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1. Steffens J, Treiyer A, Calaminus G: [Management of pediatric testicular tumors : diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up]. Urologe A; 2009 Apr;48(4):359-63
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  • [Title] [Management of pediatric testicular tumors : diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up].
  • Based on findings from the Prepubertal Testis Tumor Registry by the Urologic Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics and collaborative data in the literature, a modern algorithm for the surgical management of prepubertal testis tumors is presented.
  • Following testicular surgery, patients with universally benign tumors, such as teratoma, may be released from oncological follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Medical Oncology / trends. Pediatrics / trends. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19280171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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2. Beeker A, Boven E, Lefesvre P, Golding R, van Groeningen CJ: Retroperitoneal mature teratoma after orchidectomy for a stage IB pure embryonal testicular carcinoma. Int J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb;13(1):71-3
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal mature teratoma after orchidectomy for a stage IB pure embryonal testicular carcinoma.
  • Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis stage I will relapse in approximately 30% of patients in the first year after orchidectomy.
  • We report a 19-year-old patient on active surveillance who presented with a retroperitoneal lymph node enlargement suggestive of metastatic disease more than 1 year after the initial diagnosis of embryonal carcinoma stage IB.
  • Complete resection of the lymph node was performed and showed the presence of mature teratoma.
  • Our patient had an unusual case of metastasis formation of benign histology of a previously removed highly malignant primary tumor confined to the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Orchiectomy. Teratoma / secondary. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18307023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Koski ME, Thomas JC: Successful bilateral testicular sparing surgery for benign teratoma. J Pediatr Urol; 2009 Feb;5(1):72-4
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  • [Title] Successful bilateral testicular sparing surgery for benign teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Testis / surgery. Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male / methods

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  • (PMID = 18760971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Zámecnik M, Mukensnábl P, Curík R, Michal M: Shadow cell differentiation in testicular teratomas. A report of two cases. Cesk Patol; 2005 Jul;41(3):102-6
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  • Two cases of adult testicular teratoma with shadow cell differentiation (SCD) similar to that seen commonly in pilomatrixoma are presented.
  • The patients aged 21 and 27 years, and both tumors were limited to the testis.
  • In testicular location, SCD was so far described in benign dermoid cyst but not in teratoma, suggesting that the occurrence of shadow cells could help in differential diagnosis between these lesions.
  • This is, however, not the case and the distinction of teratoma from dermoid cyst must be based on other morphological findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16161455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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5. Cheng L, Zhang S, MacLennan GT, Poulos CK, Sung MT, Beck SD, Foster RS: Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of chromosome 12p abnormalities is useful for distinguishing epidermoid cysts of the testis from pure mature teratoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Oct 1;12(19):5668-72
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  • [Title] Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of chromosome 12p abnormalities is useful for distinguishing epidermoid cysts of the testis from pure mature teratoma.
  • PURPOSE: The distinction of epidermoid cyst of the testis from teratoma is of critical importance because the former is benign and the latter is a malignant tumor that may have associated metastasis of either teratomatous or non-teratomatous germ cell tumor types.
  • In this study, we investigated the clinical utility of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of chromosome 12p abnormalities for distinguishing epidermoid cysts of the testis from pure mature teratoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FISH identification of i(12p) and/or 12p overrepresentation in routinely processed surgical specimens is a useful ancillary diagnostic tool in distinguishing testicular epidermoid cysts from teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 / genetics. Epidermal Cyst / genetics. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Teratoma / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17020968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Hisamatsu E, Takagi S, Nakagawa Y, Sugita Y, Yoshino K, Ueoka K, Tanikaze S: Prepubertal testicular tumors: a 20-year experience with 40 cases. Int J Urol; 2010 Nov;17(11):956-9
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  • All tumors ultrasonographically suspected of being benign were confirmed to be benign postoperatively.
  • There was a significant difference between median preoperative a-fetoprotein (AFP) levels of infants with yolk sac tumor and teratoma.
  • The majority of our cases were benign, with the most common histopathological subtype being teratoma, as recently reported.
  • Testis-sparing surgery was carried out in five patients with teratoma and three patients with epidermoid cyst.
  • Other than one patient with teratoma, none of the patients developed recurrence or testicular atrophy after testis-sparing surgery.
  • When testis-sparing surgery is considered, our algorithm based on ultrasonographic findings and preoperative AFP levels might be helpful.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Algorithms. Biopsy, Needle. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / epidemiology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Japan. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy / methods. Prognosis. Rare Diseases. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Teratoma / epidemiology. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Urol. 2010 Nov;17(11):959 [20969643.001]
  • (PMID = 21046693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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7. Koseoglu RD, Parlaktas BS, Filiz NO, Erdemir F, Uluocak N, Tulunay O: Adenocarcinoma originating from a mature teratoma of the testis. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2007 May;23(5):265-8
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma originating from a mature teratoma of the testis.
  • Although testicular teratomas in childhood are regarded as benign neoplasms, these tumors, if left untreated until advanced ages, may present the risk of malignant transformation.
  • We report a case of differentiated adenocarcinoma originating from colonic glands in primary testicular teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17525010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7
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8. Garrido Abad P, Herranz Fernández LM, Jiménez Gálvez M, Suárez Fonseca C, Sántos Arrontes D, Nieto Llanos S, Fernández Arjona M: [Mature cystic teratoma of the testis (dermoid cyst). Case report and literature review]. Arch Esp Urol; 2009 Nov;62(9):747-51
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  • [Title] [Mature cystic teratoma of the testis (dermoid cyst). Case report and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Teratoma quístico maduro testicular (quiste dermoide). Aportación de un caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: Case report of a mature cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst), pseudopilomatrixoma like variant.
  • METHOD: 53-year old patient with a left testicular mass, diagnosed as mature cystic teratoma of the testis(dermoid cyst), the pilomatrixoma-like variant, after radical orchiectomy.
  • RESULTS: Testicular teratoma is a tumour composed of cells derived from the three embryonic layers (ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm).
  • They are much less prevalent in adults,representing only 7% of all testicular germ cell tumours CONCLUSIONS: Prepubertal cases are invariably benign in nature, regardless of their histology.
  • Mature cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst) is the only exception to this rule, as no malignant degeneration of these types of tumours has been published.

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  • (PMID = 19955600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-8260
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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9. Taskinen S, Fagerholm R, Aronniemi J, Rintala R, Taskinen M: Testicular tumors in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Urol; 2008 Apr;4(2):134-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spectrum of testicular tumors in children in an unselected population-based series, as well as the results of testis-preserving surgery.
  • In 23 (68%) the tumor was benign: benign teratoma (16), Leydig-cell tumor (2), epidermoid cyst (2), Sertoli-cell tumor (1), cystic dysplasia (1), intratesticular focal fibrosis (1).
  • Twenty out of the 26 (77%) prepubertal boys had a benign tumor in contrast to only three of the eight (38%) adolescent males (P=0.079).
  • Testis-preserving surgery was performed in 10 patients.
  • In eight, the tumor was curatively excised and remaining testis preserved.
  • Two patients with benign teratoma had a recurrence due to incomplete primary resection.
  • In one patient who underwent orchiectomy for benign teratoma, two metachronous teratomas were detected in the contralateral testis 6 years after primary surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In children, most testicular tumors are benign, especially before puberty.
  • If testis-preserving surgery is contemplated, complete excision of the tumor should be ascertained.
  • [MeSH-major] Teratoma / epidemiology. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18631909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Patel AS, Coley BD, Jayanthi VR: Ultrasonography underestimates the volume of normal parenchyma in benign testicular masses. J Urol; 2007 Oct;178(4 Pt 2):1730-2
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  • [Title] Ultrasonography underestimates the volume of normal parenchyma in benign testicular masses.
  • PURPOSE: In children with testicular masses characteristic ultrasonographic features may occasionally allow the preoperative determination of a benign process and permit a testis sparing procedure to be performed.
  • Often the amount of normal parenchyma surrounding the mass may be seemingly negligible, which may prompt some investigators to wonder what a testis sparing procedure might realistically spare.
  • Several of these children seemingly had complete replacement of the testis with the pathological process with little to no discernible normal parenchyma.
  • The surgical technique involved delivery of the testis and control of the vessels.
  • The final diagnosis was cystic teratoma in 4 cases, epidermoid tumor in 2 and a simple cyst in 1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Classic ultrasonographic patterns of testicular masses may permit preoperative identification of a benign process, permitting a testis sparing procedure to be planned.
  • The amount of normal residual parenchyma identified on preoperative ultrasound should not be used as a factor when deciding whether a testis sparing procedure might be appropriate.
  • [MeSH-major] Teratoma / ultrasonography. Testicular Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17707012.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Oottamasathien S, Thomas JC, Adams MC, DeMarco RT, Brock JW 3rd, Pope JC 4th: Testicular tumours in children: a single-institutional experience. BJU Int; 2007 May;99(5):1123-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience of testicular and paratesticular tumours in children, as such tumours are rare, and historically yolk sac tumour has been described as the most common lesion in children, but recent reports suggest that benign testicular lesions might be more common.
  • Pathological analysis revealed teratoma in four patients, yolk sac tumour in two, epidermoid cysts in two, extrarenal nephroblastomatosis in one, and paratesticular rhabdomyosarcomas in two.
  • CONCLUSION: Although there were few patients, most of the lesions were benign tumours, with the most common histological subtype being teratoma.
  • As both malignant and paratesticular lesions occurred at a significant frequency, we would continue to advocate an initial radical inguinal approach at which time testis-sparing could be considered if the preoperative evaluation was favourable, and frozen-section analysis at the time of surgery confirms a benign lesion.

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  • (PMID = 17437431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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12. Nerli RB, Ajay G, Shivangouda P, Pravin P, Reddy M, Pujar VC: Prepubertal testicular tumors: our 10 years experience. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Jul-Sep;47(3):292-5
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  • In contrast to the prevalence data reported in tumor registries, several studies have shown that a majority of the prepubertal testis tumors are benign.
  • Mature teratoma, epidermoid cysts, immature teratoma, and yolk sac tumor accounted for 49.94%, 13.62%, 9.08%, and 18.16%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Benign tumors formed the majority (72.64%) of the tumors that were encountered, with yolk sac tumors (18.16%) being a minority.
  • Testicular preserving surgery appears to be a feasible option for benign tumors and is safe and efficacious in long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Orchiectomy. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / physiopathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 20587905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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13. Wolf M, Wunderlich H, Hindermann W, Gajda M, Schreiber G, Schubert J: Case report: primary carcinoid tumor of the testicle without metastases in combination with testicular atrophy and testosterone deficiency. Int Urol Nephrol; 2006;38(3-4):625-8
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  • The first case of testicular carcinoid was represented as an element of a benign cystic teratoma by Simon et al.
  • We report a case of carcinoid of the testis without carcinoid syndrome and metastasis but with testosterone deficiency based on a bilateral testicular atrophy, which has not been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testis / abnormalities. Testosterone / deficiency

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  • (PMID = 17115244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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14. Uschuplich V, Hilsenbeck JR, Velasco CR: Paratesticular mucinous cystadenoma arising from an oviduct-like müllerian remnant: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Nov;130(11):1715-7
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  • Mucinous cystadenomas of the testis and paratestis are extremely rare benign tumors of controversial origin.
  • The diagnosis may be challenging and is of clinical importance because these lesions may mimic a teratoma, and teratomas in postpubertal males carry a malignant potential regardless of the degree of maturation.
  • To our knowledge this represents the first substantial evidence that, in at least some cases, mucinous cystadenomas of the testis and paratestis are of müllerian derivation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male

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  • (PMID = 17076537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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15. Poulos C, Cheng L, Zhang S, Gersell DJ, Ulbright TM: Analysis of ovarian teratomas for isochromosome 12p: evidence supporting a dual histogenetic pathway for teratomatous elements. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jun;19(6):766-71
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  • As in testicular teratomas, they may be benign, malignant or a component of a mixed GCT.
  • In the testis, data support separate pathogeneses for prepubertal and postpubertal teratomas, with derivation of the former from a nontransformed germ cell and the latter from differentiation of a nonteratomatous, malignant GCT.
  • These findings support that teratoma in mixed ovarian GCTs has a different pathogenesis compared to pure teratoma of the ovary.
  • Furthermore, the findings of i(12p) in both the teratomatous and nonteratomatous components of ovarian mixed GCTs supports that the teratoma derives from other components, similar to the situation in the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12. Gene Amplification. Isochromosomes / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Teratoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16547466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Lin HC, Clark JY: Testicular teratoma presenting as a transilluminating scrotal mass. Urology; 2006 Jun;67(6):1290.e3-5
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  • [Title] Testicular teratoma presenting as a transilluminating scrotal mass.
  • After right radical orchiectomy, pathologic examination confirmed the mass as a mature teratoma.
  • Although tumor registries cite yolk sac tumor as the most common prepubertal testis neoplasm, more recent studies have demonstrated benign tumors such as teratomas to be more common.
  • Ultrasonography should be used to evaluate hydroceles when the testis is impalpable.
  • [MeSH-major] Scrotum. Teratoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16750249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Harms D, Zahn S, Göbel U, Schneider DT: Pathology and molecular biology of teratomas in childhood and adolescence. Klin Padiatr; 2006 Nov-Dec;218(6):296-302
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  • The biologic behaviour of teratomas depends on various interdependent clinical and epidemiologic variables such as the age at diagnosis, sex, tumor site, histology which all correlate to different cytogenetic and molecular biologic aberrations.
  • Thus, testicular teratomas of infancy are generally benign.
  • The Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry includes 541 teratoma specimens, and among these, the most frequent tumor sites (in descending order) are: the sacrococcygeal region (33.8 %), the ovaries (31.2 %) and the testes (10.5 %).
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms. Registries. Teratoma. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Deletion. Cytogenetic Analysis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / epidemiology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Heterozygote. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Ovary / pathology. Puberty. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17080330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Treiyer A, Blanc G, Stark E, Haben B, Treiyer E, Steffens J: Prepubertal testicular tumors: frequently overlooked. J Pediatr Urol; 2007 Dec;3(6):480-3
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  • We reviewed our 10-year, two-institution experience with respect to diagnosis and treatment.
  • Twelve children (80%) were treated with radical orchiectomy and three (20%) with a testis-sparing procedure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Benign teratoma and epidermoid cysts were the most common prepubertal testicular tumors.
  • Our limited experience with testis-sparing procedures supports the current trends that organ-confined surgery should be performed for benign lesions such as teratoma, Leydig cell tumor and epidermoid cysts based on frozen biopsy findings.

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  • (PMID = 18947799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Ulbright TM: Germ cell tumors of the gonads: a selective review emphasizing problems in differential diagnosis, newly appreciated, and controversial issues. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18 Suppl 2:S61-79
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumors of the gonads: a selective review emphasizing problems in differential diagnosis, newly appreciated, and controversial issues.
  • The most dramatic examples of the latter are the frequency of dermoid cyst in the ovary compared to the testis and the reverse pertaining to embryonal carcinoma.
  • Within the teratoma group, there is strong evidence that ovarian and prepubertal testicular teratomas are derived from benign germ cells, a pathogenesis that likely applies also to the rare dermoid cysts and uncommon epidermoid cysts of the testis.
  • As expected, given the foregoing, teratomas in boys are clinically benign, whereas in postpubertal males they are malignant, independent of their degree of immaturity.
  • Fetal-type tissues alone are not sufficient for a diagnosis of immature teratoma.
  • Further differences between the teratomatous tumors in the two gonads are the relative frequency of monodermal teratomas in the ovary in contrast to the testis, where only one subset, carcinoids, is seen with any frequency.
  • When uncommon somatic-type malignancies (usually squamous cell carcinoma) occur in mature cystic teratomas of the ovary, this is a de novo form of malignant transformation; similar tumors in the testis, a very rare event, represent overgrowth of teratomatous elements that originated from malignant, nonteratomatous germ cell tumors and, therefore, had previously undergone malignant transformation.
  • Two aspects of germinomas are unique to the testis.
  • Secondly, the distinctive spermatocytic seminoma occurs only in the testis.
  • Cytoplasmic membrane immunoreactivity for placental alkaline phosphatase and CD117, with usual negativity for AE1/AE3 cytokeratins, is helpful in the diagnosis of germinoma.
  • Mixed germ cell tumors (which may show almost any combination of components) are common in the testis but rare in the ovary.
  • These tumors, which are constituted by innumerable embryoid bodies, almost always contain teratomatous glands in minor amounts, and one way of viewing the polyembryoma is to consider it the most immature form of teratoma.
  • Embryoid bodies are also common as a minor component of many mixed germ cell tumors, particularly in the testis, and the diffuse embryoma is another variant that has a particular arrangement of yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma elements.
  • Regression of gonadal germ cell tumors is a phenomenon restricted to the testis, for unknown reasons.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD30 / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Germinoma / metabolism. Germinoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-7. Keratins / analysis. Male. Organic Cation Transport Proteins / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Teratoma / metabolism. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15761467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Organic Cation Transport Proteins; 0 / solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 3; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 132
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20. Lo Curto M, D'Angelo P, Cecchetto G, Klersy C, Dall'Igna P, Federico A, Siracusa F, Alaggio R, Bernini G, Conte M, De Laurentis T, Di Cataldo A, Inserra A, Santoro N, Tamaro P, Indolfi P: Mature and immature teratomas: results of the first paediatric Italian study. Pediatr Surg Int; 2007 Apr;23(4):315-22
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  • Teratoma is the most common germ cell tumour in childhood; mature (MT) and immature teratomas (IT) are benign tumours, but if they recur, they can be in some cases malignant.
  • The T grading was 1 in 14 cases, 2 in 26, 3 in 16; 28 had gonadic T (17 ovary, 11 testis), 28 extragonadic (sacrococcygeal 19, mediastinic 3, retroperitoneal 2, other sites 4).
  • Seven MT (5.5%) relapsed (five sacrococcygeal, one retroperitoneal, one mediastinic): surgery at diagnosis had been complete in five and with residual in two; the relapse was malignant in two patients with sacrococcygeal (sc) tumours, who had a complete resection and a partial resection respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Teratoma / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17333214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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21. Wang WP, Guo C, Berney DM, Ulbright TM, Hansel DE, Shen R, Ali T, Epstein JI: Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):519-24
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases.
  • Nineteen were pure carcinoid tumors, 3 were associated with cystic teratoma, 2 with cysts lacking epithelial lining, 4 with epidermoid cyst, and 1 with dermoid cyst.
  • Of the 4 patients with a primary atypical carcinoid tumor, 1 at the time of diagnosis had retroperitoneal and lung metastases who after chemotherapy underwent resection of the retroperitoneal tumor showing metastatic yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.
  • Most primary carcinoid tumors of the testis have a benign clinical course even if associated with epidermoid/dermoid cysts, or histologically mature teratoma.

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jul;34(7):1075. Ubright, Thomas M [corrected to Ulbright, Thomas M]
  • (PMID = 20351489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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