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1. Temam F, Bizuneh E, Leekassa R: Disseminated form of syringoma (eruptive syringoma) sparing the face-a rare presentation causing diagnostic challenge. Ethiop Med J; 2008 Jul;46(3):273-6
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  • Syringomas are benign neoplasms of the skin commonly appearing around the eye lids.
  • The lesions are asymptomatic, firm, discrete, translucent or skin colored flat-topped papules.
  • [MeSH-major] Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Syringoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19271392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-1755
  • [Journal-full-title] Ethiopian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ethiop. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ethiopia
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2. Borenstein M, Mirzabeigi M, Vincek V: Pityrosporum and seborrheic keratosis: an association. Dermatol Online J; 2005;11(2):3
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  • Seborrheic keratoses (SK) are one of the most common benign tumors of the skin.
  • Studies have suggested that human papillomavirus or a benign clonal proliferation of epidermal cells is involved in the pathogenesis of some SK's, however, this issue remains to be resolved.

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  • (PMID = 16150211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Lin YC, Hsiao PF, Wu YH, Sun FJ, Scher RK: Recurrent digital glomus tumor: analysis of 75 cases. Dermatol Surg; 2010 Sep;36(9):1396-400
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  • [Title] Recurrent digital glomus tumor: analysis of 75 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Glomus tumors are rare, benign, cutaneous neoplasms that must be excised completely to prevent recurrence.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with recurrence of glomus tumors after surgery.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty-eight women and 17 men with digital glomus tumors underwent surgery between 1990 and 2008 at our hospital.
  • RESULTS Mean age at diagnosis was 41.8, with an average diagnostic delay of 3.9 years.
  • The tumor was located on a finger in 70 cases (right, 29; left, 41) and a toe in five (right, 3; left, 2).
  • The tumor recurred in 13 (17%) patients.
  • Recurrence was more likely if the tumor was skin-colored (odds ratio (OR)=31.67, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.68-373.74, p=.006) or located within the nail matrix (OR=5.79, 95% CI=1.03-32.49, p=.046).
  • CONCLUSION: Skin-colored tumors or those in the nail matrix are at higher risk of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Fingers. Glomus Tumor / epidemiology. Glomus Tumor / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20629689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Hafner C, Di Martino E, Pitt E, Stempfl T, Tomlinson D, Hartmann A, Landthaler M, Knowles M, Vogt T: FGFR3 mutation affects cell growth, apoptosis and attachment in keratinocytes. Exp Cell Res; 2010 Jul 15;316(12):2008-16
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  • FGFR3 mutations have recently been identified in several benign epidermal skin lesions such as seborrheic keratosis, epidermal nevus and solar lentigo.
  • The functional consequences of these mutations in human skin are as yet unknown.
  • In this study we analyzed the functional effects of the most common FGFR3 mutation in benign skin tumors, the R248C FGFR3 hotspot mutation, in human HaCaT keratinocytes.
  • Our results suggest that an increased cell number at confluence along with a decreased apoptosis may contribute to the development of acanthotic tumors in FGFR3 mutant skin in vivo.

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  • (PMID = 20420824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2422
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3
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5. Tran TA, Hayner-Buchan A, Jones DM, McRorie D, Carlson JA: Cutaneous balloon cell dermatofibroma (fibrous histiocytoma). Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Apr;29(2):197-200
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  • [Title] Cutaneous balloon cell dermatofibroma (fibrous histiocytoma).
  • Dermatofibroma (DF) or cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma is a common benign skin tumor that exhibits multiple, distinct histologic variants.
  • Excisional biopsy revealed a circumscribed fibrous tumor populated by mostly clear and spindle cells.
  • A zonal arrangement separated the varied tumor cells where the most superficial, polypoid area showed large, clear polygonal balloon cells; the mid-dermal zone demonstrated a transition between balloon cells, epithelioid cells, and spindle cells; and the deep dermal zone had storiform arrangement of spindle cells, with the fascicles separated by coarse collagen bundles.
  • Ultrastructurally, the clear tumor cells were filled with multiple, empty, nonmembrane bound vacuoles of varying size.
  • DF with balloon cell change, likely secondary to persistent irritation, should be added to the differential diagnosis of cutaneous primary and metastatic neoplasms showing balloon cell degeneration such as balloon cell melanocytic nevi and renal cell carcinoma, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Heel. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Factor XIIIa / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Neprilysin / analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Vacuoles / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 17414448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; EC 2.3.2.13 / Factor XIIIa; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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6. Fleming DM, Cross KW, Barley MA: Recent changes in the prevalence of diseases presenting for health care. Br J Gen Pract; 2005 Aug;55(517):589-95
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  • Age-standardised prevalence rates per 10,000 registered persons and 99% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the national census population for 2001 as the standard.
  • Survey differences in prevalence were identified from non-overlapping CIs.
  • The prevalence of mental disorders, skin disease and musculoskeletal disorders showed little change.
  • Particular increases were noted for other malignant and benign neoplasms of the skin, hypothyroidism and diabetes.

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  • (PMID = 16105366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-1643
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Gen Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1463227
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7. Ikeda F, Dikic I: CYLD in ubiquitin signaling and tumor pathogenesis. Cell; 2006 May 19;125(4):643-5
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  • [Title] CYLD in ubiquitin signaling and tumor pathogenesis.
  • Absence of CYLD, which encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme, causes an inherited disease characterized by benign skin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism. Ubiquitin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors

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  • [CommentOn] Cell. 2006 May 19;125(4):665-77 [16713561.001]
  • (PMID = 16713556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0092-8674
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Ubiquitin; 0 / proto-oncogene protein bcl-3
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8. El Ibrahimi A, Daoudi A, Znati K, Elmrini A, Boutayeb F: [Insulated leg pilomatrixoma: a rare localization]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet; 2009 Aug;54(4):388-91
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  • [Transliterated title] Pilomatricome isolé de la jambe. Une rare localisation.
  • Pilomatrixoma is a benign skin neoplasm of the hair follicle.
  • It's usually misdiagnosed and confused with other skin lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases. Leg. Pilomatrixoma. Skin Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19195758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1768-319X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthétique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir Plast Esthet
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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9. De Felice B, Garbi C, Santoriello M, Santillo A, Wilson RR: Differential apoptosis markers in human keloids and hypertrophic scars fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biochem; 2009 Jul;327(1-2):191-201
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  • Keloids are benign skin tumors and are the effect of a dysregulated wound-healing process in genetically predisposed patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cells, Cultured. Female. Humans. Male. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Wound Healing

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  • (PMID = 19224335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-4919
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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10. Bezdekova M, Brychtova S, Sedlakova E, Steigerova J, Hlobilkova A, Bienova M, Kucerova R, Brychta T, Krejci V, Kolar Z: Immunohistochemical assessment of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in trichofolliculomas and trichoepitheliomas. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub; 2007 Dec;151(2):251-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical assessment of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in trichofolliculomas and trichoepitheliomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Trichofolliculomas and trichoepitheliomas are benign skin neoplasms originating from hair follicle cells.
  • It is known that the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system of adhesion molecules plays a crucial role in the maintenance of tissue architecture.
  • AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate their involvement in benign hair follicle tumor development.
  • METHODS: Semiquantitative intensity of expression were examined in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 53 trichoepitheliomas, 15 trichofolliculomas and 19 normal skin samples by indirect immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: The intensity of E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression in tumor cells did not differ from controls.
  • However, normal hair follicles cells exhibited membranous E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression, whereas both types of tumors, particularly trichoepitheliomas, showed E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression with a predominantly cytoplasmic localization.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that this dystopic distribution of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex in hair follicle tumor cells may be a marker of cell-cell adhesion disruption which may contribute to the tumor formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / analysis. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry. beta Catenin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18345259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1213-8118
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / beta Catenin
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11. Clarke LE, Zhang PJ, Crawford GH, Elenitsas R: Myxofibrosarcoma in the skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Oct;35(10):935-40
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  • [Title] Myxofibrosarcoma in the skin.
  • Myxofibrosarcoma, also known as myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma, is increasingly recognized as a distinct malignant neoplasm of fibroblastic origin with variable clinical and histopathologic features.
  • Myxofibrosarcomas are among the most common malignant mesenchymal neoplasms of older adults, and approximately two thirds develop within the dermis or subcutis.
  • Herein, we describe the clinicopathologic features of four cases of myxofibrosarcoma involving the skin.
  • Three of these cases were initially misdiagnosed as benign cutaneous neoplasms, two as myxoid neurofibroma.
  • These cases illustrate the clinicopathologic spectrum encompassed by myxofibrosarcoma in the skin and highlight the diagnostic difficulties it may present.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neurofibroma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18494817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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12. Stegmeier F, Sowa ME, Nalepa G, Gygi SP, Harper JW, Elledge SJ: The tumor suppressor CYLD regulates entry into mitosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 May 22;104(21):8869-74
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  • [Title] The tumor suppressor CYLD regulates entry into mitosis.
  • Mutations in the cylindromatosis (CYLD) gene cause benign tumors of skin appendages, referred to as cylindromas.
  • The dysregulation of NF-kappaB activity has been proposed to promote cell transformation in part by increasing apoptosis resistance, but it is not clear whether this is CYLD's only or predominant tumor-suppressing function.
  • Our findings raise the possibility that, as with other genes regulating tumorigenesis, CYLD has not only tumor-suppressing (apoptosis regulation) but also tumor-promoting activities (enhancer of mitotic entry).
  • We propose that this additional function of CYLD could provide an explanation for the benign nature of most cylindroma lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Mitosis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17495026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG011085
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / ets-Domain Protein Elk-1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1867381
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13. De Felice B, Wilson RR, Nacca M: Telomere shortening may be associated with human keloids. BMC Med Genet; 2009;10:110
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  • BACKGROUND: Keloids are benign skin tumors that are the effect of a dysregulated wound-healing process in genetically predisposed patients.
  • METHODS: We analyzed sample tissues were obtained from 20 patients with keloid skin lesions and normal skin was obtained from 20 healthy donors.
  • Using Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis and Real-Time PCR assay, we detected a significant telomere shortening of 30% in keloid specimens compared to normal skin.
  • Moreover, an increase in ROS generation was detected in fibroblasts cell cultures from keloid specimens as more time elapsed compared to fibroblasts from normal skin.
  • Here we found increased ROS generation in fibroblasts from keloid fibroblasts cell cultures when compared to normal skin fibroblasts.

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  • (PMID = 19863817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2350
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Med. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2774319
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14. Behroozan DS, Goldberg LH, Glaich AS, Kaplan B, Kaye VN: Mohs micrographic surgery for deeply penetrating, expanding benign cutaneous neoplasms. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Jul;32(7):958-65
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  • [Title] Mohs micrographic surgery for deeply penetrating, expanding benign cutaneous neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Epidermal Cyst / surgery. Female. Forehead / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / surgery. Heel / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Nose / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / surgery. Scalp / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16875482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Gönül M, Gul U, Gunduz H, Artantas S, Demiriz M: Disseminated lobular capillary hemangioma: two case reports. J Dermatol; 2005 Dec;32(12):996-9
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  • Lobular capillary hemangioma, also known as pyogenic granuloma, is a common, solitary, benign neoplasm of the skin and mucous membranes.
  • We report two cases of disseminated lobular capillary hemangioma without an associated disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma, Pyogenic / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology


16. Gerber PA, Schulte KW, Ruzicka T, Bruch-Gerharz D: Eccrine porocarcinoma of the head: an important differential diagnosis in the elderly patient. Dermatology; 2008;216(3):229-33
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  • [Title] Eccrine porocarcinoma of the head: an important differential diagnosis in the elderly patient.
  • BACKGROUND: Eccrine porocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the sweat gland, characterized by a broad spectrum of clinicopathologic presentations.
  • Surprisingly, unlike its benign counterpart eccrine poroma, eccrine porocarcinoma is seldom found in areas with a high density of eccrine sweat glands, like the palms or soles.
  • Instead, eccrine porocarcinoma frequently occurs on the lower extremities, trunk and abdomen, but also on the head, resembling various other skin tumors, as illustrated in the patients described herein.
  • All patients were initially diagnosed as having epidermal or melanocytic skin tumors.
  • Only after histopathologic examination were they classified as eccrine porocarcinoma, showing features of epithelial tumors with abortive ductal differentiation.
  • Porocarcinomas are commonly overlooked, or misinterpreted as squamous or basal cell carcinomas as well as other common malignant and even benign skin tumors.
  • Knowledge of the clinical pattern and histologic findings, therefore, is crucial for an early therapeutic intervention, which can reduce the risk of tumor recurrence and serious complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18182815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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17. Abalo-Lojo JM, Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Gonzalez F: Pilomatrixoma: late onset in two periocular cases. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2008 Jan-Feb;24(1):60-2
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  • First described by Malherbe and Chenantais in 1880, pilomatrixoma is a benign skin neoplasm that arises from hair follicle matrix cells.
  • It is typically a tumor of younger individuals and rarely presents in older patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18209650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Demirseren ME, Afandiyev K, Ceran C: Reconstruction of the perioral and perinasal defects with facial artery perforator flaps. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2009 Dec;62(12):1616-20
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  • Twelve clinical cases with 14 perioral and perinasal skin defects resulting from malignant or benign skin tumour excision were reconstructed using facial artery perforator flaps.
  • The donor-site scars were designed parallel to the facial wrinkles when possible.
  • The aesthetically pleasing donor site based on the facial artery perforators offers a versatile tailor-made flap, because of the reliable presence of perforators, with a large arc of rotation.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Surgical Flaps / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Esthetics. Face / blood supply. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome


19. Lucas A, Betlloch I, Planelles M, Martínez T, Pérez-Crespo M, Mataix J, Belinchón I: Non-melanocytic benign skin tumors in children. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2007;8(6):365-9
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  • [Title] Non-melanocytic benign skin tumors in children.
  • BACKGROUND: Dermatologists often attend children with benign skin tumors and cysts.
  • The decision to perform dermatologic surgery in children may be difficult to make, especially in cases of benign tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the nature of non-melanocytic benign skin tumors amenable to dermatologic surgery in children.
  • METHODS: Histopathologic studies of skin tumors in children treated by our department between January 2004 and December 2005 were studied.
  • Malignant and melanocytic tumors were excluded.
  • Age, sex, type of tumor, diagnostic category, site, size, reason for removal, type of anesthesia, and any other associated disorders were recorded.
  • RESULTS: The records revealed that 121 patients presented 129 non-melanocytic benign skin tumors (73 in boys and 56 in girls).
  • Tumors were located on the head and neck (45.7%), trunk (34.1%), and limbs (20.1%).
  • The reasons that led to removal of the tumors were: increase in the size of the tumor (49%); various types of discomfort, such as severe itching or pain (30%); parental concern (4%); diagnostic uncertainty (16%); and esthetic reasons (1%).
  • CONCLUSION: There is a wide diversity of non-melanocytic benign skin tumors in children, some of which require surgical treatment.
  • Pilomatrixomas appear to be the most frequent benign tumors; there are also high frequencies of infundibular cysts, pyogenic granulomas, and viral tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18039019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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20. Badeloe S, Frank J: Clinical and molecular genetic aspects of hereditary multiple cutaneous leiomyomatosis. Eur J Dermatol; 2009 Nov-Dec;19(6):545-51
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  • [Title] Clinical and molecular genetic aspects of hereditary multiple cutaneous leiomyomatosis.
  • Multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis syndrome (MCUL; OMIM 150800) is an autosomal dominantly inherited tumor predisposition disorder, characterized by leiomyomas of the skin and uterus.
  • Cutaneous leiomyoma can easily be recognized and confirmed by histological examination.
  • Recognition of these benign skin tumors can lead to the diagnosis of MCUL or HLRCC.
  • Timely diagnosis is crucial for offering affected individuals and families potentially life-saving regular prophylactic screening examinations for renal tumors.
  • Here we provide an overview of clinical and genetic features of this complex tumor syndrome and discuss patient management and current therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / metabolism. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genetic Counseling. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Metabolism, Inborn Errors / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19939761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 4.2.1.2 / Fumarate Hydratase
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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21. Alexis AF, Sergay AB, Taylor SC: Common dermatologic disorders in skin of color: a comparative practice survey. Cutis; 2007 Nov;80(5):387-94
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  • [Title] Common dermatologic disorders in skin of color: a comparative practice survey.
  • There is a paucity of data on the epidemiology of dermatologic disease in populations with skin of color.
  • We reviewed the diagnosis codes of 1412 patient visits from August 2004 through July 2005 at the Skin of Color Center at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, in New York.
  • During visits by black patients, the 5 most common diagnoses observed at our center were acne (ICD-9 [International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision] 706.1); dyschromia (ICD-9 709.09); contact dermatitis and other eczema, unspecified cause (ICD-9 692.9); alopecia (ICD-9 704.0); and seborrheic dermatitis (ICD-9 690.1).
  • During visits by white patients, the 5 most common diagnoses recorded were acne (ICD-9 706.1); lesion of unspecified behavior (ICD-9 238.2); benign neoplasm of skin of trunk (ICD-9 216.5); contact dermatitis and other eczema, unspecified cause (ICD-9 692.9); and psoriasis (ICD-9 696. 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Diseases / diagnosis. Skin Diseases / ethnology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acne Vulgaris / diagnosis. Acne Vulgaris / ethnology. African Continental Ancestry Group. Dermatitis, Contact / diagnosis. Dermatitis, Contact / ethnology. Dermatitis, Seborrheic / diagnosis. Dermatitis, Seborrheic / ethnology. Eczema / diagnosis. Eczema / ethnology. European Continental Ancestry Group. Humans. Psoriasis / diagnosis. Psoriasis / ethnology. Retrospective Studies. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / ethnology

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  • (PMID = 18189024.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Hsieh TJ, Wang CK, Tsai KB, Chen YW: Pilomatricoma: magnetic resonance imaging and pathological evaluation. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2008 Mar-Apr;32(2):320-3
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  • Pilomatricoma is an asymptomatic, slowly growing, benign skin tumor that is typically located in the regions of head and neck.
  • Our case revealed late enhancement in the dynamic magnetic resonance imaging study that is a common pattern more in a benign soft tissue tumor and caused dramatic uptake in the bone scintigraphy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18379325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Wygledowska-Kania M, Kamińska-Winciorek G, Krauze E, Brzezińska-Wcisło L, Kajor M: Multifocal type of pilomatrixoma. Adv Med Sci; 2007;52:251-3
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  • Pilomatrixoma is a benign skin neoplasm that arises from hair follicle matrix cells.
  • The skin lesion occurs usually as a solitary tumor and the multifocal types are very rare.
  • Skin changes can be described as a firm to hard, non-painful, oval-shaped tumor that is covered by normal skin.
  • In this paper case of 16-years-old male patient with many solid tumors in subcutaneous tissue on both arms will be reported.
  • The first skin lesion appeared on the left arm 6 years ago.
  • Histopathological test has proved the clinical diagnosis of pilomatrixoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cicatrix / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Inflammation. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18217427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1896-1126
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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24. Repertinger S, Wang J, Adickes E, Sarma DP: Melanoma in-situ arising in seborrheic keratosis: a case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):263
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  • BACKGROUND: Seborrheic keratosis is a very common benign skin tumor in man.
  • Melanoma is rare but is the most dreaded of all malignant skin tumors.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: An-86-year-old male with a history of multiple actinic keratoses and seborrheic keratoses of the head and trunk presented with a mid-back skin lesion.

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  • [Cites] Australas J Dermatol. 2006 May;47(2):109-13 [16637806.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 May;42(5 Pt 1):831-3 [10775864.001]
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  • (PMID = 18947402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2577645
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25. Sapp M, Bienkowska-Haba M: Viral entry mechanisms: human papillomavirus and a long journey from extracellular matrix to the nucleus. FEBS J; 2009 Dec;276(24):7206-16
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  • Papillomaviruses are epitheliotropic non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses, whose replication is strictly dependent on the terminally differentiating tissue of the epidermis.
  • They induce self-limiting benign tumors of skin and mucosa, which may progress to malignancy (e.g. cervical carcinoma).

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  • (PMID = 19878308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-4658
  • [Journal-full-title] The FEBS journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FEBS J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI081809-01A1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI081809; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR018724; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20-RR018724; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI081809-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Capsid Proteins; 0 / HPV L1 protein, Human papillomavirus; 0 / Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral
  • [Number-of-references] 80
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS160680; NLM/ PMC2795018
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26. Naik V, Arsenovic N, Reed M: Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma: a rare multifocal variant with features suggesting trauma. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(9):6
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  • Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma (EAH) is a rare, benign cutaneous tumor characterized by proliferation of the eccrine gland elements closely associated with capillary angiomatosis and proliferation of other dermal elements, such as adipose tissue, hair and epidermis.
  • Clinically, this condition must be differentiated from other angiomatoses and a definitive diagnosis is based upon histology.
  • Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma is a benign slowly growing lesion for which aggressive treatment is not indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Eccrine Glands / pathology. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Friction. Hemangioendothelioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Humans. Lymphangioma / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin / injuries. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19930993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Blomberg M, Jeppesen EM, Skovby F, Benfeldt E: FGFR3 mutations and the skin: report of a patient with a FGFR3 gene mutation, acanthosis nigricans, hypochondroplasia and hyperinsulinemia and review of the literature. Dermatology; 2010;220(4):297-305
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  • [Title] FGFR3 mutations and the skin: report of a patient with a FGFR3 gene mutation, acanthosis nigricans, hypochondroplasia and hyperinsulinemia and review of the literature.
  • Somatic FGFR3 mutations have been found in malignant neoplasms and more recently in several cutaneous elements.
  • In the recent literature, an increasing number of different cutaneous elements have been found to harbor mutations of FGFR3, suggesting that FGFR3 plays a role in the pathogenesis of these elements.
  • We review the present literature, describing studies in which FGFR3 mutations have been investigated in skin lesions: primarily seborrheic keratoses and epidermal nevi, but also other benign skin tumors and a single case of a squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In addition, an overview of the FGFR3 point mutations in relation to each cutaneous element is given.
  • Based on the current knowledge, it seems likely that these cutaneous lesions have a common genetic background.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20453470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / C-Peptide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9100L32L2N / Metformin; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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28. Mahalingam M, Alter JN, Bhawan J: Multiple cellular neurothekeomas--a case report and review on the role of immunohistochemistry as a histologic adjunct. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jan;33(1):51-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Cellular neurothekeoma is a relatively rare, benign cutaneous neoplasm, which usually presents as a solitary papule or nodule involving the head and neck area of young adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neurothekeoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16441413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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29. Takeuchi S, Takahashi A, Motoi N, Yoshimoto S, Tajima T, Yamakoshi K, Hirao A, Yanagi S, Fukami K, Ishikawa Y, Sone S, Hara E, Ohtani N: Intrinsic cooperation between p16INK4a and p21Waf1/Cip1 in the onset of cellular senescence and tumor suppression in vivo. Cancer Res; 2010 Nov 15;70(22):9381-90
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  • [Title] Intrinsic cooperation between p16INK4a and p21Waf1/Cip1 in the onset of cellular senescence and tumor suppression in vivo.
  • Notably, we found the DKO mice to be extremely susceptible to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced skin carcinogenesis that involves oncogenic mutation of the H-ras gene.
  • Mechanistic investigations suggested that the high incidence of cancer in DKO mice likely reflected a cooperative effect of increased benign skin tumor formation caused by p21Waf1/Cip1 loss, with increased malignant conversion of benign skin tumors caused by p16(INK4a) loss.
  • Our findings establish an intrinsic cooperation between p16INK4a and p21Waf1/Cip1 in the onset of cellular senescence and tumor suppression in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Aging. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 21062974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / H2AX protein, mouse; 0 / Histones; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / Pou5f1 protein, mouse; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
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30. Cross NJ, Fung DE: Tuberous sclerosis: a case report. Spec Care Dentist; 2010 Jul-Aug;30(4):157-9
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  • Tuberous sclerosis is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder that occurs in approximately 1 in 7,500 live births.
  • It is characterized by benign neoplasms of the skin, heart, kidneys, lungs, central nervous system, and mucosa.
  • Histologically, the appearance was described as nonspecific, but was consistent with a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gingival Diseases / diagnosis. Tuberous Sclerosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Child. Dental Care for Disabled. Dental Caries / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Incisor / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 20618782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-4505
  • [Journal-full-title] Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spec Care Dentist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Zhang Q, Wang WH, Zhao M, Shen L, Cheng JH, Zhang BY, Li LF: Clinical and pathological study of lichen-planus-like keratosis in China. J Dermatol; 2006 Jul;33(7):457-61
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  • Lichen-planus-like keratosis is usually diagnosed pathologically; rarely, a definitive diagnosis can be made grossly in the clinic.
  • Lichen-planus-like keratosis is not uncommon in clinical practice in China, the diagnosis of lichen-planus-like keratosis should be made by a combination of clinical manifestations and pathological changes.
  • It is better to classify lichen-planus-like keratosis as a benign skin tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. China / epidemiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lichen Planus / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16848817.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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32. Hügel H: [Fibrohistiocytic skin tumors]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2006 Jul;4(7):544-55
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  • [Title] [Fibrohistiocytic skin tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Fibrohistiozytäre Tumoren der Haut.
  • The fibrohistiocytic tumors of the skin are a heterogeneous group of dermal/subcutaneous mesenchymal neoplasms which show fibroblastic, myofibroblastic and histiocytic (macrophage-like) differentiation, often one beside the other in the same tumor.
  • The WHO classification of 2005 includes the following entities as fibrohistiocytic tumors of the skin: BENIGN: 1.
  • INTERMEDIATE: 4. plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor; 5. dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans; 6. atypical Fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / classification. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Leiomyoma / classification. Leiomyoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Histiocytic Disorders, Malignant / classification. Histiocytic Disorders, Malignant / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16827912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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33. Sugano DM, Lucci LM, Avila MP, Rehder JR, Pettinati J: [Eyelid trichoepithelioma--report of 2 cases]. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2005 Jan-Feb;68(1):136-9
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  • [Transliterated title] Tricoepitelioma palpebral--relato de 2 casos.
  • Trichoepithelioma is a benign skin tumor and is most commonly found on the face, however, there are few reports about its occurrence on the eyelids.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15824820.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2749
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Oftalmol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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34. Roche NA, Monstrey SJ, Matton GE: Pilomatricoma in children: common but often misdiagnosed. Acta Chir Belg; 2010 Mar-Apr;110(2):250-4
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  • A pilomatricoma, also known as pilomatrixoma or calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, is a benign skin tumor arising from the hair follicle matrix.
  • This tumor is common in children and young adults, especially in the head and neck region.
  • The history is typical of a slowly enlarging mass, irregularly contoured, it is fixed to the skin but slides freely over the, underlying tissues, often with a discolouration which varies from red to purple-bluish.
  • Ultrasound examination, MRI-scan and fine-needle aspiration can be helpful if the diagnosis is uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20514848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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35. Káram-Orantes M, Fonte-Avalos V, Zuloaga-Salcedo S, Domínguez-Cherit J: [Frequency of benign tumors at the Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez". Record review between 2000-2006]. Gac Med Mex; 2007 Sep-Oct;143(5):371-5
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  • [Title] [Frequency of benign tumors at the Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez". Record review between 2000-2006].
  • [Transliterated title] Frecuencia de tumores benignos durante el periodo de 2000-2006 en el Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea González".
  • BACKGROUND: Benign skin neoplasms are defined as autonomous growing tissue unrelated to normal growing of the skin, that persist even after the originating stimulus dissapears.
  • Almost all human beings have a certain number of benign cutaneous neoplasms and many never seek medical attention.
  • There is a dearth of information regarding the frequency of these tumors.
  • The aim of this study was to record the number of benign tumors studied at the Dermatology Department of a medical facility.
  • We included year of admission, number of biopsies, sex, age, tumor location, histological and clinical diagnoses.
  • RESULTS: We analyzed 9,436 biopsies of which 3,765 constituted benign neoplasms; 595 were not included and our total sample was 3,170 tumors.
  • The most frequent tumors according to histopathological diagnoses in descending order were: melanocytic, cutaneous cysts, fibrous tumors, vascular tumors, epidermal tumors, fat tumors, tumors with hair differentiation, neural tumors, glandular tumors, tumors with sebaceous differentiation, cartilage and bone tumors, and smooth muscle tumors.
  • The most common benign tumors were: Melanocytic nevi, epidermal cysts, seborrheic keratoses, pyogenic granulomas, lipomas and dermatofibromas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Melanocytes represented by melanocytic nevi (junctional, intradermic and compound) were the most frequent benign neoplasms, followed by epidermoid cysts.
  • Our results illustrate the most common benign tumors observed in a dermatology department.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18246930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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36. El Safoury OS, Fawzy MM, El Maadawa ZM, Mohamed DH: Quantitation of mast cells and collagen fibers in skin tags. Indian J Dermatol; 2009;54(4):319-22
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  • [Title] Quantitation of mast cells and collagen fibers in skin tags.
  • BACKGROUND: Skin tags are common benign skin tumors usually occurring on the neck and major flexors of elder people.
  • AIMS: The aim of this study is to perform quantitation of mast cells and collagen fibers in skin tags and normal skin in diabetics and nondiabetics, to find a possible correlation between mast cells and collagen fibers in the pathogenesis of skin tags.
  • METHODS: Thirty participants with skin tags were divided into two groups (15 diabetic and 15 nondiabetic).
  • Three biopsies were obtained from one anatomical site: A large skin tag, a small skin tag, and adjacent normal skin.
  • RESULTS: A statistically significant correlation between mast cell count and percentage of collagen mean area was detected in both studied groups (except in large skin tags of the nondiabetic group).
  • CONCLUSION: The positive correlation between mast cell count and percentage of collagen mean area suggests the critical role of mast cells in the etiogenesis of skin tags through its interaction with fibroblasts.

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  • [Cites] Eur J Histochem. 2006 Apr-Jun;50(2):133-40 [16864125.001]
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  • (PMID = 20101330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3611
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807705
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Bismarck brown / Image analyzer / mast cells / mean collagen area % / skin tags
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37. Halliday GM, Lyons JG: Inflammatory doses of UV may not be necessary for skin carcinogenesis. Photochem Photobiol; 2008 Mar-Apr;84(2):272-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inflammatory doses of UV may not be necessary for skin carcinogenesis.
  • The UV wavelengths in sunlight are the main cause of skin cancer in humans.
  • While it is clear that immunosuppression and gene mutations are essential biologic events via which UV causes skin cancer, the requirement for UV-induced inflammation is less certain.
  • Both the UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm) wavebands within sunlight can cause skin cancer, gene mutations and immunosuppression.
  • However, UVB, but not UVA, at realistic doses can cause inflammation, and UVB induces skin cancer, immunosuppression and gene mutations at doses much lower than those required to cause inflammation.
  • Inflammation enhances skin carcinogenesis, but may not be UV induced, and inflammatory mediators at doses too low to cause inflammation may be required.
  • Our hypothesis is therefore that subinflammatory doses of both UVA and UVB cause benign skin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 18353168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-8655
  • [Journal-full-title] Photochemistry and photobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photochem. Photobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 152
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38. Chaby G, Viseux V, Chatelain D, Denoeux JP, Lok C: [Myxofibrosarcoma associated with anetoderma]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Jan;133(1):35-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Association of malignant cutaneous tumor and secondary anetoderma is rare.
  • One year later, she developed a recurrent tumor at the same site, with similar clinical presentation, which was treated by broad excision.
  • DISCUSSION: Secondary anetoderma is usually seen in association with cutaneous infections and benign skin tumors.
  • Myxofibrosarcoma (formerly referred to as myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma) is characterized by an abundant myxoid background in at least one half of the tumor.
  • The tumor recurs in almost two-thirds of cases and metastasizes in one-fourth.
  • Our case confirms that a unique, acquired anetodermic lesion can reveal a malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16495849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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39. Wickström SA, Masoumi KC, Khochbin S, Fässler R, Massoumi R: CYLD negatively regulates cell-cycle progression by inactivating HDAC6 and increasing the levels of acetylated tubulin. EMBO J; 2010 Jan 6;29(1):131-44
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  • CYLD is a tumour-suppressor gene that is mutated in a benign skin tumour syndrome called cylindromatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle / physiology. Histone Deacetylases / metabolism. Tubulin / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylation. Animals. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / genetics. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Catalytic Domain. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytokinesis. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Keratinocytes / cytology. Keratinocytes / drug effects. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Melanocytes / cytology. Melanocytes / drug effects. Melanocytes / metabolism. Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Mice. Microtubules / metabolism. Mutation. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / pharmacology


40. de Prado Prieto L, García Olmos L, Rodríguez Salvanés F, Otero Puime A: [Evaluation of referrals in primary care]. Aten Primaria; 2005 Feb 28;35(3):146-51
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  • [Transliterated title] Evaluación de la demanda derivada en atención primaria.
  • The most common conditions referred, 25.6% of all referrals, are gynecologist check, blindness, other illnesses of subcutaneous cellular tissue, arthrosis, joint pain, diabetes, benign neoplasm of skin, depression and hypoacusis.

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  • (PMID = 15737271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6567
  • [Journal-full-title] Atencion primaria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aten Primaria
  • [Language] SPA
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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41. Krishna Swaroop DS, Ramakrishna BA, Bai SJ, Shanthi V: Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2008 Apr-Jun;51(2):277-9
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  • Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski is a rare benign cutaneous tumor, which is usually solitary, nodular and occurs on the face or buttocks any time during adult life.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18603709.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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42. Kinkor Z, Skálová A, Michal M, Janousek M, Kheck M: [Metastasing and relapsing "low grade" adenosquamous metaplastic breast cancer--is there a really indolent lesion? A description of three cases and review of literature]. Ceska Gynekol; 2005 May;70(3):211-6
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  • Due to the aggressive course in two cases, the review of the literature does not concentrate on morphology and differential diagnosis only, but discuss overall biology of this lesion too.
  • RESULTS: Partial mastectomy and segmentectomy were performed in three women 46, 72 and 74 years-old resp. for tumor, which size ranged from 20-35 mm in maximum diameter (mean 28 mm).
  • There were recognized metastases by one woman in two ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes mimicking benign breast heterotopia in one of them.
  • In two women with aggressive course the original biopsy was falsely interpreted, once as phyllodes tumor and secondly as benign sclerosing pseudotumor.
  • It arises in the deep breast tissue and structurally resembles the microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the skin.
  • Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, however, has nothing to do with syringomatous adenoma of the nipple, which is a benign tumor of the skin adnexa.
  • Differential diagnosis includes spectrum of non-neoplastic slerosing lesions and above-mentioned phylloid tumor.
  • The rarity of this neoplasm does not exclude deep knowledge.


43. Kaveri H, Punnya A: Pilomatricoma: a dermal analog of calcifying odontogenic cyst. Indian J Dent Res; 2008 Jul-Sep;19(3):261-3
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  • Pilomatricoma, also known as "Calcifying Epithelioma of Malherbe" is an uncommon, benign, cutaneous tumor originating from the hair matrix.
  • Most often, its precise preoperative diagnosis is not possible.
  • We believe that its inclusion is essential in the differential diagnosis of hard masses of the maxillofacial and paraoral regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Orbit / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18797106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-9290
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dent Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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44. Deutsch J, Trick D, Delank KW: [Giant scalp mass]. HNO; 2010 Dec;58(12):1204-7
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  • [Transliterated title] Monströser Tumor der Kopfhaut.
  • A 55-year-old man was referred to our department with bleeding from a painless tumor located at the left parietal region of the head which had been progressively growing for a period of 2 years.
  • The partly livid and ulcerated surface of the tumor was interspersed with light-yellow chalky material.
  • Histopathological examination led to the diagnosis of a giant pilomatricoma.
  • Pilomatricoma is a rare, benign skin neoplasm that originates from hair matrix cells and is most frequently located in the head and neck region.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 1961 Apr;83:606-18 [13700704.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998 Aug;39(2 Pt 1):191-5 [9704827.001]
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  • (PMID = 20577705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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45. Hammami H, Benmously R, Badri T, Debbiche A, Ben Ayed M, Mokhtar I, Fenniche S: Atypical clinical appearance and localization of trichilemmoma. a case report. Pathologica; 2009 Jun;101(3):133-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Trichilemmoma is a benign cutaneous tumor that shows characteristics of differentiation similar to the outer hair sheath.
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that trichilemmoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any indistinct facial papule.
  • This report documents a non-facial example of trichilemmoma.
  • Atypical clinical appearance and localization of this neoplasm in our patient suggest that only histological findings are specific of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Back / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19886550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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46. Xia W, Longaker MT, Yang GP: P38 MAP kinase mediates transforming growth factor-beta2 transcription in human keloid fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol; 2006 Mar;290(3):R501-8
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  • Keloids are abnormal fibrous growths of the dermis that develop only in response to wounding and represent a form of benign skin tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16467496.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6119
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K08-GM-069977; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01-GM-65213
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TGFB2 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta2; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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47. Zalaudek I, Ferrara G, Broganelli P, Moscarella E, Mordente I, Giacomel J, Argenziano G: Dermoscopy patterns of fibroepithelioma of pinkus. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Oct;142(10):1318-22
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  • BACKGROUND: Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus (FeP) is a rare variant of basal cell carcinoma that may clinically mimic a number of benign skin tumors.
  • Clinically, no FeP was correctly identified and, in half of all patients, a clinical differential diagnosis of purely benign skin lesions was made.
  • Dermoscopy enabled the correct diagnosis in 9 of 10 FePs, based on the presence of fine arborizing vessels, either alone or associated with dotted vessels, and white streaks (in 100%, 70%, and 90% of lesions, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Dermoscopy is helpful in diagnosing FeP and in differentiating this variant of basal cell carcinoma from other benign skin tumors commonly included in the clinical differential diagnosis.
  • This presumes, however, that dermoscopy is used as a first-line examination for all skin lesions, not only for those that are clinically suspect.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Dermoscopy / utilization. Female. Humans. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17043187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Tanaka Y, Bhunchet E, Shibata T: A case of malignant eccrine spiradenoma metastatic to intramammary lymph node. Breast Cancer; 2008;15(2):175-80
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  • Eccrine spiradenoma (ES) is a fairly common, benign, cutaneous tumor originating from the sweat glands.
  • In contrast, the malignant counterpart of ES, malignant eccrine spiradenoma (MES), is extremely rare.
  • We present the first reported case of this tumor metastasizing to an intramammary lymph node (IMLN).
  • The uncommon metastasizing focus of the periumbilical MES and its histopathological similarity with a primary breast carcinoma made the diagnosis difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18270794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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49. Turhan-Haktanir N, Demir Y, Sahin O, Bükülmez A, Tüzüner M: Pilomatricoma: a review of six pediatric cases with nine lesions. Turk J Pediatr; 2009 Jan-Feb;51(1):44-8
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  • Pilomatricoma, although rare, is the second most frequent benign skin tumor in childhood.
  • It is a hard, painless, slowly progressing subcutaneous tumor that is commonly located in the head-neck region, especially periorbital, and in the upper extremities.
  • We discuss herein the diagnosis and management of this uncommon skin tumor, and compare our experience with the previous literature.
  • Pilomatricoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of superficial pediatric head and neck masses by any physician involved with pediatric tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Hair Diseases / therapy. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Pilomatrixoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19378890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4301
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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50. Conscience I, Jovenin N, Coissard C, Lorenzato M, Durlach A, Grange F, Birembaut P, Clavel C, Bernard P: P16 is overexpressed in cutaneous carcinomas located on sun-exposed areas. Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Sep-Oct;16(5):518-22
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  • [Title] P16 is overexpressed in cutaneous carcinomas located on sun-exposed areas.
  • BACKGROUND: Recently, an increased expression of P16, a cell cycle regulatory tumor suppressor protein, has been demonstrated in cervical squamous neoplasms as a marker of malignancy.
  • In contrast, studies performed in skin carcinomas led to contradictory results.
  • OBJECTIVES: Our first aim was to evaluate P16 expression in different types of non-melanoma skin cancers compared with normal skin and benign tumors.
  • The second aim was to evaluate the relationship between P16 expression and the location of skin tumors (i.e. exposed versus non exposed sites).
  • Finally, we also studied Ki67 expression in skin carcinomas and control biopsies.
  • METHODS: Skin biopsy specimens with typical histologic features of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; n = 30), Bowen's disease (BD; n = 17), basal cell carcinoma (BCC; n = 10), seborrheic keratosis (SK; n = 10) and normal human skin (NHS; n = 9) were obtained from 76 patients seen at our institution between 2001 and 2003.
  • RESULTS: P16 overexpression was observed in 58% of cutaneous carcinomas (SCC: 60%; BD: 58%; BCC: 50%) versus 0% of SK or NHS (0%) (p = 0.006).
  • Ki67 expression in over 5% of tumour cells was observed in 69% of cutaneous carcinomas (SCC: 54%; BD: 76%; BCC: 80%) versus 16% in the group including SK (30%) and NHS (0%) (p = 0.04).
  • Overexpression of P16 was associated with a high rate of Ki67 positive tumour cells in 23/57 malignant skin tumors (40%).
  • Sixty-eight percent of tumors located on sun-exposed areas versus 23% of those located on non sun-exposed areas overexpressed P16 (p = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that the expression of P16 and Ki67 is associated with skin carcinomas.
  • Within cutaneous carcinoma specimens, P16 overexpression was significantly associated with the location on sun-exposed areas, suggesting a possible induction of P16 overexpression by UV radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 17101472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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51. Almeida S, Maillard C, Itin P, Hohl D, Huber M: Five new CYLD mutations in skin appendage tumors and evidence that aspartic acid 681 in CYLD is essential for deubiquitinase activity. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Mar;128(3):587-93
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  • [Title] Five new CYLD mutations in skin appendage tumors and evidence that aspartic acid 681 in CYLD is essential for deubiquitinase activity.
  • Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, familial cylindromatosis, and familial trichoepithelioma are autosomal-dominant genetic predispositions for benign tumors of skin appendages caused by mutations in the CYLD gene localized on chromosome 16q12-q13.
  • We investigated five families affected with these skin neoplasms and identified four premature stop codons and the novel missense mutation D681G in a family in which 11 of 12 investigated tumors were trichoepitheliomas.
  • CYLD protein harboring this missense mutation had a significant reduced ability to inhibit TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF)2- and TRAF6-mediated NF-kappaB activation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-induced JNK signaling, and to deubiquitinate TRAF2.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / genetics. Mutation, Missense. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Amino Acid Sequence. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / genetics. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / metabolism. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Codon, Terminator. Female. Humans. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Pedigree. TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2 / metabolism. TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6 / metabolism. Ubiquitin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17851586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / Codon, Terminator; 0 / TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2; 0 / TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Ubiquitin
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52. Hafner C, Vogt T, Hartmann A: FGFR3 mutations in benign skin tumors. Cell Cycle; 2006 Dec;5(23):2723-8
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  • [Title] FGFR3 mutations in benign skin tumors.
  • Recently, the same FGFR3 mutations known from skeletal dysplasia syndromes and urothelial carcinoma have been shown to cause benign human skin tumors such as seborrheic keratoses and epidermal nevi.
  • The underlying mechanisms for the somatic FGFR3 mutations in the epidermis are unknown so far, as well as details of the involved signaling pathways in the mutant keratinocytes leading to the formation of acanthotic skin tumors.
  • Herein we discuss potential mechanisms and functional consequences of activating FGFR3 mutations in human skin.
  • Further studies are required to provide insights in the pathogenesis of benign skin tumors caused by FGFR3 mutations.
  • These studies will add to new non-invasive therapeutical strategies for benign acanthotic skin tumors in dermatology.
  • [MeSH-major] Mutation / genetics. Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3 / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17172848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3
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53. Hafner C, van Oers JM, Hartmann A, Landthaler M, Stoehr R, Blaszyk H, Hofstaedter F, Zwarthoff EC, Vogt T: High frequency of FGFR3 mutations in adenoid seborrheic keratoses. J Invest Dermatol; 2006 Nov;126(11):2404-7
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  • Somatic mutations of FGFR3 have been identified in bladder cancer, multiple myeloma, and other neoplasms.
  • FGFR3 mutations have also been detected in 40% of seborrheic keratoses (SKs) of the hyperkeratotic and acanthotic subtype, which are very common benign skin tumors.
  • The mechanism for the high rate of somatic FGFR3 mutations in these benign skin tumors remains elusive, but UV light exposure may play a potential role, especially in the R248C mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Seborrheic / genetics. Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3 / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16778799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3
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54. Chiu HT, Garcia CK: Familial spontaneous pneumothorax. Curr Opin Pulm Med; 2006 Jul;12(4):268-72
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  • Mutations in this gene were known previously to cause a rare skin disease, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, an autosomal dominantly inherited disease characterized by benign skin tumors, diverse types of renal cancer, pulmonary cysts, and spontaneous pneumothorax.
  • Two animal models and studies of renal cancers support a tumor-suppressor function for folliculin.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Pneumothorax / genetics. Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16825879.001).
  • [ISSN] 1070-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in pulmonary medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Pulm Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / IK23RR02063201
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FLCN protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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55. Requena L, Kutzner H: Seborrheic keratosis with pseudorosettes and adamantinoid seborrheic keratosis: two new histopathologic variants. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Sep;33 Suppl 2:42-5
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  • AIMS: Seborrheic keratoses are the most common benign cutaneous neoplasms in adult and middle-age patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adamantinoma / pathology. Keratinocytes / pathology. Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16972954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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56. Varsori M, Dettwiler S, Chaloupka K: [Eyelid chondroid syringoma: a case report]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2007 Jan;30(1):e3
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  • [Transliterated title] Syringome chondroïde de la paupière: à propos d'un cas.
  • Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign skin tumor of the head and neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / diagnosis. Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17287665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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57. Wachter-Giner T, Bieber I, Warmuth-Metz M, Bröcker EB, Hamm H: Multiple pilomatricomas and gliomatosis cerebri--a new association? Pediatr Dermatol; 2009 Jan-Feb;26(1):75-8
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  • Pilomatricomas are benign skin tumors originating from hair follicle matrix cells.
  • A 15-year-old boy treated with temozolomide and oxcarbazepine for gliomatosis cerebri with symptomatic epilepsy developed four firm cutaneous nodules on his face and right upper arm in the course of 1 year.
  • All four tumors were excised under local anesthesia.
  • Histological examination confirmed the clinical diagnosis of pilomatricomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Hair Diseases / complications. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / complications. Pilomatrixoma / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology


58. Logié A, Dunois-Lardé C, Rosty C, Levrel O, Blanche M, Ribeiro A, Gasc JM, Jorcano J, Werner S, Sastre-Garau X, Thiery JP, Radvanyi F: Activating mutations of the tyrosine kinase receptor FGFR3 are associated with benign skin tumors in mice and humans. Hum Mol Genet; 2005 May 1;14(9):1153-60
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  • [Title] Activating mutations of the tyrosine kinase receptor FGFR3 are associated with benign skin tumors in mice and humans.
  • Although acanthosis nigricans, a benign skin tumor, has been found in some syndromes associated with germinal activating mutations of FGFR3, the role of activated FGFR3 in the epidermis has never been investigated.
  • Mice expressing the transgene developed benign epidermal tumors with no sign of malignancy.
  • These skin lesions had features in common with acanthosis nigricans and other benign human skin tumors, including seborrheic keratosis, one of the most common benign epidermal tumors in humans.
  • A large proportion of these tumors (39%) harbored somatic activating FGFR3 mutations, identical to those associated with skeletal dysplasia syndromes and bladder and cervical neoplasms.
  • Our findings directly implicate FGFR3 activation as a major cause of benign epidermal tumors in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression. Keratosis, Seborrheic / genetics. Point Mutation. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15772091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0964-6906
  • [Journal-full-title] Human molecular genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Mol. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Fgfr3 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine
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59. Daoudi A, Boutayeb F, Elmrini A: [Insulated arm pilomatrixoma: A rare localization. A case report]. Chir Main; 2006 Sep;25(3-4):163-5
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  • Pilomatrixoma also known as calcified epithelioma of Malherbe, is a rare benign cutaneous tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases. Pilomatrixoma. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arm. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hair / pathology. Humans. Skin / pathology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17175805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-3203
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgie de la main
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Main
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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60. Park G, Yoon BS, Moon JH, Kim B, Jun EK, Oh S, Kim H, Song HJ, Noh JY, Oh C, You S: Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses collagen production and proliferation in keloid fibroblasts via inhibition of the STAT3-signaling pathway. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Oct;128(10):2429-41
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  • Keloids are benign skin tumors characterized by collagen accumulation and hyperproliferation of fibroblasts.
  • To find an effective therapy for keloids, we explored the pharmacological potential of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a widely investigated tumor-preventive agent.

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  • (PMID = 18463684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Polyphenols; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / Tea; 0 / Triterpenes; 2222-07-3 / cucurbitacin I; 8R1V1STN48 / Catechin; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; BQM438CTEL / epigallocatechin gallate; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
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61. Painter JN, Tapanainen H, Somer M, Tukiainen P, Aittomäki K: A 4-bp deletion in the Birt-Hogg-Dubé gene (FLCN) causes dominantly inherited spontaneous pneumothorax. Am J Hum Genet; 2005 Mar;76(3):522-7
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  • Mutations in FLCN are also responsible for Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome (a dominantly inherited disease characterized by benign skin tumors, PSP, and diverse types of renal cancer) and, rarely, are detected in sporadic renal and colorectal tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. DNA / genetics. Exons. Female. Finland. Genes, Dominant. Humans. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Pedigree. Phenotype. Proto-Oncogene Proteins. Tumor Suppressor Proteins


62. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation. J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;33(1):2-9
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  • [Title] Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation.
  • To clarify the features of apocrine mixed tumors (AMT) of the skin among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their relationship to follicular stem cells, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of CK15 (LHK15 and C8/144B), which is a relatively specific marker of hair follicle stem cells in the bulge, in 35 cases of eight different benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation.
  • All eight cases of AMT of the skin showed CK15 immunostaining of the neoplastic cells, and all four cases of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, all five cases of spiradenoma, and both cases of cylindroma also showed a focally positive reaction to CK15.
  • None of the other benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation showed CK15 expression.
  • In AMT of the skin, the proportion of CK15-positive cells in the follicular or sebaceous differentiation group (78.8%, average of four cases) was significantly higher than the group without this differentiation (8.8%, average of four cases).
  • AMT of the skin are unique among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their substantial and constant CK15 expression, suggesting that they derive from multipotent epithelial stem cells in the bulge.
  • AMT of the skin with follicular or sebaceous differentiation are considered to show an immature stage of apocrine differentiation still rich in stem cells or to originate from stem cells with an incompletely established apocrine fate.
  • The partially positive reaction for CK15 in syringocystadenomas papilliferum and spiradenoma/cylindroma may depend on the ability to express CK15 in stem cells with an apocrine fate or result from the follicular and apocrine nature of this neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenoma / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16469077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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63. Golpour M: Evaluation of characteristics of patients with pilomatricoma in Mazandaran Province, 1996-2006. Pak J Biol Sci; 2009 Mar 15;12(6):548-50
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  • Mean age of the patients was 20.1 years .The most frequent sites of the tumor were the forearm (41.30%).
  • It can be concluded, because the pilomatricoma is a benign cutaneous neoplasm with differentiation toward hair matrix, so that it is not seen in palm or plantar surface, but could present in any other area.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19580010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-8880
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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64. Al-Daraji WI, Al-Dawoud A: Primary cutaneous ganglioneuroma arising within a seborrheic keratosis: a rare association. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2005 Mar;30(2):137-40
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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous ganglioneuroma arising within a seborrheic keratosis: a rare association.
  • A 75-year-old woman presented to her general practitioner with a keratotic skin lesion on her abdomen.
  • Primary cutaneous ganglioneuroma is an exceedingly rare benign tumour of the skin with only 13 cases having been reported in English literature.
  • We describe the second case of primary cutaneous ganglioneuroma associated with seborrheic keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioneuroma / complications. Keratosis, Seborrheic / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications


65. Ioannidis O, Stavrakis T, Cheva A, Papadimitriou N, Kotronis A, Kakoutis E, Makrantonakis N: Pilomatricoma of the arm with extensive ossification. Adv Med Sci; 2010;55(2):340-2
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  • Pilomatricoma is a benign skin tumor derived from the hair follicle, usually located in the head and neck and presenting in the first two decades of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Arm / pathology. Ossification, Heterotopic / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20439187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1898-4002
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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66. Choi CW, Park HS, Kim YK, Lee SH, Cho KH: Elastic fiber staining and cytokeratin 15 expression pattern in trichoepithelioma and basal cell carcinoma. J Dermatol; 2008 Aug;35(8):499-502
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  • Trichoepithelioma (TE) is a benign neoplasm of the skin that resembles basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in its clinical and histological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Elastic Tissue / pathology. Keratin-15 / analysis. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Staining and Labeling
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 18789069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Keratin-15
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67. Pant I, Joshi SC, Kaur G, Kumar G: Pilomatricoma as a diagnostic pitfall in clinical practice: report of two cases and review of literature. Indian J Dermatol; 2010 Oct;55(4):390-2
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  • Pilomatricoma (PMC) is a relatively uncommon benign skin neoplasm arising from the skin adnexa.
  • Since the first description of PMC in 1880, there has been a gradual increase in understanding of the morphologic features and clinical presentation of this tumor.
  • However, difficulties still persist in making clinical and cytologic diagnosis.
  • The purpose of this article is to create awareness among clinicians on the possibility of pilomatricoma as a cause of solitary skin nodules, especially those on the head, neck or upper extremities.

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  • (PMID = 21430899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3611
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3051306
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Pilomatricoma / dermatopathology / skin nodules
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68. Cohen PR, Martinelli PT, Schulze KE, Nelson BR: The cuticular purse string suture: a modified purse string suture for the partial closure of round postoperative wounds. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Jul;46(7):746-53
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  • BACKGROUND: The purse string suture can be used to provide primary closure for small skin defects or as a partial closure for larger round wounds.
  • The size of the defect is reduced secondary to the tension placed on the suture, which uniformly advances the skin from the entire periphery of the wound.
  • The location and types of the tumors removed were also summarized.
  • RESULTS: Postoperative wounds were created following Mohs' micrographic excision of nonmelanoma skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma, 44; squamous cell carcinoma, 25), wide local excision of melanoma (29), or conservative excision of benign cutaneous neoplasms (two).
  • The incidence of purse string suture for partial closure of each tumor was 4.1% for basal cell carcinoma, 7.3% for squamous cell carcinoma, and 46.3% for melanoma.
  • The tumors were equally distributed on the trunk, head and neck, and extremities; however, purse string closures for basal cell carcinomas were more frequent on the trunk, head, and neck, relative to squamous cell carcinomas and melanomas, which were more common on the extremities.
  • CONCLUSION: The cuticular purse string suture is a rapid and simple procedure that provides complete or partial closure of round skin defects and excellent long-term cosmetic and functional results.
  • The purse string suture is also useful following nonmelanoma skin cancer removal in patients who insist on maintaining an active lifestyle in the immediate postoperative period, who are receiving one or more systemic anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet agents, and who have large surgical wounds that would require either a skin graft or a local cutaneous flap in order to close the postoperative defect.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Suture Techniques

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  • (PMID = 17614809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Kamarashev J, French LE, Dummer R, Kerl K: Symplastic glomus tumor - a rare but distinct benign histological variant with analogy to other 'ancient' benign skin neoplasms. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36(10):1099-102
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  • [Title] Symplastic glomus tumor - a rare but distinct benign histological variant with analogy to other 'ancient' benign skin neoplasms.
  • Histologically, a well-circumscribed tumor of 3 mm diameter was found in the dermis.
  • Multinuclear cells were present as were numerous small-to-medium vessels throughout the tumor.
  • The tumor stroma showed myxoid areas.
  • The histological features and immunoprofile were consistent with the diagnosis of symplastic glomus tumor, a rare histological variant, which has been defined as a glomus tumor exhibiting marked nuclear atypia, in the absence of any other criteria for malignancy.
  • The biological behavior of the tumor is benign.
  • It is essential to differentiate this entity from malignant glomus tumor, which has metastatic potential.
  • Even prominent cellular atypia and nuclear pleomorphism in a glomus tumor as in our case is not a marker of malignancy in the absence of additional criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Fingers / pathology. Glomus Tumor / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19602065.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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70. Gravvanis A, Kakagia D, Papadopoulos S, Tsoutsos D: Dermal skin template for the management of multiple cutaneous leiomyomas. J Cutan Med Surg; 2009 Mar-Apr;13(2):102-5
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  • [Title] Dermal skin template for the management of multiple cutaneous leiomyomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Multiple leiomyomas are rare benign tumors of the skin, originating from the arrector pili muscle, and usually appear as painful nodules.
  • OBJECTIVE: This article reports on a patient with multiple cutaneous leiomyomas of the upper limb who was managed by a method not previously reported for leiomyomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Complete surgical resection of multiple cutaneous leiomyomas prevented the disease's recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Chondroitin Sulfates / therapeutic use. Collagen / therapeutic use. Leiomyomatosis / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Skin, Artificial

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  • (PMID = 19298779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1203-4754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / integra artificial skin; 9007-28-7 / Chondroitin Sulfates; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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71. Rasi A, Soltani-Arabshahi R, Shahbazi N: Skin tag as a cutaneous marker for impaired carbohydrate metabolism: a case-control study. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Nov;46(11):1155-9
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  • [Title] Skin tag as a cutaneous marker for impaired carbohydrate metabolism: a case-control study.
  • BACKGROUND: Skin tags are common benign skin tumors usually occurring on the neck and major flexors of older people.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in patients with skin tag and a control group.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in individuals over 15 years old, comparing cases (n = 104) with at least three skin tags and age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 94) without skin tag.
  • RESULTS: Patients with skin tag had higher frequency of diabetes than the control group (23.07% vs. 8.51%, chi(2)-test, P = 0.005).
  • There was a positive correlation between the total number of skin tags and the mean fasting plasma glucose (Pearson correlation, r = 0.260, P = 0.031); patients with more than 30 skin tags were particularly at an increased risk of diabetes (52.0%).
  • No correlation was found between the number of skin tags and BMI.
  • We did not find any correlation between the anatomical localization of skin tags and impaired carbohydrate metabolism, except for skin tags under the breast in women.
  • CONCLUSION: These results show an increased risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with multiple skin tags.
  • With regard to the importance of early diagnosis of diabetes, we recommend a high level of suspicion for impaired carbohydrate metabolism in patients with skin tag.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Glucose / analysis. Carbohydrate Metabolism. Diabetes Complications. Glucose Intolerance. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17988334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose
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72. Kim JY, Kim HS, Lee S, Park JH: The expression of GLTSCR2, a candidate tumor suppressor, is reduced in seborrheic keratosis compared to normal skin. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 May 15;206(5):295-9
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  • [Title] The expression of GLTSCR2, a candidate tumor suppressor, is reduced in seborrheic keratosis compared to normal skin.
  • Glioma tumor-suppressor candidate region gene 2 (GLTSCR2) is a recently identified nuclear protein that interacts with the tumor suppressor PTEN.
  • GLTSCR2 regulates the stability of PTEN, and is therefore believed to have a tumor suppressive function.
  • However, GLTSCR2 expression levels in human tumors and its mechanism of tumor suppression remain largely unknown.
  • We performed an immunohistochemical examination of GLTSCR2 expression in samples of seborrheic keratosis (SK, n=69), a common benign skin tumor, and normal skin (n=23), and assessed the relationship between GLTSCR2 expression and the patients' clinicopathologic factors.
  • Our results showed that GLTSCR2 expression in SK was significantly lower than in normal skin (p<0.001), and this decreased expression of GLTSCR2 was associated with patient age (p=0.045).
  • Using in situ hybridization analysis, we found that mRNA expression of GLTSCR2 was reduced in tumor cells compared to normal skin.
  • This is the first study analyzing the expression of GLTSCR2, a putative tumor suppressor, in SK and normal skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Seborrheic / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20185249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GLTSCR2 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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73. Rhiemeier V, Breitenbach U, Richter KH, Gebhardt C, Vogt I, Hartenstein B, Fürstenberger G, Mauch C, Hess J, Angel P: A novel aspartic proteinase-like gene expressed in stratified epithelia and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Am J Pathol; 2006 Apr;168(4):1354-64
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  • [Title] A novel aspartic proteinase-like gene expressed in stratified epithelia and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.
  • Homeostasis of stratified epithelia, such as the epidermis of the skin, is a sophisticated process that represents a tightly controlled balance between proliferation and differentiation.
  • Here, we report the cloning of a novel cDNA sequence, from mouse back skin, that is induced by the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and codes for a hitherto unknown aspartic proteinase-like protein (Taps).
  • During chemically induced carcinogenesis, transient elevation of Taps mRNA and protein levels was detected in benign skin tumors.
  • However, its expression is negatively associated with dedifferentiation and malignant progression in squamous cell carcinomas of the skin.
  • Similar expression was observed in squamous skin tumors of patients, suggesting that detection of Taps levels represents a novel strategy to discriminate the progression state of squamous skin cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Epidermis / embryology. Epidermis / metabolism. Epithelium / embryology. Epithelium / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, fos. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Molecular Sequence Data. Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate. Transcription Factor AP-1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Transcription Factor AP-1 / metabolism


74. Avninder S, Ramesh V, Vermani S: Benign nerve sheath myxoma (myxoid neurothekeoma) in the leg. Dermatol Online J; 2007;13(2):14
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  • [Title] Benign nerve sheath myxoma (myxoid neurothekeoma) in the leg.
  • Myxoid neurothekeoma is a rare benign cutaneous neoplasm of nerve sheath origin and is also called as benign nerve sheath myxoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lower Extremity. Neurothekeoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17498433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Craig S, Bui-Mansfield LT, Lusk JD: Radiology pathology conference of Brooke Army Medical Center: trichoblastoma of breast. Clin Imaging; 2009 Jul-Aug;33(4):311-3
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  • The differential diagnosis of a superficial breast lesion detected on mammography typically includes seborrheic keratosis, dermal nevus, epidermal inclusion cyst, and basal cell carcinoma with subcutaneous invasion [Kopans DB.
  • Trichoblastoma is a benign skin neoplasm that is rarely found in the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mammography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19559355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Pandya KA, Radke F: Benign skin lesions: lipomas, epidermal inclusion cysts, muscle and nerve biopsies. Surg Clin North Am; 2009 Jun;89(3):677-87
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  • [Title] Benign skin lesions: lipomas, epidermal inclusion cysts, muscle and nerve biopsies.
  • Lipomas are benign skin tumors composed of mature fat cells and are the most common subcutaneous tumors.
  • The diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of benign tumors, and other commonly associated tumors that may require a more substantial workup and operative intervention, are discussed.
  • Muscle and nerve biopsies are used for the diagnosis of a variety of medical problems.
  • Although the procedures are straightforward, there are important technical issues to assist in getting the best specimen to avoid confounding disease diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Cysts / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology. Peripheral Nerves / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19465204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-3171
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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77. Mookhoek EJ, Van De Kerkhof PC, Hovens JE, Brouwers JR, Loonen AJ: Skin disorders in chronic psychiatric illness. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Oct;24(10):1151-6
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  • [Title] Skin disorders in chronic psychiatric illness.
  • BACKGROUND: Chronic psychiatric patients are prone to develop skin diseases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of skin complaints and dermatological disorders in residential psychiatric patients.
  • METHODS: Ninety-one randomly chosen patients of the residential wards of a general psychiatric hospital completed a short, structured interview concerning skin disease and underwent a physical examination of the skin.
  • RESULTS: Of the examined patients, 69% reported symptoms of skin disease in the month prior to the interview and 77% had skin disorders at physical examination.
  • In 34 (37%) patients, skin disorders were diagnosed, which were not mentioned in the interview.
  • Patients with diabetes had infectious skin disease more often than their fellow patients [odds ratio (OR) 10.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.40-49.75].
  • Moreover, overweight patients had infectious skin disease more often (OR 7.4; 95% CI: 1.38-39.3).
  • Women reported more skin complaints (OR 6.4: 95% CI: 1.67-24.2), and also had skin problems other than infection, tumours or dermatitis more frequently (OR 3.7; 95% CI: 1.34-10.14).
  • Clozapine use was associated with benign neoplasms of the skin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Many chronic psychiatric patients have skin problems.
  • Clinical examination of the skin is important to discover these problems.
  • Patients with diabetes mellitus are particularly at risk for skin infections.
  • Only a few other relationships between psychiatric medication and specific skin problems were found.
  • [MeSH-major] Hospitals, Psychiatric. Inpatients. Mental Disorders / epidemiology. Skin Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Comorbidity. Dermatitis / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Netherlands. Prevalence. Psoriasis / epidemiology. Skin Diseases, Infectious / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
  • (PMID = 20236199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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78. Datiashvili RO, Izadi K, Centurion SA, Lambert WC, Scarpidis U: Malignant melanocytic trichoblastoma. Ann Plast Surg; 2006 Feb;56(2):208-10
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  • Trichoblastoma is an uncommon benign cutaneous neoplasm of the hair germ cell.
  • The pigmented variety of the tumor is rare.
  • We are presenting a case report of a 47-year-old patient with malignant trichoblastoma containing melanin deposits and propose to define this variety of the tumor as a separate entity: malignant melanocytic trichoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16432335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-7043
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Melanins
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79. Kazakov DV, Zelger B, Rütten A, Vazmitel M, Spagnolo DV, Kacerovska D, Vanecek T, Grossmann P, Sima R, Grayson W, Calonje E, Koren J, Mukensnabl P, Danis D, Michal M: Morphologic diversity of malignant neoplasms arising in preexisting spiradenoma, cylindroma, and spiradenocylindroma based on the study of 24 cases, sporadic or occurring in the setting of Brooke-Spiegler syndrome. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 May;33(5):705-19
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  • [Title] Morphologic diversity of malignant neoplasms arising in preexisting spiradenoma, cylindroma, and spiradenocylindroma based on the study of 24 cases, sporadic or occurring in the setting of Brooke-Spiegler syndrome.
  • The authors present a series of 24 malignant neoplasms arising in preexisting benign spiradenoma (20), cylindroma (2), and spiradenocylindroma (2).
  • Nineteen patients (12 females, 7 males; age range, 41 to 92 y) had a solitary neoplasm (size range, 2.2 to 17.5 cm; median 4 cm), whereas the remaining 5 (4 females, 1 male; age range, 66 to 72 y) manifested clinical features of Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS), an autosomal dominantly inherited disease characterized by widespread, small, benign neoplasms on which background larger malignant lesions appeared.
  • Microscopically, all cases showed the residuum of a preexisting benign neoplasm.
  • 3) invasive adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (IAC-NOS); and 4) sarcomatoid (metaplastic) carcinoma.
  • In 1 case of IAC-NOS, an in situ adenocarcinoma was also found, presumed to have evolved from an adjacent adenomatous and atypical adenomatous component.
  • Cases harboring a sarcomatoid carcinoma featured a malignant epithelial component composed of varying combinations of BCAC-HG, BCAC-LG, IAC-NOS, or squamous cell carcinoma, whereas the sarcomatoid component appeared as either a pleomorphic or spindle-cell sarcoma.
  • The histologic pattern of the malignant neoplasm correlated to some extent with the clinical course.
  • BCAC-LG neoplasms showed a less aggressive course, with local recurrences but no distant metastases, whereas the BCAC-HG neoplasms typically followed a highly aggressive course resulting in the death 3 of 6 patients with BCAC-HG.
  • Given the morphologic diversity and complexity of the neoplasms in question, we propose using a more specific terminology with the precise description of the neoplasm components, rather than generic and less informative terms such as "spiradenocarcinoma" or "carcinoma ex cylindroma. "
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Australia. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16. Europe. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness. South Africa. Syndrome. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


80. González-Vela MC, Val-Bernal JF, Martino M, González-López MA, García-Alberdi E, Hermana S: Sclerotic fibroma-like dermatofibroma: an uncommon distinctive variant of dermatofibroma. Histol Histopathol; 2005 07;20(3):801-6
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  • Dermatofibroma (DF) is a common benign cutaneous tumor with many variants based on alterations in the morphology and composition of its diverse elements.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroma / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15944929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-3911
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, CD99; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Vimentin
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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81. Argenziano G, Ferrara G, Francione S, Di Nola K, Martino A, Zalaudek I: Dermoscopy--the ultimate tool for melanoma diagnosis. Semin Cutan Med Surg; 2009 Sep;28(3):142-8
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  • [Title] Dermoscopy--the ultimate tool for melanoma diagnosis.
  • "We are beginning to move away from clinicopathologic diagnosis into an era of clinicoimaging diagnosis."
  • This is not only because dermoscopy reveals a new and fascinating morphologic dimension of pigmented and nonpigmented skin tumors, but also because it improves the recognition of a growing number of skin symptoms in general dermatology.
  • Melanoma detection remains the most important indication of dermoscopy and in melanoma screening the aim of dermoscopy is to maximize early detection while minimizing the unnecessary excision of benign skin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Early Detection of Cancer. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19782937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0768
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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