20874226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7600
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal food
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Food
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Food Preservatives; 0 / Fungicides, Industrial; 0 / Monoterpenes; 0 / Oils, Volatile; 0 / Pesticides
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