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1. Kang TW, Kang H, Kim HO, Song KY, Park YM: Trichoblastoma in a child. Pediatr Dermatol; 2009 Jul-Aug;26(4):476-7
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  • A trichoblastoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm composed of follicular germinative cells.
  • To our knowledge there is no prior case report of a primary trichoblastoma occurring outside the setting of a nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn in a child before adolescence.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19689532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Yu DK, Joo YH, Cho KH: Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):6-8
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  • [Title] Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • Trichoblastoma is a rare, benign tumor that differentiates toward the hair germ, the embryonic precursor of a hair follicle.
  • In particular, there were occasional foci of decapitation secretion, as well as cells with web-like and bubbly cytoplasm suggesting seboblasts, and a sebaceous duct-like structure.
  • An immunohistochemical study showed that the neoplasm, or areas in it, stained positive for low molecular cytokeratin, high molecular cytokeratin, EMA, S-100, and GCDFP-15.
  • This is an unusual case of a trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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3. Izumi M, Tang X, Chiu CS, Nagai T, Matsubayashi J, Iwaya K, Umemura S, Tsuboi R, Mukai K: Ten cases of sebaceous carcinoma arising in nevus sebaceus. J Dermatol; 2008 Nov;35(11):704-11
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  • [Title] Ten cases of sebaceous carcinoma arising in nevus sebaceus.
  • Although nevus sebaceus is known to develop various types of secondary neoplasms, it rarely causes carcinoma and only 14 cases of secondary sebaceous carcinoma have been reported.
  • In this study, 10 cases of sebaceous carcinoma arising in nevus sebaceus were collected.
  • Sebaceous carcinoma arising in nevus sebaceous predominantly occurred on the scalp (8/10) of elderly women (mean age, 67.7 years).
  • We found several pathological features of sebaceous carcinoma; that is, made up mainly of germinative cells, moderate nuclear atypia without pleomorphism and many mitoses (4-28/10 high-power field).
  • In two cases there were coexisting benign-looking sebaceous lesions at the periphery of the main cancer nodule, and in these lesions p53 showed low positivity compared with the clearly malignant area.
  • There was co-occurrence of another neoplasm in three cases with trichoblastoma, sebaceoma and syringocystadenoma papilliferum, respectively.
  • With these specific pathological and immunohistochemical findings using adipophilin, perilipin and p53, we have to consider the possibility that there is a tendency to underdiagnose secondary sebaceous carcinomas in nevus sebaceus.
  • These clinicopathological features of sebaceous carcinomas developing in the nevus sebaceus seem to indicate different biological entities from de novo sebaceous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Skin / pathology


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4. Finn LS, Argenyi ZB: Congenital panfollicular nevus: report of a new entity. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jan;32(1):59-62
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  • The various forms of non-melanocytic nevi (hamartomas) are usually encountered in pediatric patients, and nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn is the most common to have undifferentiated pilosebaceous units.
  • We report a unique congenital follicular nevus that fails to meet the criteria of any previously described follicular neoplasm, despite the plethora of alternatives.
  • This benign lesion of abortive hair follicles was unassociated with any established genodermatous syndrome or other adnexal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / congenital. Hamartoma / congenital. Nevus / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / congenital


5. Kariya Y, Moriya T, Suzuki T, Chiba M, Ishida K, Takeyama J, Endoh M, Watanabe M, Sasano H: Sex steroid hormone receptors in human skin appendage and its neoplasms. Endocr J; 2005 Jun;52(3):317-25
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  • [Title] Sex steroid hormone receptors in human skin appendage and its neoplasms.
  • Sex steroids have been postulated to influence pathophysiology of human skin through various skin appendages.
  • Therefore, in this study, we immunolocalized sex steroid receptor protein (estrogen receptor (ER)alpha, ERbeta, progesterone receptor (PR)A, PRB and androgen receptor (AR)) in 23 cases of non-pathological skin (male: 10, female: 13) and in 50 cases of skin adnexal tumors (male 24, female 26; 38 benign and 12 malignant).
  • ERalpha immunoreactivity was detected exclusively in basal cells of sebaceous glands of non-pathological skin.
  • AR and PRB immunoreactivity was detected in both differentiated and basal cells of sebaceous gland.
  • AR and ERbeta immunoreactivity was also detected in sebaceous and eccrine sweat glands but not in outer root sheath of hair follicles.
  • In sebaceous gland neoplasms, the number of ERalpha positive cases was significantly lower in skin appendage neoplasms than non-pathological skin.
  • ERbeta immunoreactivity was not detected in any of sebaceous gland neoplasms examined.
  • There were no significant differences in PRA, PRB and AR immunoreactivity between non-pathological sebaceous gland and its neoplasm.
  • In sweat gland neoplasms, the number of AR positive cases was significantly lower in benign neoplasms than their non-pathological counterpart.
  • Therefore sex steroids are considered to play important roles in regulation of non-pathological skin appendage function and pathogenesis and/or development of its neoplasm.
  • In addition, the status of the great majority of sex steroid hormone receptors was maintained throughout the process of neoplastic transformation of skin appendages, except for AR and ERalpha in sweat and sebaceous gland neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / metabolism. Receptors, Steroid / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16006726.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 0 / progesterone receptor A; 0 / progesterone receptor B
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6. Arshad AR, Azman WS, Kreetharan A: Solitary sebaceous nevus of Jadassohn complicated by squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Head Neck; 2008 Apr;30(4):544-8
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  • [Title] Solitary sebaceous nevus of Jadassohn complicated by squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Sebaceous nevus is a benign congenital epidermal nevus.
  • METHOD: This is a case report of sebaceous carcinoma complicated by both basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The behavior of this tumor is very aggressive, resulting in poor prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: All sebaceous nevi should be excised early.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Surgical Flaps


7. Marzano AV, Fiorani R, Girgenti V, Crosti C, Alessi E: Familial syringoma: report of two cases with a published work review and the unique association with steatocystoma multiplex. J Dermatol; 2009 Mar;36(3):154-8
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  • Syringoma is a benign neoplasm of eccrine origin.
  • Clinically, it manifests as small skin-colored to yellowish soft papules usually localized around the eyes and on the upper cheeks of middle-aged women.
  • In the latter, steatocystoma multiplex, which is regarded as a benign cystic neoplasm of the folliculosebaceous unit or a nevoid malformation differentiated in the direction of the sebaceous duct, was associated.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermal Cyst / complications. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / complications. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Syringoma / complications. Syringoma / genetics


8. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Rütten A, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Jun;27(3):195-203
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  • [Title] Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma.
  • This report emphasizes a carcinoid-like pattern, a previously unrecognized feature in cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms.
  • We report 7 patients with sebaceous tumors in which neoplastic cells were arranged in a trabecular and ribbon-like pattern or formed rosettes/pseudorosettes.
  • Sebaceous differentiation in the form of mature sebocytes varied from almost none to approximately 10%.
  • Although the neoplasm appeared benign architecturally, the presence of cytologic atypia qualified 2 tumors as low-grade carcinomas.
  • We conclude that the carcinoid-like pattern is another distinctive pattern indicative of sebaceous neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrastructure. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15900121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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9. Abdulla AN, Covert AA, Grantmyre JE: Scrotal syringocystadenoma papilliferum: case report. Can J Urol; 2009 Jun;16(3):4684-6
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  • Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is a benign rare adnexal skin neoplasm, which in a third of cases arises from a nevus sebaceous and is most commonly found on the head and neck and in very rare instances found on the genitalia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Scrotum / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Syringoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19497181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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10. Pedemonte JG, Degiovanni D, Pusterla D, Reibel C, Di Nucci J, Boccio C, Degiovanni R, Dotta A: [Angiomyolipoma and Lenk syndrome: case report]. Actas Urol Esp; 2008 Sep;32(8):850-4
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  • [Transliterated title] Triada de Lenk como presentación clínica del angiomiolipoma.
  • Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign clonal neoplasm that consists of varying amounts of mature adipose tissue, smooth muscle, and thick-walled vessels.
  • Approximately 20% of AMLs are found in patients with tuberous sclerosis syndrome (TS), an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by mental retardation, epilepsy, and adenoma sebaceous, a distinctive skin lesion.

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  • (PMID = 19013986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas espanolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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11. Manonukul J, Kajornvuthidej S: Sebaceous neoplasms in Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University: a 9-year-retrospective study. J Med Assoc Thai; 2010 Aug;93(8):978-91
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  • [Title] Sebaceous neoplasms in Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University: a 9-year-retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Sebaceous neoplasms are adnexal neoplasms that contain a varying number ofsebocytes, i.e. large cells with lipid-laden vacuolated cytoplasm, soap-bubble in appearance, and crenate nuclei.
  • Various sebaceous neoplasms with complex histopathologic features and varying degree ofsebaceous cells differentiation have been described in the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of sebaceous neoplasms, i.e., nevus sebaceus, sebaceous hyperplasia, sebaceous adenoma, sebaceoma, sebaceous epithelioma, superficial epithelioma with sebaceous differentiation, and sebaceous carcinoma diagnosed in the Department of Pathology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University during the 9-year-period between 1997 and 2005.
  • To study the prevalence of tumor transformation that occurs in nevus sebaceus.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective study of all sebaceous neoplasms including Nevus sebaceous, sebaceous hyperplasia, sebaceous adenoma, sebaceoma, sebaceous epithelioma, superficial epithelioma with sebaceous differentiation, sebaceous carcinoma, and all neoplasms containing the term "sebaceous" was performed.
  • Comparison between the previous diagnoses and the reviewed diagnoses was performed to assess the initial accuracy of all sebaceous neoplasms diagnosed.
  • Small-sized biopsies or biopsies that possess incomplete sebaceous differentiation, in which the sebocytes were few and subtle, sometimes are difFicult to diagnose.
  • RESULTS: Two hundred seven sebaceous neoplasms (2.34%) from the 8819 skin biopsies that were taken in the Department of Pathology, Siriraj Hospital during the 9-year-period, were included After exclusion of some authentically non-sebaceous neoplasms, 182 sebaceous neoplasms were found Nevus sebaceus (n=85, 46.7%) and sebaceous hyperplasia (n=64, 35.1%) were the two most common benign lesions.
  • The others were sebaceoma (n=3, 1.6%), sebaceous adenoma (n=2, 1.1%), sebaceous epithelioma (n=1, 0.5%), sebaceous carcinoma (n=26, 14.3%), and one unclassified sebaceous lesion that could not be considered a neoplasm.
  • Tumor degeneration was found in 14 nevus sebaceus in which 21 neoplasms existed, namely, trichilemmoma (wart)-like lesion (n=4), primitive follicular induction (n=7), syringocystadenoma papilliferum (n=3), trichoblastoma (n=3), and one of each of trichoepithelioma, sebaceous adenoma, tumor of follicular infundiculum, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Twenty-six sebaceous carcinomas out of 182 sebaceous neoplasms, occurring mostly on the patients'eyelids, were found The most common sebaceous neoplasm was nevus sebaceus (n=85); the prophylactic excision of this lesion was recommended as tumor degeneration was frequent (14 out of 85 cases).
  • It was very helpful in the detection of sebocytes in basaloid cells in sebaceous neoplasms and among lymphoid cells within metastasized lymph nodes and a discriminant between sebaceous and nonsebaceous neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20718175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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12. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in neoplasms with sebaceous differentiation. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Sep;33(9):634-41
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  • [Title] Cytokeratin 15 expression in neoplasms with sebaceous differentiation.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that the cytokeratin 15 (CK15)-positive stem cells located in the hair follicle bulge are also involved in sebaceous gland renewal.
  • No previous studies have dealt with the CK15 expression in sebaceous neoplasms.
  • METHODS: We studied the CK15 expression in 30 sebaceous neoplasms including 10 sebaceomas (sebaceoma defined as a distinct benign neoplasm with sebaceous differentiation), 10 sebaceous neoplasms of Muir-Torre syndrome, and 10 sebaceous carcinomas, in addition to that in the mantles of normal hair follicles.
  • Both sebaceous neoplasms in Muir-Torre syndrome and sebaceous carcinomas demonstrated negative or only a focal positive reaction, including the occasional aberrant expression in matured sebocytes, to CK15.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CK15 may be a useful marker for stem cells with a sebaceous fate, and a constant CK15 expression in sebaceomas supported the hypothesis that sebaceoma is a benign neoplasm of sebaceous germinative cells in the mantles.
  • The similar staining pattern of CK15 between sebaceous neoplasms in Muir-Torre syndrome and sebaceous carcinomas may be one piece of evidence supporting the hypothesis that most sebaceous neoplasms in Muir-Torre syndrome are low-grade sebaceous carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Keratins / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Sebaceous Glands / cytology. Stem Cells / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard 2006.
  • (PMID = 16965339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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13. Simi CM, Rajalakshmi T, Correa M: Pilomatricoma: a tumor with hidden depths. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2010 Sep-Oct;76(5):543-6
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  • [Title] Pilomatricoma: a tumor with hidden depths.
  • BACKGROUND: Pilomatricoma is a benign tumor of hair matrix differentiation and has been classically described as comprising of basaloid and shadow cells admixed with multinucleated giant cells and areas of calcification.
  • However, there are a diverse range of histologic features this tumor displays that are often unrecognized.
  • METHODS: The study included all skin biopsy specimens over a 13-year period from 1995 to 2007 that had a histologic diagnosis of pilomatricoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Pilomatricoma, although considered a tumor of hair matrix differentiation, can show cellular evolution toward the other parts of the hair follicle, such as the outer and inner root sheaths, sebaceous and infundibular components and, therefore, can be considered a panfollicular neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20826995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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14. Haake DL, Minni JP, Nowak M, Abenoza P, Nousari CH: Reticulated acanthoma with sebaceous differentiation. Lack of association with Muir-Torre syndrome. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jun;31(4):391-2
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  • [Title] Reticulated acanthoma with sebaceous differentiation. Lack of association with Muir-Torre syndrome.
  • We hereby report a case of a reticulated acanthoma with sebaceous differentiation (RASD), a rare and often mislabeled benign lesion that is characterized by epidermal acanthosis and clusters of sebocytes in a reticulated seborrheic keratosis-like pattern.
  • The presence of multiple sebaceous tumors, most notably cystic sebaceous adenomas and keratoacanthomas, has been associated with Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS).
  • Although very rare, cases of RASD have been reported with MTS, which potentially offers profound clinical significance to this neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthoma / pathology. Muir-Torre Syndrome. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19461247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Bhadani PP, Sen R, Bhadani UK, Karki S, Agarwal S: Is fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) useful in skin adnexal masses? A study on 5 cases of pilomatixoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Apr;50(2):411-4
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  • [Title] Is fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) useful in skin adnexal masses? A study on 5 cases of pilomatixoma.
  • Superficial cutaneous/subcutaneous nodules, caused by a variety of inflammatory, benign and malignant pathology of diverse origin, are tempting lesion for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).
  • Amongst these, adnexal tumor show considerable overlap, both in clinical manifestation as well as in histopathology.
  • Pre FNAC clinical diagnoses were sebaceous cyst, tuberculous lymphadenopathy, dermatofibroma, reactive lymphadenopathy and lipoma.
  • Other cases were diagnosed as epidermal inclusion cyst with the differential diagnosis of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and skin appendageal tumor of undetermined origin in one case each.
  • FNAC should be followed by excision biopsy to accurately type the epithelial neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17883095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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16. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Aug;28(4):341-5
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  • [Title] Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation.
  • The conjoint occurrence of follicular, sebaceous, or apocrine differentiations in a cutaneous adnexal neoplasm is a known event, more often encountered in benign neoplasms, whereas reports of cutaneous malignant adnexal tumors with bilineage or trilineage differentiation are few.
  • A new case of a cutaneous malignant adnexal neoplasm with multidirectional differentiation is reported here.
  • A 57-year-old woman presented with a long-standing, slowly growing, asymptomatic solitary tumor the size of a large nut in the coccygeal area, which was surgically excised.
  • Microscopically, the neoplasm was located in the dermis with focal extension into the subcutis.
  • We classified this tumor as a well-differentiated adnexal carcinoma demonstrating combined follicular and apocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Shape. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16871040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Gerdes MJ, Myakishev M, Frost NA, Rishi V, Moitra J, Acharya A, Levy MR, Park SW, Glick A, Yuspa SH, Vinson C: Activator protein-1 activity regulates epithelial tumor cell identity. Cancer Res; 2006 Aug 1;66(15):7578-88
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  • [Title] Activator protein-1 activity regulates epithelial tumor cell identity.
  • To examine the consequences of inhibiting activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors in skin, transgenic mice were generated, which use the tetracycline system to conditionally express A-FOS, a dominant negative that inhibits AP-1 DNA binding.
  • Older mice develop mild alopecia and hyperplasia of sebaceous glands, particularly around the eyes.
  • When A-FOS was expressed during chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis, mice do not develop characteristic benign and malignant squamous lesions but instead develop benign sebaceous adenomas containing a signature mutation in the H-ras proto-oncogene.
  • Inhibiting AP-1 activity after tumor formation caused squamous tumors to transdifferentiate into sebaceous tumors.
  • Furthermore, reactivating AP-1 in sebaceous tumors results in a reciprocal transdifferentiation into squamous tumors.
  • In both cases of transdifferentiation, individual cells express molecular markers for both cell types, indicating individual tumor cells have the capacity to express multiple lineages.
  • Molecular characterization of cultured keratinocytes and tumor material indicates that AP-1 regulates the balance between the wnt/beta-catenin and hedgehog signaling pathways that determine squamous and sebaceous lineages, respectively.
  • Thus, AP-1 activity regulates tumor cell lineage and is essential to maintain the squamous tumor cell identity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factor AP-1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Hyperplasia. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Protein Binding. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Transcriptional Activation. Wnt Proteins / genetics


18. Barbarino S, McCormick SA, Lauer SA, Milman T: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2009 May-Jun;25(3):185-8
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  • PURPOSE: To describe 6 patients with syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid and to review the literature regarding this rare eyelid tumor.
  • Nine lesions (64%) were associated with apocrine, eccrine, or sebaceous tumors or malformations.
  • None of the lesions was associated with a malignant neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum can rarely affect eyelid skin.
  • Although syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid can be associated with other benign lesions, no malignant transformation or association with malignant neoplasms has been reported.
  • The evidence suggests that this tumor should be managed with conservative complete excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Syringoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19454927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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19. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation. J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;33(1):2-9
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  • [Title] Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation.
  • To clarify the features of apocrine mixed tumors (AMT) of the skin among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their relationship to follicular stem cells, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of CK15 (LHK15 and C8/144B), which is a relatively specific marker of hair follicle stem cells in the bulge, in 35 cases of eight different benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation.
  • All eight cases of AMT of the skin showed CK15 immunostaining of the neoplastic cells, and all four cases of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, all five cases of spiradenoma, and both cases of cylindroma also showed a focally positive reaction to CK15.
  • None of the other benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation showed CK15 expression.
  • In AMT of the skin, the proportion of CK15-positive cells in the follicular or sebaceous differentiation group (78.8%, average of four cases) was significantly higher than the group without this differentiation (8.8%, average of four cases).
  • AMT of the skin are unique among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their substantial and constant CK15 expression, suggesting that they derive from multipotent epithelial stem cells in the bulge.
  • AMT of the skin with follicular or sebaceous differentiation are considered to show an immature stage of apocrine differentiation still rich in stem cells or to originate from stem cells with an incompletely established apocrine fate.
  • The partially positive reaction for CK15 in syringocystadenomas papilliferum and spiradenoma/cylindroma may depend on the ability to express CK15 in stem cells with an apocrine fate or result from the follicular and apocrine nature of this neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenoma / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16469077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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20. Yazdani N, Khorsandi-Ashtiani M, Rabbani-Anari M, Bassam A, Kouhi A: Nasal vestibular huge keratoacanthoma: an unusual site. Pak J Biol Sci; 2009 Oct 15;12(20):1385-7
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  • Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a rapidly growing, low-grade neoplasm of pilo-sebaceous and hair follicle units which most often appears on the sun-exposed skin of the middle aged and older persons with multiple or localized occurrence.
  • This tumor is dome-shaped nodule with a central keratinous plug.
  • The etiology of this tumor is not obvious.
  • The histological features of the KA are often very similar to those of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma; however, the tumor structure usually provides a basis for their difference.
  • For a clinician and a pathologist it is important to consider a benign lesion like Keratoacanthoma (KA) in the differential diagnosis of ulcerated nasal lesions and pay attention to differ it from Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) which has a different and aggressive management.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratoacanthoma / pathology. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Diseases / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology


21. Reddy SS, Gadre SA, Adegboyega P, Gadre AK: Multiple pilomatrixomas: case report and literature review. Ear Nose Throat J; 2008 Apr;87(4):230-3
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  • Pilomatrixoma is a rare, benign, circumscribed, calcifying epithelial neoplasm that is derived from hair matrix cells.
  • Based on the results of the clinical examination, she was provisionally diagnosed with either calcified sebaceous cysts or calcified lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / radiography. Pilomatrixoma / radiography. Skin Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18478800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-5613
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. de Leeuw J, van der Beek N, Neugebauer WD, Bjerring P, Neumann HA: Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage. Lasers Surg Med; 2009 Feb;41(2):96-103
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  • [Title] Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage.
  • BACKGROUND: The occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including actinic keratosis (AK) is increasing all over the world.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to use a large area skin fluorescence detection system to detect early NMSCs (clinical visible as well as non-visible lesions) in the face, neck, chest, back and hands of patients treated with UV and outdoor workers.
  • RESULTS: In 93 consecutively referred patients positive skin fluorescence was detected in 61 patients.
  • After histological examination the positive fluorescence appeared to be correlated to benign lesions in 28 patients (sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 22 patients) and to (pre-) malignant lesions in 33 patients (actinic keratosis in 29, BCC in 3 and SCC in 1 patient).
  • CONCLUSION: Diagnostic skin fluorescence using liposomal encapsulated 5-ALA and a specialised computerised detection and visualisation system offers the possibility for detection of NMSC at an early, pre-clinical stage.
  • The technique is well suited to examine large areas of skin.
  • It also identifies areas of most interest for performing confirmatory skin biopsies, as well as pre-operative assessment of boundaries of skin malignancies, and finally, the technique is applicable in the control and follow-up of skin cancer treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Early Detection of Cancer. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aminolevulinic Acid. Female. Fluorescence. Humans. Liposomes. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Photosensitizing Agents

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19226578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9101
  • [Journal-full-title] Lasers in surgery and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lasers Surg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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23. Misago N, Mori T, Narisawa Y: Nestin expression in stromal cells of trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Nov;24(11):1354-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Both trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are considered to be a benign and malignant neoplasm of follicular germinative cells respectively.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was performed with antibody against nestin for 15 trichoblastomas including large/small nodular, retiform and trichoepithelioma types, while adding the superficial type associated with nevus sebaceous and for 20 BCCs including superficial, nodular, nodulo-infiltrative, and infiltrative/micronodular types.
  • RESULTS: In all 15 trichoblastomas, the stromal cells expressed nestin with variable positive reactions, except for superficial trichoblastomas within nevus sebaceous lesions, in which stromal cells were constantly positive for nestin.
  • Among the various types of trichoblastomas, the superficial type associated with nevus sebaceous was found to have the most similar character to either embryonic hair germs or early anagen hair follicles.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Stromal Cells / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism. Endothelium, Vascular / pathology. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Nestin. Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn / metabolism. Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20337823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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24. Glazebrook KN, Morton MJ, Reynolds C: Carcinoma of the breast mimicking an areolar dermal lesion. J Ultrasound Med; 2007 Aug;26(8):1083-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: This report describes the sonographic features of 2 patients with invasive carcinoma of the breast that sonographically mimicked benign epithelial cysts of the areola.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lesions in the subcutaneous tissue superficial to the anterior pectoral fascia are extraparenchymal in origin and typically are benign.
  • The areolar tissue, however, is not extraparenchymal because the dermis of the areola contains lactiferous ducts; these ducts extend from a more deeply placed mammary gland and are associated with modified sebaceous glands.
  • All types of breast abnormalities, including malignancies, may affect deeper lactiferous glands and ducts and extend into the areola, independent of nipple involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / ultrasonography. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Ultrasonography, Mammary
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Skin Diseases / pathology. Skin Diseases / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17646371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Tellechea O, Reis JP: Trichogerminoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jul;31(5):480-3
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  • A case of distinctive benign follicular neoplasm previously reported under the designation of trichogerminoma is described.
  • Small follicle bulb-like basophilic structures, foci of sebaceous differentiation, and areas of infundibulocystic, isthmic, and outer sheath keratinization were also seen.
  • This neoplasm and the other tumors with hair germ differentiation such as trichoblastoma and panfolliculoma seem to represent the same spectrum of hair follicle neoplasms only distinguishable by their degree of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Scalp / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19542926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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26. Deprez M, Uffer S: Clinicopathological features of eyelid skin tumors. A retrospective study of 5504 cases and review of literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 May;31(3):256-62
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological features of eyelid skin tumors. A retrospective study of 5504 cases and review of literature.
  • Eyelid tumors are the most common neoplasm in daily ophthalmology practice and encompass a wide variety of benign and malignant tumors.
  • In this retrospective study, we report the clinical and histological features of 5504 eyelid skin tumors diagnosed at the Laboratory of Ophthalmopathology of the Hôpital Ophtalmique Jules Gonin, Lausanne, Switzerland, between January 1989 and December 2007.
  • Benign tumors largely predominated over malignant ones, representing 84% of cases in this series, and the 5 most frequent subtypes were squamous cell papilloma (26%), seborrheic keratosis (21%), melanocytic nevus (20%), hidrocystoma (8%), and xanthoma/xanthelasma (6%).
  • Basal cell carcinoma was the most frequent malignant tumor (86%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (7%) and sebaceous carcinoma (3%).
  • For several tumor subtypes, there was a poor correlation between clinical and histological diagnosis, stressing the numerous pitfalls in the diagnosis of eyelid tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hidrocystoma / pathology. Humans. Infant. Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Papilloma / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19384066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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