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1. Wang V, Chou D: Anterior C1-2 osteochondroma presenting with dysphagia and sleep apnea. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 Apr;16(4):581-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anterior C1-2 osteochondroma presenting with dysphagia and sleep apnea.
  • Spinal osteochondromas are rare, benign tumors of the bone.
  • These tumors can manifest as solitary lesions or as part of a hereditary syndrome.
  • We present the unique case of a solitary osteochondroma of the anterior C1 vertebral arch causing obstructive sleep apnea and dysphagia in a 16-year-old female.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of a sporadic osteochondroma arising from the anterior arch of the C1 vertebra causing dysphagia and obstructive apnea in a pediatric patient.


2. Arkader A, Dormans JP, Gaugler R, Davidson RS: Spontaneous regression of solitary osteochondroma: reconsidering our approach. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2007 Jul;460:253-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spontaneous regression of solitary osteochondroma: reconsidering our approach.
  • Osteochondromas are the most common benign bone tumor; nonetheless, the natural history is poorly understood as a result of the low threshold for resection and the fact that many of these lesions are asymptomatic and therefore never diagnosed.
  • We report a case of spontaneous regression of a solitary osteochondroma and review the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Neoplasms / radiography. Osteochondroma / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Remission, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 17620816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-921X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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3. Keser S, Bayar A: Osteochondroma of the talar neck: a rare cause of callosity of the foot dorsum. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc; 2005 May-Jun;95(3):295-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Osteochondroma of the talar neck: a rare cause of callosity of the foot dorsum.
  • Osteochondroma is the most common benign bone tumor.
  • It rarely affects rearfoot bones, and only a few cases of talar osteochondroma have been reported.
  • We report a case of a solitary osteochondroma of the talus that presented as a painful callus on the anterior portion of the ankle that was refractory to dermatologic treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Callosities / etiology. Osteochondroma / complications. Talus

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  • (PMID = 15901820.001).
  • [ISSN] 8750-7315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Podiatr Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Blitz NM, Lopez KT: Giant solitary osteochondroma of the inferior medial calcaneal tubercle: a case report and review of the literature. J Foot Ankle Surg; 2008 May-Jun;47(3):206-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant solitary osteochondroma of the inferior medial calcaneal tubercle: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Osteochondromas are benign osseous neoplasms with a distinct hyaline cartilage cap originating from the physis and cease growing with skeletal maturity.
  • Osteochondroma are often treated conservatively unless they become symptomatic, painful, demonstrate rapid or new growth, enlarge after skeletal maturity, and/or exhibit signs of malignant transformation.
  • In this report, we present a case of a giant (8 cm x 4.2 cm x 2.1 cm) osteochondroma in an adult occurring on the inferior medial tubercle of the calcaneus that underwent excision, with 3.5 years of follow-up without recurrence.
  • To our knowledge this is the largest osteochondroma affecting the inferior medial tubercle of the calcaneus.
  • This case demonstrates that large osteochondromas may occur in the foot, and also confirms that benign osteochondroma growth may occur in adulthood.
  • A detailed review of osteochondroma occurrence in the foot is presented along with a review of the diagnostic work-up to evaluate for malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Calcaneus. Osteochondroma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 18455666.001).
  • [ISSN] 1067-2516
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Mnif H, Koubaa M, Zrig M, Zammel N, Abid A: Peroneal nerve palsy resulting from fibular head osteochondroma. Orthopedics; 2009 Jul;32(7):528
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  • [Title] Peroneal nerve palsy resulting from fibular head osteochondroma.
  • This article describes a case of a 11-year-old boy with an osteochondroma of the peroneal head causing peroneal nerve palsy.
  • Radiological examination showed an osteochondroma in the head of the right fibula.
  • The patient underwent surgical decompression of the right peroneal nerve after resection of the bone tumor.
  • Osteochondroma is a benign tumor consisting of projecting bone capped by cartilage.
  • These tumors may be solitary or multiple and occur in hereditary multiple exostoses syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Fibula / surgery. Osteochondroma / complications. Osteochondroma / surgery. Peroneal Neuropathies / etiology. Peroneal Neuropathies / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19634838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Chin KR, Kim JM: A rare anterior sacral osteochondroma presenting as sciatica in an adult: a case report and review of the literature. Spine J; 2010 May;10(5):e1-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A rare anterior sacral osteochondroma presenting as sciatica in an adult: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Osteochondroma is the most common primary benign bone tumor and is usually located in the metaphyses of long bones and rarely in the spine or anterior sacrum.
  • To the best of our knowledge, en bloc excision of a solitary osteochondroma of the anterior sacrum in an adult patient has not been previously reported in a peer-reviewed journal.
  • PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to document the first report of an osteochondroma of the anterior sacrum along with the clinical course and operative management and review the literature on solitary osteochondroma of the sacrum.
  • We also conducted a literature review of solitary sacral osteochondroma in peer-reviewed journals.
  • RESULTS: Histologic studies confirmed the mass to be an osteochondroma without pathologic signs of malignant transformation.
  • A literature review revealed one previous case of en block resection of a solitary osteochondroma, but it involved the posterior sacrum.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Solitary osteochondroma can rarely present in the sacrum as low back pain and sciatica.
  • In general, when osteochondroma causes pain in an adult, we should think that some structure is impinged or that it could have initiated a malignant transformation, so en bloc excision should be used to remove the tumor and histologic studies performed to assess for malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Osteochondroma / diagnosis. Sacrum. Sciatica / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20421072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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7. Hassankhani EG: Solitary lower lumbar osteochondroma (spinous process of L3 involvement): a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:9359
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solitary lower lumbar osteochondroma (spinous process of L3 involvement): a case report.
  • Solitary osteochondromas, which are the most common benign bone tumors of long bones, are rarely found in the vertebral column.
  • The tumor was excised en bloc through a posterior approach and histopathological examination verified the diagnosis of osteocondroma.Osteochondromas are rarely found in the spine, when present in the spine, however, have a predilection for cervical or upper thoracic region arising usually from lamina of vertebrae and are rare in lumbosacral region and very rare at spinous process of the vertebrae.We present a case of osteochondroma locates in lumbar region and spinous process of vertebrae with unusual presentation and was considered clinically as congenital lumbar kyphosis.

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  • [Cites] J Neurosurg. 1999 Oct;91(2 Suppl):219-22 [10505509.001]
  • [Cites] Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000 May 15;25(10):1293-5 [10806510.001]
  • [Cites] Australas Radiol. 2002 Sep;46(3):309-11 [12196244.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2000 Sep;29(9):711-4 [11008869.001]
  • [Cites] Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001 May 1;26(9):1082-5 [11337629.001]
  • [Cites] Eur Radiol. 2000;10(5):832-40 [10823643.001]
  • (PMID = 20066066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2804730
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8. Zapata J, Alcaraz M: Osteochondroma of the phalanx: a late Roman case. Homo; 2007;58(4):319-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Osteochondroma of the phalanx: a late Roman case.
  • Accounting for 20-50% of all benign forms, solitary osteochondromae are the most common kind of bone tumour.
  • This paper describes an osteochondroma in a proximal phalanx of the hand of a female aged between 17 and 25 years buried in a Late Roman necropolis from SE Spain.
  • The bone displayed a solitary osteochondroma, which was confirmed by macroscopic and radiographic examination.
  • This is the first palaeopathological example of a solitary sessile osteochondroma of the hand.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Finger Phalanges / pathology. Osteochondroma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17689539.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-442X
  • [Journal-full-title] Homo : internationale Zeitschrift für die vergleichende Forschung am Menschen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Homo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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9. Rodallec MH, Feydy A, Larousserie F, Anract P, Campagna R, Babinet A, Zins M, Drapé JL: Diagnostic imaging of solitary tumors of the spine: what to do and say. Radiographics; 2008 Jul-Aug;28(4):1019-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic imaging of solitary tumors of the spine: what to do and say.
  • Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the spine.
  • Other primary osseous lesions of the spine are more unusual but may exhibit characteristic imaging features that can help the radiologist develop a differential diagnosis.
  • Because of the complex anatomy of the vertebrae, CT is more useful than conventional radiography for evaluating lesion location and analyzing bone destruction and condensation.
  • The diagnosis of spinal tumors is based on patient age, topographic features of the tumor, and lesion pattern as seen at CT and MR imaging.
  • A systematic approach is useful for recognizing tumors of the spine with characteristic features such as bone island, osteoid osteoma, osteochondroma, chondrosarcoma, vertebral angioma, and aneurysmal bone cyst.
  • In the remaining cases, the differential diagnosis may include other primary spinal tumors, vertebral metastases and major nontumoral lesions simulating a vertebral tumor, Paget disease, spondylitis, echinococcal infection, and aseptic osteitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Physician-Patient Relations. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged


10. Stieber JR, Dormans JP: Manifestations of hereditary multiple exostoses. J Am Acad Orthop Surg; 2005 Mar-Apr;13(2):110-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The solitary osteochondroma, a common pediatric bone tumor, is a cartilage-capped exostosis.
  • Linkage analysis has implicated mutations in the EXT gene family, resulting in an error in the regulation of normal chondrocyte proliferation and maturation that leads to abnormal bone growth.
  • Although exostoses are benign lesions, they are often associated with characteristic progressive skeletal deformities and may cause clinical symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone and Bones / abnormalities. Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary / complications


11. Obalum DC, Eyesan SU, Ezembakwe ME, Abdulkareem FB: Pattern of osteochondromas in Lagos, Nigeria. Nig Q J Hosp Med; 2008 Apr-Jun;18(2):69-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Osteochondromas are the most common benign tumours of bone.
  • An overwhelming majority were pedunculated (88.2%) and solitary (97.1%).
  • [MeSH-major] Osteochondroma / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19068555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0189-2657
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian quarterly journal of hospital medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nig Q J Hosp Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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12. Reize F, Buess E: Humeral osteochondroma causing a subscapularis tear: a rare source of shoulder dysfunction. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2007 Jan;127(1):67-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Humeral osteochondroma causing a subscapularis tear: a rare source of shoulder dysfunction.
  • The proximal humerus is a well-known site of predilection for the solitary osteochondroma-the most common benign bone tumor.
  • We will present the case of a young man, who had a complete non-traumatic subscapularis tear, where the tendon had been peeled off the lesser tuberosity by an osteochondroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Humerus. Osteochondroma / complications. Rotator Cuff / injuries

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  • (PMID = 16927096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Altay M, Bayrakci K, Yildiz Y, Erekul S, Saglik Y: Secondary chondrosarcoma in cartilage bone tumors: report of 32 patients. J Orthop Sci; 2007 Sep;12(5):415-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Secondary chondrosarcoma in cartilage bone tumors: report of 32 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Secondary malignancies arising from benign bone tumors are rare.
  • Their recognition and diagnosis are difficult, and their slow growth and late recurrence require long-term follow-up.
  • In this study, malignant transformation rates of various histological types of benign cartilage-forming bone tumors in large series were evaluated.
  • METHODS: Between 1986 and 2004, a retrospective analysis of 627 cartilage-forming benign bone tumors revealed that 32 patients had malignant transformation.
  • Of the 32 patients, 14 had solitary osteochondromas, 10 had multiple osteochondromas, 6 had a solitary enchondroma, 1 had Ollier's disease, and 1 had Maffucci's syndrome.
  • The patient with Ollier's disease had two chondrosarcomas, and one patient with multiple osteochondroma had three chondrosarcomas.
  • RESULTS: The rate of malignant transformation for cartilage-originating tumors was 5.1% (solitary osteochondromas 4.2%, multiple osteochondromas 9.2%, solitary enchondromas 4.2%).
  • The average time between the initial diagnosis and malignant transformation was 9.8 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cartilage-forming benign bone tumors are rather prone to undergo malignant transformation.
  • Although malignant transformation of a benign bone tumor is a rarely encountered situation, orthopedic surgeons should be cautious while following patients with a benign bone neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Cartilage / pathology. Chondrosarcoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Osteochondroma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17909925.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2658
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. Mavrogenis AF, Papagelopoulos PJ, Soucacos PN: Skeletal osteochondromas revisited. Orthopedics; 2008 Oct;31(10)
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Skeletal osteochondromas or osteocartilaginous exostoses represent the most common of all benign bone tumors and 10% to 15% of all bone tumors.
  • Osteochondromas are solitary or multiple, pedunculated or sessile exophytic outgrowths from the bone surface that are composed of cortical and medullary bone with an overlying hyaline cartilage cap.
  • Marrow and cortical continuity with the underlying parent bone defines the lesion.
  • In adults, growth or imaging alterations of an osteochondroma suggest the rare diagnosis of malignant transformation; however, extensive growth of osteochondromas without histological evidence of malignancy has been reported
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Osteochondroma / diagnosis. Osteochondroma / surgery. Osteotomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19226005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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15. Samartzis D, Marco RA: Osteochondroma of the sacrum: a case report and review of the literature. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2006 Jun 1;31(13):E425-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Osteochondroma of the sacrum: a case report and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the en bloc excision and postoperative outcome of an osteochondroma of the sacrum compressing the neural elements, as well as review the literature on solitary osteochondroma involving the sacrum.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Osteochondroma is the most common primary benign bone tumor.
  • To the best of our knowledge, en bloc excision of a solitary osteochondroma of the sacrum has not been previously reported.
  • The cavitary defect within the sacrum was reconstructed with crushed cancellous allograft and demineralized bone matrix putty.
  • A literature review of solitary sacral osteochondroma was conducted of the English-based medical literature.
  • RESULTS: Histologic studies showed the tumor to be an osteochondroma.
  • A literature review revealed 4 previous cases addressing osteochondroma of the sacrum.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Osteochondroma is a rare primary benign bone tumor that can occur in the sacrum.
  • [MeSH-major] Orthopedic Procedures. Osteochondroma / surgery. Sacrum. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16741444.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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16. Kim WJ, Kim KJ, Lee SK, Choy WS: Solitary pelvic osteochondroma causing L5 nerve root compression. Orthopedics; 2009 Dec;32(12):922
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solitary pelvic osteochondroma causing L5 nerve root compression.
  • Osteochondroma is the most common benign bone tumor, accounting for more than one-third of all benign bone tumors.
  • Osteochondroma commonly presents as a painless mass and is incidentally identified via plain radiographs.
  • Osteochondroma located in the pelvis is unusual.
  • Spinal nerve root compressions due to pelvic osteochondroma are also rarely reported.
  • We assessed the solitary pelvic osteochondroma of a 33-year-old man mimicking spinal disease.
  • The L5 nerve root was focally compressed and thinned.En bloc excision, the treatment of choice of symptomatic osteochondroma, was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Decompression, Surgical / methods. Osteochondroma / complications. Osteochondroma / surgery. Pelvic Bones / radiography. Pelvic Bones / surgery. Radiculopathy / etiology. Radiculopathy / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.
  • (PMID = 19968229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Faik A, Mahfoud Filali S, Lazrak N, El Hassani S, Hajjaj-Hassouni N: Spinal cord compression due to vertebral osteochondroma: report of two cases. Joint Bone Spine; 2005 Mar;72(2):177-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal cord compression due to vertebral osteochondroma: report of two cases.
  • Osteochondroma, or exostosis, is the most common of all benign bone tumors.
  • Whereas magnetic resonance imaging suggested a neurofibroma, histological features were those of osteochondroma.
  • The lesion may be solitary or a manifestation of hereditary multiple exostosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Osteochondroma / complications. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 15797501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-319X
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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18. Zhao CQ, Jiang SD, Jiang LS, Dai LY: Horner Syndrome due to a solitary osteochondroma of C7: a case report and review of the literature. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2007 Jul 15;32(16):E471-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Horner Syndrome due to a solitary osteochondroma of C7: a case report and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a 23-year-old woman with osteochondroma of the lower cervical spine who presented with Horner syndrome and to review the relevant literature.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Osteochondroma is the most common benign lesion of bone but rarely affects the spine.
  • No patients with Horner syndrome due to a solitary cervical osteochondroma have been previously reported in English-language medical literature.
  • CONCLUSION: Vertebral involvement of osteochondroma is rare, especially with neurologic compromise.
  • A young patient is presented with a symptomatic solitary osteochondroma of the seventh cervical vertebra who had Horner syndrome.
  • This case report supports surgical intervention of symptomatic osteochondroma of the cervical spine.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Horner Syndrome / etiology. Osteochondroma / complications. Osteochondroma / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Decompression, Surgical. Diagnosis, Differential. Dizziness / etiology. Dizziness / physiopathology. Dyspnea / etiology. Dyspnea / physiopathology. Female. Ganglia, Sympathetic / injuries. Ganglia, Sympathetic / physiopathology. Humans. Neurosurgical Procedures. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vagus Nerve / physiopathology. Vagus Nerve Injuries. Vertebral Artery / injuries. Vertebral Artery / physiopathology


19. Yildirim C, Rodop O, Kuşkucu M, Sahin O, Gamsizkan M: Giant solitary osteochondroma arising from the fifth metatarsal bone: a case report. J Foot Ankle Surg; 2010 May-Jun;49(3):298.e9-298.e15
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  • [Title] Giant solitary osteochondroma arising from the fifth metatarsal bone: a case report.
  • Accounting for 20% to 50% of all benign forms, solitary osteochondroma is the most common bone tumor.
  • Osteochondromas are benign osseous neoplasms with a distinct hyaline cartilage cap originating from the physis, and they cease to grow with skeletal maturity.
  • Treatment of osteochondroma is usually conservative, unless symptoms, usually pain, are progressive or the lesion demonstrates rapid or new growth, or if enlargement after skeletal maturation is noted or malignant transformation is suspected.
  • In this report, we describe the case of an adult with a giant, symptomatic osteochondroma localized to the fifth metatarsal.
  • This case demonstrated that, despite the benign nature of the lesion, a large osteochondroma could localize to a metatarsal.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Metatarsal Bones / pathology. Osteochondroma / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20605564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-2224
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Zuntini M, Pedrini E, Parra A, Sgariglia F, Gentile FV, Pandolfi M, Alberghini M, Sangiorgi L: Genetic models of osteochondroma onset and neoplastic progression: evidence for mechanisms alternative to EXT genes inactivation. Oncogene; 2010 Jul 1;29(26):3827-34
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  • [Title] Genetic models of osteochondroma onset and neoplastic progression: evidence for mechanisms alternative to EXT genes inactivation.
  • Osteochondroma, the most common benign bone tumor, may occur as a sporadic lesion or as multiple neoplasms in the context of multiple osteochondromas syndrome.
  • Although both benign conditions have been linked to defects in EXT1 or EXT2 genes, contradictory reports are present in the literature regarding the requirement of their biallelic inactivation for osteochondroma development.
  • Our results clearly indicate that, in most cases, biallelic inactivation of EXT genes does not account for osteochondromas formation; this mechanism should be regarded as a common feature for hereditary osteochondromas transformation and as an event that occurs later in tumor progression of solitary cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Silencing. N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases / genetics. Osteochondroma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20418910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.4.1.- / N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.224 / exostosin-1; EC 2.4.1.224 / exostosin-2
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21. Guarneri C, Guarneri F, Risitano G, Lentini M, Vaccaro M: Solitary asymptomatic nodule of the great toe. Int J Dermatol; 2005 Mar;44(3):245-7
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  • [Title] Solitary asymptomatic nodule of the great toe.
  • Subungual exostosis is a benign osteocartilaginous tumor of the ungual apparatus, particularly of the toes.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms. Osteochondroma. Toes

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  • (PMID = 15807738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Saglik Y, Altay M, Unal VS, Basarir K, Yildiz Y: Manifestations and management of osteochondromas: a retrospective analysis of 382 patients. Acta Orthop Belg; 2006 Dec;72(6):748-55
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  • Osteochondromas represent the most common primary bone tumours; they reportedly represent 20-50% of all benign bone tumours and 10-15% of all bone tumours.
  • However, deformities and interference with major joint function are the most frequent complaints in patients with hereditary multiple osteochondroma.
  • This article reports observations made on 69 patients with hereditary multiple osteochondroma and 313 patients with solitary osteochondroma, with a mean follow-up of 13.4 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Osteochondroma / diagnosis. Osteochondroma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary / complications. Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary / diagnosis. Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17260614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6462
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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23. Kitsoulis P, Galani V, Stefanaki K, Paraskevas G, Karatzias G, Agnantis NJ, Bai M: Osteochondromas: review of the clinical, radiological and pathological features. In Vivo; 2008 Sep-Oct;22(5):633-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Osteochondroma is the most common benign bone tumor and usually occurs in the metaphyseal region of the long bones.
  • This tumor takes the form of a cartilage-capped bony outgrowth on the surface of the bone.
  • The vast majority (85%) of osteochondromas present as solitary, nonhereditary lesions.
  • However, depending on the location of the osteochondroma, significant symptoms may occur as a result of complications such as fracture, bony deformity, mechanical joint problems and vascular or neurologic compromise.
  • The treatment of choice for osteochondroma is surgical unless the skeleton is still immature.
  • Here the clinical, radiological, pathological and pathogenetic features and the treatment modalities of osteochondroma are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Osteochondroma / pathology. Osteochondroma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18853760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.4.1.- / N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.224 / exostosin-1; EC 2.4.1.224 / exostosin-2
  • [Number-of-references] 125
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24. Kim JP, Seo JB, Kim MH, Yoo MJ, Min BK, Moon SY: Osteochondroma associated with complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon: case report. J Hand Surg Am; 2010 Aug;35(8):1340-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Osteochondroma associated with complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon: case report.
  • Osteochondromas are the most common benign bone tumors.
  • We present the case of a solitary osteochondroma that occurred in a critical area of the proximal radius near the insertion of the biceps tendon and ultimately led to rupture of the tendon.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Osteochondroma / complications. Radius. Tendon Injuries / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20684931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-6564
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of hand surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hand Surg Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Gunay C, Atalar H, Yildiz Y, Saglik Y: Spinal osteochondroma: a report on six patients and a review of the literature. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2010 Dec;130(12):1459-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal osteochondroma: a report on six patients and a review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Osteochondromas are the most common benign tumour of the bone.
  • They occur in two forms as solitary and hereditary multiple form.
  • In the diagnosis of osteochondromas, radiological methods are very important.
  • PURPOSE OF STUDY: Because spinal osteochondroma is very rare, other benign and malign tumours should be kept in mind during differential diagnosis.
  • PATIENTS: Between 1986 and 2009, six patients, four males, two females with an average age of 31.2 (9-65) were diagnosed with spinal osteochondroma at our clinic.
  • Because neurological symptoms are rarely seen, radiological examination is of great importance in diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients suffering from spinal osteochondroma, due to the risk of secondary chondrosarcoma, must be closely evaluated both clinically and radiologically.
  • If necessary, the patient must be treated surgically following histopathological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Osteochondroma / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20107821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-3916
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Mnif H, Zrig M, Jawahdou R, Sahnoun N, Koubaa M, Abid A: [An unusual localisation of osteochondroma. A single case report]. Chir Main; 2009 Sep;28(4):247-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [An unusual localisation of osteochondroma. A single case report].
  • Solitary osteochondroma is a rare benign tumour of the hand arising from the cortical surface.
  • The authors report an unusual case of osteochondroma of the metacarpal bone with a deficit of extension.
  • The diagnosis was made using imaging techniques and confirmed by histological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms. Metacarpal Bones. Osteochondroma

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  • (PMID = 19482536.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6666
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgie de la main
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Main
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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27. van den Berg H, Kroon HM, Slaar A, Hogendoorn P: Incidence of biopsy-proven bone tumors in children: a report based on the Dutch pathology registration "PALGA". J Pediatr Orthop; 2008 Jan-Feb;28(1):29-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidence of biopsy-proven bone tumors in children: a report based on the Dutch pathology registration "PALGA".
  • INTRODUCTION: Data on childhood bone tumors are mainly confined to reports on malignant tumors or on institutional registries.
  • Incidence figures on both benign and malignant bone tumors in childhood are lacking.
  • METHODS: From January 1999 to December 2003, 1474 newly diagnosed bone tumors in children up to 18 years were registered in Pathologisch Anatomisch Landelijk Geautomatiseerd Archief (the nationwide network and registry of histopathology and cytopathology in The Netherlands).
  • Data provided were diagnosis, date of birth, age at diagnosis, and localization.
  • RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of pathology-proven bone tumors in children is low.
  • Incidence of pathology-proven bone tumors in The Netherlands is 79.3 per 1,000,000.
  • Osteochondromas are the most prevalent tumors, followed by aneurysmal bone cysts.
  • The overall incidence is higher for male compared with female patients, mainly due to different frequencies found in aneurysmal bone cysts, Ewing sarcoma, and osteochondroma.
  • In infants, bone tumors are mainly chondromas and fibrous dysplasia, which both show a steady increase at older ages.
  • A peak incidence at approximately the age of 10 is noted for solitary bone cysts, nonossifying fibromas, and osteoblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / epidemiology. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Biopsy. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Netherlands / epidemiology. Sex Distribution

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  • (PMID = 18157043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-6798
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Nogier A, De Pinieux G, Hottya G, Anract P: Case reports: enlargement of a calcaneal osteochondroma after skeletal maturity. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2006 Jun;447:260-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case reports: enlargement of a calcaneal osteochondroma after skeletal maturity.
  • Growth or radiologic modification of an osteochondroma after the epiphyseal plate closes suggests the diagnosis of malignant transformation to a chondrosarcoma.
  • However, extensive growth of an osteochondroma in a skeletally mature patient whose tumor proved benign has been reported.
  • We report a similar case in an adult who had a solitary osteochondroma of the calcaneus.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Calcaneus. Osteochondroma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16741480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-921X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Brastianos P, Pradilla G, McCarthy E, Gokaslan ZL: Solitary thoracic osteochondroma: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery; 2005 Jun;56(6):E1379; discussion E1379
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  • [Title] Solitary thoracic osteochondroma: case report and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Osteochondromas are common benign bone tumors that rarely arise in the vertebral column.
  • We report a case of a thoracic solitary osteochondroma arising from within the vertebral body, review the cases reported in the literature, and propose recommendations for the surgical management of these challenging lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Osteochondroma / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thoracic Vertebrae / pathology. Thoracic Vertebrae / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15918958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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30. Teka A, Admassie D, Schneider J: Osteochondroma of the coccyx: a case report. Ethiop Med J; 2010 Jul;48(3):247-51
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  • [Title] Osteochondroma of the coccyx: a case report.
  • Osteochondroma is the most common benign bone tumor.
  • Majority of solitary osteochondromas are asymptomatic however, may give functional impairment due to pain from pressure or mass effect.
  • Osteochondromas occur most often about the knee and picked incidentally, coccygeal osteochondroma however; is a rare occurrence.
  • Here we present the case of a 7-year-old child with coccygeal osteochondroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Coccyx / radiography. Osteochondroma / radiography. Spinal Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 21073087.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-1755
  • [Journal-full-title] Ethiopian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ethiop. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ethiopia
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31. Valdivielso-Ortiz A, Barber I, Soldado F, Aguirre-Canyadell M, Enriquez G: Solitary osteochondroma: spontaneous regression. Pediatr Radiol; 2010 Oct;40(10):1699-701
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solitary osteochondroma: spontaneous regression.
  • Osteochondromas are the most common benign bone tumours.
  • We report the case of a 9-year-old girl with a solitary osteochondroma of the femur that regressed almost completely within 4 years, a fact that should be taken into account when deciding the management of these lesions, especially in young children.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Femur / diagnostic imaging. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Osteochondroma / diagnostic imaging

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  • (PMID = 20714716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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32. Ozturk C, Tezer M, Hamzaoglu A: Solitary osteochondroma of the cervical spine causing spinal cord compression. Acta Orthop Belg; 2007 Feb;73(1):133-6
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  • [Title] Solitary osteochondroma of the cervical spine causing spinal cord compression.
  • Osteochondromas are common benign tumours of bone that often occur in the metaphysodiaphyseal parts of long bones.
  • We present a case of solitary osteochondroma arising from the C-1 vertebral lamina, causing neurological symptoms.
  • Radiographs, CT and MRI showed a solitary benign appearing expansile bone tumour arising from the left vertebral lamina of C-1, spreading to C-2, exerting an eccentric posterolateral compression on the spinal cord in the left part of the spinal canal and causing stenosis of the left neural foramen between C-1 and C-2.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Osteochondroma / complications. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Screws. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Pain / etiology. Orthopedic Fixation Devices. Spinal Fusion. Spinal Stenosis / etiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17441673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6462
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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