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1. Lewis TB, Robison JE, Bastien R, Milash B, Boucher K, Samlowski WE, Leachman SA, Dirk Noyes R, Wittwer CT, Perreard L, Bernard PS: Molecular classification of melanoma using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Cancer; 2005 Oct 15;104(8):1678-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction ([q]RT-PCR), the authors examined 36 samples (30 melanomas, 4 benign nevi, and 2 reactive lymph nodes) for the expression of 20 melanoma-related genes that function in cell growth and differentiation (epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], WNT5A, BRAF, FOS, JUN, MATP, and TMP1), cell proliferation (KI-67, TOP2A, BUB1, BIRC5, and STK6), melanoma progression (CD63, MAGEA3, and GALGT), and melanin synthesis (TYR, MLANA, SILV, PAX3, and MITF).
  • Using a supervised analysis of the data, the authors found that the best discriminators for molecularly distinguishing between melanoma, benign nevi, and lymph nodes were MLANA, CD63, and BUB1.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Melanoma / classification. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Skin Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics


2. Abdulla AN, Covert AA, Grantmyre JE: Scrotal syringocystadenoma papilliferum: case report. Can J Urol; 2009 Jun;16(3):4684-6
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  • Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is a benign rare adnexal skin neoplasm, which in a third of cases arises from a nevus sebaceous and is most commonly found on the head and neck and in very rare instances found on the genitalia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Scrotum / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Syringoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19497181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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3. Friedman RJ, Gutkowicz-Krusin D, Farber MJ, Warycha M, Schneider-Kels L, Papastathis N, Mihm MC Jr, Googe P, King R, Prieto VG, Kopf AW, Polsky D, Rabinovitz H, Oliviero M, Cognetta A, Rigel DS, Marghoob A, Rivers J, Johr R, Grant-Kels JM, Tsao H: The diagnostic performance of expert dermoscopists vs a computer-vision system on small-diameter melanomas. Arch Dermatol; 2008 Apr;144(4):476-82
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of dermoscopists in diagnosing small pigmented skin lesions (diameter </= 6 mm) compared with an automatic multispectral computer-vision system.
  • Patients From a computerized skin imaging database of 990 small (</= 6-mm) pigmented skin lesions, all 49 melanomas from 49 patients were included in this study.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ten dermoscopists independently examined dermoscopic images of 99 pigmented skin lesions and decided whether they identified the lesions as melanoma and whether they would recommend biopsy to rule out melanoma.
  • RESULTS: Dermoscopists were able to correctly identify small melanomas with an average diagnostic sensitivity of 39% and a specificity of 82% and recommended small melanomas for biopsy with a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 49%, with only fair interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.31 for diagnosis and 0.34 for biopsy).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Differentiation of small melanomas from small benign pigmented lesions challenges even expert physicians.
  • Computer-vision systems can facilitate early detection of small melanomas and may limit the number of biopsies to rule out melanoma performed on benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Artificial Intelligence. Clinical Competence. Dermoscopy / instrumentation. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity. Skin / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Dermatol. 2008 Apr;144(4):533-4 [18427049.001]
  • (PMID = 18427041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Shukla A, Ho Y, Liu X, Ryscavage A, Glick AB: Cripto-1 alters keratinocyte differentiation via blockade of transforming growth factor-beta1 signaling: role in skin carcinogenesis. Mol Cancer Res; 2008 Mar;6(3):509-16
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  • [Title] Cripto-1 alters keratinocyte differentiation via blockade of transforming growth factor-beta1 signaling: role in skin carcinogenesis.
  • Cripto-1 is an epidermal growth factor-Cripto/FRL1/Cryptic family member that plays a role in early embryogenesis as a coreceptor for Nodal and is overexpressed in human tumors.
  • Here we report that in the two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model, Cripto-1 is highly up-regulated in tumor promoter-treated normal skin and in benign papillomas.
  • Treatment of primary mouse keratinocytes with Cripto-1 stimulated proliferation and induced expression of keratin 8 but blocked induction of the normal epidermal differentiation marker keratin 1, changes that are hallmarks of tumor progression in squamous cancer.
  • We suggest that inhibition of TGF-beta1 by Cripto-1 may play an important role in altering the differentiation state of keratinocytes and promoting outgrowth of squamous tumors in the mouse epidermis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation / physiology. Epidermal Growth Factor / physiology. Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Skin Neoplasms / physiopathology. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 18337457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-7786
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122109; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Tdgf1 protein, mouse; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.1.11 / TGF-beta type I receptor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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5. Lira M, Schenka AA, Magna LA, Cotta AC, Cintra ML, de Souza EM, Brousset P, Vassallo J: Diagnostic value of combining immunostaining for CD3 and nuclear morphometry in mycosis fungoides. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Feb;61(2):209-12
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  • BACKGROUND: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common skin lymphoid neoplasm.
  • In initial stages, differential diagnosis of MF from other benign dermal lymphoid infiltrates (BDLI) may be impossible on morphological basis alone.
  • Thus even if morphological evaluation is not accurate to distinguish benign versus malignant dermal lymphoid infiltrates, due to the variability of size and shape of these cells, a more sensitive method promptly shows this difference.
  • CONCLUSION: Results suggest that morphometry of CD3-positive lymphoid cells may add valuable information in the differential diagnosis of MF and benign dermatoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD3 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Mycosis Fungoides / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Skin Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17496190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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6. Battistella M, Peltre B, Cribier B: Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Oct;37(10):1057-63
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  • [Title] Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Trichoblastomas (TBs) are benign follicular tumors that can present either as solitary nodule or as multiple facial papules.
  • Only one case of sporadic TB in a composite tumor has been reported, arising in an apocrine poroma.
  • We report the association of TB and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm in six patients.
  • It was often positive in the associated neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSION: TB can be associated with benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm in composite tumors.
  • TB can be added to the spectrum of SK-associated tumors.
  • Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Seborrheic / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Diseases / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19615018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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7. Postovit LM, Seftor EA, Seftor RE, Hendrix MJ: Influence of the microenvironment on melanoma cell fate determination and phenotype. Cancer Res; 2006 Aug 15;66(16):7833-6
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  • Tumor cells communicate bidirectionally with the surrounding microenvironment, sending and receiving topographical and molecular cues that direct diverse cellular phenomena, including differentiation, growth, and invasion.
  • The microenvironment has long been acknowledged as a facilitator of melanoma progression, and recent studies have illuminated tumor-associated factors, including hypoxia and the extracellular matrix, as important mediators of melanocyte transformation and transdifferentiation.
  • Indeed, our group and others have elucidated the unique ability of embryonic microenvironments to normalize aggressive melanoma cells toward a more benign melanocytic phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Cell Division. Humans. Incidence. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 16912153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 59702
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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8. Demirseren ME, Afandiyev K, Ceran C: Reconstruction of the perioral and perinasal defects with facial artery perforator flaps. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2009 Dec;62(12):1616-20
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  • Twelve clinical cases with 14 perioral and perinasal skin defects resulting from malignant or benign skin tumour excision were reconstructed using facial artery perforator flaps.
  • The donor-site scars were designed parallel to the facial wrinkles when possible.
  • The aesthetically pleasing donor site based on the facial artery perforators offers a versatile tailor-made flap, because of the reliable presence of perforators, with a large arc of rotation.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Surgical Flaps / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Esthetics. Face / blood supply. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome


9. Gaggioli C, Sahai E: Melanoma invasion - current knowledge and future directions. Pigment Cell Res; 2007 Jun;20(3):161-72
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  • The acquisition of invasive behaviour is the key transition in the progression of benign melanocyte hyperplasia to life threatening melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 17516924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-5785
  • [Journal-full-title] Pigment cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pigment Cell Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 120
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10. Estrada-Chavez G, Vega-Memije ME, Lacy-Niebla RM, Toussaint-Caire S: Scalp metastases of a renal cell carcinoma. Skinmed; 2006 May-Jun;5(3):148-50
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  • An 80-year-old man presented with a localized tumor of the right occipital scalp.
  • The tumor was a 1-cm, bright red-purple, ulcerated, and crusted exophytic nodule on a smooth base (Figure 1).
  • It was extirpated with the clinical diagnosis of pyogenic granuloma vs. renal metastasis to the scalp.
  • The patient's medical history included a transurethral prostatic resection 3 years earlier and, 1 year later, a right nephrectomy for a 2-kg kidney tumor verbally reported as "benign."
  • The histopathologic diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma was supported by immunohistochemistry with positive epithelial membrane antigen staining (Figure 4).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis


11. Schmaltz R, Müller CS, Vogt T: [Sudden growth of previously indolent scalp nodule]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jun;61(6):518-21
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  • Cylindromas are benign adnexal tumors with eccrine and apocrine differentiation.
  • We present a case of scalp cylindromatosis in which a primary cutaneous adenoid-cystic carcinoma developed.
  • As our case shows, histological evaluation is mandatory, even when the clinical diagnosis seems obvious.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] Br J Dermatol. 2001 Oct;145(4):653-6 [11703297.001]
  • [Cites] Dermatol Surg. 2003 Jun;29(6):647-9 [12786711.001]
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  • (PMID = 20490442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Rizzo AG, Sanò M, Querci A, Lemma G, Lemma F: [Treatment of skin neoplasms with polidocanol infiltrations. Our experience]. Suppl Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):S197-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of skin neoplasms with polidocanol infiltrations. Our experience].
  • They report their 5 years experience in treatment of face and neck skin neoplasms by injections of a sclerosant product as hydropolyethoxydodecan, in case of a difficult good esthetic result with surgery or other therapies because of patients general conditions, such as diabetic ones, or because of their viral nature.
  • Then they affirm to have treated 350 benign and malign tumors with this method.
  • All subjects presented a complete resolution of disease in few weeks and none between them controlled has actually complications or recruitment of neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Polyethylene Glycols / administration & dosage. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16437984.001).
  • [ISSN] 2283-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Suppl Tumori
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0AWH8BFG9A / polidocanol; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols
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13. de Wind A, Meert V, Chahidi N, Theunis A, Somerhausen Nde S: [Retiform haemangioendothelioma: a case report]. Ann Pathol; 2009 Dec;29(6):491-4
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  • Spindle cell hemangio(endothelio)ma is currently regarded as a benign reactive lesion.
  • Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is associated with a significant metastatic risk and has been included in the category of malignant vascular tumors.
  • The vascular lesions fulfilling the strict definition of hemangioendothelioma include retiform hemangioendothelioma, papillary intralymphatic angioendothelioma "Dabska's tumor", composite hemangioendothelioma and perhaps the controversial polymorphic hemangioendothelioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioendothelioma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, CD31 / analysis. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Endothelium, Vascular / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tibia / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20005438.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antigens, CD34
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14. Busam KJ: Cutaneous desmoplastic melanoma. Adv Anat Pathol; 2005 Mar;12(2):92-102
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  • [Title] Cutaneous desmoplastic melanoma.
  • It most often presents as an indurated lesion in chronically sun-damaged skin.
  • At the time of excision, the tumors usually extend into the reticular dermis or deeper.
  • It may simulate histologically sclerosing melanocytic nevi as well as various benign and malignant nonmelanocytic lesions.
  • There is significant morphologic variability among tumors classified as DM.
  • Desmoplasia may be prominent throughout the entire tumor ("pure" DM) or represent a portion of an otherwise nondesmoplastic melanoma ("combined" DM).
  • Some tumors show neuroma-like features with prominent nerve involvement, in which case the term "desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma" is used.
  • Evidence is also emerging that for patients with thick melanomas, the presence of a paucicellular fibrosing tumor histology (pure DM) is a favorable prognostic factor for survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Fibrosis. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. S100 Proteins / analysis. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 15731577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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15. Bauer R, Wild PJ, Meyer S, Bataille F, Pauer A, Klinkhammer-Schalke M, Hofstaedter F, Bosserhoff AK: Prognostic relevance of P-cadherin expression in melanocytic skin tumours analysed by high-throughput tissue microarrays. J Clin Pathol; 2006 Jul;59(7):699-705
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  • [Title] Prognostic relevance of P-cadherin expression in melanocytic skin tumours analysed by high-throughput tissue microarrays.
  • AIM: To investigate whether protein expression or cellular localisation of P-cadherin is associated with clinicopathological characteristics in benign and malignant melanocytic skin tumours.
  • In general, P-cadherin expression was significantly reduced in malignant melanomas (p<0.001) and melanoma metastases (p<0.001), compared with benign nevi.
  • Additionally, loss of membranous P-cadherin was associated with Clark level (p = 0.011) and tumour thickness (p<0.001).
  • Low cytoplasmic P-cadherin expression was associated with tumour recurrence (p = 0.03) in all the patients who were analysed.
  • After testing various multivariate Cox regression models, loss of cytoplasmic P-cadherin expression remained a highly significant adverse risk factor for tumour recurrence in patients with tumours <2 mm.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cadherins / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Disease Progression. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Protein Array Analysis / methods. Recurrence

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  • [Cites] Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2003;19:207-35 [14570569.001]
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  • (PMID = 16565225.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860409
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16. Sookhan N, Boughey JC, Walsh MF, Degnim AC: Nipple-sparing mastectomy--initial experience at a tertiary center. Am J Surg; 2008 Oct;196(4):575-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) combines skin-sparing mastectomy with preservation of the nipple-areolar dermis and intraoperative pathologic assessment of the nipple core.
  • The average distance of tumor from the nipple on imaging was 4.8 cm (range 4 to 5.7).
  • Nipple cores were all benign, and 2 patients developed self-limited superficial desquamation of the nipple.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty / methods. Mastectomy / methods. Nipples / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Body Image. Esthetics. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


17. Wietfeldt ED, Thiele J: Malignancies of the anal margin and perianal skin. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):127-35
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  • [Title] Malignancies of the anal margin and perianal skin.
  • Malignancies of the anal margin and perianal skin are relatively uncommon lesions, comprising 3 to 4% of all anorectal malignancies.
  • Buschke-Lowenstein tumor, or giant condyloma acuminatum, is not always included because this lesion is technically benign, although it displays aggressive local invasive behavior that makes it difficult to manage.
  • Proper diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion on the part of the surgeon.
  • Innocent local irritations will resolve in a short time with appropriate therapy; those that persist must be biopsied for tissue diagnosis.
  • Wide local excision is the mainstay of treatment for early stage tumors as it preserves continence and obtains adequate local control.
  • Invasion and metastasis are relatively rare in this group of neoplasms; perianal Paget's disease has the highest risk of associated underlying neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 20436838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780245
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anal margin cancer / diagnosis / local excision / radiation therapy / treatment options
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18. Patel AB, Harting MS, Smith-Zagone MJ, Hsu S: Familial basaloid follicular hamartoma: a report of one family. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(4):14
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  • Basaloid follicular hamartoma is a rare but benign adnexal neoplasm that can simulate basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18627736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / patched receptors
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19. Wright NA, Thomas CG, Calame A, Cockerell CJ: Granular cell atypical fibroxanthoma: case report and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Mar;37(3):380-5
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  • The neoplasm occurred as a tender nodule on the frontal scalp of an 82-year-old Caucasian man.
  • The granular cell phenotype has been observed in other cutaneous neoplasms including granular cell tumors, dermatofibromas, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, fibrous papules, basal cell carcinomas, leiomyosarcomas, angiosarcomas and primitive polypoid granular cell tumors.
  • We discuss the differential diagnosis and review the previously reported cases of this rare variant of atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Scalp / metabolism. Scalp / pathology. Scalp / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19341433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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20. Rausch MP, Irvine KR, Antony PA, Restifo NP, Cresswell P, Hastings KT: GILT accelerates autoimmunity to the melanoma antigen tyrosinase-related protein 1. J Immunol; 2010 Sep 1;185(5):2828-35
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  • Melanocyte differentiation Ags, including tyrosinase-related protein (TRP) 1, are relevant to both autoimmune skin depigmentation (vitiligo) and tumor immunity, because they are expressed by both benign melanocytes and many malignant melanomas.
  • Given that many self and tumor Ags have disulfide bonds and are presented on MHC class II, GILT is likely to be important in the pathogenesis of other CD4(+) T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases and for the development of effective cancer immunotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 20668223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-6606
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / T32-AR007016; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37-AI23081; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA078447; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI023081; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / T32 AR007016; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA09213; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25-CA078447; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / K08-AR054388; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009213; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009213-33; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / K08 AR054388; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009213-33
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class II; 0 / Ifi30 protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; EC 1.- / Oxidoreductases; EC 1.14.18.- / Tyrp1 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS274002; NLM/ PMC3060054
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21. Saunders LP, Ouellette A, Bandle R, Chang WC, Zhou H, Misra RN, De La Cruz EM, Braddock DT: Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of autotaxin that inhibit melanoma cell migration and invasion. Mol Cancer Ther; 2008 Oct;7(10):3352-62
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  • ATX increases the aggressiveness and invasiveness of transformed cells, and ATX levels directly correlate with tumor stage and grade in several human malignancies.
  • Immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded human tissue shows that ATX levels are markedly increased in human primary and metastatic melanoma relative to benign nevi.

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  • (PMID = 18852138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR012408; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM071688; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM 07223; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM071688
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Multienzyme Complexes; 0 / Small Molecule Libraries; EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.1 / Phosphodiesterase I; EC 3.1.4.39 / alkylglycerophosphoethanolamine phosphodiesterase; EC 3.6.1.- / Pyrophosphatases
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22. De Queiroz GF, Matera JM, Zaidan Dagli ML: Clinical study of cryosurgery efficacy in the treatment of skin and subcutaneous tumors in dogs and cats. Vet Surg; 2008 Jul;37(5):438-43
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  • [Title] Clinical study of cryosurgery efficacy in the treatment of skin and subcutaneous tumors in dogs and cats.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of cryosurgery for treatment of skin and subcutaneous tumors in dogs and cats.
  • METHODS: Cutaneous or subcutaneous tumors were treated by liquid nitrogen cryosurgical spray (1 cm from target tissue at 90 degrees until a 5-mm halo of frozen tissue was achieved) for 15-60 seconds.
  • Malignant lesions had 3 freeze-thaw cycles benign tumors, 2 cycles.
  • RESULTS: Tumor size ranged from 0.3 to 11 cm diameter with 28 (60%) being 0.3-1 cm; 8 (17%) 1.1-3 cm, and 11 (23%) >3.4 cm.
  • One malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor recurred 7 months after cryosurgical treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Cryosurgery is an efficient method for treatment of skin and subcutaneous tumors in dogs and cats.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Cryosurgical ablation is an effective means of treating small cutaneous or subcutaneous tumors in dogs and cats, especially in older animals where wound closure or cosmetic outcome might limit surgical excision alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / surgery. Cryosurgery / veterinary. Dog Diseases / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary. Wound Healing / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Dogs. Female. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / veterinary. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18986310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary surgery : VS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Pu J, McCaig CD, Cao L, Zhao Z, Segall JE, Zhao M: EGF receptor signalling is essential for electric-field-directed migration of breast cancer cells. J Cell Sci; 2007 Oct 1;120(Pt 19):3395-403
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  • Breast cancers are accompanied by electrical depolarisation of tumour epithelial cells.
  • The electrical changes can be detected on the skin and are used to differentiate malignant from benign breast tumours.
  • Could the electrical signals play a role in metastasis by promoting tumour cell migration?
  • Importantly, these effects were more significant in highly metastatic tumour cells than in low metastatic tumour cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Cell Movement / physiology. Electricity. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Inhibitors / metabolism. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Rats. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-3 / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-3 / metabolism. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism


24. Lucas A, Betlloch I, Planelles M, Martínez T, Pérez-Crespo M, Mataix J, Belinchón I: Non-melanocytic benign skin tumors in children. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2007;8(6):365-9
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  • [Title] Non-melanocytic benign skin tumors in children.
  • BACKGROUND: Dermatologists often attend children with benign skin tumors and cysts.
  • The decision to perform dermatologic surgery in children may be difficult to make, especially in cases of benign tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the nature of non-melanocytic benign skin tumors amenable to dermatologic surgery in children.
  • METHODS: Histopathologic studies of skin tumors in children treated by our department between January 2004 and December 2005 were studied.
  • Malignant and melanocytic tumors were excluded.
  • Age, sex, type of tumor, diagnostic category, site, size, reason for removal, type of anesthesia, and any other associated disorders were recorded.
  • RESULTS: The records revealed that 121 patients presented 129 non-melanocytic benign skin tumors (73 in boys and 56 in girls).
  • Tumors were located on the head and neck (45.7%), trunk (34.1%), and limbs (20.1%).
  • The reasons that led to removal of the tumors were: increase in the size of the tumor (49%); various types of discomfort, such as severe itching or pain (30%); parental concern (4%); diagnostic uncertainty (16%); and esthetic reasons (1%).
  • CONCLUSION: There is a wide diversity of non-melanocytic benign skin tumors in children, some of which require surgical treatment.
  • Pilomatrixomas appear to be the most frequent benign tumors; there are also high frequencies of infundibular cysts, pyogenic granulomas, and viral tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18039019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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25. Rubin AI, Yassaee M, Johnson W, Elenitsas R, Zaladonis J Jr, Seykora JT: Multiple cutaneous sclerosing perineuriomas: an extensive presentation with involvement of the bilateral upper extremities. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36 Suppl 1:60-5
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  • [Title] Multiple cutaneous sclerosing perineuriomas: an extensive presentation with involvement of the bilateral upper extremities.
  • A perineurioma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath neoplasm thought to be derived from cells of the perineurium, the cellular sheathing of peripheral nerve fascicles.
  • The histological, immunohistochemical (positive for epithelial membrane antigen, collagen type IV, laminin and vimentin but not S-100 protein) and ultrastructural features of a perineurioma form the basis for diagnosis.
  • The unusual case presented herein is a 21-year-old woman manifesting more than 30 cutaneous sclerosing perineuriomas on the hands and arms.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19187114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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26. de Prado Prieto L, García Olmos L, Rodríguez Salvanés F, Otero Puime A: [Evaluation of referrals in primary care]. Aten Primaria; 2005 Feb 28;35(3):146-51
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  • [Transliterated title] Evaluación de la demanda derivada en atención primaria.
  • The most common conditions referred, 25.6% of all referrals, are gynecologist check, blindness, other illnesses of subcutaneous cellular tissue, arthrosis, joint pain, diabetes, benign neoplasm of skin, depression and hypoacusis.

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  • (PMID = 15737271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6567
  • [Journal-full-title] Atencion primaria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aten Primaria
  • [Language] SPA
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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27. Lin D, Kashani-Sabet M, McCalmont T, Singer MI: Neurotropic melanoma invading the inferior alveolar nerve. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Aug;53(2 Suppl 1):S120-2
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  • BACKGROUND: Desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma (DNM) and neurotropic melanoma (NM), rare lesions of the head and neck, often present as a benign-appearing nodule which later progresses to cranial nerve involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / secondary. Lip Neoplasms / pathology. Mandibular Nerve. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16021159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Newman MD, Lertsburapa T, Mirzabeigi M, Mafee M, Guitart J, Gerami P: Fluorescence in situ hybridization as a tool for microstaging in malignant melanoma. Mod Pathol; 2009 Aug;22(8):989-95
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  • Recently, we showed that a targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay could distinguish between benign nevi and melanoma with a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 95%.
  • In the melanomas with associated benign nevi, FISH enumeration was performed separately on the histologically malignant and benign components.
  • On the basis of the criteria developed in our earlier studies, we determined the sensitivity of the assay within the malignant areas and the specificity within the benign areas of melanomas with associated nevi.
  • The benign nevus components were uniformly negative for all criteria.
  • FISH analysis with probes targeting 6p25, 6q23, 11q13 and CEP6 can effectively discriminate the malignant and benign components of melanomas with associated nevi and can be used as an adjunctive tool for microstaging.
  • The assay has high sensitivity for the malignant areas of nevus-associated melanomas and outstanding specificity for the benign areas.
  • [MeSH-major] In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19448594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Badeloe S, Frank J: Clinical and molecular genetic aspects of hereditary multiple cutaneous leiomyomatosis. Eur J Dermatol; 2009 Nov-Dec;19(6):545-51
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  • [Title] Clinical and molecular genetic aspects of hereditary multiple cutaneous leiomyomatosis.
  • Multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis syndrome (MCUL; OMIM 150800) is an autosomal dominantly inherited tumor predisposition disorder, characterized by leiomyomas of the skin and uterus.
  • Cutaneous leiomyoma can easily be recognized and confirmed by histological examination.
  • Recognition of these benign skin tumors can lead to the diagnosis of MCUL or HLRCC.
  • Timely diagnosis is crucial for offering affected individuals and families potentially life-saving regular prophylactic screening examinations for renal tumors.
  • Here we provide an overview of clinical and genetic features of this complex tumor syndrome and discuss patient management and current therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / metabolism. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genetic Counseling. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Metabolism, Inborn Errors / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19939761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 4.2.1.2 / Fumarate Hydratase
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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30. Rawal YB, Anderson KM, Rawal SY: Multinucleate cell angiohistiocytoma: an uncommon mucosal tumour. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Apr;34(3):333-6
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  • [Title] Multinucleate cell angiohistiocytoma: an uncommon mucosal tumour.
  • Multinucleate cell angiohistiocytoma (MCAH) is an uncommon benign soft-tissue lesion with characteristic histological and immunohistochemical features.
  • It is unclear if it represents a benign neoplasm or a reactive/inflammatory process.
  • The overwhelming majority of these tumors have been described on cutaneous surfaces.
  • One case has been reported on the skin of the lip.
  • Because of the benign nature of this lesion, a conservative approach is recommended in its management.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19040523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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31. Golod O, Soriano T, Craft N: Palisaded encapsulated neuroma--a classic presentation of a commonly misdiagnosed neural tumor. J Drugs Dermatol; 2005 Jan-Feb;4(1):92-4
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  • [Title] Palisaded encapsulated neuroma--a classic presentation of a commonly misdiagnosed neural tumor.
  • We present a case report of a classical presentation of palisaded encapsulated neuroma (PEN) of the skin occurring on the nasolabial crease and a review of the literature.
  • Histologic examination revealed a well-circumscribed dermal nodule of small spindle cells with wavy nuclei arranged in fascicles, consistent with the diagnosis of PEN.
  • PEN is a previously described, benign cutaneous neural tumour, with a histological appearance between that of a neurofibroma and a schwannoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15696992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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32. Taube JM, Begum S, Shi C, Eshleman JR, Westra WH: Benign nodal nevi frequently harbor the activating V600E BRAF mutation. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Apr;33(4):568-71
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  • [Title] Benign nodal nevi frequently harbor the activating V600E BRAF mutation.
  • Mutational activation of the BRAF oncogene is the most common genetic alteration in cutaneous melanoma.
  • Nodal nevi are small aggregates of benign nevus cells that are commonly encountered in the SLNs of patients with melanoma.
  • Novel strategies that rely on detection of putative melanoma-specific markers for the diagnosis of micrometastatic melanoma in SLNs need to take into account the molecular genetic profile of the benign nodal nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / diagnosis. Mutation, Missense. Nevus / diagnosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult


33. Michailidou C, Jones M, Walker P, Kamarashev J, Kelly A, Hurlstone AF: Dissecting the roles of Raf- and PI3K-signalling pathways in melanoma formation and progression in a zebrafish model. Dis Model Mech; 2009 Jul-Aug;2(7-8):399-411
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  • Deregulated Ras signalling is implicated in most human neoplasia, exemplified by melanoma.
  • Whereas Raf activation occurs almost ubiquitously in benign and malignant melanocytic neoplasms, implying an involvement in tumour initiation, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation occurs predominantly in malignant neoplasms, implying an involvement in malignant progression.
  • Misexpression of effector-domain mutants of V12RAS, or of various downstream effectors, confirmed a selective role for the Raf-Mek-Erk pathway in initiating neoplasia, but highlighted the requirement for additional Ras effector pathways for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line. Disease Models, Animal. Disease Progression. Humans. Mice. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Protein Isoforms. Signal Transduction. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Zebrafish

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  • (PMID = 19470611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-8411
  • [Journal-full-title] Disease models & mechanisms
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis Model Mech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / raf Kinases
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34. Aloia TA, Gershenwald JE, Andtbacka RH, Johnson MM, Schacherer CW, Ng CS, Cormier JN, Lee JE, Ross MI, Mansfield PF: Utility of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging staging before completion lymphadenectomy in patients with sentinel lymph node-positive melanoma. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jun 20;24(18):2858-65
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  • To determine which prognostic factors were associated with SDM, associations between final staging outcomes and clinicopathologic variables, including SLN tumor burden, were analyzed.
  • In eight of these patients, further diagnostic studies determined that these abnormalities were benign.
  • Detection of SDM was associated with primary tumor thickness (P = .011), ulceration (P = .018), and SLN tumor burden (P = .018).
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the vast majority of asymptomatic patients with a new diagnosis of microscopic SLN-positive melanoma do not harbor radiologically detectable SDM and can proceed to completion lymph node dissection without immediate CT or MRI staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2006 Nov 10;24(32):5178; author reply 5178 [17093288.001]
  • (PMID = 16782925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA93459
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Gil T, Sabo E, Kerner H, Metanes I, Har-Shai Y: Atypical fibroxanthoma of the scalp following hair transplantation in a 35-year-old male. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2010 Oct;63(10):e725-8
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  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm of the elderly.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first description in the medical literature of development of skin malignancy on a hair-transplanted scalp.
  • [MeSH-major] Alopecia / surgery. Hair / transplantation. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Lasers, Gas / adverse effects. Scalp Dermatoses / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Skin Transplantation / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20673656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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36. Mentzel T, Schärer L, Kazakov DV, Michal M: Myxoid dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of eight cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Oct;29(5):443-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) represents a locally aggressive mesenchymal neoplasm of skin and subcutis with characteristic clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings.
  • Tumor size ranged from 1.5 to 12 cm.
  • Histologically, a nodular growth with peripheral diffuse infiltration, as well as a diffusely infiltrating growth of relatively uniform spindled and stellated tumor cells containing slightly enlarged nuclei, was noted.
  • Three cases were entirely myxoid, and in five cases more than 80% of the tumor area showed myxoid stromal changes.
  • Scattered enlarged tumor cells were seen in two cases.
  • Immunohistochemically, tumor cells in all cases stained positively for CD34, and in one case each a focal expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) was noted.
  • In conclusion, myxoid DFSP represents a very rare morphologic variant with characteristic changes that has to be distinguished from benign and malignant myxoid mesenchymal neoplasms as superficial angiomyxoma, superficial acral fibromyxoma, myxoid solitary fibrous tumor, myxoid perineurioma, low-grade myxofibrosarcoma, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma, and myxoid synovial sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatofibrosarcoma / immunology. Dermatofibrosarcoma / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Collagen Type I / genetics. Collagen Type I / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Fusion / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis / metabolism. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17890911.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis; 0 / collagen type I, alpha 1 chain
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37. Sidoroff A: [Epidemiology of cutaneous vascular neoplasms and malformations in childhood]. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir; 2009 Apr;41(2):65-9
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  • [Title] [Epidemiology of cutaneous vascular neoplasms and malformations in childhood].
  • PURPOSE: A representative compilation of data on the incidence and prevalence of benign cutaneous vascular neoplasms and malformations in childhood has been made.
  • [MeSH-major] Arteriovenous Malformations / epidemiology. Hemangioma / epidemiology. Skin / blood supply. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Austria. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Health Surveys. Hemangioma, Capillary / epidemiology. Hemangioma, Cavernous / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Infant, Premature, Diseases / epidemiology. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Port-Wine Stain / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19180424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3980
  • [Journal-full-title] Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, plastische Chirurgie : Organ der Deutschsprachigen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Handchirurgie : Organ der Deutschsprachigen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Mikrochirurgie der Peripheren Nerven und Gefässe : Organ der Vereinigung der Deutschen Plastischen Chirurgen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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38. Mendis D, Bott SR, Davies JH: Subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma of the frenulum. ScientificWorldJournal; 2005 Aug 1;5:571-5
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  • We record the case of a patient who presented with a 2-year history of a seemingly indolent penile skin lesion.
  • On histopathology of the local resection, a diagnosis of subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma was made.
  • Our case was of a lesion that, although clinically benign, was malignant and this possibility should be borne in mind when assessing patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Subcutaneous Tissue

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  • (PMID = 16075155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-744X
  • [Journal-full-title] TheScientificWorldJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ScientificWorldJournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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39. Gerami P, Mafee M, Lurtsbarapa T, Guitart J, Haghighat Z, Newman M: Sensitivity of fluorescence in situ hybridization for melanoma diagnosis using RREB1, MYB, Cep6, and 11q13 probes in melanoma subtypes. Arch Dermatol; 2010 Mar;146(3):273-8
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  • [Title] Sensitivity of fluorescence in situ hybridization for melanoma diagnosis using RREB1, MYB, Cep6, and 11q13 probes in melanoma subtypes.
  • DESIGN: Blinded comparison of chromosomal copy number changes detected using FISH targeting 6p25, 6q23, 11q13, and Cep6 in benign nevi and melanoma subtypes.
  • PARTICIPANTS: One hundred ten individuals with benign nevi and 123 with melanoma (70 superficial spreading, 28 lentigo maligna, 22 nodular, and 3 acral lentiginous melanomas).
  • The 11q13 gain was more commonly seen in chronically sun-damaged skin and infrequently in non-chronically sun-damaged skin.
  • Clonal abnormalities in chromosome 6 with increased copies of the short arm relative to the long arm are common in all melanoma subtypes, suggesting that isochromosome 6 is common in all variants of cutaneous melanoma subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin D1 / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myb / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Transcription Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6. DNA Probes. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Zinc Fingers

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  • (PMID = 20231497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Probes; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myb; 0 / RREB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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40. Schmid-Wendtner MH, Burgdorf W: Ultrasound scanning in dermatology. Arch Dermatol; 2005 Feb;141(2):217-24
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  • The best established is 20-MHz scanning, which can be used to measure tumor thickness and/or skin thickness when treating inflammatory diseases such as scleroderma or psoriasis.
  • Real-time sonography with 7.5- to 10-MHz probes has assumed an increasingly important role, since it is used to search for and image lymph nodes and subcutaneous tumors in a variety of clinical settings, including preoperative staging and follow-up of melanoma.
  • Ultrasonography is capable of revealing the 3-dimensional size and outline of subcutaneous lesions, for example, lymph nodes, subcutaneous tumor masses or hematomas, and their relation to adjacent vessels.
  • All this information can be combined to help distinguish between benign and malignant lymphadenopathy and to determine the malignant potential of a subcutaneous lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / ultrasonography. Skin Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
  • [MeSH-minor] Dermatology / instrumentation. Dermatology / methods. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Monitoring, Physiologic. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15724019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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41. Datiashvili RO, Izadi K, Centurion SA, Lambert WC, Scarpidis U: Malignant melanocytic trichoblastoma. Ann Plast Surg; 2006 Feb;56(2):208-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Trichoblastoma is an uncommon benign cutaneous neoplasm of the hair germ cell.
  • The pigmented variety of the tumor is rare.
  • We are presenting a case report of a 47-year-old patient with malignant trichoblastoma containing melanin deposits and propose to define this variety of the tumor as a separate entity: malignant melanocytic trichoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16432335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-7043
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Melanins
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42. Liegl B, Hornick JL, Fletcher CD: Primary cutaneous PEComa: distinctive clear cell lesions of skin. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):608-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary cutaneous PEComa: distinctive clear cell lesions of skin.
  • PEComas arising in somatic soft tissue or skin are rare.
  • To further characterize the clinicopathologic spectrum, we herein report a series of 10 primary cutaneous PEComas.
  • Tumor size ranged from 0.7 to 2 cm (median size, 1.5 cm).
  • Eight tumors were located on the limbs and 2 on the back.
  • The tumors involved the dermis and commonly showed infiltration into the subcutaneous fat.
  • Six tumors were composed of epithelioid cells and 4 showed mixed epithelioid and spindle cell morphology.
  • Tumor cells had clear, palely eosinophilic or granular cytoplasm.
  • Multinucleate tumor giant cells were observed in 3 cases.
  • In cases where HMB-45 was positive in fewer than 5% of tumor cells (5/10), microphthalmia transcription factor was positive in the majority of the tumor cell nuclei.
  • Primary cutaneous PEComas are rare and thus far apparently benign cutaneous tumors.
  • Accurate recognition of this entity is essential because of potential misdiagnosis as malignant tumors, especially malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Calcium-Binding Proteins / analysis. Calmodulin-Binding Proteins / analysis. Dermis / pathology. Desmin / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Giant Cells / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Microfilament Proteins / analysis. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / analysis. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Mucin-1 / analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Subcutaneous Fat / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2016 Feb;38(2):165-6 [26825164.001]
  • (PMID = 18277881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Calmodulin-Binding Proteins; 0 / Desmin; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / calponin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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43. Hsieh TJ, Wang CK, Tsai KB, Chen YW: Pilomatricoma: magnetic resonance imaging and pathological evaluation. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2008 Mar-Apr;32(2):320-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pilomatricoma is an asymptomatic, slowly growing, benign skin tumor that is typically located in the regions of head and neck.
  • Our case revealed late enhancement in the dynamic magnetic resonance imaging study that is a common pattern more in a benign soft tissue tumor and caused dramatic uptake in the bone scintigraphy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18379325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Martínez Luna E, Rebollo Domínguez N, Vega Memije ME, Arenas R: [Vulvar syringoma: a report of two cases]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2006 May;74(5):273-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Siringomas vulvares: informe de dos casos.
  • Syringoma is a benign neoplasm of eccrine origin.
  • Syringomas involving the genitalia are rare, they present as multiple, bilateral, skin-colored papules over the labia majora.
  • The lesions should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple papular lesions of the vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Syringoma / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16972525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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45. Shaker O, Youssef R: Role of apoptosis stimulus factor and its ligand in the induction of apoptosis in some ultraviolet induced diseases. Dermatol Online J; 2006;12(3):4
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  • BACKGROUND: Fas (factor of apoptosis stimulus) is one of the death receptors belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of receptors.
  • AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of Fas and Fas-L in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) as an example of malignant neoplasm and discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) as a benign skin disease, which are both induced by UV.
  • CONCLUSION: Over-expression of Fas-L and lack of expression of Fas by tumor cells together with other factors act in favor of BCC by helping its survival and progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid / metabolism. Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid / pathology. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Necrosis Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Fas Ligand Protein. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / metabolism. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16638418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factors
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46. Vetter CS, Müller-Blech K, Schrama D, Bröcker EB, Becker JC: Cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of survivin in melanocytic skin lesions. Arch Dermatol Res; 2005 Jul;297(1):26-30
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  • [Title] Cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of survivin in melanocytic skin lesions.
  • While the human survivin gene is highly expressed in the developing fetus, in adults its expression is restricted to highly proliferating normal tissues and neoplastic tumors tissues.
  • In the present study, we compared the expression of survivin in melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions such as junctional, compound, dermal, congenital, blue and spitz nevi.
  • Our data demonstrate that although survivin is expressed in a large number of benign nevi, the balance between its cytoplasmic and nuclear expression was immensely heterogeneous between lesions with suspected different developmental origins.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Melanoma / chemistry. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Nevus / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15906050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-3696
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dermatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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47. Avilés-Izquierdo JA, Velázquez-Tarjuelo D, Lecona-Echevarría M, Lázaro-Ochaita P: [Dermoscopic features of eccrine poroma]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 Mar;100(2):133-6
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  • Eccrine poroma is a benign adnexal neoplasm that clinically may mimic malignant skin tumors such as squamous cell carcinoma and amelanotic melanoma.
  • Dermoscopy can improve the clinical diagnosis of this benign adnexal skin tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Dermoscopy. Foot Diseases / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Buttocks. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19445878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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48. Carter JJ, Kaur MR, Hargitai B, Brown R, Slator R, Abdullah A: Congenital desmoplastic trichoepithelioma. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2007 Sep;32(5):522-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma (DT) is a rare benign adnexal neoplasm considered to have follicular differentiation.
  • The most common site of occurrence is the face, usually on the cheek.
  • Histology and immunohistochemistry of incisional biopsies of the lesions were consistent with a diagnosis of DT.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Rare Diseases / congenital

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  • (PMID = 17459070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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49. Markou K, Karasmanis I, Vlachtsis K, Petridis D, Nikolaou A, Vital V: Primary pleomorphic adenoma of the external ear canal. Report of a case and literature review. Am J Otolaryngol; 2008 Mar-Apr;29(2):142-6
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  • INTRODUCTION: Primary neoplasms of the external ear canal are rare, and 5% of these tumors are of glandular origin.
  • Ceruminal glands are modified sweat glands of the skin of the external auditory meatus that may give rise to (a) benign tumors such as ceruminous adenoma, pleomorphic adenoma, and syringocystadenoma papilliferum, and (b) malignant tumors such as ceruminous adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • These tumors are very rare and usually have a benign course.
  • The patient underwent modified radical mastoidectomy and complete resection of the tumor and the entire skin of the external auditory canal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pleomorphic adenoma is an extremely rare tumor arising from the ceruminal glands of the external ear canal.
  • Nonspecific presentation and difficult histologic diagnosis characterize this benign neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Ear, External / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18314029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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50. Repertinger S, Wang J, Adickes E, Sarma DP: Melanoma in-situ arising in seborrheic keratosis: a case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):263
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  • BACKGROUND: Seborrheic keratosis is a very common benign skin tumor in man.
  • Melanoma is rare but is the most dreaded of all malignant skin tumors.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: An-86-year-old male with a history of multiple actinic keratoses and seborrheic keratoses of the head and trunk presented with a mid-back skin lesion.

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  • [Cites] Australas J Dermatol. 2006 May;47(2):109-13 [16637806.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 May;42(5 Pt 1):831-3 [10775864.001]
  • [Cites] Dermatol Surg. 2004 Apr;30(4 Pt 1):559-61 [15056152.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Dermatopathol. 1996 Jun;18(3):278-82 [8806962.001]
  • (PMID = 18947402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2577645
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51. Han JI, Kim DY, Na KJ: Dysregulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in canine cutaneous melanotic tumor. Vet Pathol; 2010 Mar;47(2):285-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dysregulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in canine cutaneous melanotic tumor.
  • To investigate whether the Wnt/beta-catenin signal transduction pathway is involved in canine cutaneous melanomagenesis, 18 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded canine cutaneous melanotic tumor tissues were examined.
  • For analysis of expression and translocation of beta-catenin in canine cutaneous melanotic tumors, semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were performed.
  • Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed a substantial increase in expression of ctnnb1 mRNA in canine cutaneous melanotic tumors compared to normal canine melanocytes, regardless of whether the tumor was benign or malignant.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed cytoplasmic accumulation of beta-catenin in melanotic tumors.
  • The present study demonstrated that abnormal intracellular accumulation and substantially increased expression of beta-catenin are involved in canine cutaneous melanotic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / pathology. Melanoma / veterinary. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Dogs. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. RNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / veterinary. Sequence Alignment. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Signal Transduction. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 20139375.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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52. Marzano AV, Fiorani R, Girgenti V, Crosti C, Alessi E: Familial syringoma: report of two cases with a published work review and the unique association with steatocystoma multiplex. J Dermatol; 2009 Mar;36(3):154-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Syringoma is a benign neoplasm of eccrine origin.
  • Clinically, it manifests as small skin-colored to yellowish soft papules usually localized around the eyes and on the upper cheeks of middle-aged women.
  • In the latter, steatocystoma multiplex, which is regarded as a benign cystic neoplasm of the folliculosebaceous unit or a nevoid malformation differentiated in the direction of the sebaceous duct, was associated.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermal Cyst / complications. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / complications. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Syringoma / complications. Syringoma / genetics


53. Shimanovich I, Krahl D, Rose C: Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski is a distinct neoplasm within the spectrum of follicular tumors. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Feb;62(2):277-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski is a distinct neoplasm within the spectrum of follicular tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Trichoadenoma is a rare benign follicular tumor first described by Nikolowski 50 years ago.
  • In trichoadenoma the cystic component predominates, while desmoplastic trichoepithelioma is a mostly solid neoplasm.
  • LIMITATIONS: This study is limited by the moderate number of these rare tumors available for immunohistochemical analysis.
  • Trichoadenoma is a distinct follicular tumor related but not identical to desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Male. Merkel Cells / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Skin / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20115950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
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54. Wollina U, Hansel G, Schönlebe J, Haroske G: Myxoid neurothekeoma--a painful case in a less common location. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(4):3
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  • Myxoid neurothekeoma is a rare benign asymptomatic tumor of the skin.
  • Most tumors are located on the head, shoulders and arms.
  • We present a 19-year-old female patient with a relapsing tumor of this type in a less common localization, i.e., lower trunk, and with painful sensations under mechanical pressure.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurothekeoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Back. Biomarkers, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pain / etiology. S100 Proteins / analysis. Subcutaneous Tissue. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19450396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins
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55. Matcham NJ, Andronikou S, Sibson K, Ramani P, Grier D: Systemic juvenile xanthogranulomatosis imitating a malignant abdominal wall tumor with lung metastases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2007 Jan;29(1):72-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Systemic juvenile xanthogranulomatosis imitating a malignant abdominal wall tumor with lung metastases.
  • Juvenile xanthogranulomatosis (JXG) is a rare benign condition, which usually presents with characteristic skin lesions and can be diagnosed clinically.
  • In particular, systemic disease presenting without skin lesions is unusual.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / radiography. Abdominal Wall. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed. Xanthogranuloma, Juvenile / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sarcoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17230073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Schittek B, Psenner K, Sauer B, Meier F, Iftner T, Garbe C: The increased expression of Y box-binding protein 1 in melanoma stimulates proliferation and tumor invasion, antagonizes apoptosis and enhances chemoresistance. Int J Cancer; 2007 May 15;120(10):2110-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The increased expression of Y box-binding protein 1 in melanoma stimulates proliferation and tumor invasion, antagonizes apoptosis and enhances chemoresistance.
  • In previous studies we identified the transcription/translation factor Y-box-binding protein (YB-1) as a gene that is upregulated in primary melanoma and melanoma metastases when compared to benign melanocytic nevi.
  • Our data indicate that compared to benign melanocytes YB-1 expression is increased in melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo and that YB-1 is translocated into the nucleus in invasive and metastatic melanoma cells.
  • In addition, migration and invasion of melanoma cells in monolayer and in a three-dimensional skin reconstruct in vitro was significantly reduced.
  • These data suggest that YB-1 is involved in malignant transformation of melanocytes and contributes to the stimulation of proliferation, tumor invasion, survival and chemoresistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Y-Box-Binding Protein 1 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Growth Processes / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / physiology. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Transfection. Up-Regulation


57. Nasr MR, El-Zammar O: Comparison of pHH3, Ki-67, and survivin immunoreactivity in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Apr;30(2):117-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of pHH3, Ki-67, and survivin immunoreactivity in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions.
  • Differentiating malignant melanoma from benign melanocytic lesions can be challenging.
  • We undertook this study to evaluate the use of the immunohistochemical mitosis marker phospho-Histone H3 (pHH3) and the proliferation markers Ki-67 and survivin in separating malignant melanoma from benign nevi.
  • There was no cytoplasmic staining for survivin in any of the 66 melanocytic lesions and no nuclear staining in any of the benign ones.
  • In benign melanocytic lesions, the Ki-67 index was less than 5% (range 0%-4%) and staining was present close to the dermo-epidermal junction compared with an average index of 27% in melanomas (range 5%-50%) and a generally heterogeneous pattern of staining throughout the dermis. pHH3 and Ki-67 can be useful adjuncts to histopathology to separate malignant melanoma from benign nevi. pHH3 is especially useful to highlight mitoses and to rapidly assess the mitotic activity in melanocytic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histones / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Melanoma / chemistry. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / chemistry. Nevus, Pigmented / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Chi-Square Distribution. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Male. Middle Aged. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18360113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Histones; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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58. Mentrikoski MJ, Ma L, Pryor JG, McMahon LA, Yang Q, Spaulding BO, Scott GA, Wang HL, Xu H: Diagnostic utility of IMP3 in segregating metastatic melanoma from benign nevi in lymph nodes. Mod Pathol; 2009 Dec;22(12):1582-7
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of IMP3 in segregating metastatic melanoma from benign nevi in lymph nodes.
  • Depending on the Breslow depth of the primary melanoma, sentinel lymph node biopsy is considered as standard of care for the staging of cutaneous melanoma, and is one of the most important prognostic factors.
  • The histologic analysis of these specimens becomes difficult to interpret when benign intranodal nevic cells mimic metastases.
  • Insulin-like growth factor-II messenger RNA (mRNA)-binding protein-3 (IMP3), also known as K homology domain-containing protein overexpressed in cancer or L523S, is a member of the insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein family and has been shown to have diagnostic utility in distinguishing cutaneous melanoma from benign nevi.
  • In this study, 43 sentinel lymph node biopsy specimens, including 13 with benign intranodal nevi and 30 with metastatic melanoma (two cases containing both benign nevi and metastatic melanoma), from 41 patients were immunohistochemically analyzed with a monoclonal antibody against IMP3.
  • None of the benign intranodal nevi expressed IMP3, whereas 21 out of 30 (70%) of the lymph nodes containing metastatic melanoma did.
  • It seems that IMP3 is helpful in distinguishing benign intranodal nevi from metastatic melanoma in sentinel lymph node biopsy specimens, and could be a valuable diagnostic adjunct in sentinel lymph node biopsy assessment in which questions arise as to the malignancy of the melanocytes present.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymph Nodes / chemistry. Melanoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Nevus / diagnosis. RNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 19734845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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59. Pérez de la Fuente T, Vega C, Gutierrez Palacios A, Sanchez Lorenzo J, Gonzalez Sarasua J: Glomangiosarcoma of the hypothenar eminence: a case report. Chir Main; 2005 Jun-Aug;24(3-4):199-202
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  • Glomangiosarcoma is an exceptionally rare soft tissue tumor.
  • There are only two cases described on the hand before instead of the benign glomus tumor is usually located at this level.
  • Histochemically the glomangiosarcoma shows features that remind a benign glomus tumor, except for the malignant glomus tumor arising de novo.
  • This neoplasm is considered a low grade malignant tumor with tendency to local recurrence, though metastasis have been reported.
  • We report the case of a 36 year-old -woman with a glomangiosarcoma in a glomus tumor in the hypotenar eminence.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor / pathology. Hand / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16121631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-3203
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgie de la main
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Main
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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60. Velazquez EF, Werchniack AE, Granter SR: Desmoplastic/spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. A diagnostically challenging tumor mimicking a scar: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 6 cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jun;32(4):333-9
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  • [Title] Desmoplastic/spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. A diagnostically challenging tumor mimicking a scar: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 6 cases.
  • Desmoplastic cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are rare neoplasms with an increased risk of local recurrence and metastasis usually affecting sun-exposed skin of the elderly.
  • To expand this clinicopathologic spectrum, we report 6 cases of an unusual variant of desmoplastic SCC in which the "desmoplastic" areas are predominantly composed of cytologically bland malignant spindle cells mimicking a reactive/benign scarring process.
  • All tumors affected sun-damaged skin of the head and commonly infiltrated into the subcutaneous fat and deeper structures.
  • Accurate recognition of this entity is essential because of potential misdiagnosis as a benign process including scar and dermatofibroma.
  • Careful search for atypical features and squamous differentiation, immunohistochemical studies, and, in some cases, deeper sections are required to establish the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cicatrix / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / metabolism. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology


61. Offman S, Pasternak S, Walsh N: Keloidal and other collagen patterns in atypical fibroxanthomas. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jun;32(4):326-32
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  • Collagen deposition is observed in several cutaneous neoplasms and its derivation is variable.
  • It can represent (1) a mesenchymal component of a biphasic tumor, (2) a desmoplastic host response to a neoplasm, or (3) a product of the tumor cells.
  • The result is that collagenous (desmoplastic) variants of many cutaneous neoplasms are well recognized.
  • In regard to atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), conventional wisdom holds that intratumoral collagen is not commonly observed, apart from the rare sclerotic subtype of the neoplasm.
  • The conventional pleomorphic subtype of the tumor was encountered most frequently (67%).
  • (1) Is the collagen part of a host response to the neoplasm or is it a product of the tumor cells?
  • (3) Does it signify an involutional stage of the tumor and imply a favorable prognosis?
  • (4) Is it related to the "sclerotic" variant of the tumor?
  • We discuss the above quandaries and emphasize the need to register this variant of AFX amongst other morphological subtypes of the tumor.
  • The goal is to facilitate accuracy in diagnosis and to promote further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagen. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Keloid / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20514669.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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62. Mahalingam M, Kveaton JF, Bhawan J: Cutaneous neuroendocrine adenoma: an uncommon neoplasm. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Apr;33(4):315-7
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  • [Title] Cutaneous neuroendocrine adenoma: an uncommon neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous neuroendocrine neoplasms are typically malignant.
  • Benign cutaneous neuroendocrine tumors are uncommon.
  • RESULTS: Microscopic examination of a shave biopsy revealed a poorly circumscribed neoplasm with glandular differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Canal. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ear Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 16630184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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63. Pisacane AM, Risio M: VEGF and VEGFR-2 immunohistochemistry in human melanocytic naevi and cutaneous melanomas. Melanoma Res; 2005 Feb;15(1):39-43
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  • [Title] VEGF and VEGFR-2 immunohistochemistry in human melanocytic naevi and cutaneous melanomas.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) play a key role in vasculogenesis and angiogenic sprouting, which are crucial for tumour development and metastasis.
  • In order to determine their possible role in the acquisition of metastatic potential throughout melanocytic tumour progression, VEGF and VEGFR-2 immunohistochemical expression were evaluated in 36 human melanocytic tumours of the skin (24 malignant melanomas and 12 common naevi).
  • Taken together, these data indicate that VEGF production is a common event in benign melanocytic tumours, whereas VEGFR-2 expression, co-localized in the cytoplasmic and nuclear membrane, is associated with progression towards invasive melanoma.
  • The role exerted by VEGF/VEGFR-2, however, seems to be independent of the development of a tumour-related capillary network.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Cytoplasm / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 15714119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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64. Clarke LE, Zhang PJ, Crawford GH, Elenitsas R: Myxofibrosarcoma in the skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Oct;35(10):935-40
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  • [Title] Myxofibrosarcoma in the skin.
  • Myxofibrosarcoma, also known as myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma, is increasingly recognized as a distinct malignant neoplasm of fibroblastic origin with variable clinical and histopathologic features.
  • Myxofibrosarcomas are among the most common malignant mesenchymal neoplasms of older adults, and approximately two thirds develop within the dermis or subcutis.
  • Herein, we describe the clinicopathologic features of four cases of myxofibrosarcoma involving the skin.
  • Three of these cases were initially misdiagnosed as benign cutaneous neoplasms, two as myxoid neurofibroma.
  • These cases illustrate the clinicopathologic spectrum encompassed by myxofibrosarcoma in the skin and highlight the diagnostic difficulties it may present.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neurofibroma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18494817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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65. Mathew RA, Schlauder SM, Calder KB, Morgan MB: CD117 immunoreactivity in atypical fibroxanthoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):34-6
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  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a spindle cell neoplasm of the skin seen typically on sun-damaged skin of the elderly.
  • Though described as a benign entity, local recurrence and distant metastasis have been reported.
  • The percentage of positive cells for CD117 expression among all tumors was approximately 30%.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2008 Aug;30(4):401-2 [18645317.001]
  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2009 Feb;31(1):96-8 [19155737.001]
  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2008 Dec;30(6):640-2 [19033951.001]
  • (PMID = 18212542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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66. Sapp M, Bienkowska-Haba M: Viral entry mechanisms: human papillomavirus and a long journey from extracellular matrix to the nucleus. FEBS J; 2009 Dec;276(24):7206-16
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  • Papillomaviruses are epitheliotropic non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses, whose replication is strictly dependent on the terminally differentiating tissue of the epidermis.
  • They induce self-limiting benign tumors of skin and mucosa, which may progress to malignancy (e.g. cervical carcinoma).

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  • (PMID = 19878308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-4658
  • [Journal-full-title] The FEBS journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FEBS J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI081809-01A1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI081809; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR018724; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20-RR018724; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI081809-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Capsid Proteins; 0 / HPV L1 protein, Human papillomavirus; 0 / Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral
  • [Number-of-references] 80
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS160680; NLM/ PMC2795018
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67. Thies A, Berlin A, Brunner G, Schulze HJ, Moll I, Pfüller U, Wagener C, Schachner M, Altevogt P, Schumacher U: Glycoconjugate profiling of primary melanoma and its sentinel node and distant metastases: implications for diagnosis and pathophysiology of metastases. Cancer Lett; 2007 Apr 8;248(1):68-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Glycoconjugate profiling of primary melanoma and its sentinel node and distant metastases: implications for diagnosis and pathophysiology of metastases.
  • Aiming at more precise detection of melanoma cells in sentinel lymph nodes and better understanding of the mechanisms underlying metastatic spread, expression of L1, CEACAM1, and binding of the lectins HPA, ML-I and PNA, was assessed in benign nevi (n=12), primary melanomas (PTs: n=67), their corresponding sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs: n=40), and distant metastases (DMs: n=35).
  • The highly specific and sensitive L1-11A against L1 and 4D1/C2 against CEACAM1 antibodies are a worthy completion to standard antibody panels for diagnosis of melanoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Glycoproteins / analysis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lectins / metabolism. Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex / analysis. Lymphatic Metastasis. MART-1 Antigen. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Prognosis. Protein Binding. S100 Proteins / analysis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16822608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD66 antigens; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Lectins; 0 / Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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68. Pant I, Joshi SC, Kaur G, Kumar G: Pilomatricoma as a diagnostic pitfall in clinical practice: report of two cases and review of literature. Indian J Dermatol; 2010 Oct;55(4):390-2
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  • Pilomatricoma (PMC) is a relatively uncommon benign skin neoplasm arising from the skin adnexa.
  • Since the first description of PMC in 1880, there has been a gradual increase in understanding of the morphologic features and clinical presentation of this tumor.
  • However, difficulties still persist in making clinical and cytologic diagnosis.
  • The purpose of this article is to create awareness among clinicians on the possibility of pilomatricoma as a cause of solitary skin nodules, especially those on the head, neck or upper extremities.

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  • [Cites] Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2001 Feb;57(2):123-8 [11165649.001]
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  • (PMID = 21430899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3611
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3051306
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Pilomatricoma / dermatopathology / skin nodules
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69. Faller WJ, Rafferty M, Hegarty S, Gremel G, Ryan D, Fraga MF, Esteller M, Dervan PA, Gallagher WM: Metallothionein 1E is methylated in malignant melanoma and increases sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Melanoma Res; 2010 Oct;20(5):392-400
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  • DNA methylation plays a major role in cancer by silencing tumour suppressor genes.
  • Examination of a larger cohort of samples showed that 1 of 17 (6%) of the benign naevi, 16 of 43 (37%) primary tumours and 6 of 13 (46%) of the metastases displayed MT1E methylation.
  • Overall, these studies suggest that MT1E is a potential tumour suppressor gene, whose loss may promote resistance to apoptosis-inducing therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cisplatin / pharmacology. DNA Methylation. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Melanoma / genetics. Metallothionein / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Humans. Microarray Analysis. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 20848733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5636
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / metallothionein 1E protein, human; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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70. Garnier B, Simon E, Dumont T, Sellal S, Stricker M, Chassagne JF: [Goal cell carcinoma: really a low malignancy tumor?]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 2005 Feb;106(1):16-21
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  • [Title] [Goal cell carcinoma: really a low malignancy tumor?].
  • [Transliterated title] Les carcinomes cutanés basocellulaires méritent-ils leur réputation de tumeurs à faible malignité?
  • Although basal cell carcinoma often presents as a fairly "benign" lesion early in its course, it remains the most frequent malignancy worldwide.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 15798647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1768
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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71. Goodson AG, Florell SR, Boucher KM, Grossman D: Low rates of clinical recurrence after biopsy of benign to moderately dysplastic melanocytic nevi. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Apr;62(4):591-6
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  • [Title] Low rates of clinical recurrence after biopsy of benign to moderately dysplastic melanocytic nevi.
  • Of 61 benign nevus biopsy sites examined, clinical recurrence was observed in two (3.3%).
  • CONCLUSION: In this cohort, rates of clinical recurrence after biopsy of DN and benign nevi were extremely low.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20018406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR050102-05; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR050102; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR050102-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS204974; NLM/ PMC2886801
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; biopsy / dysplastic / nevi / recurrence
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72. Naik V, Arsenovic N, Reed M: Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma: a rare multifocal variant with features suggesting trauma. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(9):6
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  • Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma (EAH) is a rare, benign cutaneous tumor characterized by proliferation of the eccrine gland elements closely associated with capillary angiomatosis and proliferation of other dermal elements, such as adipose tissue, hair and epidermis.
  • Clinically, this condition must be differentiated from other angiomatoses and a definitive diagnosis is based upon histology.
  • Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma is a benign slowly growing lesion for which aggressive treatment is not indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Eccrine Glands / pathology. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Friction. Hemangioendothelioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Humans. Lymphangioma / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin / injuries. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19930993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Lee TK, Claridge E: Predictive power of irregular border shapes for malignant melanomas. Skin Res Technol; 2005 Feb;11(1):1-8
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  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The Irregularity Index is a measure of border irregularity from pigmented skin lesion images.
  • This paper investigates the predictive power of these parameters on a set of data with known histological diagnosis.
  • METHODS: A set of 188 pigmented skin lesions (30 malignant melanomas and 158 benign lesions) was selected for the study.
  • RESULTS: The mean values of the four border irregularity parameters were significantly different between the melanoma group and the benign lesion group.
  • A malignant melanoma was 8.9 times more likely to have an irregular border than a benign lesion.
  • CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that border irregularity is an important clinical feature for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Melanoma / classification. Melanoma / pathology. Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Artificial Intelligence. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Models, Biological. Models, Statistical. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 15691253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0909-752X
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Res Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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74. Kaptanoglu AF, Kutluay L: Keratoacanthoma developing in previous cryotherapy site for solar keratosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Feb;20(2):197-8
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  • [Title] Keratoacanthoma developing in previous cryotherapy site for solar keratosis.
  • Keratoacanthoma is a relatively common benign squamous neoplasm that may show spontaneous clearing.
  • Although the cause of the tumour is unknown, there are some reports describing keratoacanthoma following various types of trauma or secondary to other skin lesions.
  • We report a rare case of keratoacanthoma arising in the site of cryotherapy applied for solar keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryotherapy / adverse effects. Keratoacanthoma / diagnosis. Skin Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cicatrix / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Keratosis / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Nose / pathology. Sunlight

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  • (PMID = 16441631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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75. Blomberg M, Jeppesen EM, Skovby F, Benfeldt E: FGFR3 mutations and the skin: report of a patient with a FGFR3 gene mutation, acanthosis nigricans, hypochondroplasia and hyperinsulinemia and review of the literature. Dermatology; 2010;220(4):297-305
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  • [Title] FGFR3 mutations and the skin: report of a patient with a FGFR3 gene mutation, acanthosis nigricans, hypochondroplasia and hyperinsulinemia and review of the literature.
  • Somatic FGFR3 mutations have been found in malignant neoplasms and more recently in several cutaneous elements.
  • In the recent literature, an increasing number of different cutaneous elements have been found to harbor mutations of FGFR3, suggesting that FGFR3 plays a role in the pathogenesis of these elements.
  • We review the present literature, describing studies in which FGFR3 mutations have been investigated in skin lesions: primarily seborrheic keratoses and epidermal nevi, but also other benign skin tumors and a single case of a squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In addition, an overview of the FGFR3 point mutations in relation to each cutaneous element is given.
  • Based on the current knowledge, it seems likely that these cutaneous lesions have a common genetic background.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20453470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / C-Peptide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9100L32L2N / Metformin; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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76. Kim YH, Lee YK, Choi KW, Lee CY, Kim KH: A Case of Trichilemmal Carcinoma Treated with Mohs Micrographic Surgery. Ann Dermatol; 2008 Sep;20(3):157-61
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  • Trichilemmal carcinoma is a cutaneous adnexal tumor originating from the outer root sheath of hair follicle, and it was first described by Headington in 1976.
  • This neoplasm is a malignant counterpart of trichilemmoma, and it has been reported in the literature as trichilemmal carcinoma, tricholemmal carcinoma, malignant trichilemmoma, and tricholemmocarcinoma.
  • Although histologically, trichilemmal carcinoma frequently has maliganant features, it has a relatively benign clinical behavior.
  • We think Mohs micrographic surgery is a useful treatment modality in trichilemmal carcinoma because the final skin defect is smaller than a wide excision.

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  • (PMID = 27303183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1013-9087
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4903970
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Mohs micrographic surgery / Trichilemmal carcinoma
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77. Fröhlich E, Mack AF, Garbe C, Klessen C: Distribution and colocalization of markers for proliferation, invasion, motility and neoangiogenesis in benign melanocytic naevi and malignant melanomas. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Dec;153(6):1159-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Distribution and colocalization of markers for proliferation, invasion, motility and neoangiogenesis in benign melanocytic naevi and malignant melanomas.
  • It may be possible that the distribution and/or colocalization pattern of different markers in the lesions can enable a more accurate diagnosis of melanocytic tumours.
  • METHODS: The distribution and colocalization of markers for proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and motility of the tumour cells were investigated using antibodies directed against actin, cathepsin B (CatB), transforming growth factor-beta, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferating cell nuclear antigen/Ki-67 and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Labelling with EGF may improve the differential diagnosis of melanocytic neoplasias.
  • However, we did not detect a clear-cut increase of markers of malignancy in melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16307652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor
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78. Naumann IC, Cordes SR: Giant basal cell carcinoma of the forehead with extensive intracranial involvement. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2007 Sep;116(9):663-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant skin lesion and is frequently curatively treated with local excision.
  • We describe a case of a recurrent BCC that aggressively grew from the forehead skin through the skull and into the frontal lobe.
  • Despite its fairly benign growth pattern, BCC should never be underestimated, and care should be taken not only in the complete primary excision but also in cancer surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Forehead. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Severity of Illness Index. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17926588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Unglaub F, Loos B, Wolf MB, Dragu A, Amann K, Horch RE: Malignant Natural-Killer cell neoplasm presenting as a mucous cyst on the distal interphalangeal joint of the finger. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2009 Dec;129(12):1613-6
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  • [Title] Malignant Natural-Killer cell neoplasm presenting as a mucous cyst on the distal interphalangeal joint of the finger.
  • The analysis revealed the presence of a Natural-Killer cell neoplasm.
  • This case illustrates and stresses the importance of a pathohistological examination when doubts arise about the initial diagnosis of a benign tumorous lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural. Lymphoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cysts / diagnosis. Fingers. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19084980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-3916
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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80. Manonukul J, Kajornvuthidej S: Sebaceous neoplasms in Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University: a 9-year-retrospective study. J Med Assoc Thai; 2010 Aug;93(8):978-91
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  • [Title] Sebaceous neoplasms in Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University: a 9-year-retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Sebaceous neoplasms are adnexal neoplasms that contain a varying number ofsebocytes, i.e. large cells with lipid-laden vacuolated cytoplasm, soap-bubble in appearance, and crenate nuclei.
  • They are uncommon compared to other adnexal neoplasms.
  • Various sebaceous neoplasms with complex histopathologic features and varying degree ofsebaceous cells differentiation have been described in the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of sebaceous neoplasms, i.e., nevus sebaceus, sebaceous hyperplasia, sebaceous adenoma, sebaceoma, sebaceous epithelioma, superficial epithelioma with sebaceous differentiation, and sebaceous carcinoma diagnosed in the Department of Pathology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University during the 9-year-period between 1997 and 2005.
  • To study the prevalence of tumor transformation that occurs in nevus sebaceus.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective study of all sebaceous neoplasms including Nevus sebaceous, sebaceous hyperplasia, sebaceous adenoma, sebaceoma, sebaceous epithelioma, superficial epithelioma with sebaceous differentiation, sebaceous carcinoma, and all neoplasms containing the term "sebaceous" was performed.
  • All slides were re-analyzed and re-diagnosed, without knowledge of the previous diagnosis or any clinical data, according to the criteria described in the standard textbooks of dermatopathology by Elder, McKee.
  • Comparison between the previous diagnoses and the reviewed diagnoses was performed to assess the initial accuracy of all sebaceous neoplasms diagnosed.
  • In these instances, the clinical correlation was needed for positive diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Two hundred seven sebaceous neoplasms (2.34%) from the 8819 skin biopsies that were taken in the Department of Pathology, Siriraj Hospital during the 9-year-period, were included After exclusion of some authentically non-sebaceous neoplasms, 182 sebaceous neoplasms were found Nevus sebaceus (n=85, 46.7%) and sebaceous hyperplasia (n=64, 35.1%) were the two most common benign lesions.
  • The others were sebaceoma (n=3, 1.6%), sebaceous adenoma (n=2, 1.1%), sebaceous epithelioma (n=1, 0.5%), sebaceous carcinoma (n=26, 14.3%), and one unclassified sebaceous lesion that could not be considered a neoplasm.
  • Tumor degeneration was found in 14 nevus sebaceus in which 21 neoplasms existed, namely, trichilemmoma (wart)-like lesion (n=4), primitive follicular induction (n=7), syringocystadenoma papilliferum (n=3), trichoblastoma (n=3), and one of each of trichoepithelioma, sebaceous adenoma, tumor of follicular infundiculum, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Twenty-six sebaceous carcinomas out of 182 sebaceous neoplasms, occurring mostly on the patients'eyelids, were found The most common sebaceous neoplasm was nevus sebaceus (n=85); the prophylactic excision of this lesion was recommended as tumor degeneration was frequent (14 out of 85 cases).
  • It was very helpful in the detection of sebocytes in basaloid cells in sebaceous neoplasms and among lymphoid cells within metastasized lymph nodes and a discriminant between sebaceous and nonsebaceous neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20718175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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81. Pham TT, Selim MA, Burchette JL Jr, Madden J, Turner J, Herman C: CD10 expression in trichoepithelioma and basal cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Feb;33(2):123-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Trichoepithelioma (TE) is a benign neoplasm that shares both clinical and histologic features with basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • However, it is important to distinguish these neoplasms.
  • Limited immunohistochemical stains are available to separate these two tumors.
  • Cases were analyzed for pattern of CD10 expression by tumor cells and surrounding stroma.
  • Thus, CD10 may be a useful adjunct marker in distinguishing these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / metabolism. Neprilysin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16420307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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82. McGregor DH, Cherian R, Romanas MM, Ulusarac O, Mathur SC, Feldman MM: Amelanotic malignant melanoma: two collision tumors presenting as basal cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma. Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2008;38(2):157-62
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  • [Title] Amelanotic malignant melanoma: two collision tumors presenting as basal cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Collision (contiguous) tumors of the skin can result in misleading clinicopathological presentations, and the choice of appropriate diagnostic techniques may prevent incomplete diagnosis and management.
  • We report 2 cases of collision tumors involving amelanotic malignant melanoma of the back.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Melanoma, Amelanotic / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 18469362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-8080
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical and laboratory science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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83. Tellechea O, Reis JP: Trichogerminoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jul;31(5):480-3
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  • A case of distinctive benign follicular neoplasm previously reported under the designation of trichogerminoma is described.
  • The lesion had the characteristics of hair germ tumors; however, most lobules depicted a distinctive pattern of rounded nests of concentrically arranged clear cells.
  • This neoplasm and the other tumors with hair germ differentiation such as trichoblastoma and panfolliculoma seem to represent the same spectrum of hair follicle neoplasms only distinguishable by their degree of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Scalp / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19542926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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84. Takeuchi S, Takahashi A, Motoi N, Yoshimoto S, Tajima T, Yamakoshi K, Hirao A, Yanagi S, Fukami K, Ishikawa Y, Sone S, Hara E, Ohtani N: Intrinsic cooperation between p16INK4a and p21Waf1/Cip1 in the onset of cellular senescence and tumor suppression in vivo. Cancer Res; 2010 Nov 15;70(22):9381-90
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  • [Title] Intrinsic cooperation between p16INK4a and p21Waf1/Cip1 in the onset of cellular senescence and tumor suppression in vivo.
  • Notably, we found the DKO mice to be extremely susceptible to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced skin carcinogenesis that involves oncogenic mutation of the H-ras gene.
  • Mechanistic investigations suggested that the high incidence of cancer in DKO mice likely reflected a cooperative effect of increased benign skin tumor formation caused by p21Waf1/Cip1 loss, with increased malignant conversion of benign skin tumors caused by p16(INK4a) loss.
  • Our findings establish an intrinsic cooperation between p16INK4a and p21Waf1/Cip1 in the onset of cellular senescence and tumor suppression in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Aging. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 12-O-TETRADECANOYLPHORBOL-13-ACETATE .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 21062974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / H2AX protein, mouse; 0 / Histones; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / Pou5f1 protein, mouse; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
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85. Karl A, Stepp H, Willmann E, Buchner A, Hocaoglu Y, Stief C, Tritschler S: Optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer -- ready as a surrogate for optical biopsy? Results of a prospective mono-centre study. Eur J Med Res; 2010 Mar 30;15(3):131-4
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  • INTRODUCTION: New modalities like Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) allow non-invasive examination of the internal structure of biological tissue in vivo.
  • RESULTS: Of 166 scanned OCT images, 102 lesions (61.4%) matched to the same site where the biopsy/TUR-BT was taken according to videoanalysis.
  • Of all analyzed lesions 88 were benign (inflammation, edema, hyperplasia etc.) and 14 were malignant (CIS, Ta, T1, T2) as shown by final histo?pathology.
  • Furthermore all invasive tumors were staged correctly by OCT regarding tumor growth beyond the lamina propria.
  • Sensitivity of OCT for detecting the presence of a malignant lesion was 100% and sensitivity for detection of tumor growth beyond the lamina propria was 100% as well.
  • CONCLUSION: As a minimally invasive technique, OCT proved to have extremely high sensitivity for detection of malignant lesions as well as estimation of whether a tumor has invaded beyond the lamina propria.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystoscopy. Tomography, Optical Coherence. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Cites] J Urol. 2000 Jun;163(6):1693-6 [10799162.001]
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  • (PMID = 20452899.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3352220
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86. Cash SH, Dever TT, Hyde P, Lee JB: Epidermolysis bullosa nevus: an exception to the clinical and dermoscopic criteria for melanoma. Arch Dermatol; 2007 Sep;143(9):1164-7
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  • Although some of the reported cases have an alarming clinical appearance that is indistinguishable from melanoma, long-term follow-up has confirmed the benign nature of these rarely encountered melanocytic lesions.
  • Histopathologically, a pattern of persistent melanocytic neoplasm was observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Epidermolysis Bullosa. Humans. Male


87. Gatti A, di Meo N, Trevisan G: Dermoscopy of eccrine acrospiroma masquerading as nodular malignant melanoma. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat; 2010 Dec;19(4):23-5
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  • Eccrine acrospiroma, better known as eccrine poroma, is a benign adnexal neoplasm of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Dermoscopy. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male


88. Kinkor Z, Skálová A, Michal M, Janousek M, Kheck M: [Metastasing and relapsing "low grade" adenosquamous metaplastic breast cancer--is there a really indolent lesion? A description of three cases and review of literature]. Ceska Gynekol; 2005 May;70(3):211-6
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  • Due to the aggressive course in two cases, the review of the literature does not concentrate on morphology and differential diagnosis only, but discuss overall biology of this lesion too.
  • RESULTS: Partial mastectomy and segmentectomy were performed in three women 46, 72 and 74 years-old resp. for tumor, which size ranged from 20-35 mm in maximum diameter (mean 28 mm).
  • There were recognized metastases by one woman in two ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes mimicking benign breast heterotopia in one of them.
  • In two women with aggressive course the original biopsy was falsely interpreted, once as phyllodes tumor and secondly as benign sclerosing pseudotumor.
  • It arises in the deep breast tissue and structurally resembles the microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the skin.
  • Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, however, has nothing to do with syringomatous adenoma of the nipple, which is a benign tumor of the skin adnexa.
  • Differential diagnosis includes spectrum of non-neoplastic slerosing lesions and above-mentioned phylloid tumor.
  • The rarity of this neoplasm does not exclude deep knowledge.


89. Buljan M, Situm M, Lugović L, Vucić M: Metastatic melanoma and vitiligo: a case report. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2006;14(2):100-3
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  • This case shows that MM and vitiligo may develop simultaneously, indicating the possibility of similar mechanisms in the destruction of both benign and malignant melanocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Vitiligo / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16859616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-027X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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90. Allen BJ, Raja C, Rizvi S, Li Y, Tsui W, Graham P, Thompson JF, Reisfeld RA, Kearsley J: Intralesional targeted alpha therapy for metastatic melanoma. Cancer Biol Ther; 2005 Dec;4(12):1318-24
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  • RATIONALE: Labelling the benign targeting vector 9.2.27 with 213Bi forms the alpha-immunoconjugate (AIC), which is highly cytotoxic to targeted melanoma cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety and efficacy of intralesional AIC in patients with metastatic skin melanoma.
  • AIC doses from 50 to 450 mCi injected into lesions of different sizes resulted in massive cell death, as observed by the presence of tumour debris.
  • The AIC was very effective in delivering a high dose to the tumour while sparing other tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Alpha Particles / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Bispecific / therapeutic use. Bismuth / therapeutic use. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Half-Life. Humans. Immunoconjugates / adverse effects. Immunoconjugates / pharmacokinetics. Immunoconjugates / therapeutic use. Injections, Intralesional. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tissue Distribution

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Biol Ther. 2006 Jan;5(1):118-9 [16491043.001]
  • (PMID = 16322682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Bispecific; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Immunoconjugates; U015TT5I8H / Bismuth
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91. Marghoob AA, Changchien L, DeFazio J, Dessio WC, Malvehy J, Zalaudek I, Halpern AC, Scope A: The most common challenges in melanoma diagnosis and how to avoid them. Australas J Dermatol; 2009 Feb;50(1):1-13; quiz 14-5
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  • [Title] The most common challenges in melanoma diagnosis and how to avoid them.
  • Due to its particularly lethal nature and tendency to affect relatively young individuals, the timely diagnosis of melanoma remains of paramount importance for clinicians and their patients.
  • Unfortunately, melanomas can mimic benign lesions that are overwhelmingly more common in the population than are melanomas, and misdiagnosis or delay in diagnosis of melanoma can occur.
  • In this review we describe seven clinical scenarios that represent challenges in melanoma diagnosis and discuss potential strategies for avoiding the errors that commonly give rise to those scenarios.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Humans. Malpractice. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [CommentIn] Australas J Dermatol. 2009 Aug;50(3):223-4; author reply 224-5 [19659990.001]
  • (PMID = 19178485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-0960
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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92. Golshan Momeni M, Anavim A, Lin F, Tehranzadeh J: Giant epidermal inclusion cyst of buttock. Skeletal Radiol; 2006 Nov;35(11):864-6
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  • Epidermal inclusion cyst is a common benign soft-tissue lesion of skin.
  • We are presenting a giant gluteal epidermal inclusion cyst that grew to an enormous size, masquerading as a large soft-tissue neoplasm.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging not only displays the size and margins of these well-encapsulated lesions in three planes, but shows characteristic internal features that may suggest the preoperative diagnosis.

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  • [Cites] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2003 Jun;123(5):239-41 [12720015.001]
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  • (PMID = 16520992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2348
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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93. Jiang W, Fujii H, Matsumoto T, Ohtsuji N, Tsurumaru M, Hino O: Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) gene mutations in human gastric cancer with high frequency microsatellite instability. Cancer Lett; 2007 Apr 8;248(1):103-11
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  • Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is a rare inherited genodermatosis characterized by benign hamartomatous skin lesions and an increased risk of pneumothorax and renal tumors.
  • This mutational hot spot is also reported to be a target of mutation in microsatellite instability (MSI) sporadic colorectal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Microsatellite Instability. Mutation. Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Base Sequence. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons / genetics. Female. Gene Frequency. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Poly C / genetics. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16870330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / FLCN protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 30811-80-4 / Poly C; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor
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94. Zyrek-Betts J, Micale M, Lineen A, Chaudhuri PK, Keil S, Xue J, Thomas JE: Malignant blue nevus with lymph node metastases. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jul;35(7):651-7
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  • METHODS: We present a patient with metastatic malignant blue nevus and studies on the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of the neoplasm.
  • Molecular loss of heterozygosity analysis showed different allelic patterns at the hOGG-1 locus between the melanoma and control skin specimens with a varying heterozygous allelic pattern in both the benign and malignant blue nevus.
  • Further study is needed to determine if hOGG-1 mutation or c-kit upregulation play a role in the pathogenesis of dendritic melanocytic lesions (either benign or malignant).
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Glycosylases / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Loss of Heterozygosity. Nevus, Blue. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Melanoma / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Scalp / pathology. Skin / pathology. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17976211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 3.2.2.- / DNA Glycosylases; EC 3.2.2.- / oxoguanine glycosylase 1, human
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95. Samimi M, Maître F, Estève E: [Hyperkeratotic lesion of the nipple revealing cutaneous leiomyoma]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2008 Aug-Sep;135(8-9):571-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Hyperkeratotic lesion of the nipple revealing cutaneous leiomyoma].
  • BACKGROUND: Leiomyoma of the nipple and areola is a rare benign neoplasm.
  • Surgical excision revealed a proliferation of smooth muscle fibres, leading to diagnosis of leiomyoma.
  • This unusual feature led us to surgical excision enabling the diagnosis of leiomyoma.
  • A hyperkeratotic lesion of the nipple may be associated with benign or malignant neoplasms, hamartoma or chronic dermatoses, or it may be idiopathic.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / pathology. Leiomyoma. Nipples. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Esthetics. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Pain / etiology. Skin / pathology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18789291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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96. Hilari JM, Mangas C, Xi L, Paradelo C, Ferrándiz C, Hughes SJ, Yueh C, Altomare I, Gooding WE, Godfrey TE: Molecular staging of pathologically negative sentinel lymph nodes from melanoma patients using multimarker, quantitative real-time rt-PCR. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Jan;16(1):177-85
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  • Previously published primer designs were tested for PAX3 and GalNAc-T and revealed that alternative PAX3 transcripts are differentially expressed in melanoma and benign lymph nodes.
  • PLAB and L1CAM did not appear to differentiate between malignant melanoma and benign melanocytes or lymph nodes in our analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Area Under Curve. Female. Growth Differentiation Factor 15 / genetics. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Middle Aged. Monophenol Monooxygenase / genetics. Monophenol Monooxygenase / metabolism. N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Staging. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 18982394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GDF15 protein, human; 0 / Growth Differentiation Factor 15; 0 / MAGEA3 protein, human; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 164289-47-8 / synovial sarcoma X breakpoint proteins; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase; EC 2.4.1.- / N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.41 / polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
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97. Al-Faky YH, Al-Mosallam AR, Al-Sohaibani MO: Periocular hidradenoma papilliferum. Saudi J Ophthalmol; 2009 Oct;23(3-4):211-3
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  • Hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm originating from the apocrine sweat gland, and is almost exclusively detectable in the skin of the anogenital area of middle-aged white females after puberty.
  • Ectopic hidradenoma papilliferum, which involves the skin away from the anogenital region, is exceedingly rare, and can also affect males.

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  • (PMID = 23960862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1319-4534
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi journal of ophthalmology : official journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3729807
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Childhood / Ectopic / Hidradenoma papilliferum
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98. Moore A, Hendon A, Hester M, Samayoa L: Secondary angiosarcoma of the breast: can imaging findings aid in the diagnosis? Breast J; 2008 May-Jun;14(3):293-8
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  • [Title] Secondary angiosarcoma of the breast: can imaging findings aid in the diagnosis?
  • Secondary angiosarcomas, although rare, are aggressive tumors that can develop in breast tissue that has undergone prior radiation therapy.
  • Imaging findings include cutaneous nodules and progressive skin or trabecular thickening in an area of the breast separate from the patient's original breast carcinoma.
  • These imaging findings may enable the radiologist to suggest this diagnosis, even when the clinical presentation is more benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18476885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Baumhoer D, Pförtner R, Mohr C, Jundt G: Tubulopapillary hidradenoma-like tumor of the mandible. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 Aug;38(8):903-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tubulopapillary hidradenoma-like tumor of the mandible.
  • Tubulopapillary hidradenomas are uncommon benign tumors of the dermis, most commonly occurring in the skin of the head or of the extremities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Mandibular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Curettage. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Jaw Cysts / diagnosis. Male. Mandible / surgery. Mandibular Diseases / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Osteolysis / diagnosis. Osteotomy

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  • (PMID = 19375892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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100. Mendes MH, Souza Lde P: [Recurrent pilomatricoma on the left eyebrow: case report]. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2009 May-Jun;72(3):380-3
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  • [Transliterated title] Pilomatricoma recidivado em região superciliar esquerda: relato de caso.
  • Pilomatricoma is a benign neoplasm originated in the pilosebaceous follicle which appears as an intradermal nodule during childhood, in most cases.
  • It is generally covered with normal skin, reaching a diameter of 1.5 cm on average, and it often shows no recurrence after surgical excision.
  • Eight months after the first surgical intervention, there was a new tumor growth in the region, this time quicker and worsen, with ulceration on the small skin area that covered the lesion, thus leading to malignity suspicion.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyebrows. Hair Diseases. Pilomatrixoma. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Reoperation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19668971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-2925
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Oftalmol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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