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1. Arshad AR, Azman WS, Kreetharan A: Solitary sebaceous nevus of Jadassohn complicated by squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Head Neck; 2008 Apr;30(4):544-8
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  • [Title] Solitary sebaceous nevus of Jadassohn complicated by squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Sebaceous nevus is a benign congenital epidermal nevus.
  • METHOD: This is a case report of sebaceous carcinoma complicated by both basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The behavior of this tumor is very aggressive, resulting in poor prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: All sebaceous nevi should be excised early.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Surgical Flaps


2. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Rütten A, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Jun;27(3):195-203
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  • [Title] Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma.
  • This report emphasizes a carcinoid-like pattern, a previously unrecognized feature in cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms.
  • We report 7 patients with sebaceous tumors in which neoplastic cells were arranged in a trabecular and ribbon-like pattern or formed rosettes/pseudorosettes.
  • Sebaceous differentiation in the form of mature sebocytes varied from almost none to approximately 10%.
  • Although the neoplasm appeared benign architecturally, the presence of cytologic atypia qualified 2 tumors as low-grade carcinomas.
  • We conclude that the carcinoid-like pattern is another distinctive pattern indicative of sebaceous neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrastructure. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15900121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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3. Vazmitel M, Michal M, Mukensnabl P, Kazakov DV: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum with sebaceous differentiation in an intradermal tubular apocrine component. Report of a case. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):51-3
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  • [Title] Syringocystadenoma papilliferum with sebaceous differentiation in an intradermal tubular apocrine component. Report of a case.
  • Syringocystadenoma papilliferum is a benign tumor most commonly located on the scalp or face, and it often arises within a nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn.
  • We describe a 61-year-old man with syringocystadenoma papilliferum developing within a nevus sebaceus with sebaceous differentiation in an intradermal tubular apocrine component of the syringocystadenoma papilliferum.
  • Although some adnexal neoplasms that develop in association with a nevus sebaceus may exhibit conjoint sebaceous, follicular, or apocrine differentiation, reflecting close embryological relations of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit, the feature we report on has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology


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4. Deprez M, Uffer S: Clinicopathological features of eyelid skin tumors. A retrospective study of 5504 cases and review of literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 May;31(3):256-62
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological features of eyelid skin tumors. A retrospective study of 5504 cases and review of literature.
  • Eyelid tumors are the most common neoplasm in daily ophthalmology practice and encompass a wide variety of benign and malignant tumors.
  • In this retrospective study, we report the clinical and histological features of 5504 eyelid skin tumors diagnosed at the Laboratory of Ophthalmopathology of the Hôpital Ophtalmique Jules Gonin, Lausanne, Switzerland, between January 1989 and December 2007.
  • Benign tumors largely predominated over malignant ones, representing 84% of cases in this series, and the 5 most frequent subtypes were squamous cell papilloma (26%), seborrheic keratosis (21%), melanocytic nevus (20%), hidrocystoma (8%), and xanthoma/xanthelasma (6%).
  • Basal cell carcinoma was the most frequent malignant tumor (86%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (7%) and sebaceous carcinoma (3%).
  • For several tumor subtypes, there was a poor correlation between clinical and histological diagnosis, stressing the numerous pitfalls in the diagnosis of eyelid tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hidrocystoma / pathology. Humans. Infant. Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Papilloma / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19384066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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5. Káram-Orantes M, Fonte-Avalos V, Zuloaga-Salcedo S, Domínguez-Cherit J: [Frequency of benign tumors at the Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez". Record review between 2000-2006]. Gac Med Mex; 2007 Sep-Oct;143(5):371-5
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  • [Title] [Frequency of benign tumors at the Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez". Record review between 2000-2006].
  • [Transliterated title] Frecuencia de tumores benignos durante el periodo de 2000-2006 en el Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea González".
  • BACKGROUND: Benign skin neoplasms are defined as autonomous growing tissue unrelated to normal growing of the skin, that persist even after the originating stimulus dissapears.
  • Almost all human beings have a certain number of benign cutaneous neoplasms and many never seek medical attention.
  • The aim of this study was to record the number of benign tumors studied at the Dermatology Department of a medical facility.
  • We included year of admission, number of biopsies, sex, age, tumor location, histological and clinical diagnoses.
  • RESULTS: We analyzed 9,436 biopsies of which 3,765 constituted benign neoplasms; 595 were not included and our total sample was 3,170 tumors.
  • The most frequent tumors according to histopathological diagnoses in descending order were: melanocytic, cutaneous cysts, fibrous tumors, vascular tumors, epidermal tumors, fat tumors, tumors with hair differentiation, neural tumors, glandular tumors, tumors with sebaceous differentiation, cartilage and bone tumors, and smooth muscle tumors.
  • The most common benign tumors were: Melanocytic nevi, epidermal cysts, seborrheic keratoses, pyogenic granulomas, lipomas and dermatofibromas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Melanocytes represented by melanocytic nevi (junctional, intradermic and compound) were the most frequent benign neoplasms, followed by epidermoid cysts.
  • Our results illustrate the most common benign tumors observed in a dermatology department.

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  • (PMID = 18246930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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6. Weinstein A, Nouri K, Bassiri-Tehrani S, Flores F, Jimenez G: Muir-Torre syndrome: a case of this uncommon entity. Int J Dermatol; 2006 Mar;45(3):311-3
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  • On physical examination, in addition to scars from a radical mastectomy and midline abdominal laparotomy, four skin lesions were noted: two on the scalp, one on the tragus, and one on the mid-back.
  • The lesions on the scalp and mid-back revealed lobules of sebaceous cells in the dermis with a minority of surrounding basaloid cells, consistent with a diagnosis of sebaceous adenoma (Fig. 1).
  • Although the lesion on the frontal scalp also showed sebaceous differentiation, there were a greater number of basaloid cells, some with hyperchromatic nuclei and mitotic figures; this was consistent with a diagnosis of sebaceous epithelioma (Fig. 2).
  • No further treatment was required for these benign sebaceous tumors, but their presence defined our patient's condition as Muir-Torre syndrome.
  • Mohs' micrographic surgery was performed on the tragus BCC and the margins were tumor free in one stage.
  • Histologically, this lesion was also consistent with sebaceous epithelioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / complications. Colonic Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / genetics. Aged. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / genetics. Female. Genetic Diseases, Inborn / genetics. Humans. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / complications. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Syndrome


7. Barbarino S, McCormick SA, Lauer SA, Milman T: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2009 May-Jun;25(3):185-8
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  • PURPOSE: To describe 6 patients with syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid and to review the literature regarding this rare eyelid tumor.
  • Nine lesions (64%) were associated with apocrine, eccrine, or sebaceous tumors or malformations.
  • None of the lesions was associated with a malignant neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum can rarely affect eyelid skin.
  • Although syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid can be associated with other benign lesions, no malignant transformation or association with malignant neoplasms has been reported.
  • The evidence suggests that this tumor should be managed with conservative complete excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Syringoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19454927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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8. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation. J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;33(1):2-9
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  • [Title] Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation.
  • To clarify the features of apocrine mixed tumors (AMT) of the skin among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their relationship to follicular stem cells, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of CK15 (LHK15 and C8/144B), which is a relatively specific marker of hair follicle stem cells in the bulge, in 35 cases of eight different benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation.
  • All eight cases of AMT of the skin showed CK15 immunostaining of the neoplastic cells, and all four cases of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, all five cases of spiradenoma, and both cases of cylindroma also showed a focally positive reaction to CK15.
  • None of the other benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation showed CK15 expression.
  • In AMT of the skin, the proportion of CK15-positive cells in the follicular or sebaceous differentiation group (78.8%, average of four cases) was significantly higher than the group without this differentiation (8.8%, average of four cases).
  • AMT of the skin are unique among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their substantial and constant CK15 expression, suggesting that they derive from multipotent epithelial stem cells in the bulge.
  • AMT of the skin with follicular or sebaceous differentiation are considered to show an immature stage of apocrine differentiation still rich in stem cells or to originate from stem cells with an incompletely established apocrine fate.
  • The partially positive reaction for CK15 in syringocystadenomas papilliferum and spiradenoma/cylindroma may depend on the ability to express CK15 in stem cells with an apocrine fate or result from the follicular and apocrine nature of this neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenoma / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16469077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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9. Kamat G, Yelikar B, Shettar S, Karigoudar MH: Pigmented trichoblastoma with sebaceous hyperplasia. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2009 Sep-Oct;75(5):506-8
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  • [Title] Pigmented trichoblastoma with sebaceous hyperplasia.
  • Trichoblastoma is a rare benign trichogenic tumour with epithelial and mesenchymal components recapitulating the germinal hair bulb and associated mesenchyme.
  • Areas of pigmentation and sebaceous hyperplasia were noted.
  • There is a need for differentiation of this tumor which is benign, from other pigmented tumors having basaloid arrangement of cells such as basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / diagnosis. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Pigmentation

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  • (PMID = 19736433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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10. Schmidt AN, Nanney LB, Boyd AS, King LE Jr, Ellis DL: Oestrogen receptor-beta expression in melanocytic lesions. Exp Dermatol; 2006 Dec;15(12):971-80
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  • Prior to the discovery of a second oestrogen receptor (ERbeta), studies with the initial oestrogen receptor, ERalpha, showed no obvious role for oestrogen in the pathophysiology of benign or malignant melanocytic lesions.
  • To investigate the specific immunostaining patterns of ERalpha and ERbeta, benign nevocytic nevi, dysplastic nevi with mild, moderate and severe cytological atypia, lentigo malignas and melanomas of varying depth (Clark) and thickness (Breslow) were studied.
  • ERbeta but not ERalpha was the predominant oestrogen receptor we found in all types of benign and malignant melanocytic lesions.
  • ERbeta expression levels also correlated with the malignant tumor microenvironment; i.e., melanocytes in proximity with keratinocytes>deeper dermal melanocytes in contact with stroma>minimally invasive melanomas>Clark Level III/IV or thick melanomas (Breslow).
  • Discovery that ERbeta expression varies in relation to the tumor microenvironment and increasing depth of invasion suggests its possible usefulness as a surrogate marker for neoplasia and prognosis in malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor beta / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Epidermis / metabolism. Epidermis / pathology. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / metabolism. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Keratinocytes / pathology. Male. Melanocytes / metabolism. Melanocytes / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Sex Characteristics. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17083364.001).
  • [ISSN] 0906-6705
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P30 AR41943
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta
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11. Hatta N, Hirano T, Kimura T, Hashimoto K, Mehregan DR, Ansai S, Takehara K, Takata M: Molecular diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and other basaloid cell neoplasms of the skin by the quantification of Gli1 transcript levels. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Feb;32(2):131-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and other basaloid cell neoplasms of the skin by the quantification of Gli1 transcript levels.
  • BACKGROUND: Distinguishing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) from other benign and malignant skin tumors is sometimes a difficult task for the pathologists.
  • METHODS: Gli1 transcript levels were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of 68 cases of various skin tumors.
  • The tumors included BCC (21), squamous cell carcinoma (13), seborrheic keratoses (8), trichoepithelioma (5), eccrine poroma/porocarcinoma (4), and sebaceous epithelioma/carcinoma (2).
  • Histological diagnoses included BCC, BCC with sebaceous differentiation, sebaceoma/sebaceous epithelioma, trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, basaloid follicular harmartoma, basosquamous carcinoma, etc.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Quantification of Gli1 transcripts by RT-PCR is helpful in discriminating BCC and trichoepithelioma from other skin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15606671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gli protein; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors
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12. Yu DK, Joo YH, Cho KH: Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):6-8
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  • [Title] Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • Trichoblastoma is a rare, benign tumor that differentiates toward the hair germ, the embryonic precursor of a hair follicle.
  • In particular, there were occasional foci of decapitation secretion, as well as cells with web-like and bubbly cytoplasm suggesting seboblasts, and a sebaceous duct-like structure.
  • An immunohistochemical study showed that the neoplasm, or areas in it, stained positive for low molecular cytokeratin, high molecular cytokeratin, EMA, S-100, and GCDFP-15.
  • This is an unusual case of a trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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13. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in neoplasms with sebaceous differentiation. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Sep;33(9):634-41
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  • [Title] Cytokeratin 15 expression in neoplasms with sebaceous differentiation.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that the cytokeratin 15 (CK15)-positive stem cells located in the hair follicle bulge are also involved in sebaceous gland renewal.
  • No previous studies have dealt with the CK15 expression in sebaceous neoplasms.
  • METHODS: We studied the CK15 expression in 30 sebaceous neoplasms including 10 sebaceomas (sebaceoma defined as a distinct benign neoplasm with sebaceous differentiation), 10 sebaceous neoplasms of Muir-Torre syndrome, and 10 sebaceous carcinomas, in addition to that in the mantles of normal hair follicles.
  • Both sebaceous neoplasms in Muir-Torre syndrome and sebaceous carcinomas demonstrated negative or only a focal positive reaction, including the occasional aberrant expression in matured sebocytes, to CK15.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CK15 may be a useful marker for stem cells with a sebaceous fate, and a constant CK15 expression in sebaceomas supported the hypothesis that sebaceoma is a benign neoplasm of sebaceous germinative cells in the mantles.
  • The similar staining pattern of CK15 between sebaceous neoplasms in Muir-Torre syndrome and sebaceous carcinomas may be one piece of evidence supporting the hypothesis that most sebaceous neoplasms in Muir-Torre syndrome are low-grade sebaceous carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Keratins / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Sebaceous Glands / cytology. Stem Cells / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard 2006.
  • (PMID = 16965339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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14. Simi CM, Rajalakshmi T, Correa M: Pilomatricoma: a tumor with hidden depths. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2010 Sep-Oct;76(5):543-6
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  • [Title] Pilomatricoma: a tumor with hidden depths.
  • BACKGROUND: Pilomatricoma is a benign tumor of hair matrix differentiation and has been classically described as comprising of basaloid and shadow cells admixed with multinucleated giant cells and areas of calcification.
  • However, there are a diverse range of histologic features this tumor displays that are often unrecognized.
  • METHODS: The study included all skin biopsy specimens over a 13-year period from 1995 to 2007 that had a histologic diagnosis of pilomatricoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Pilomatricoma, although considered a tumor of hair matrix differentiation, can show cellular evolution toward the other parts of the hair follicle, such as the outer and inner root sheaths, sebaceous and infundibular components and, therefore, can be considered a panfollicular neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20826995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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15. Liang H, Wu H, Giorgadze TA, Sariya D, Bellucci KS, Veerappan R, Liegl B, Acs G, Elenitsas R, Shukla S, Youngberg GA, Coogan PS, Pasha T, Zhang PJ, Xu X: Podoplanin is a highly sensitive and specific marker to distinguish primary skin adnexal carcinomas from adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Feb;31(2):304-10
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  • [Title] Podoplanin is a highly sensitive and specific marker to distinguish primary skin adnexal carcinomas from adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin.
  • Distinction of primary skin adnexal carcinomas from cutaneous metastasis of adenocarcinomas is challenging.
  • In this study, we evaluated podoplanin immunoreactivity in a series of primary skin adnexal tumors and adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin using a D2-40 antibody.
  • The initial test series were composed of a total of 93 cases including 32 primary skin adnexal carcinomas, 46 benign primary adnexal tumors, and 15 cutaneous metastatic adenocarcinomas.
  • We found that variable D2-40 reactivity was seen in all of the primary cutaneous carcinomas including sebaceous carcinomas (10/10), squamous cell carcinomas (10/10), porocarcinomas (4/4), trichilemmal carcinomas (4/4), skin adnexal carcinomas not otherwise specified (4/4), and in the majority of benign skin adnexal tumors.
  • To confirm the initial findings and to further explore the utility of podoplanin reactivity in the distinction of these tumors, we also examined a test set of 35 unknown cases, including 21 adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin and 14 primary adnexal tumors, in a blinded fashion.
  • Our results suggest that podoplanin can be a useful tool to distinguish primary skin adnexal carcinomas form adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin with high sensitivity (94.5%) and specificity (97.2%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Single-Blind Method

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  • (PMID = 17255777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human
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16. Bhadani PP, Sen R, Bhadani UK, Karki S, Agarwal S: Is fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) useful in skin adnexal masses? A study on 5 cases of pilomatixoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Apr;50(2):411-4
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  • [Title] Is fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) useful in skin adnexal masses? A study on 5 cases of pilomatixoma.
  • Superficial cutaneous/subcutaneous nodules, caused by a variety of inflammatory, benign and malignant pathology of diverse origin, are tempting lesion for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).
  • Amongst these, adnexal tumor show considerable overlap, both in clinical manifestation as well as in histopathology.
  • Pre FNAC clinical diagnoses were sebaceous cyst, tuberculous lymphadenopathy, dermatofibroma, reactive lymphadenopathy and lipoma.
  • Other cases were diagnosed as epidermal inclusion cyst with the differential diagnosis of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and skin appendageal tumor of undetermined origin in one case each.
  • FNAC should be followed by excision biopsy to accurately type the epithelial neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17883095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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17. Villalón G, Monteagudo C, Martín JM, Ramón D, Alonso V, Jordá E: [Chondroid syringoma: a clinical and histological review of eight cases]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2006 Nov;97(9):573-7
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  • [Transliterated title] Siringoma condroide: revisión clínica e histológica de ocho casos.
  • INTRODUCTION: Chondroid syringoma is a rare skin tumor that presents as a slow growing, indolent lesion, that is more frequent in male adults and is usually benign.
  • Five of the eight cases were apocrine, one of them with follicular and sebaceous differentiation.
  • DISCUSSION: The chondroid syringoma is usually a small-sized skin tumor, frequently on the head and neck.
  • As a general rule, it is a benign tumor.
  • Some authors have proposed the term of atypical mixed tumor of the skin for those chondroid syringomas with histological traits of malignancy but without evidence of metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17173760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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18. Carvalho J, Fullen D, Lowe L, Su L, Ma L: The expression of CD23 in cutaneous non-lymphoid neoplasms. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Sep;34(9):693-8
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  • RESULTS: CD23 expression was detected in all benign apocrine tumors and in half of benign eccrine tumors, particularly those derived from secretory coils.
  • CD23 staining was seen in 42% (8/19) of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC), while no staining was observed in tumor cells of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, morpheaform basal cell carcinoma and syringoma.
  • In comparison, pagetoid Bowen's disease, melanoma in situ and sebaceous carcinoma exhibited negative staining.
  • CONCLUSION: CD23 appears to be a reliable immunohistochemical marker of the eccrine/apocrine secretory coil and helpful in identifying sweat gland tumors of such origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Receptors, IgE / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Eccrine Glands / metabolism. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17696916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, IgE
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19. Tellechea O, Reis JP: Trichogerminoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jul;31(5):480-3
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  • A case of distinctive benign follicular neoplasm previously reported under the designation of trichogerminoma is described.
  • Small follicle bulb-like basophilic structures, foci of sebaceous differentiation, and areas of infundibulocystic, isthmic, and outer sheath keratinization were also seen.
  • This neoplasm and the other tumors with hair germ differentiation such as trichoblastoma and panfolliculoma seem to represent the same spectrum of hair follicle neoplasms only distinguishable by their degree of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Scalp / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19542926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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20. Motegi S, Tamura A, Matsushima Y, Nagai Y, Ishikawa O: Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid arising from palpebral conjunctiva. Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Mar-Apr;16(2):187-9
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  • The tumor had been incised by a former doctor under the diagnosis of chalazion.
  • Histopathological examination of the relapsed tumor revealed atypical squamous cells invading towards the eyelid skin from the epithelium of palpebral conjunctiva.
  • We performed a total resection of the tumor and reconstructed the upper eyelid by the technique of Mustarde's switch flap.
  • It is important to consider the possibility of SCC in addition to sebaceous carcinoma when we see a patient with an eyelid lesion, even one which looks like a benign condition such as chronic conjunctivitis or chalazion.

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  • (PMID = 16581575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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21. Gerdes MJ, Myakishev M, Frost NA, Rishi V, Moitra J, Acharya A, Levy MR, Park SW, Glick A, Yuspa SH, Vinson C: Activator protein-1 activity regulates epithelial tumor cell identity. Cancer Res; 2006 Aug 1;66(15):7578-88
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  • [Title] Activator protein-1 activity regulates epithelial tumor cell identity.
  • To examine the consequences of inhibiting activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors in skin, transgenic mice were generated, which use the tetracycline system to conditionally express A-FOS, a dominant negative that inhibits AP-1 DNA binding.
  • Older mice develop mild alopecia and hyperplasia of sebaceous glands, particularly around the eyes.
  • When A-FOS was expressed during chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis, mice do not develop characteristic benign and malignant squamous lesions but instead develop benign sebaceous adenomas containing a signature mutation in the H-ras proto-oncogene.
  • Inhibiting AP-1 activity after tumor formation caused squamous tumors to transdifferentiate into sebaceous tumors.
  • Furthermore, reactivating AP-1 in sebaceous tumors results in a reciprocal transdifferentiation into squamous tumors.
  • In both cases of transdifferentiation, individual cells express molecular markers for both cell types, indicating individual tumor cells have the capacity to express multiple lineages.
  • Molecular characterization of cultured keratinocytes and tumor material indicates that AP-1 regulates the balance between the wnt/beta-catenin and hedgehog signaling pathways that determine squamous and sebaceous lineages, respectively.
  • Thus, AP-1 activity regulates tumor cell lineage and is essential to maintain the squamous tumor cell identity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factor AP-1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Hyperplasia. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Protein Binding. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Transcriptional Activation. Wnt Proteins / genetics


22. Sadick H, Goepel B, Bersch C, Goessler U, Hoermann K, Riedel F: Rhinophyma: diagnosis and treatment options for a disfiguring tumor of the nose. Ann Plast Surg; 2008 Jul;61(1):114-20
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  • [Title] Rhinophyma: diagnosis and treatment options for a disfiguring tumor of the nose.
  • Rhinophyma is a benign dermatologic disease of the nose affecting primarily Caucasian men in their fifth to seventh decades of life.
  • It is characterized by a slowly progressive enlargement with irregular thickening of the nasal skin and nodular deformation.
  • Surgical removal of the hyperplastic tumor mass is the treatment of choice for rhinophyma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertrophy / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sebaceous Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18580161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3708
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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23. Yang HM, Cabral E, Dadras SS, Cassarino DS: Immunohistochemical expression of D2-40 in benign and malignant sebaceous tumors and comparison to basal and squamous cell carcinomas. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Dec;30(6):549-54
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of D2-40 in benign and malignant sebaceous tumors and comparison to basal and squamous cell carcinomas.
  • The diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma presents an important challenge to both clinicians and pathologists, as many cases are initially misdiagnosed both clinically and histopathologically, potentially leading to adverse medical and legal outcomes.
  • The distinction of sebaceous carcinoma from benign sebaceous proliferations and other tumors is therefore of utmost importance, and immunohistochemistry may be useful in this differential.
  • We studied the expression of D2-40 (podoplanin) by immunohistochemistry to determine if it can aid in this differential diagnosis and to evaluate the possibility of lymphangiogenesis in sebaceous carcinoma.
  • A total of 36 cases of sebaceous lesions, including 16 sebaceous carcinomas, 7 sebaceous adenomas, 6 sebaceomas, and 7 cases of normal glands and sebaceous hyperplasia, and 17 cases of basal cell carcinoma and 10 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, were also examined.
  • We found no significant increase in tumor lymphangiogenesis by semiquantitative scoring of lymphovascular density per square millimeter of tumoral/peritumoral stroma in sebaceous carcinoma versus benign sebaceous proliferations.
  • However, D2-40 staining showed a different pattern in the benign tumors, which were positive only in the basaloid cells (most pronounced in sebaceoma), versus sebaceous carcinoma, which was either negative or focally positive in a haphazard pattern in most cases, although some cases of basaloid sebaceous carcinomas showed strong positivity.
  • Therefore, overall, D2-40 is, of limited diagnostic utility in sebaceous lesions but may be useful in distinguishing sebaceoma and basaloid sebaceous carcinoma from basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19033927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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24. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Aug;28(4):341-5
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  • [Title] Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation.
  • The conjoint occurrence of follicular, sebaceous, or apocrine differentiations in a cutaneous adnexal neoplasm is a known event, more often encountered in benign neoplasms, whereas reports of cutaneous malignant adnexal tumors with bilineage or trilineage differentiation are few.
  • A new case of a cutaneous malignant adnexal neoplasm with multidirectional differentiation is reported here.
  • A 57-year-old woman presented with a long-standing, slowly growing, asymptomatic solitary tumor the size of a large nut in the coccygeal area, which was surgically excised.
  • Microscopically, the neoplasm was located in the dermis with focal extension into the subcutis.
  • We classified this tumor as a well-differentiated adnexal carcinoma demonstrating combined follicular and apocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Shape. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16871040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Manonukul J, Kajornvuthidej S: Sebaceous neoplasms in Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University: a 9-year-retrospective study. J Med Assoc Thai; 2010 Aug;93(8):978-91
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  • [Title] Sebaceous neoplasms in Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University: a 9-year-retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Sebaceous neoplasms are adnexal neoplasms that contain a varying number ofsebocytes, i.e. large cells with lipid-laden vacuolated cytoplasm, soap-bubble in appearance, and crenate nuclei.
  • Various sebaceous neoplasms with complex histopathologic features and varying degree ofsebaceous cells differentiation have been described in the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of sebaceous neoplasms, i.e., nevus sebaceus, sebaceous hyperplasia, sebaceous adenoma, sebaceoma, sebaceous epithelioma, superficial epithelioma with sebaceous differentiation, and sebaceous carcinoma diagnosed in the Department of Pathology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University during the 9-year-period between 1997 and 2005.
  • To study the prevalence of tumor transformation that occurs in nevus sebaceus.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective study of all sebaceous neoplasms including Nevus sebaceous, sebaceous hyperplasia, sebaceous adenoma, sebaceoma, sebaceous epithelioma, superficial epithelioma with sebaceous differentiation, sebaceous carcinoma, and all neoplasms containing the term "sebaceous" was performed.
  • Comparison between the previous diagnoses and the reviewed diagnoses was performed to assess the initial accuracy of all sebaceous neoplasms diagnosed.
  • Small-sized biopsies or biopsies that possess incomplete sebaceous differentiation, in which the sebocytes were few and subtle, sometimes are difFicult to diagnose.
  • RESULTS: Two hundred seven sebaceous neoplasms (2.34%) from the 8819 skin biopsies that were taken in the Department of Pathology, Siriraj Hospital during the 9-year-period, were included After exclusion of some authentically non-sebaceous neoplasms, 182 sebaceous neoplasms were found Nevus sebaceus (n=85, 46.7%) and sebaceous hyperplasia (n=64, 35.1%) were the two most common benign lesions.
  • The others were sebaceoma (n=3, 1.6%), sebaceous adenoma (n=2, 1.1%), sebaceous epithelioma (n=1, 0.5%), sebaceous carcinoma (n=26, 14.3%), and one unclassified sebaceous lesion that could not be considered a neoplasm.
  • Tumor degeneration was found in 14 nevus sebaceus in which 21 neoplasms existed, namely, trichilemmoma (wart)-like lesion (n=4), primitive follicular induction (n=7), syringocystadenoma papilliferum (n=3), trichoblastoma (n=3), and one of each of trichoepithelioma, sebaceous adenoma, tumor of follicular infundiculum, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Twenty-six sebaceous carcinomas out of 182 sebaceous neoplasms, occurring mostly on the patients'eyelids, were found The most common sebaceous neoplasm was nevus sebaceus (n=85); the prophylactic excision of this lesion was recommended as tumor degeneration was frequent (14 out of 85 cases).
  • It was very helpful in the detection of sebocytes in basaloid cells in sebaceous neoplasms and among lymphoid cells within metastasized lymph nodes and a discriminant between sebaceous and nonsebaceous neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20718175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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26. Baykal C, Buyukbabani N, Yazganoglu KD, Saglik E: [Tumors associated with nevus sebaceous]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2006 Jan;4(1):28-31
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  • [Title] [Tumors associated with nevus sebaceous].
  • Various benign and malignant neoplasms can develop in association with NS, the most common being trichoblastoma, syringocystadenoma papilliferum, viral warts and basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined the clinical and histopathological records of 15 NS cases with an associated tumor which were diagnosed between 1996 and 2004.
  • RESULTS: All cases were adults and 3 of them had more than one tumor.
  • Six cases had BCC, which is a higher incidence of malignant tumor association with NS, than that reported in last years.
  • Trichoblastoma was observed in 3 cases and was the most common benign tumor in our series.
  • CONCLUSION: Clinical features are not sufficient enough to make an exact diagnosis of benign or malignant secondary tumors.
  • Though prophylactic excision for NS is done less in last years, especially adult patients should closely be followed for any new changes evoking tumor development on this congenital lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Nevus / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Scalp / pathology. Skin / pathology


27. Thamboo TP, Tan LH, Tan SY: Expression of Bcl-x in normal skin and benign cutaneous adnexal tumors. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jan;33(1):27-32
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  • [Title] Expression of Bcl-x in normal skin and benign cutaneous adnexal tumors.
  • Little is known about the expression of Bcl-x in cutaneous adnexal structures and benign cutaneous adnexal tumors.
  • METHODS: Tissues from 31 cases of benign cutaneous adnexal tumors (five trichofolliculomas, five trichoepitheliomas, two sebaceous adenomas, five apocrine hidradenomas, five eccrine poromas, five eccrine spiradenomas, and four syringomas) were immunostained for Bcl-x.
  • Sebaceous gland cells showed strong staining.
  • Apocrine gland cells showed weak to moderate staining.
  • No staining was seen in eccrine gland cells.
  • In sebaceous adenomas, the sebaceous cells showed strong staining while the basaloid cells were negative.
  • This pattern is recapitulated in the corresponding benign cutaneous adnexal tumors.
  • Bcl-x may be useful in identifying cells with sebaceous differentiation in poorly differentiated adnexal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Epidermis / metabolism. Epidermis / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Sebaceous Glands / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Sweat Glands / metabolism. Sweat Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16441408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / bcl-X Protein
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28. Cauchi C, Visca P, Donati P, Lopez M: [Skin adnexal tumors]. Clin Ter; 2006 Jul-Aug;157(4):363-76
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  • [Title] [Skin adnexal tumors].
  • Adnexal skin tumors are rare neoplasms that develop from hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat glands.
  • In the majority of cases these tumors are benign, although metastases have been reported in rare occasion.
  • The diagnosis in always histologic and often it is sufficient to report the lesion simply as benign or malignant.
  • When the tumor is large, the Mohs technique can be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17051975.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9074
  • [Journal-full-title] La Clinica terapeutica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ter
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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29. Weinreb I, O'Malley F, Ghazarian D: Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma: a case demonstrating skin adnexal differentiation with positivity for epithelial membrane antigen, androgen receptors, and BRST-2 by immunohistochemistry. Hum Pathol; 2007 Jul;38(7):1092-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma: a case demonstrating skin adnexal differentiation with positivity for epithelial membrane antigen, androgen receptors, and BRST-2 by immunohistochemistry.
  • Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma is a rare tumor of the lower neck occurring in adult men, which follows a benign course.
  • The origin of this tumor has been debated, but it is now believed to arise from remnants of the cervical sinus of His from early development.
  • We describe a case of ectopic hamartomatous thymoma with typical features, as well as multifocal areas of skin adnexal differentiation.
  • These included sebaceous, eccrine, and apocrine elements.
  • Epithelial membrane antigen stained sebaceous cells and the luminal borders of eccrine and apocrine ducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Thymoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17574947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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30. Plaza JA, Ortega PF, Stockman DL, Suster S: Value of p63 and podoplanin (D2-40) immunoreactivity in the distinction between primary cutaneous tumors and adenocarcinomas metastatic to the skin: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 79 cases. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Apr;37(4):403-10
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  • [Title] Value of p63 and podoplanin (D2-40) immunoreactivity in the distinction between primary cutaneous tumors and adenocarcinomas metastatic to the skin: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 79 cases.
  • The distinction of metastatic carcinomas to the skin from poorly differentiated primary cutaneous carcinomas and sometimes primary benign adnexal tumors can pose a significant diagnostic challenge.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of p63 and podoplanin (D2-40) immunoreactivity for separating primary skin tumors vs. cutaneous metastases of carcinomas from internal organs.
  • The 37 primary cutaneous tumors included 14 cases of benign adnexal tumors, 9 malignant skin adnexal neoplasms, and 14 primary squamous and basal cell carcinomas.
  • The 42 metastatic adenocarcinomas all corresponded to metastases from patients with a well-documented history of a primary tumor at another location.
  • We found variable positivity with podoplanin in all primary cutaneous neoplasms including spiradenoma (6/6), hidradenoma (2/4), cylindroma (3/3), desmoplastic trichilemmoma (1/1), poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (4/4), sebaceous carcinoma (1/1), basal cell carcinoma (4/10), trichilemmal carcinoma (2/2), eccrine carcinoma (3/3), microcystic adnexal carcinoma (1/1), adnexal carcinoma NOS (1/1), and porocarcinoma (1/1).
  • Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of podoplanin and p63 immunoreactivity to separate primary skin neoplasms from metastatic carcinomas were 78.4, 100.0, 100.0 and 84.0% for podoplanin, respectively, and 100.0, 100.0, 100.0 and 100.0% for p63, respectively.
  • The differences in p63 and podoplanin immunohistochemical expression between primary skin tumors and metastatic carcinomas to the skin were statistically significant (p < 0, 0001).
  • The results of our study suggest that the combined expression of p63 and podoplanin are a useful adjunct for the diagnosis of skin tumors in the clinical setting of a questionable metastasis and may be relatively specific for distinguishing primary skin tumors from metastatic carcinomas to the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20377670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human
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31. Kazakov DV, Soukup R, Mukensnabl P, Boudova L, Michal M: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: report of a case with combined lesions containing cylindromatous, spiradenomatous, trichoblastomatous, and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):27-33
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  • [Title] Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: report of a case with combined lesions containing cylindromatous, spiradenomatous, trichoblastomatous, and sebaceous differentiation.
  • The histopathological survey revealed a plethora of benign adnexal neoplasms showing apocrine, follicular, and sebaceous differentiation occurring independently and conjointly.
  • By far the most common composite tumor was spiradenocylindroma.
  • Some spiradenocylindromas demonstrated prominent sebaceous or trichoblastomatous differentiation or both.
  • We suggest the terms "sebaceous spiradenocylindroma" and "trichospiradenocylindroma" for these lesions.
  • The occurrence of sebaceous and trichoblastic differentiation in spiradenocylindromas is a further proof that spiradenoma and cylindroma are not eccrine tumors but neoplasms of the folliculosebaceousapocrine unit.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / surgery. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Diseases / surgery. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Sebaceous Glands / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 15677973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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32. Yazdani N, Khorsandi-Ashtiani M, Rabbani-Anari M, Bassam A, Kouhi A: Nasal vestibular huge keratoacanthoma: an unusual site. Pak J Biol Sci; 2009 Oct 15;12(20):1385-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a rapidly growing, low-grade neoplasm of pilo-sebaceous and hair follicle units which most often appears on the sun-exposed skin of the middle aged and older persons with multiple or localized occurrence.
  • This tumor is dome-shaped nodule with a central keratinous plug.
  • The etiology of this tumor is not obvious.
  • The histological features of the KA are often very similar to those of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma; however, the tumor structure usually provides a basis for their difference.
  • For a clinician and a pathologist it is important to consider a benign lesion like Keratoacanthoma (KA) in the differential diagnosis of ulcerated nasal lesions and pay attention to differ it from Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) which has a different and aggressive management.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratoacanthoma / pathology. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Diseases / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology


33. Canelas MM, Cardoso JC, Andrade PF, Reis JP, Tellechea O: Fibrous histiocytomas: histopathologic review of 95 cases. An Bras Dermatol; 2010 Mar-Apr;85(2):211-5
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  • Fibrous histiocytoma (FH) is a heterogeneous tumor composed of fibroblasts, histiocytes, and blood vessels.
  • We conducted a retrospective histopathologic analysis of 95 biopsies, performed over the last 3.5 years, of fibrous histiocytomas to analyze the location, delimitation, epithelial changes, induction of folliculo-sebaceous structures, cellularity, vascularity, collagen pattern, and types of composite cells of the FH.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20520936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais brasileiros de dermatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Bras Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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34. Samaila MO: Adnexal skin tumors in Zaria, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med; 2008 Mar;7(1):6-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adnexal skin tumors in Zaria, Nigeria.
  • BACKGROUND: Adnexal skin tumors share many features in common and differentiate along one line.
  • METHOD: A 16-year retrospective analysis of all adnexal skin tumors seen in a large University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria from January 1991- December 2006.
  • Only two cases had a clinical diagnosis of adnexal tumor.
  • Tumours of the sweat gland were the commonest--41 (78.8%); they comprised predominantly eccrine acrospiroma (17), characterized histologically by solid nests of round to polygonal cells with clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm, forming tubules in areas.
  • Tumours of sebaceous gland were 7 (13.5%); they comprised mainly Nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn (6), composed of immature sebaceous glands and pilar structures microscopically and a solitary sebaceous adenoma.
  • Forty-six lesions (88.5%) were benign and six (11.5%) malignant.
  • CONCLUSION: Adnexal skin tumors have distinct histological patterns which differentiates them from other cutaneous tumors.
  • The commonest variants are those of eccrine sweat gland origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / classification. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / epidemiology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hair Follicle / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18702242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1596-3519
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of African medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Afr Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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