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1. Patel AS, Coley BD, Jayanthi VR: Ultrasonography underestimates the volume of normal parenchyma in benign testicular masses. J Urol; 2007 Oct;178(4 Pt 2):1730-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasonography underestimates the volume of normal parenchyma in benign testicular masses.
  • PURPOSE: In children with testicular masses characteristic ultrasonographic features may occasionally allow the preoperative determination of a benign process and permit a testis sparing procedure to be performed.
  • Often the amount of normal parenchyma surrounding the mass may be seemingly negligible, which may prompt some investigators to wonder what a testis sparing procedure might realistically spare.
  • Several of these children seemingly had complete replacement of the testis with the pathological process with little to no discernible normal parenchyma.
  • The surgical technique involved delivery of the testis and control of the vessels.
  • The final diagnosis was cystic teratoma in 4 cases, epidermoid tumor in 2 and a simple cyst in 1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Classic ultrasonographic patterns of testicular masses may permit preoperative identification of a benign process, permitting a testis sparing procedure to be planned.
  • The amount of normal residual parenchyma identified on preoperative ultrasound should not be used as a factor when deciding whether a testis sparing procedure might be appropriate.
  • [MeSH-major] Teratoma / ultrasonography. Testicular Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17707012.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Beeker A, Boven E, Lefesvre P, Golding R, van Groeningen CJ: Retroperitoneal mature teratoma after orchidectomy for a stage IB pure embryonal testicular carcinoma. Int J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb;13(1):71-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retroperitoneal mature teratoma after orchidectomy for a stage IB pure embryonal testicular carcinoma.
  • Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis stage I will relapse in approximately 30% of patients in the first year after orchidectomy.
  • We report a 19-year-old patient on active surveillance who presented with a retroperitoneal lymph node enlargement suggestive of metastatic disease more than 1 year after the initial diagnosis of embryonal carcinoma stage IB.
  • Complete resection of the lymph node was performed and showed the presence of mature teratoma.
  • Our patient had an unusual case of metastasis formation of benign histology of a previously removed highly malignant primary tumor confined to the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Orchiectomy. Teratoma / secondary. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18307023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Lo Curto M, D'Angelo P, Cecchetto G, Klersy C, Dall'Igna P, Federico A, Siracusa F, Alaggio R, Bernini G, Conte M, De Laurentis T, Di Cataldo A, Inserra A, Santoro N, Tamaro P, Indolfi P: Mature and immature teratomas: results of the first paediatric Italian study. Pediatr Surg Int; 2007 Apr;23(4):315-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Teratoma is the most common germ cell tumour in childhood; mature (MT) and immature teratomas (IT) are benign tumours, but if they recur, they can be in some cases malignant.
  • The T grading was 1 in 14 cases, 2 in 26, 3 in 16; 28 had gonadic T (17 ovary, 11 testis), 28 extragonadic (sacrococcygeal 19, mediastinic 3, retroperitoneal 2, other sites 4).
  • Seven MT (5.5%) relapsed (five sacrococcygeal, one retroperitoneal, one mediastinic): surgery at diagnosis had been complete in five and with residual in two; the relapse was malignant in two patients with sacrococcygeal (sc) tumours, who had a complete resection and a partial resection respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Teratoma / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17333214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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4. Steffens J, Treiyer A, Calaminus G: [Management of pediatric testicular tumors : diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up]. Urologe A; 2009 Apr;48(4):359-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Management of pediatric testicular tumors : diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up].
  • Based on findings from the Prepubertal Testis Tumor Registry by the Urologic Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics and collaborative data in the literature, a modern algorithm for the surgical management of prepubertal testis tumors is presented.
  • Following testicular surgery, patients with universally benign tumors, such as teratoma, may be released from oncological follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Medical Oncology / trends. Pediatrics / trends. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19280171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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5. Treiyer A, Blanc G, Stark E, Haben B, Treiyer E, Steffens J: Prepubertal testicular tumors: frequently overlooked. J Pediatr Urol; 2007 Dec;3(6):480-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We reviewed our 10-year, two-institution experience with respect to diagnosis and treatment.
  • Twelve children (80%) were treated with radical orchiectomy and three (20%) with a testis-sparing procedure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Benign teratoma and epidermoid cysts were the most common prepubertal testicular tumors.
  • Our limited experience with testis-sparing procedures supports the current trends that organ-confined surgery should be performed for benign lesions such as teratoma, Leydig cell tumor and epidermoid cysts based on frozen biopsy findings.

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  • (PMID = 18947799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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6. Zámecnik M, Mukensnábl P, Curík R, Michal M: Shadow cell differentiation in testicular teratomas. A report of two cases. Cesk Patol; 2005 Jul;41(3):102-6
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  • Two cases of adult testicular teratoma with shadow cell differentiation (SCD) similar to that seen commonly in pilomatrixoma are presented.
  • The patients aged 21 and 27 years, and both tumors were limited to the testis.
  • In testicular location, SCD was so far described in benign dermoid cyst but not in teratoma, suggesting that the occurrence of shadow cells could help in differential diagnosis between these lesions.
  • This is, however, not the case and the distinction of teratoma from dermoid cyst must be based on other morphological findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16161455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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7. Harms D, Zahn S, Göbel U, Schneider DT: Pathology and molecular biology of teratomas in childhood and adolescence. Klin Padiatr; 2006 Nov-Dec;218(6):296-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The biologic behaviour of teratomas depends on various interdependent clinical and epidemiologic variables such as the age at diagnosis, sex, tumor site, histology which all correlate to different cytogenetic and molecular biologic aberrations.
  • Thus, testicular teratomas of infancy are generally benign.
  • The Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry includes 541 teratoma specimens, and among these, the most frequent tumor sites (in descending order) are: the sacrococcygeal region (33.8 %), the ovaries (31.2 %) and the testes (10.5 %).
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms. Registries. Teratoma. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Deletion. Cytogenetic Analysis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / epidemiology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Heterozygote. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Ovary / pathology. Puberty. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17080330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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8. Uschuplich V, Hilsenbeck JR, Velasco CR: Paratesticular mucinous cystadenoma arising from an oviduct-like müllerian remnant: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Nov;130(11):1715-7
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  • Mucinous cystadenomas of the testis and paratestis are extremely rare benign tumors of controversial origin.
  • The diagnosis may be challenging and is of clinical importance because these lesions may mimic a teratoma, and teratomas in postpubertal males carry a malignant potential regardless of the degree of maturation.
  • To our knowledge this represents the first substantial evidence that, in at least some cases, mucinous cystadenomas of the testis and paratestis are of müllerian derivation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male

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  • (PMID = 17076537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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9. Ulbright TM: Germ cell tumors of the gonads: a selective review emphasizing problems in differential diagnosis, newly appreciated, and controversial issues. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18 Suppl 2:S61-79
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Germ cell tumors of the gonads: a selective review emphasizing problems in differential diagnosis, newly appreciated, and controversial issues.
  • The most dramatic examples of the latter are the frequency of dermoid cyst in the ovary compared to the testis and the reverse pertaining to embryonal carcinoma.
  • Within the teratoma group, there is strong evidence that ovarian and prepubertal testicular teratomas are derived from benign germ cells, a pathogenesis that likely applies also to the rare dermoid cysts and uncommon epidermoid cysts of the testis.
  • As expected, given the foregoing, teratomas in boys are clinically benign, whereas in postpubertal males they are malignant, independent of their degree of immaturity.
  • Fetal-type tissues alone are not sufficient for a diagnosis of immature teratoma.
  • Further differences between the teratomatous tumors in the two gonads are the relative frequency of monodermal teratomas in the ovary in contrast to the testis, where only one subset, carcinoids, is seen with any frequency.
  • When uncommon somatic-type malignancies (usually squamous cell carcinoma) occur in mature cystic teratomas of the ovary, this is a de novo form of malignant transformation; similar tumors in the testis, a very rare event, represent overgrowth of teratomatous elements that originated from malignant, nonteratomatous germ cell tumors and, therefore, had previously undergone malignant transformation.
  • Two aspects of germinomas are unique to the testis.
  • Secondly, the distinctive spermatocytic seminoma occurs only in the testis.
  • Cytoplasmic membrane immunoreactivity for placental alkaline phosphatase and CD117, with usual negativity for AE1/AE3 cytokeratins, is helpful in the diagnosis of germinoma.
  • Mixed germ cell tumors (which may show almost any combination of components) are common in the testis but rare in the ovary.
  • These tumors, which are constituted by innumerable embryoid bodies, almost always contain teratomatous glands in minor amounts, and one way of viewing the polyembryoma is to consider it the most immature form of teratoma.
  • Embryoid bodies are also common as a minor component of many mixed germ cell tumors, particularly in the testis, and the diffuse embryoma is another variant that has a particular arrangement of yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma elements.
  • Regression of gonadal germ cell tumors is a phenomenon restricted to the testis, for unknown reasons.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD30 / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Germinoma / metabolism. Germinoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-7. Keratins / analysis. Male. Organic Cation Transport Proteins / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Teratoma / metabolism. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15761467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Organic Cation Transport Proteins; 0 / solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 3; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 132
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10. Wang WP, Guo C, Berney DM, Ulbright TM, Hansel DE, Shen R, Ali T, Epstein JI: Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):519-24
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases.
  • Nineteen were pure carcinoid tumors, 3 were associated with cystic teratoma, 2 with cysts lacking epithelial lining, 4 with epidermoid cyst, and 1 with dermoid cyst.
  • Of the 4 patients with a primary atypical carcinoid tumor, 1 at the time of diagnosis had retroperitoneal and lung metastases who after chemotherapy underwent resection of the retroperitoneal tumor showing metastatic yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.
  • Most primary carcinoid tumors of the testis have a benign clinical course even if associated with epidermoid/dermoid cysts, or histologically mature teratoma.

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jul;34(7):1075. Ubright, Thomas M [corrected to Ulbright, Thomas M]
  • (PMID = 20351489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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