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1. Doganay M, Gungor T, Cavkaytar S, Sirvan L, Mollamahmutoglu L: Malignant struma ovarii with a focus of papillary thyroid cancer: a case report. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Apr;277(4):371-3
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  • [Title] Malignant struma ovarii with a focus of papillary thyroid cancer: a case report.
  • Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm and its malignant transformation is even rarer.
  • Postoperatively, she was diagnosed with a malignant struma ovarii.
  • Pathology report was nodular hyperplasia of benign character.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


2. Ghander C, Lussato D, Conte Devolx B, Mundler O, Taïeb D: Incidental diagnosis of struma ovarii after thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer: functional imaging studies and follow-up. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Aug;102(2):378-80
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  • [Title] Incidental diagnosis of struma ovarii after thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer: functional imaging studies and follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: Struma ovarii is a rare ovarian germ-cell tumor containing thyroid tissue.
  • We report an unusual case of incidental diagnosis of struma ovarii after thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer.
  • Histopathological analysis revealed a benign struma ovarii.
  • CONCLUSION: Only few cases of incidental scintigraphic diagnosis of struma ovarii have been described.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery


3. Marwah N, Mathur SK, Marwah S, Singh S, Karwasra RK, Arora B: Malignant Brenner tumour--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Apr;48(2):251-2
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  • Apart from identification of typical benign, metaplastic and/or proliferating components, stromal invasion must be observed for diagnosis of Brenner tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16758686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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4. Valentin L, Ameye L, Jurkovic D, Metzger U, Lécuru F, Van Huffel S, Timmerman D: Which extrauterine pelvic masses are difficult to correctly classify as benign or malignant on the basis of ultrasound findings and is there a way of making a correct diagnosis? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Apr;27(4):438-44
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  • [Title] Which extrauterine pelvic masses are difficult to correctly classify as benign or malignant on the basis of ultrasound findings and is there a way of making a correct diagnosis?
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine which extrauterine pelvic masses are difficult to correctly classify as benign or malignant on the basis of ultrasound findings, and to determine if the use of logistic regression models for calculation of individual risk of malignancy would improve the diagnostic accuracy in difficult tumors.
  • On the basis of subjective evaluation of ultrasound findings, the examiner classified each mass as being certainly benign, probably benign, unclassifiable, probably malignant or certainly malignant.
  • Even when the examiner found the mass unclassifiable (i.e. difficult mass) he or she was obliged to state whether the mass was more likely to be benign or malignant.
  • Borderline malignant tumors (n = 55) proved to be most difficult to assess with only 47% being correctly classified (i.e. classified as malignant), 29% being incorrectly classified (i.e. classified as benign) and 24% being unclassifiable vs. 90% of non-borderline tumors being correctly classified, 3% being incorrectly classified and 8% being unclassifiable (P < 0.0001).
  • Papillary cystadeno(fibro)mas, myomas and cases of struma ovarii were also more common among the unclassifiable masses than among the classifiable ones (5.6% vs. 1.1%, P = 0.008; 4.4% vs. 0.9%, P = 0.02; 4.4% vs. 0.2%, P = 0.0006).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Borderline tumors cause great diagnostic difficulties, but so do papillary cystadeno(fibro)mas, struma ovarii and some myomas.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 ISUOG.
  • (PMID = 16526098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Saba L, Guerriero S, Sulcis R, Virgilio B, Melis G, Mallarini G: Mature and immature ovarian teratomas: CT, US and MR imaging characteristics. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Dec;72(3):454-63
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  • They include mature cystic teratomas, monodermal teratomas (neural tumors, struma ovarii, carcinoid tumors) and immature teratomas.
  • Teratomas are the most common benign ovarian neoplasms in women less than 45 years old.

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  • (PMID = 18804932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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6. Ostör G, Tóth I, Hrubyné Tóth Z, Bazsa S: [Cystic struma ovarii, a rare form of ovarian tumor--case report, and review of the literature]. Orv Hetil; 2007 Dec 2;148(48):2285-7
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  • [Title] [Cystic struma ovarii, a rare form of ovarian tumor--case report, and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Cysticus struma ovarii, egy ritka ováriumtumor - esetismertetés és irodalmi áttekintés.
  • Struma ovarii represents less than 3% of ovarian teratomas.
  • The pathologic diagnosis was benign struma ovarii.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18039620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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7. Kim D, Cho HC, Park JW, Lee WA, Kim YM, Chung PS, Park SG, Ahn WS, Han SJ, Park CH: Struma ovarii and peritoneal strumosis with thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid; 2009 Mar;19(3):305-8
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  • [Title] Struma ovarii and peritoneal strumosis with thyrotoxicosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Struma ovarii is a highly specialized form of mature ovarian teratoma consisting of thyroid tissue and exhibiting all the histological features of the thyroid gland.
  • Malignant transformation of thyroid tissue in struma ovarii and metastasis are extremely uncommon.
  • In rare cases, benign thyroid tissue may spread to the peritoneal cavity, and pathologic examination of the peritoneal implants shows multiple nodules of varying sizes of mature thyroid tissue similar to struma ovarii.
  • SUMMARY: We report a 49-year-old woman with struma ovarii complicated by peritoneal strumosis with thyrotoxicosis.
  • After surgical resection of the struma ovarii and peritoneal strumosis the patient became euthyroid.
  • The relative contribution to circulating thyroid hormones by the patient's struma ovarii as compared to the peritoneal strumosis is not known.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Peritoneal Cavity / pathology. Struma Ovarii / complications. Thyrotoxicosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 19265502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Dede M, Yenen MC, Yilmaz A, Goktolga U, Baser I: Treatment of incidental adnexal masses at cesarean section: a retrospective study. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Mar-Apr;17(2):339-41
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  • The pathologic diagnosis of the masses were as follows: benign-benign cystic teratoma 20 (29.4%), simple serous cyst 8 (11.8%), simple mucinous 9 (13.2%), endometrioma 3 (4.4%), cystadenoma 14 (20.6%), and paraovarian-paratubal cyst 13 (19.1%) and malignant-struma ovarii 1 (1.5%).

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007 Sep-Oct;17(5):1181; author reply 1182 [17506838.001]
  • (PMID = 17362311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Van Holsbeke C, Van Belle V, Leone FP, Guerriero S, Paladini D, Melis GB, Greggi S, Fischerova D, De Jonge E, Neven P, Bourne T, Valentin L, Van Huffel S, Timmerman D: Prospective external validation of the 'ovarian crescent sign' as a single ultrasound parameter to distinguish between benign and malignant adnexal pathology. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Jul;36(1):81-7
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  • [Title] Prospective external validation of the 'ovarian crescent sign' as a single ultrasound parameter to distinguish between benign and malignant adnexal pathology.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the 'ovarian crescent sign' (OCS)-a rim of normal ovarian tissue seen adjacent to an ipsilateral adnexal mass-as a sonographic feature to discriminate between benign and malignant adnexal masses.
  • The ability of the OCS to discriminate between borderline or invasively malignant vs. benign adnexal masses, as well as between invasively malignant vs. other (benign and borderline) tumors, was determined and compared with the performance of subjective evaluation of ultrasound findings by the ultrasound examiner.
  • RESULTS: The OCS was evaluated in 1377 adnexal masses from 12 centers, 938 (68%) masses being benign, 86 (6%) borderline, 305 (22%) primary invasive and 48 (3%) metastases.
  • The OCS was present in 398 (42%) of 938 benign masses, in 14 (16%) of 86 borderline tumors, in 18 (6%) of 305 primary invasive tumors (one malignant struma ovarii, one uterine clear cell adenocarcinoma and 16 epithelial carcinomas, i.e. four Stage I and 12 Stage II-IV) and in two (4%) of 48 ovarian metastases.
  • For discrimination between invasive vs. benign or borderline tumors, the sensitivity for absent OCS was 94%, the specificity was 40%, the LR+ was 1.58 and the LR- was 0.14.
  • However it is a poor discriminator between benign and malignant adnexal masses.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20217895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Boutross-Tadross O, Saleh R, Asa SL: Follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma ovarii. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(3):182-6
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  • [Title] Follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma ovarii.
  • Struma ovarii is a rare monodermal ovarian teratoma in which thyroid tissue is the predominant or exclusive element.
  • However, the recognition of follicular variant PTC raises the possibility of similar malignancy arising in struma ovarii.
  • We examined 13 cases of struma ovarii to determine if these lesions can exhibit histological, immunohistochemical, and/or molecular features of follicular variant PTC.
  • The three cases considered to be benign based on histologic and cytologic criteria were negative for CK19 and HBME-1 by immunohistochemistry, and had no evidence of BRAF mutation or ret/PTC-1 and ret/PTC-3 rearrangements.
  • These results indicate that follicular variant PTC can occur in struma ovarii and that such lesions exhibit the same morphologic and immunohistochemical profile as follicular variant PTC in thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Struma Ovarii. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18058267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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11. Daneshbod Y, Daneshbod K, Rasekhi AR, Mosayebi Z, Negahban S, Hodjati SR, Bedayat GR, Ganjei-Azar P: Cytologic differentiation of struma ovarii from other ovarian neoplasms. Acta Cytol; 2008 Jan-Feb;52(1):72-6
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  • [Title] Cytologic differentiation of struma ovarii from other ovarian neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present the cytologic findings of struma ovarii and value of cytology and immunocytochemistry (ICC) using thyroglobulin (TGB) and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) in evaluation of this unusual ovarian neoplasm, together with the diagnostic pitfalls.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Intraoperative cytologic findings of 7 patients with struma ovarii are reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The cases were divided in to 3 groups: group 1--diagnosis of struma ovarii was made by cytology and confirmed by ICC (1 case); group 2--diagnosis was suggestive on cytology or cell block and confirmed by ICC staining (4 cases); group 3--on cytologic diagnosis indistinguishable from other cystic ovarian neoplasms (2 cases).
  • CONCLUSION: Cytologic findings of struma ovarii are distinct enough to be suggested intraoperatively, and ICC for TGB or TTF-1 is a valuable tool for preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy and intraoperative diagnosis of this benign ovarian neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18323278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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12. Robboy SJ, Shaco-Levy R, Peng RY, Snyder MJ, Donahue J, Bentley RC, Bean S, Krigman HR, Roth LM, Young RH: Malignant struma ovarii: an analysis of 88 cases, including 27 with extraovarian spread. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Sep;28(5):405-22
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  • [Title] Malignant struma ovarii: an analysis of 88 cases, including 27 with extraovarian spread.
  • Struma ovarii that display extraovarian spread or later recurrence is exceedingly rare.
  • Among 88 patients with "malignant" struma ovarii followed for prolonged periods, several features helped to predict the adverse clinical course.
  • Adhesions (graded 2 to 4+), peritoneal fluid (> or =1 L) or ovarian serosal rent were worrisome features, occurring in 74% of 27 biologically malignant tumors but only 10% of 61 clinically benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19696610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Rana V, Srinivas V, Bandyopadhyay S, Ghosh SK, Singh Y: Bilateral benign non functional struma ovarii with Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2009 Jan-Mar;52(1):94-6
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  • [Title] Bilateral benign non functional struma ovarii with Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome.
  • Bilateral presentation of benign Struma ovarii is rare and has not been reported frequently in published literature.
  • After surgery the diagnosis of non functional, bilateral benign Struma ovarii was made.
  • Struma ovarii is a specialized ovarian teratoma composed predominantly of mature thyroid tissue.
  • The combination of struma ovarii and elevated CA-125 levels has been reported infrequently.
  • This is a rare case of bilateral benign struma ovarii associated with Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome and elevated CA-125 levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Meigs Syndrome / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / complications. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19136795.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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14. Rim SY, Kim SM, Choi HS: Struma ovarii showing clinical characteristics of ovarian malignancy. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Nov-Dec;15(6):1156-9
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  • [Title] Struma ovarii showing clinical characteristics of ovarian malignancy.
  • Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm, composed entirely or predominantly of thyroid tissue and generally a benign germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • However, the combination of struma ovarii and elevated CA125 has rarely been reported.
  • We experienced a rare case of a postmenopausal woman with benign struma ovarii associated with massive ascites, a complex pelvic mass.
  • Struma ovarii can mimic ovarian malignancy clinically, particularly if complex and associated with ascites and an elevated CA125 level.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16343201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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15. Niculescu S, Crauciuc E, Gargu G, Niculescu D, Filip V, Ene D, Vasilescu A: [Struma ovarii]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2008 Apr-Jun;112(2):406-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Struma ovarii].
  • [Transliterated title] Struma ovarii.
  • Struma ovarii is a rare tumor in its pure form, but its true incidence is hard to estimate because of all the variation in the diagnostic criteria due to the fact that some authors reported it as within a teratoma and others only in its pure form.
  • In general, it is an asymptomatic tumor, "benign-like" in most of the cases, and the diagnostic is based only on the histopathological findings.
  • 879 tumors were removed: 88.39% benign and 11.61% malignant.
  • Struma ovarii was demonstrated in 2 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms. Struma Ovarii

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  • (PMID = 19295011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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16. Zekri JM, Manifold IH, Wadsley JC: Metastatic struma ovarii: late presentation, unusual features and multiple radioactive iodine treatments. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2006 Dec;18(10):768-72
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  • [Title] Metastatic struma ovarii: late presentation, unusual features and multiple radioactive iodine treatments.
  • Metastatic malignant struma ovarii is rare and there is a lack of agreement on the criteria of diagnosis and the lines of management.
  • Here we describe a patient with struma ovarii that was initially diagnosed as benign and presented 10 years later with distant metastases.
  • The diagnosis and management of struma ovarii should be led by an expert multidisciplinary team.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis. Struma Ovarii / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17168212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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17. Loizzi V, Cormio G, Resta L, Fattizzi N, Vicino M, Selvaggi L: Pseudo-Meigs syndrome and elevated CA125 associated with struma ovarii. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Apr;97(1):282-4
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  • [Title] Pseudo-Meigs syndrome and elevated CA125 associated with struma ovarii.
  • BACKGROUND: Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm composed entirely and predominantly of thyroid tissue.
  • The association of pseudo-Meigs syndrome, elevation of CA125 and hyperthyroidism to struma ovarii is a rare condition.
  • CASE: We report an unusual presentation of a postmenopausal woman with benign struma ovarii associated with pseudo-Meigs syndrome, hypertiroidism, and elevated CA125 serum level, and a large complex right pelvic mass thereby mimicking an ovarian cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Struma ovarii is a rare cause of ascites, hydrothorax, elevated CA125, and hyperthyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / blood. Meigs Syndrome / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Struma Ovarii / blood

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  • (PMID = 15790478.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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18. Wolff EF, Hughes M, Merino MJ, Reynolds JC, Davis JL, Cochran CS, Celi FS: Expression of benign and malignant thyroid tissue in ovarian teratomas and the importance of multimodal management as illustrated by a BRAF-positive follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):981-7
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  • [Title] Expression of benign and malignant thyroid tissue in ovarian teratomas and the importance of multimodal management as illustrated by a BRAF-positive follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • Thyroid tissue, both benign and malignant, may be a component of an ovarian teratoma.
  • SUMMARY: Malignant thyroid tissue is often difficult to distinguish from benign thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas.
  • Preoperatively, an elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) level, laboratory or clinical evidence of hyperthyroidism, or ultrasonography appearance of "struma pearl" should prompt referral to oncologist for surgical management of a possibly malignant ovarian teratoma.
  • Postoperatively, tumor tissue should be referred to pathologists experienced with differentiating benign from malignant struma ovarii.
  • At age 33 she had an intraoperative rupture of an ovarian cyst, thought to be struma ovarii.


19. Garg K, Soslow RA, Rivera M, Tuttle MR, Ghossein RA: Histologically bland "extremely well differentiated" thyroid carcinomas arising in struma ovarii can recur and metastasize. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 May;28(3):222-30
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  • [Title] Histologically bland "extremely well differentiated" thyroid carcinomas arising in struma ovarii can recur and metastasize.
  • Struma ovarii (SO) infrequently harbor carcinomas that are histologically similar to those arising in the eutopic thyroid.
  • Two of the 10 thyroid carcinomas relapsed after an initial diagnosis of "benign" struma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19620939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Isotopes
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20. Choudhary S, Fasih N, Mc Innes M, Marginean C: Imaging of ovarian teratomas: appearances and complications. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol; 2009 Oct;53(5):480-8
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  • The benign cystic teratoma shows typical imaging manifestations and can be complicated by torsion, rupture and uncommonly malignant degeneration.
  • The monodermal teratomas which include the struma ovarii may also have specific imaging characteristics that should be recognised on imaging.

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  • (PMID = 19788483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-9485
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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21. Macdonald W, Armstrong J: Benign struma ovarii in a patient with invasive papillary thyroid cancer: detection with I-131 SPECT-CT. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 May;32(5):380-2
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  • [Title] Benign struma ovarii in a patient with invasive papillary thyroid cancer: detection with I-131 SPECT-CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Ovary / radionuclide imaging. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis. Struma Ovarii / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 17452868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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22. Guida M, Mandato VD, Di Spiezio Sardo A, Di Carlo C, Giordano E, Nappi C: Coexistence of Graves' disease and benign struma ovarii in a patient with marked ascites and elevated CA-125 levels. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Oct;28(9):827-30
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  • [Title] Coexistence of Graves' disease and benign struma ovarii in a patient with marked ascites and elevated CA-125 levels.
  • BACKGROUND: Struma ovarii is the most common monodermal ovarian teratoma and consists mainly of thyroid tissue.
  • The pathophysiology of hyperthyroidism in struma ovarii is not clear.
  • CASE: We describe a case of benign struma ovarii, presenting with the clinical features of an ovarian cancer: large complex pelvic mass, large amount of ascites and markedly elevated CA-125 serum levels.
  • A large pelvic mass was then diagnosed which, at the pathologic examination, was diagnosed as a struma ovarii.
  • CONCLUSION: The struma ovarii always has to be considered when a pelvic mass is associated with features of hyperthyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Graves Disease / etiology. Graves Disease / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Struma Ovarii / etiology. Struma Ovarii / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16370564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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23. Sokalska A, Timmerman D, Testa AC, Van Holsbeke C, Lissoni AA, Leone FP, Jurkovic D, Valentin L: Diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound examination for assigning a specific diagnosis to adnexal masses. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2009 Oct;34(4):462-70
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  • Using pattern recognition the examiners classified each mass as benign or malignant and suggested a specific diagnosis (e.g. dermoid cyst or endometrioma).
  • RESULTS: A total of 1066 women were included, of whom 800 had a benign mass and 266 a malignant mass.
  • The sensitivity was highest for benign teratoma/dermoid cysts (86%, 100/116), hydrosalpinges (86%, 18/21), peritoneal pseudocysts (80%, 4/5) and endometriomas (77%, 153/199), and lowest for functional cysts (17%, 4/24), paraovarian/parasalpingeal cysts (14%, 3/21), benign rare tumors (11%, 1/9), adenofibromas (8%, 3/39), simple cysts (6%, 1/18) and struma ovarii (0%, 0/5).
  • Dermoid cysts, hydrosalpinges, functional cysts, paraovarian cysts, peritoneal pseudocysts, fibromas/fibrothecomas and simple cysts were never misdiagnosed as malignancies by the ultrasound examiner, whereas more than 10% of inflammatory processes, adenofibromas and rare benign tumors including struma ovarii were misdiagnosed as malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 19685552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Bartel TB, Juweid ME, O'dorisio T, Sivitz W, Kirby P: Scintigraphic detection of benign struma ovarii in a hyperthyroid patient. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;90(6):3771-2
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  • [Title] Scintigraphic detection of benign struma ovarii in a hyperthyroid patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperthyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Ovarian Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Struma Ovarii / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 15917485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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25. Ezon I, Zilbert N, Pinkney L, Wei JJ, Malik R, Nadler EP: A large struma ovarii tumor removed via laparoscopy in a 16-year-old adolescent. J Pediatr Surg; 2007 Aug;42(8):E19-22
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  • [Title] A large struma ovarii tumor removed via laparoscopy in a 16-year-old adolescent.
  • Struma ovarii is rare ovarian tumor that is characterized by the presence of at least 50% thyroid tissue on histologic examination.
  • This usually benign neoplasm is predominantly found in women between the ages of 40 and 60 years and infrequently in the pediatric age group.
  • In the foregoing report, we present an unusual case of a large struma ovarii in a 16-year-old adolescent girl with abdominal pain and increasing abdominal girth.
  • We conclude that the diagnosis of struma ovarii should be considered in adolescent girls presenting with large cystic ovarian masses and that a laparoscopic approach to management is the treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovariectomy / methods. Struma Ovarii / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17706482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Mui MP, Tam KF, Tam FK, Ngan HY: Coexistence of struma ovarii with marked ascites and elevated CA-125 levels: case report and literature review. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 May;279(5):753-7
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  • [Title] Coexistence of struma ovarii with marked ascites and elevated CA-125 levels: case report and literature review.
  • INTRODUCTION: Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm and consists mainly of thyroid tissue.
  • However, the combination of struma ovarii and elevated CA-125 has rarely been reported.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We described a case of benign struma ovarii, presenting with the clinical features of ovarian cancer: large complex pelvic mass, gross ascites and markedly elevated serum CA-125 levels.
  • CONCLUSION: Struma ovarii can mimic ovarian malignancy clinically, when presented with ascites and an elevated CA-125 level.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascites / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Struma Ovarii / blood

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  • (PMID = 18807056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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27. Yoo SC, Chang KH, Lyu MO, Chang SJ, Ryu HS, Kim HS: Clinical characteristics of struma ovarii. J Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Jun;19(2):135-8
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  • [Title] Clinical characteristics of struma ovarii.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of struma ovarii.
  • METHODS: Twenty-five cases of struma ovarii were reviewed retrospectively from June 1994 to April 2007.
  • Diagnosis by preoperative imaging studies were 8 dermoid cysts, while only 3 cases were diagnosed as struma ovarii.
  • There were 4 cases of malignant struma ovarii, and no patients with recurrent disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Struma ovarii is a rare tumor.
  • The treatment of benign struma ovarii is surgical resection only.
  • The cases of malignant struma ovarii may need adjuvant treatment, but recurrence is uncommon.

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  • (PMID = 19471561.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2676458
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Dermoid tumor / Malignancy / Struma ovarii
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28. Schmidt J, Derr V, Heinrich MC, Crum CP, Fletcher JA, Corless CL, Nosé V: BRAF in papillary thyroid carcinoma of ovary (struma ovarii). Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Sep;31(9):1337-43
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  • [Title] BRAF in papillary thyroid carcinoma of ovary (struma ovarii).
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant struma ovarii (MSO) are rare tumors that arise from ectopic thyroid tissue in the ovary, benign struma ovarii (BSO).
  • Corresponding benign tissues were evaluated when available.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Mutation. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Struma Ovarii / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17721188.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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29. Ruel IF, Fierrard H, Vercellino L, Bernard L, Hindie E, Duron F, Toubert ME: Pulmonary metastasis of struma ovarii: a case report. Clin Nucl Med; 2010 Sep;35(9):692-4
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  • [Title] Pulmonary metastasis of struma ovarii: a case report.
  • Reexamination of pathology samples, with the help of immunohistochemical markers, concluded to a struma ovarii.
  • Struma ovarii is a rare ovarian tumor mostly benign.
  • Metastasis of malignant struma ovarii are rare.
  • Treatment of the malignant struma ovarii implies ovarian surgical resection, total thyroidectomy, and I-131 therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20706043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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30. Porpora MG, Pallante D, Ferro A, Alò PL, Cosmi EV: Asymptomatic struma ovarii: a case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol; 2005;32(3):197-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Asymptomatic struma ovarii: a case report.
  • Struma ovarii is a rare ovarian neoplasm.
  • This tumor is generally benign, although malignant transformation has been reported.
  • Thyroid hormones may be produced and in a few cases asymptomatic women may develop definitive clinical hypothyroidism after resection of struma ovarii.
  • The pathologic diagnosis was struma ovarii.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis. Struma Ovarii / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16433164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-6663
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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31. Morel O, Rohmer V, Girault S, Muratet JP, Berthelot C, Jallet P: Abnormal iodine-131 uptake in a benign mucinous ovarian cystadenoma mimicking struma ovarii. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Jan;32(1):64-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Abnormal iodine-131 uptake in a benign mucinous ovarian cystadenoma mimicking struma ovarii.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17179812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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32. Mitrou S, Manek S, Kehoe S: Cystic struma ovarii presenting as pseudo-Meigs' syndrome with elevated CA125 levels. A case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Mar-Apr;18(2):372-5
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  • [Title] Cystic struma ovarii presenting as pseudo-Meigs' syndrome with elevated CA125 levels. A case report and review of the literature.
  • Struma ovarii is a rare ovarian teratoma consisted predominantly of mature thyroid tissue.
  • Although the vast majority of strumas are benign, they can present mimicking malignancy.
  • The patient underwent laparotomy, and histology revealed a benign struma ovarii.
  • This is only the fifth case in the English literature of a benign struma ovarii presenting as pseudo-Meigs' syndrome with elevated CA125.
  • Struma ovarii should be included in the differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass that presents with ascites, hydrothorax, and elevated tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Meigs Syndrome / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18334015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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33. Yassa L, Sadow P, Marqusee E: Malignant struma ovarii. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Aug;4(8):469-72
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  • [Title] Malignant struma ovarii.
  • The ovarian mass proved to be a struma ovarii with numerous microscopic foci of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Malignant struma ovarii.
  • In addition, the patient underwent thyroid ultrasonography, which showed a 1 cm nodule that proved benign on biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18560398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK007529
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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34. Savelli L, Testa AC, Timmerman D, Paladini D, Ljungberg O, Valentin L: Imaging of gynecological disease (4): clinical and ultrasound characteristics of struma ovarii. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2008 Aug;32(2):210-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging of gynecological disease (4): clinical and ultrasound characteristics of struma ovarii.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical history and ultrasound findings in women with struma ovarii.
  • METHODS: Women with a histological diagnosis of struma ovarii who had undergone preoperative ultrasound examination were identified from the databases of five ultrasound centers.
  • RESULTS: Of 31 patients identified, 16 had pure struma ovarii (one malignant), whereas in 15 patients the struma ovarii were 'impure', constituting the major part of a dermoid cyst (all benign, bilateral in one case).
  • Most pure struma ovarii (11/16 cases, 69%) contained solid components, but cystic components were always present.
  • Using pattern recognition the most specific feature of pure struma ovarii was the 'struma pearl', i.e. a smooth roundish solid area, similar, but not identical, to the 'round white ball' seen in dermoid cysts.
  • 'Struma pearls' were present in six cases of pure struma ovarii.
  • Most (10/16, 63%) cases of impure struma ovarii manifested ultrasound features compatible with a dermoid cyst, but six manifested ultrasound features similar to those of pure struma ovarii, 'struma pearls' being seen in three of these.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The sonographic features of struma ovarii vary.
  • Struma ovarii may be suspected when a 'struma pearl' is seen.
  • Whether 'struma pearls' are indeed a specific ultrasonographic feature of struma ovarii needs to be determined in a prospective study.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoid Cyst / ultrasonography. Ovarian Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Struma Ovarii / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 18636616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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35. Sibio S, Borrini F, Sammartino P, Accarpio F, Biacchi D, Caprio G, Iafrate F, Baccheschi AM, Cornali T, Di Giorgio A: Predominant Brenner tumor combined with struma ovarii containing a papillary microcarcinoma associated with benign peritoneal strumosis: report of a case and histologic features. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Sep;21(3):199-203
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  • [Title] Predominant Brenner tumor combined with struma ovarii containing a papillary microcarcinoma associated with benign peritoneal strumosis: report of a case and histologic features.
  • Brenner tumor and struma ovarii, two uncommon ovarian tumors arising alone or together with dermoid cysts or adenomas, are both rare entities.
  • Few published reports describe coexisting Brenner tumor and malignant struma ovarii.
  • The mass consisted predominantly of a Brenner tumor associated with struma ovarii containing a single small island of thyroid tissue that had undergone malignant transformation into a well-differentiated papillary carcinoma and also normal thyroid tissue that had spread to the peritoneum.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Struma Ovarii / secondary

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  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
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  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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