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1. Sheehan MT, Islam R: Silent thyroiditis, isolated corticotropin deficiency, and alopecia universalis in a patient with ulcerative colitis and elevated levels of plasma factor VIII: an unusual case of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3. Endocr Pract; 2009 Mar;15(2):138-42
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  • His ACTH level was low, 21-hydroxylase antibodies were not present, and further testing demonstrated otherwise intact pituitary function.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of his pituitary gland showed normal findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Insufficiency / diagnosis. Alopecia Areata / diagnosis. Colitis, Ulcerative / diagnosis. Factor VIII / metabolism. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / complications. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / pathology. Thyroiditis / pathology


2. Kouadjo KE, Nishida Y, Cadrin-Girard JF, Yoshioka M, St-Amand J: Housekeeping and tissue-specific genes in mouse tissues. BMC Genomics; 2007;8:127
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  • The results reveal several tissue-specific genes highly expressed in testis and pituitary gland.

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  • (PMID = 17519037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2164
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1888706
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3. Ghirardello S, Garrè ML, Rossi A, Maghnie M: The diagnosis of children with central diabetes insipidus. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Mar;20(3):359-75
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  • [Title] The diagnosis of children with central diabetes insipidus.
  • Proper etiological diagnosis can be achieved via a series of steps that start with clinical observations and then progress, as needed, to more sophisticated methods.
  • Indeed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents the examination method of choice for evaluating hypothalamic-pituitary-related endocrine diseases due to its ability to provide strongly-contrasted high-resolution multi-planar and spatial images.
  • Specifically, MRI allows a detailed and precise anatomical study of the pituitary gland by differentiating between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobes.
  • MRI identification of pituitary hyperintensity in the posterior part of the sella, now considered to be a clear marker of neurohypophyseal functional integrity, together with careful analysis of pituitary stalk shape and size, have provided the most striking recent findings contributing to the diagnosis and understanding of some forms of 'idiopathic' central diabetes insipidus.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Craniopharyngioma / pathology. Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / pathology. Germinoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging


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4. Davies E, Omer S, Buckingham JC, Morris JF, Christian HC: Expression and externalization of annexin 1 in the adrenal gland: structure and function of the adrenal gland in annexin 1-null mutant mice. Endocrinology; 2007 Mar;148(3):1030-8
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  • [Title] Expression and externalization of annexin 1 in the adrenal gland: structure and function of the adrenal gland in annexin 1-null mutant mice.
  • Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a member of the annexin family of phospholipid- and calcium-binding proteins with a well demonstrated role in early delayed (30 min to 3 h) inhibitory feedback of glucocorticoids in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
  • This study used adrenal gland tissue from ANXA1-null transgenic mice, in which a beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) reporter gene was controlled by the ANXA1 promoter, and wild-type control mice to explore the potential role of ANXA1 in adrenal function.
  • RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed strong expression of ANXA1 mRNA and protein in the adrenal gland.
  • The N-terminal peptide ANXA1(Ac2-26) inhibited corticosterone release.

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  • (PMID = 17158208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/E52708X/1; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A1; 0 / Antigens, Surface; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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5. Cherrington BD, Morency E, Struble AM, Coonrod SA, Wakshlag JJ: Potential role for peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in citrullination of canine mammary epithelial cell histones. PLoS One; 2010;5(7):e11768
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  • Previous reports have documented that PAD2 expression and activity varies across the estrous cycle in the rodent uterus and pituitary gland, however, the expression and function of PAD2 in mammary tissue has not been previously reported.
  • Surprisingly, stimulation of canine mammary tumor cells (CMT25) shows that EGF, but not estrogen or progesterone, upregulates PAD2 transcription and translation suggesting EGF regulation of PAD2 and possibly citrullination in vivo.
  • Use of site-specific anti-citrullinated histone antibodies found that the N-terminus of histone H3, but not H4, appears to be the primary target of PAD activity in mammary epithelium.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Dogs. Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology. Estrous Cycle / genetics. Estrous Cycle / physiology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Gene Expression / drug effects. Immunohistochemistry. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20668670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histones; 29VT07BGDA / Citrulline; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.- / Hydrolases; EC 3.5.3.15 / protein-arginine deiminase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2909897
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6. Tsuchida K: Myostatin inhibition by a follistatin-derived peptide ameliorates the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy model mice. Acta Myol; 2008 Jul;27:14-8
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  • Unlike myostatin, activins regulate the growth and differentiation of nearly all cell types, including cells of the gonads, pituitary gland and skeletal muscle.

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  • (PMID = 19108572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1128-2460
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta myologica : myopathies and cardiomyopathies : official journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Myol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FS I-I protein; 0 / Follistatin; 0 / Mstn protein, mouse; 0 / Myostatin; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type I; EC 2.7.11.30 / Acvr1 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2859604
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7. Zhao LF, Iwasaki Y, Oki Y, Tsugita M, Taguchi T, Nishiyama M, Takao T, Kambayashi M, Hashimoto K: Purinergic receptor ligands stimulate pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression in AtT-20 pituitary corticotroph cells. J Neuroendocrinol; 2006 Apr;18(4):273-8
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  • [Title] Purinergic receptor ligands stimulate pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression in AtT-20 pituitary corticotroph cells.
  • Although recent studies have suggested that purinergic receptors are expressed in the anterior pituitary gland, their involvement in the regulation of pituitary hormone gene expression is not completely understood.
  • Because adenosine and ATP are known to be produced within the pituitary gland, it is possible they may be acting in an autocrine/paracrine fashion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosine / metabolism. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pro-Opiomelanocortin / metabolism. Receptors, Purinergic / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16503922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic; 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; K72T3FS567 / Adenosine
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8. Xu J, Zhang S, You C, Wang X, Zhou Q: Microvascular density and vascular endothelial growth factor have little correlation with prognosis of craniopharyngioma. Surg Neurol; 2006;66 Suppl 1:S30-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Craniopharyngioma is histologically a benign epithelial tumor located in the supersellar cistern that often presents aggressive growth and repeated recurrence.
  • METHODS: The cohorts consisted of 32 patients with AE and 31 patients with SP tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Microvascular density and VEGF in craniopharyngioma tissue have no correlation with prognosis of the tumor, which may be explained by the minimal blood circulation in the craniopharyngioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / blood supply. Craniopharyngioma / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood supply. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16904996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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9. Burri E, Nüesch R, Zulewski H: [Hyperprolactinemia in a man's world]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2008 Dec 3;97(24):1295-9
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  • Ultrasonography of the mamillary gland was not definite for gynecomastia but repeated serum prolactin concentrations were elevated 5-fold the upper limit of normal.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland could not identify a tumoral mass.
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Diagnosis, Differential. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / administration & dosage. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Gynecomastia / diagnosis. Gynecomastia / ultrasonography. Humans. Hypogonadism / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Prolactin / blood. Testosterone / blood. Time Factors. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 19048508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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10. Brym P, Malewski T, Starzyński R, Flisikowski K, Wójcik E, Ruść A, Zwierzchowski L, Kamiński S: Effect of new SNP within bovine prolactin gene enhancer region on expression in the pituitary gland. Biochem Genet; 2007 Oct;45(9-10):743-54
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  • [Title] Effect of new SNP within bovine prolactin gene enhancer region on expression in the pituitary gland.
  • The application of real-time PCR revealed that the prolactin gene expression level in the pituitary was higher in cattle with the AA genotype than in those with the GG genotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Cattle / genetics. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Prolactin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17929163.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2928
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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11. Korenkov AI, Imhof HG, Brandner S, Taub E, Huguenin PU, Gaab MR, Yonekawa Y: Growth retardation and bilateral cataracts followed by anaplastic meningioma 23 years after high-dose cranial and whole-body irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2005 Sep;74(2):195-9
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  • Radiotherapy in this case also caused early radiation injury to the lenses and the pituitary gland, with growth retardation and mineralizing angiopathy.
  • Survivors of childhood ALL treated with high-dose cranial irradiation are at risk both for early radiation injury in radiosensitive organs, such as the lens and pituitary gland, and for the later development of a radiation-induced meningioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cataract / etiology. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Growth Disorders / etiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / etiology. Meningioma / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lens, Crystalline / radiation effects. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Gland / radiation effects. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole-Body Irradiation


12. Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ: Risk factors for pituitary tumors: a case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2009 May;18(5):1492-500
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  • [Title] Risk factors for pituitary tumors: a case-control study.
  • Pituitary gland tumors are usually benign but are associated with substantial morbidity.
  • We conducted a population-based case-control study of potential risk factors for pituitary tumors in Southeast England.
  • Tumor risk was reduced in subjects reporting a past diagnosis of hay fever [odds ratio (OR), 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5-1.0] but not asthma or eczema.
  • Risk was raised in women who were postmenopausal 1 year before diagnosis (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.6-6.2), especially if menopause was surgically induced (OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.2-19.9) or occurred under age 40 years (OR, 7.5; 95% CI, 2.6-21.4).
  • This effect remained when evaluating menopausal status 10 years before diagnosis.
  • No significant association was observed with ever use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, nor with cigarette smoking, past head injury, past diagnosis with epilepsy, or birth characteristics, except for an inverse association of risk with maternal age.
  • This study suggests a raised risk of pituitary tumors in relation to surgically induced menopause, early postmenopausal age, and young age at childbirth, and possibly a reduced risk with hay fever and increasing maternal age.
  • Reasons for these associations need further investigation, but some associations might be due to hormonal effects of an undiagnosed pituitary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19423526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Beyea JA, Olson DM, Vandergriend RA, Harvey S: Expression of growth hormone and its receptor in the lungs of embryonic chicks. Cell Tissue Res; 2005 Dec;322(3):379-92
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  • Pituitary GH is therefore probably involved in normal lung growth or development, although perinatal lung development occurs prior to the differentiation of pituitary somatotrophs and the ontogeny of pituitary GH secretion.
  • A 690-bp cDNA, identical in size and nucleotide sequence to the full-length pituitary GH transcript, was amplified by reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction from total RNA extracted from the lungs of embryos at 11, 13, 15, and 18 days of the 21-day incubation period.
  • Lung GH immunoreactivity was primarily associated with a 15-kDa protein, rather than the 26-kDa protein in the pituitary gland.
  • After the onset of pituitary GH secretion (at ED17), GH mRNA was barely detectable in the lungs of ED20 embryos, at the start of lung breathing.
  • Lung GH may thus have autocrine or paracrine roles in lung development or in pulmonary function prior to the ontogeny of the pituitary gland and the appearance of GH in peripheral plasma.

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  • (PMID = 16047159.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-766X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell and tissue research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Tissue Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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14. Flik G, Klaren PH, Van den Burg EH, Metz JR, Huising MO: CRF and stress in fish. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2006 Mar;146(1):36-44
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  • Key players in the continuous adaptation process are corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) from the hypothalamic nucleus preopticus (NPO), pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol produced by the interrenal cells in the headkidney (adrenal equivalent of fish).
  • Pro-opiomelanocortin is produced and processed to ACTH and endorphin in the hypothalamic NPO and pituitary pars distalis ACTH-cells, to MSH and acetylated endorphins in the pituitary pars intermedia MSH-cells.
  • Interesting observations were made on the CRF control of pituitary cells.
  • Endorphin, produced in the NPO and transported via axons to the pituitary gland in vivo, reverses the stimulatory CRF action on MSH-cells to a differential inhibition of N-acetyl beta-endorphin release in vitro (MSH release is not affected).
  • In carp (and other fish), the endocrine stress axis is already operational in very early life stages, viz., around hatching and comprises hypothalamic, pituitary, and interrenal signaling to adjust the physiology of the hatchling to its dynamically changing environment.

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  • (PMID = 16403502.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6480
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endorphins; 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin; 9002-79-3 / Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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15. Roche JR, Blache D, Kay JK, Miller DR, Sheahan AJ, Miller DW: Neuroendocrine and physiological regulation of intake with particular reference to domesticated ruminant animals. Nutr Res Rev; 2008 Dec;21(2):207-34
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  • Information regarding metabolic state can be transmitted to the appetite control centres of the brain by a diverse array of signals, such as stimulation of the vagus nerve, or metabolic 'feedback' factors derived from the pituitary gland, adipose tissue, stomach/abomasum, intestine, pancreas and/or muscle.

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  • (PMID = 19087372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1475-2700
  • [Journal-full-title] Nutrition research reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nutr Res Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cannabinoids; 0 / Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 388
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16. Ono H, Hoshino Y, Yasuo S, Watanabe M, Nakane Y, Murai A, Ebihara S, Korf HW, Yoshimura T: Involvement of thyrotropin in photoperiodic signal transduction in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2008 Nov 25;105(47):18238-42
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  • Recent functional genomics analysis in birds has shown that long days induce thyroid-stimulating hormone production in the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland, which triggers DIO2 expression in the ependymal cells (EC) of the MBH.

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  • (PMID = 19015516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type II; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2587639
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17. Maddineni SR, Ocón-Grove OM, Krzysik-Walker SM, Hendricks GL 3rd, Ramachandran R: Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) receptor gene is expressed in the chicken ovary: potential role of GnIH in follicular maturation. Reproduction; 2008 Feb;135(2):267-74
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  • Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), an RFamide peptide, has been found to inhibit pituitary LH secretion in avian and mammalian species.
  • The gene encoding a putative receptor for GnIH (GnIHR) was recently identified in the chicken and Japanese quail brain and pituitary gland.

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  • (PMID = 18239054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reproduction
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Avian Proteins; 0 / Hypothalamic Hormones; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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18. Górski K, Gajewska A, Romanowicz K, Misztal T: Genistein-induced pituitary prolactin gene expression and prolactin release in ovariectomized ewes following a series of intracerebroventricular infusions. Reprod Biol; 2007 Nov;7(3):233-46
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  • [Title] Genistein-induced pituitary prolactin gene expression and prolactin release in ovariectomized ewes following a series of intracerebroventricular infusions.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate whether genistein, a phytoestrogen commonly present in feed plants, affects prolactin release and its gene expression in the pituitary gland.
  • Northern blot analysis revealed that pituitary prolactin mRNA content increased significantly in response to genistein, compared to the vehicle-infused ewes (p<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Genistein / pharmacology. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Prolactin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18059975.001).
  • [ISSN] 2300-732X
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; DH2M523P0H / Genistein
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19. Schaaf L, Pickel J, Zinner K, Hering U, Höfler M, Goretzki PE, Spelsberg F, Raue F, von zur Mühlen A, Gerl H, Hensen J, Bartsch DK, Rothmund M, Schneyer U, Dralle H, Engelbach M, Karges W, Stalla GK, Höppner W: Developing effective screening strategies in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) on the basis of clinical and sequencing data of German patients with MEN 1. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Sep;115(8):509-17
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  • [Title] Developing effective screening strategies in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) on the basis of clinical and sequencing data of German patients with MEN 1.
  • BACKGROUND: Multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-1 (MEN1) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder characterized by the combined occurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP), adenomas of the pituitary gland (APA), adrenal cortical tumors (ADR) and other tumors.
  • As the tumors appear in an unpredictable schedule, uncertainty about screening programs is persisting.
  • RESULTS: A total of 683 tumors occurred consisting of 273 pHPT, 138 APA, 166 GEP, 57 ADR, 24 thymic- and bronchial-carcinoids as well as 25 neoplasms of other tissues.
  • CONCLUSION: In view of the morbidity and frequency in familial cases an effective screening programme should aim at an early diagnosis of GEP particularly when truncating, especially nonsense mutations are found.
  • [MeSH-major] Mass Screening / methods. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / epidemiology


20. Lepore DA, Thomas GP, Knight KR, Hussey AJ, Callahan T, Wagner J, Morrison WA, Thomas PQ: Survival and differentiation of pituitary colony-forming cells in vivo. Stem Cells; 2007 Jul;25(7):1730-6
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  • [Title] Survival and differentiation of pituitary colony-forming cells in vivo.
  • Recently, our laboratory identified a cell type within the adult pituitary gland with stem cell-like properties, which we have termed pituitary colony-forming cells (PCFCs).
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Pituitary Gland / cytology. Stem Cells / cytology

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  • (PMID = 17395770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-5099
  • [Journal-full-title] Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stem Cells
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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21. Sciara AA, Rubiolo JA, Somoza GM, Arranz SE: Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterization of pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis) growth hormone. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol; 2006 Mar-Apr;142(3-4):284-92
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  • The transcript was detected not only in the pituitary gland but also in the testis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Base Sequence. Cloning, Molecular. Escherichia coli / genetics. Female. Gene Expression. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Phylogeny. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Recombinant Proteins / immunology. Sequence Alignment. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16326143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0456
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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22. Mullis PE: Genetics of growth hormone deficiency. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2007 Mar;36(1):17-36
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  • This article focuses on the GH gene, the various gene alterations, and their possible impact on the pituitary gland.
  • Transcription factors regulating pituitary gland development may cause multiple pituitary hormone deficiency but may present initially as GH deficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Dwarfism, Pituitary / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Growth Hormone / genetics. Humans. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Mutation. Pituitary Gland / growth & development. RNA Splice Sites / genetics. Secretory Vesicles / pathology. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17336732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA Splice Sites; 0 / Transcription Factors; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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23. Marsh JC, Garg S, Wendt JA, Gielda BT, Turian JV, Herskovic AM: Intracranial metastatic disease rarely involves the pituitary: retrospective analysis of 935 metastases in 155 patients and review of the literature. Pituitary; 2010 Sep;13(3):260-5
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  • [Title] Intracranial metastatic disease rarely involves the pituitary: retrospective analysis of 935 metastases in 155 patients and review of the literature.
  • We present a case report of a patient recently treated at our institution for an isolated non-small cell lung cancer metastatic lesion to the sella, report the lack of involvement of the pituitary gland in a large single-institution series of treated intracranial parenchymal metastases, and review the pertinent literature.
  • Special attention was paid to the skull base to document the presence of any metastatic disease involving the pituitary gland, infundibular stalk, sella turcica (including anterior and posterior clinoids), or diaphragm sellae.
  • We found no other involvement of the pituitary gland or other sellar structures by metastatic disease in this series.
  • Intracranial metastatic disease rarely involves the pituitary gland and infundibular stalk parenchyma, suggesting that this structure may be safely omitted from the treatment field during WBRT and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20405323.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Haap M, Gallwitz B, Meyermann R, Mittelbronn M: Cushing's disease associated with both pituitary microadenoma and corticotroph hyperplasia. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Jun;117(6):289-93
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  • [Title] Cushing's disease associated with both pituitary microadenoma and corticotroph hyperplasia.
  • MRI imaging revealed a possible pituitary microadenoma.
  • To confirm the diagnosis a bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling was performed presenting higher ACTH levels on the right side.
  • Histological examination of the tumor revealed a microadenoma.
  • Neuropathological autopsy revealed nodular proliferations of corticotropic cells in the pituitary gland that are assumed to be morphological entities between diffuse hyperplasias and adenomas, termed as tumorlets.
  • In single reports, multiple pituitary lesions in patients with Cushing's disease have been demonstrated, but to our knowledge none of these cases presented the combination of an ACTH-producing microadenoma and corticotroph cell hyperplasia in the same patient.
  • Therefore, even after resection of a pituitary microadenoma one should be aware of the possibility of continuously elevated ACTH level being due to multifocal nodular corticotroph hyperplasia which is invisible by neuroradiological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2010 Jan;118(1):68 [20127571.001]
  • (PMID = 19085700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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25. Hurty CA, Flatland B: Feline acromegaly: a review of the syndrome. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc; 2005 Sep-Oct;41(5):292-7
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  • Acromegaly is characterized by chronic excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion by the pituitary gland.
  • Feline acromegaly is most commonly caused by a functional pituitary tumor.
  • Definitive diagnosis can be difficult because of the gradual disease onset, subtle clinical signs, unavailability of relevant laboratory tests, and client financial investment.
  • Diagnosis is currently based upon brain imaging and measurement of serum GH and/or insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / veterinary. Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Growth Hormone / secretion. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16141180.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-3317
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Anim Hosp Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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26. Voutetakis A, Sertedaki A, Livadas S, Xekouki P, Bossis I, Dacou-Voutetakis C, Argyropoulou MI: Pituitary size fluctuation in long-term MR studies of PROP1 deficient patients: A persistent pathophysiological mechanism? J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 May;29(5):462-6
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  • [Title] Pituitary size fluctuation in long-term MR studies of PROP1 deficient patients: A persistent pathophysiological mechanism?
  • Inactivating PROP1 gene alterations are responsible for over 50% of familial combined pituitary hormone deficiency cases.
  • Pituitary enlargement followed by regression and subnormal pituitary size has been documented in a number of PROP1 deficient patients.
  • Nevertheless, long-term magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in two PROP1 deficient patients suggest the evolution of pituitary pathology as more complex and persistent than previously described.
  • Patient A had enlarged pituitary gland (pituitary height: 9-10 mm), demonstrated by serial MRI carried out from age 5 to 8.5 yr, small pituitary gland (4 mm) at age 10 yr and pituitary enlargement (11 mm) at age 19 yr.
  • Patient B had a pituitary gland of normal size at age 7 yr (5 mm), whereas at age 14.3 and 16.3 yr, an enlarged pituitary gland was disclosed (10 and 11 mm, respectively).
  • Both series of events are suggestive of a persistent pathophysiological mechanism in the pituitary gland of patients with PROP1 gene defects.
  • Therefore, long-term pituitary follow-up by MRI in such patients may be necessary even in the case of a small or normal pituitary gland.
  • It must be noted that current data from the Ames dwarf mouse cannot fully explain the observed pituitary size fluctuation.
  • [MeSH-major] Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Pituitary Diseases / physiopathology. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Hormones / deficiency

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  • (PMID = 16794371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Prophet of Pit-1 protein
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27. Kondrat'ev BV, Vinogradov VM, Shalek RA, Ialynych NN, Kopaneva MV: [Proton irradiation of the pituitary gland for alleviating pain in patients with disseminated prostate cancer]. Vopr Onkol; 2006;52(1):92-4
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  • [Title] [Proton irradiation of the pituitary gland for alleviating pain in patients with disseminated prostate cancer].
  • Central Research Institute of Roentgeno-Radiology; Medical Academy for Further Education, St. Petersburg Stereotactic ablation of the frontal lobe of the pituitary with narrow beams of 1,000 MeV protons was performed in 80 patients to alleviate pain caused by bone metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics / administration & dosage. Bone Neoplasms / complications. Pain / radiotherapy. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / radiation effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Protons / therapeutic use


28. Chambery A, Parente A, Topo E, Garcia-Fernàndez J, D'Aniello S: Characterization and putative role of a type I gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the cephalochordate amphioxus. Endocrinology; 2009 Feb;150(2):812-20
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  • Employing reverse-phase chromatography, we purified a peptide of relative molecular mass of 1182.60 Da from the cephalochordate amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum.
  • Furthermore, the biological activity of amphioxus GnRH was investigated by examining its capability to elicit LH release from the rodent pituitary gland.
  • The seasonal variations of amphioxus GnRH also suggest an ancient role of this peptide in the control of reproduction in chordates, even before the evolution of a proper pituitary gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Luteinizing Hormone / metabolism. Phylogeny. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Seasons

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  • (PMID = 18927217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7170
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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29. Maddineni S, Ocón-Grove OM, Krzysik-Walker SM, Hendricks GL 3rd, Proudman JA, Ramachandran R: Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone receptor expression in the chicken pituitary gland: potential influence of sexual maturation and ovarian steroids. J Neuroendocrinol; 2008 Sep;20(9):1078-88
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  • [Title] Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone receptor expression in the chicken pituitary gland: potential influence of sexual maturation and ovarian steroids.
  • Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic RFamide, has been found to inhibit gonadotrophin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland originally in birds and, subsequently, in mammalian species.
  • The gene encoding a transmembrane receptor for GnIH (GnIHR) was recently identified in the brain, pituitary gland and gonads of song bird, chicken and Japanese quail.
  • The objectives of the present study are to characterise the expression of GnIHR mRNA and protein in the chicken pituitary gland, and to determine whether sexual maturation and gonadal steroids influence pituitary GnIHR mRNA abundance.
  • GnIHR mRNA quantity was found to be significantly higher in diencephalon compared to either anterior pituitary gland or ovaries.
  • Oestradiol or a combination of oestradiol and progesterone treatment caused a significant decrease in pituitary GnIHR mRNA quantity relative to vehicle controls.
  • GnIHR-immunoreactive (ir) cells were identified in the chicken pituitary gland cephalic and caudal lobes.
  • GnIH treatment significantly decreased LH release from anterior pituitary gland slices collected from sexually immature, but not from sexually mature chickens.
  • [MeSH-major] Avian Proteins / genetics. Chickens / genetics. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / pharmacology. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics. Sexual Maturation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18638025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2826
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Avian Proteins; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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30. Reith W: [Tumors in the region of the sella turcica]. Radiologe; 2009 Jul;49(7):624-31
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  • [Title] [Tumors in the region of the sella turcica].
  • Tumors of the pituitary gland can lead to limitation of hypophysis function (hypophysis insufficiency) or hypersecretion of different hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, prolactinoma, TSH-secreting adenoma).
  • The optic chiasma lies in close proximity to the pituitary gland and can be compressed by tumors leading to visual disturbances (bilateral hemianopsia).
  • Tumors can be separated into hormone secreting and hormone inactive tumors, as well as into microadenoma with a diameter <10 mm and macroadenomas >10 mm.
  • A rare group of tumors of the hypophysis region are craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germinomas, gliomas, metastases and granulomotous inflammations, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sella Turcica / diagnostic imaging. Sella Turcica / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19568729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2102
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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31. Herrick J, Shecterle LM, St Cyr JA: D-ribose--an additive with caffeine. Med Hypotheses; 2009 May;72(5):499-500
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  • Researchers have proposed mechanisms responsible for caffeine's interactions, which include its blocking capacity of adenosine receptors, its role with the pituitary gland, increasing levels of dopamine, and its role with the intracellular release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which is dependent on intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels.

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  • (PMID = 19223125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2777
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3G6A5W338E / Caffeine; 681HV46001 / Ribose
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32. de Lange TE, Simsek S, Kramer MH, Nanayakkara PW: A case of cocaine-induced panhypopituitarism with human neutrophil elastase-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Mar;160(3):499-502
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scan showed a normal-sized pituitary gland entirely embedded in a dense, oedematous, contrast-enhancing mass, and a total destruction of the nasal septum with the absence of conchae and severely impaired sinus walls.

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  • (PMID = 19114541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; EC 3.4.21.37 / Leukocyte Elastase; I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine
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33. Assié G, Bahurel H, Coste J, Silvera S, Kujas M, Dugué MA, Karray F, Dousset B, Bertherat J, Legmann P, Bertagna X: Corticotroph tumor progression after adrenalectomy in Cushing's Disease: A reappraisal of Nelson's Syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Jan;92(1):172-9
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  • [Title] Corticotroph tumor progression after adrenalectomy in Cushing's Disease: A reappraisal of Nelson's Syndrome.
  • However, it may lead to Nelson's syndrome, originally defined by the association of a pituitary macroadenoma and high plasma ACTH concentrations, a much feared complication.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to reconsider Nelson's syndrome by investigating corticotroph tumor progression based on pituitary magnetic resonance imaging scan and search for predictive factors.
  • PATIENTS: Patients included 53 Cushing's disease patients treated by adrenalectomy between 1991 and 2002, without previous pituitary irradiation.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Clinical data, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging data, and plasma ACTH concentrations for all patients and pituitary gland pathology data for 25 patients were recorded.
  • Corticotroph tumor progression-free survival was studied by Kaplan-Meier, and the influence of recorded parameters was studied by Cox regression.
  • RESULTS: Corticotroph tumor progression ultimately occurred in half the patients, generally within 3 yr after adrenalectomy.
  • A shorter duration of Cushing's disease (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.884/yr), and a high plasma ACTH concentration in the year after adrenalectomy [adjusted hazard ratio per 100 pg/ml (22 pmol/liter): 1.069] were predictive of corticotroph tumor progression.
  • In one case, corticotroph tumor progression was complicated by transitory oculomotor nerve palsy.
  • During follow-up, corticotroph tumor progression was associated with the increase of corresponding ACTH concentrations (odds ratio per 100 pg/ml of ACTH variation: 1.055).
  • CONCLUSION: After adrenalectomy in Cushing's disease, one should no longer wait for the occurrence of Nelson's syndrome: modern imaging allows early detection and management of corticotroph tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenalectomy / adverse effects. Nelson Syndrome / etiology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery


34. Aleem M, Choudhari J, Padwal V, Balasinor N, Parte P, Gill-Sharma MK: Hyperprolactinemia affects spermiogenesis in adult male rats. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Jan;28(1):39-48
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  • In our earlier study in adult male rats, we reported that fluphenazine at a dose of 3 mg/kg/day suppressed serum FSH but not testosterone (T) through increasing dopamine (DA) metabolism in the pituitary gland, within 60 days.

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  • (PMID = 15816370.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Protamines; 0 / Sulfhydryl Compounds; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / spermatid transition proteins; 135844-64-3 / Cyclic AMP Response Element Modulator; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; S79426A41Z / Fluphenazine
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35. Nagai Y, Aso H, Ogasawara H, Tanaka S, Taketa Y, Watanabe K, Ohwada S, Rose MT, Kitazawa H, Yamaguchi T: Anterior pituitary progenitor cells express costimulatory molecule 4Ig-B7-H3. J Immunol; 2008 Nov 1;181(9):6073-81
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  • [Title] Anterior pituitary progenitor cells express costimulatory molecule 4Ig-B7-H3.
  • Stem/Progenitor cells in the postnatal pituitary gland are embedded in a marginal cell layer around Rathke's pouch.
  • However, the nature and behavior of anterior pituitary progenitor cells remain unclear.
  • We established bovine anterior pituitary progenitor cell line (BAPC)-1 from the anterior pituitary gland, which expressed stem/progenitor cell-related genes and several inflammatory cytokines.
  • To characterize and localize these pituitary progenitor cells, we produced a mAb (12B mAb) against BAPC-1.
  • The 12B-immunoreactive cells in the bovine anterior pituitary gland were localized around Rathke's pouch and expressed IL-18 and MHC class II.
  • In addition, the 12B-immunoreactive cells were observed around the pars tuberalis closely bordering the median eminence and in the blood vessels of the primary portal plexus in the anterior pituitary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / genetics. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / immunology. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / metabolism. Receptors, Immunologic / genetics. Stem Cells / immunology. Stem Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18941196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-6606
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AB271019; RefSeq/ NP/ 001019907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / B7 Antigens; 0 / CD276 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic
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36. Katoh M, Katoh M: Comparative integromics on Eph family. Int J Oncol; 2006 May;28(5):1243-7
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  • Human EPHA7 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural tissues, duodenal cancer and parathyroid tumors, while mouse Epha7 mRNA was expressed in fertilized egg, Rathke's pouche, visual cortex, pituitary gland, other neural tissues, pancreas, lung tumors and mammary tumors.
  • Deletion and/or promoter CpG hypermethylation could explain the EPHA7 down-regulation in human tumors.


37. Kaur A, Agrawal A, Mittal M: Presumed pituitary abscess without infectious source treated successfully with antibiotics alone. J Neuroophthalmol; 2005 Sep;25(3):185-8
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  • [Title] Presumed pituitary abscess without infectious source treated successfully with antibiotics alone.
  • A presumptive diagnosis of pituitary abscess was made on the basis of suggestive magnetic resonance imaging findings.
  • These consisted of a large non-enhancing area within the pituitary gland and thin irregular glandular rim enhancement.
  • This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion for pituitary abscess based on unusual imaging findings even when there is no source of infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Abscess / drug therapy. Pituitary Diseases / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16148624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1070-8022
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 280111G160 / Cefadroxil; 66974FR9Q1 / Chloramphenicol; 84319SGC3C / Amikacin; IHS69L0Y4T / Cefazolin
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38. Jethwa PH, Ebling FJ: Role of VGF-derived peptides in the control of food intake, body weight and reproduction. Neuroendocrinology; 2008;88(2):80-7
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  • The VGF gene is expressed abundantly in the brain, and in peripheral endocrine tissues including the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands and the pancreas but also in the gastrointestinal tract in both the myenteric plexus and in endocrine cells.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18408361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0194
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/D525064/1; United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / S17106; United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BBS/B/10765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / VGF peptide; 0 / Vgf protein, mouse
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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39. Bakoto N, Strivay M: [Germinoma responsible for central diabetes insipidus]. Rev Med Liege; 2009 Jul-Aug;64(7-8):386-9
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  • A diagnosis of diabetes insipidus was confirmed and the MRI showed a pituitary stalk enlargement.
  • The MRI showed an intrasellar mass with an enlargement of the pituitary gland.
  • The differential diagnosis will be reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Insipidus / etiology. Germinoma / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antidiuretic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Deamino Arginine Vasopressin / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Polyuria / etiology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thyroxine / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome


40. Schaeffer M, Hodson DJ, Lafont C, Mollard P: Functional importance of blood flow dynamics and partial oxygen pressure in the anterior pituitary. Eur J Neurosci; 2010 Dec;32(12):2087-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Functional importance of blood flow dynamics and partial oxygen pressure in the anterior pituitary.
  • With a particular focus on the pituitary gland as a model system, we review here the importance of the interplay between blood flow regulation and oxygen tensions in the functioning of endocrine systems, and the known regulatory signals involved in the modification of flow patterns under both normal physiological and pathological conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Oxygen / blood. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / blood supply. Regional Blood Flow / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Endocrine System / blood supply. Endocrine System / metabolism. Humans. Oxygen Consumption. Partial Pressure. Pituitary Hormones, Anterior / secretion

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • (PMID = 21143663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9568
  • [Journal-full-title] The European journal of neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones, Anterior; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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41. So G, Takeshita T, Morofuji Y, Iseki M, Hayashi T, Matsuo T, Suyama K, Nagata I: [Nonfunctioning suprasellar ectopic pituitary adenoma. A case report]. No Shinkei Geka; 2008 Dec;36(12):1121-5
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  • [Title] [Nonfunctioning suprasellar ectopic pituitary adenoma. A case report].
  • A case of nonfunctioning suprasellar ectopic pituitary adenoma in a 49-year-old man is reported.
  • MR imagings revealed an enhancing suprasellar tumor and a normal pituitary gland in the sella turcica.
  • The patient underwent a craniotomy and the tumor was partially removed, although it was firmly attached to the pituitary stalk.
  • The tumor was diagnosed histologically as a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma.
  • Cases of nonfunctioning suprasellar ectopic pituitary adenoma have rarely been reported.
  • The pathophysiology of such tumors is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sella Turcica. Skull Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Craniotomy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland

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  • (PMID = 19086443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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42. Skinner DC: Rethinking the stalk effect: a new hypothesis explaining suprasellar tumor-induced hyperprolactinemia. Med Hypotheses; 2009 Mar;72(3):309-10
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  • [Title] Rethinking the stalk effect: a new hypothesis explaining suprasellar tumor-induced hyperprolactinemia.
  • The pars tuberalis is a distinct subdivision of the pituitary gland but its function remains poorly understood.
  • Suprasellar tumors in this pars tuberalis region are frequently accompanied by hyperprolactinemia.
  • As these tumors do not immunoreact for any of the established pituitary hormones, they are classified as nonsecretory.
  • It has been postulated that these suprasellar tumors induce hyperprolactinemia by compressing the pituitary stalk, resulting in impaired dopamine delivery to the pituitary and, consequently, disinhibition of the lactotropes.
  • An alternative hypothesis proposed is that suprasellar tumors secrete a specific pars tuberalis factor that stimulates prolactin secretion.

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  • [ISSN] 0306-9877
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR015640; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR015640-076871; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR015640-086599; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR015640-086599; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR015640-076871; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20RR015640
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  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Ganesh HK, George J, Vimal MV, Bandgar T, Menon PS, Shah NS: An unusual variant of Cushing syndrome. Endocr Pract; 2008 Sep;14(6):717-20
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  • Findings on magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland and abdomen were within normal limits.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Child, Preschool. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18996791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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44. Zhu X, Wang J, Ju BG, Rosenfeld MG: Signaling and epigenetic regulation of pituitary development. Curr Opin Cell Biol; 2007 Dec;19(6):605-11
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  • [Title] Signaling and epigenetic regulation of pituitary development.
  • The developing pituitary gland provides an instructive model system for elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which distinct cell types arise from a common progenitor lineage accompanied by changes in the chromatin status in response to multiple extrinsic and intrinsic signals.
  • Investigation of the in vivo function of the histone modifying enzyme LSD1 has revealed a new layer of regulatory mechanism in pituitary organogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 17988851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0955-0674
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK018477-34; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK018477; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK018477-34
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS36359; NLM/ PMC2796608
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45. Fatović-Ferencić S, Gnjidić Z: Centenary of the first trans-sphenoidal surgery of the hypophysis (Hermann Schloffer 1907) and its echoes within Croatian neurosurgical practice. Wien Med Wochenschr; 2007;157(23-24):618-24
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  • [Title] Centenary of the first trans-sphenoidal surgery of the hypophysis (Hermann Schloffer 1907) and its echoes within Croatian neurosurgical practice.
  • In this paper we aim to reminisce the role of the Austrian surgeon Hermann Schloffer (1868-1937) as the pioneer of a trans-sphenoidal approach to the pituitary gland.
  • On the 16th of March 1907 he operated a patient with pituitary tumor and published his report in the Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift on 23rd May 1907.
  • Schloffer's method was spread and modified worldwide, Croatia included, a country in which the interest in trans-sphenoidal approach to pituitary tumors has not diminished or been lost, but slowly modified.
  • Today, almost a whole century after its introduction, it is still used to operate about 95% of sellar region tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18204963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5341
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien Med Wochenschr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Schloffer H
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46. Slavotinek A, Parisi M, Heike C, Hing A, Huang E: Craniofacial defects of blastogenesis: duplication of pituitary with cleft palate and orophgaryngeal tumors. Am J Med Genet A; 2005 May 15;135(1):13-20
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  • [Title] Craniofacial defects of blastogenesis: duplication of pituitary with cleft palate and orophgaryngeal tumors.
  • To further elucidate the phenotypes associated with organ duplications, we present three infants with duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG).
  • A review of previously reported cases with DPG showed that the commonest additional findings were hypothalamic enlargement, a broad or duplicated sella, cleft palate, hypertelorism, oropharyngeal tumors, agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and abnormalities of vertebrae.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple / pathology. Cleft Palate / pathology. Craniofacial Abnormalities / pathology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Gland / abnormalities


47. Riemenschneider MJ, Beseoglu K, Hänggi D, Reifenberger G: Prostate adenocarcinoma metastasis in the pituitary gland. Arch Neurol; 2009 Aug;66(8):1036-7
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  • [Title] Prostate adenocarcinoma metastasis in the pituitary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diplopia / etiology. Endoscopy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19667229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3687
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Grebe SO, Borrmann M, Altenburg A, Wesselman U, Hein D, Haage P: Chronic inflammation and accelerated atherosclerosis as important cofactors in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis following intravenous gadolinium exposure. Clin Exp Nephrol; 2008 Oct;12(5):403-6
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  • Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a rare disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease characterized by an increased tissue deposition of collagen.
  • Her past medical history revealed a secondary HPT, multiple vascular complications, a seronegative rheumatoid arthritis, and a pituitary gland adenoma.


49. Gustafsson L, Oreland S, Hoffmann P, Nylander I: The impact of postnatal environment on opioid peptides in young and adult male Wistar rats. Neuropeptides; 2008 Apr;42(2):177-91
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  • Measurements of immunoreactive (ir) Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) and dynorphin B (DYNB) peptide levels in the pituitary gland and in a number of brain areas, were performed at three and 10 weeks of age, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Environment. Maternal Deprivation. Opioid Peptides / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Stress, Psychological / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18082882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-4179
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropeptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropeptides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endorphins; 0 / Opioid Peptides; 58569-55-4 / Enkephalin, Methionine; 73024-95-0 / enkephalin-Met, Arg(6)-Phe(7)-; 74913-18-1 / Dynorphins; 83335-41-5 / rimorphin
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50. Dorman DC, Struve MF, Marshall MW, Parkinson CU, James RA, Wong BA: Tissue manganese concentrations in young male rhesus monkeys following subchronic manganese sulfate inhalation. Toxicol Sci; 2006 Jul;92(1):201-10
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  • The olfactory epithelium, olfactory bulb, globus pallidus, caudate, putamen, pituitary gland, and bile developed the greatest relative increase in manganese concentration following MnSO(4) exposure.

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  • (PMID = 16624849.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6080
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 42Z2K6ZL8P / Manganese
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51. Takagi H, Nagashima K, Inoue M, Sakata I, Sakai T: Detailed analysis of formation of chicken pituitary primordium in early embryonic development. Cell Tissue Res; 2008 Sep;333(3):417-26
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  • [Title] Detailed analysis of formation of chicken pituitary primordium in early embryonic development.
  • However, in the early phase of pituitary development, the detailed process by which the oral ectoderm develops into the adenohypophysis remains largely unknown.
  • Thus, the primordium of the pituitary gland corresponding to the Lhx3-expressing region is surrounded by the Shh-expressing region, which appears in two steps, and the mass growth and invagination of RP of chicken result from the coordination of the dorsal extension of the anterior region and the ventral extension of the posterior region of RP.
  • [MeSH-major] Ectoderm / embryology. Pituitary Gland / embryology

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  • (PMID = 18584208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-766X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell and tissue research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Tissue Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / LIM-Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Lhx3 protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine
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52. Zoeller RT, Bansal R, Parris C: Bisphenol-A, an environmental contaminant that acts as a thyroid hormone receptor antagonist in vitro, increases serum thyroxine, and alters RC3/neurogranin expression in the developing rat brain. Endocrinology; 2005 Feb;146(2):607-12
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  • These findings suggest that BPA acts as a TH antagonist on the beta-TR, which mediates the negative feedback effect of TH on the pituitary gland, but that BPA is less effective at antagonizing TH on the alpha-TR, leaving TRalpha-mediated events to respond to elevated T4.

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  • (PMID = 15498886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES10026
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Air Pollutants, Occupational; 0 / Benzhydryl Compounds; 0 / Calmodulin-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nrgn protein, rat; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Receptors, Thyroid Hormone; 132654-77-4 / Neurogranin; MLT3645I99 / bisphenol A; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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53. Bauer-Dantoin AC, Hanke CJ: Using a classic paper by I. E. Lawton and N. B. Schwartz to consider the array of factors that control luteinizing hormone production. Adv Physiol Educ; 2007 Dec;31(4):318-22
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  • The primary objective of the study is to determine whether tonic (pulsatile) secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland exhibits a circadian rhythm.
  • A review of the historical context in which the study was conducted, and a series of discovery learning questions are included to facilitate classroom discussions and to help deepen students' understanding of the complex nature of pituitary hormone regulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm. Endocrinology / education. Luteinizing Hormone / secretion. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Students

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  • (PMID = 18057402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-1229
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in physiology education
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Physiol Educ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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54. Correa-de-Santana E, Fröhlich B, Labeur M, Páez-Pereda M, Theodoropoulou M, Monteserin JL, Renner U, Stalla GK: NOD2 receptors in adenopituitary folliculostellate cells: expression and function. J Endocrinol; 2009 Oct;203(1):111-22
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  • Folliculostellate cells (FS cells) are non-endocrine cells from the pituitary gland that respond to bacterial endotoxins by producing cytokines.
  • Herein, we describe for the first time the expression and function of NOD receptors in human pituitary and FS TtT/GF cell line.
  • In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that NOD molecules play a modulatory role in the pituitary by regulating the function and activation of FS cells in response to bacterial components.
  • [MeSH-major] Interleukin-6 / metabolism. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Toll-Like Receptor 4 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19608614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / NOD2 protein, human; 0 / Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein; 0 / Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 4; 53678-77-6 / Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine
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55. Scheithauer BW, Silva AI, Parisi JE, Kovacs K, Horvath E: Ganglioglioma of the neurohypophysis. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):112-6
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  • The finding of neurons within the neurohypophysis is exceedingly rare, as are ganglion cell tumors at this site.
  • In this paper, we report a ganglion cell tumor of the neurohypophysis found incidentally at autopsy.
  • The morphologic and immunohistochemical features of the tumor are presented, cytogenetic considerations are discussed, and literature regarding neuronal lesions of the pituitary gland is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioglioma / pathology. Pituitary Gland, Posterior / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Alzheimer Disease / pathology. Brain / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inappropriate ADH Syndrome / diagnosis. Inappropriate ADH Syndrome / pathology. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Sodium / blood

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  • (PMID = 18496772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium
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56. Torigian DA, Li G, Alavi A: The Role of CT, MR Imaging, and Ultrasonography in Endocrinology. PET Clin; 2007 Jul;2(3):395-408
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  • In particular, we focus our review on imaging evaluation of the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, and the adrenal gland.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 27158019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-8598
  • [Journal-full-title] PET clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PET Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal / Computed tomography (CT) / Endocrine / Endocrinology / Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging / Parathyroid / Pituitary / Thyroid / Ultrasonography (US)
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57. Vankelecom H: Non-hormonal cell types in the pituitary candidating for stem cell. Semin Cell Dev Biol; 2007 Aug;18(4):559-70
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  • [Title] Non-hormonal cell types in the pituitary candidating for stem cell.
  • Hormone balances in the body are primarily governed by the hypothalamus-pituitary system.
  • For its pivotal role, the pituitary gland relies on an assortment of different hormone-producing cell types, the proportions of which dynamically change in response to fluctuating endocrine demands.
  • Mechanisms of pituitary cellular plasticity are at present far from understood, and may include proliferation and transdifferentiation of hormonal cells.
  • Here, I will review these data by focusing on the non-hormonal cell types that have been advanced as candidates for the pituitary stem cell position.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypothalamus / embryology. Pituitary Gland / embryology. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17509912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1084-9521
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in cell & developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Cell Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 127
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58. Pepe GJ, Lynch TJ, Davies WA, Albrecht ED: Regulation of baboon fetal pituitary prolactin expression by estrogen. Biol Reprod; 2009 Jun;80(6):1189-95
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  • [Title] Regulation of baboon fetal pituitary prolactin expression by estrogen.
  • However, because prolactin can modulate fetal adrenal and adult pituitary/ovarian function, the current study determined whether estrogen action involved estradiol-regulated changes in fetal prolactin/luteinizing hormone (LH) expression.
  • Fetal prolactin levels and the number of prolactin-positive fetal pituitary cells (per 0.37 mm(2)) were increased (P < 0.01) between mid (6 +/- 1 ng/ml; 15.8 +/- 2.4) and late (257 +/- 28 ng/ml; 57.3 +/- 5.1) gestation, reduced (P < 0.01) in late-gestation fetuses in which estradiol was suppressed (>95%) by letrozole (61 +/- 11 ng/ml; 19.3 +/- 2.0), and minimally but not significantly increased by letrozole and estradiol (99 +/- 11 ng/ml; 32.7 +/- 5.2).
  • In contrast, the number of LH-positive fetal pituitary cells decreased (P < 0.01) between mid (48.8 +/- 9.5) and late (17.4 +/- 3.2) gestation, remained elevated (P < 0.01) in estrogen-suppressed animals (56.6 +/- 5.1), and was partially but not significantly decreased by letrozole-estradiol (28.8 +/- 5.2).
  • We conclude that estrogen regulates fetal pituitary prolactin and LH expression and fetal prolactin levels.
  • However, because prolactin and LH expressions in estrogen-suppressed fetuses were inversely related to previously demonstrated changes in adrenal/ovarian development, we propose that estrogen regulates the fetal ovary and adrenal gland directly and not via action on the fetal pituitary gland.

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  • (PMID = 19176882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD013294; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD036207; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD-13294; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD 36207
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2804803
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59. Esposito F, Kelly DF, Vinters HV, DeSalles AA, Sercarz J, Gorgulhos AA: Primary sphenoid sinus neoplasms: a report of four cases with common clinical presentation treated with transsphenoidal surgery and adjuvant therapies. J Neurooncol; 2006 Feb;76(3):299-306
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  • [Title] Primary sphenoid sinus neoplasms: a report of four cases with common clinical presentation treated with transsphenoidal surgery and adjuvant therapies.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary neoplasms of the sphenoid sinus are a rare occurrence, accounting for approximately 1-2% of all paranasal sinus tumors.
  • METHODS: Four patients with sphenoid sinus neoplasms were identified (1%), all treated during the year 2003.
  • MRIs in all patients demonstrated large sphenoid sinus masses with partial clival and sellar bone erosion but with clear visualization of the pituitary gland above the mass.
  • Cavernous sinus invasion was present in all four cases, including one patient with tumor in the ethmoid sinus and intra-tumoral hemorrhage.
  • All patients underwent subtotal tumor removal via an endonasal transsphenoidal route.
  • Tumor histology included neuroendocrine carcinoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and giant cell tumor.
  • One patient required a second endonasal tumor debulking 15 months after the first for new visual loss that then resolved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intra-sphenoidal tumors are locally invasive tumors that include a wide pathological spectrum.
  • Recognizing their distinctive clinical presentation and MRI features is helpful in differentiating them from primary sellar tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurosurgical Procedures. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Sphenoid Sinus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16163447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Yilmazlar S, Kocaeli H, Aydiner F, Korfali E: Medial portion of the cavernous sinus: quantitative analysis of the medial wall. Clin Anat; 2005 Sep;18(6):416-22
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  • Pituitary tumors invade the cavernous sinus via the medial wall.
  • Researchers have speculated that this wall is composed of dura and that substances secreted by tumors might damage this barrier.
  • Each of these eight specimens was divided into three approximately equal-sized pieces, with cuts made in the coronal plane from posterior to anterior starting at the anterior level of the pituitary stalk.
  • The investigations showed that the MWCS is a distinct dural layer that forms a barrier between the medial venous space of the cavernous sinus and the pituitary gland.
  • The thinness of the posterior MWCS suggests that this is the most likely path for extension of pituitary tumors into the cavernous sinus.
  • [MeSH-minor] Dura Mater / anatomy & histology. Humans. Pituitary Gland / anatomy & histology. Sella Turcica / anatomy & histology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16015624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0897-3806
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Anat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Lee JH, Silva AC, Merkle H, Koretsky AP: Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of mouse brain after systemic administration of MnCl2: dose-dependent and temporal evolution of T1 contrast. Magn Reson Med; 2005 Mar;53(3):640-8
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  • The largest decreases occurred in the pituitary gland, where post-MnCl(2) T(1) ranged from 231 +/- 23 ms following the lowest dose to 143 +/- 43 ms after the highest dose, while the smallest decreases were observed in cortex (post-MnCl(2) T(1) = 1060 +/- 5 ms for low dose and 637 +/- 5 ms for high dose).

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15723400.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-3194
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 NS002989-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Manganese Compounds; QQE170PANO / manganese chloride
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62. Thakur ML, Devadhas D, Zhang K, Pestell RG, Wang C, McCue P, Wickstrom E: Imaging spontaneous MMTVneu transgenic murine mammary tumors: targeting metabolic activity versus genetic products. J Nucl Med; 2010 Jan;51(1):106-11
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  • [Title] Imaging spontaneous MMTVneu transgenic murine mammary tumors: targeting metabolic activity versus genetic products.
  • Despite the great strides made in imaging breast cancer (BC) in humans, the current imaging modalities miss up to 30% of BC, do not distinguish malignant lesions from benign ones, and require histologic examinations for which invasive biopsy must be performed.
  • Annually in the United States, approximately 5.6 million biopsies find benign lesions.
  • RT-PCR on excised tumors determined VPAC1 expression, and histology ascertained the pathology.
  • RESULTS: Ten tumors were detected by PET.
  • Four tumors were detected both by (18)F-FDG and by (64)Cu-TP3805.
  • Additionally, 4 tumors were imaged with (64)Cu-TP3805 only.
  • These 8 tumors overexpressed VPAC1 receptors and were malignant by histology.
  • The 2 remaining tumors were visualized with (18)F-FDG only.
  • These tumors did not express the VPAC1 oncogene product and had benign histology.
  • The 2 benign tumors that did not express the VPAC1 receptor were not imaged. (64)Cu-TP3805 promises to have the potential for the early and accurate imaging of primary and metastatic BC.
  • [MeSH-major] Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / radionuclide imaging. Organometallic Compounds. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide. Radiopharmaceuticals / chemical synthesis. Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide, Type I / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Half-Life. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse / genetics. Mice. Positron-Emission Tomography. Quality Control. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20008985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-5667
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA- S10RR 023709; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-RO1-109231; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB-RO1-001809; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA56036; United States / PHS HHS / / RP-RO1-023709
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide, Type I; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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63. Jiménez L, Rivera ML, Ferrá S, Colón LE, Carro E: Prolactinoma with extensive amyloid deposits: a case report. P R Health Sci J; 2008 Dec;27(4):343-5
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  • Prolactinomas are common benign pituitary neoplasms.
  • Amyloid deposits are rare findings that have been reported in pituitary neoplasms.
  • We report a case of a 48-year old man with a diagnosis of prolactinoma with extensive amyloid deposition.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of amyloid in a pituitary neoplasm at our institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloid / analysis. Pituitary Neoplasms / chemistry. Prolactinoma / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 19069361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0738-0658
  • [Journal-full-title] Puerto Rico health sciences journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] P R Health Sci J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amyloid
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64. MacMaster FP, El-Sheikh R, Upadhyaya AR, Nutche J, Rosenberg DR, Keshavan M: Effect of antipsychotics on pituitary gland volume in treatment-naïve first-episode schizophrenia: a pilot study. Schizophr Res; 2007 May;92(1-3):207-10
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  • [Title] Effect of antipsychotics on pituitary gland volume in treatment-naïve first-episode schizophrenia: a pilot study.
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effect of antipsychotics on pituitary volume in schizophrenic subjects.
  • Pituitary volumes were measured in 16 patients with schizophrenia at baseline and 12 months after treatment with an antipsychotic medication using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Pituitary volume significantly increased in the schizophrenic subjects after treatment (12% increase).
  • In controls, pituitary volume did not change significantly (3% decrease).
  • Pituitary volume may be a useful biomarker for treatments that affect neuroendocrine function.

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  • (PMID = 17337162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-9964
  • [Journal-full-title] Schizophrenia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schizophr. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / UL1 TR000005; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH43156
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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65. Hermle T, Goestemeyer AK, Sweny P, Burns A: Successful therapeutic use of rituximab in refractory Wegener's granulomatosis after renal transplantation. Clin Nephrol; 2007 Nov;68(5):322-6
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  • Predominantly affected organs were kidneys and pituitary gland.


66. Adams TE: Using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH analogs to modulate testis function and enhance the productivity of domestic animals. Anim Reprod Sci; 2005 Aug;88(1-2):127-39
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  • Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) controls the activity of the gonadotrope cells of the pituitary gland and, as a consequence, is a critical component of the endocrine cascade that determines the growth, development, and functional activity of testicular tissue.

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  • (PMID = 15970407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-4320
  • [Journal-full-title] Animal reproduction science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anim. Reprod. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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67. Bur IM, Zouaoui S, Fontanaud P, Coutry N, Molino F, Martin AO, Mollard P, Bonnefont X: The comparison between circadian oscillators in mouse liver and pituitary gland reveals different integration of feeding and light schedules. PLoS One; 2010;5(12):e15316
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  • [Title] The comparison between circadian oscillators in mouse liver and pituitary gland reveals different integration of feeding and light schedules.
  • In this study, we used real-time quantitative PCR to assess circadian clock gene expression in the liver and pituitary gland from mice raised under various photoperiods, or under a temporal restricted feeding protocol.
  • Whereas the liver oscillator always tracked meal time, the pituitary circadian clockwork showed an intermediate response, in between entrainment by the light regimen and the feeding-fasting rhythm.
  • The same composite response was also observed in the pituitary gland from adrenalectomized mice under daytime restricted feeding, suggesting that circulating glucocorticoids do not inhibit full entrainment of the pituitary clockwork by meal time.
  • Altogether our results reveal further aspects in the complexity of phase entrainment in the circadian system, and suggest that the pituitary may host oscillators able to integrate multiple time cues.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21179516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3002272
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68. Teshima T, Hara Y, Shigihara K, Takekoshi S, Nezu Y, Harada Y, Yogo T, Teramoto A, Osamura RY, Tagawa M: Coexistence of corticotroph adenoma and thyrotroph hyperplasia in a dog. J Vet Med Sci; 2009 Jan;71(1):93-8
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  • Pituitary thyrotroph hyperplasia results from prolonged primary hypothyroidism in humans, mice and rats.
  • On histological examination, the resected pituitary gland contained both a corticotroph adenoma and thyrotroph hyperplasia.
  • In the present case, the pituitary thyrotroph hyperplasia was probably caused by primary hypothyroidism.

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  • (PMID = 19194082.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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69. Kidambi S, Raff H, Findling JW: Limitations of nocturnal salivary cortisol and urine free cortisol in the diagnosis of mild Cushing's syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Dec;157(6):725-31
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  • [Title] Limitations of nocturnal salivary cortisol and urine free cortisol in the diagnosis of mild Cushing's syndrome.
  • We present 11 cases of CS with normal or mildly elevated UFC in whom NSC was helpful in making a diagnosis.
  • Imaging studies included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pituitary or computer tomography scan of abdomen.
  • Out of eleven patients, six had an abnormality in the pituitary gland found by MRI and two out of eleven had adrenal masses.
  • The remaining three had normal pituitary MRI but had inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) sampling indicating Cushing's disease.
  • All patients had appropriate surgery, and histopathology of all except one was suggestive of either a cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma or an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Multiple samples (urine/saliva) and DST are needed to make the diagnosis of mild CS.

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  • (PMID = 18057379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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70. Macgregor DJ, Lincoln GA: A physiological model of a circannual oscillator. J Biol Rhythms; 2008 Jun;23(3):252-64
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  • Recent evidence based on studies in hypothalamo-pituitary disconnected Soay sheep suggests that the generation of circannual rhythms may be local to specific tissues or physiological systems.
  • Now, the authors present a physiological model of a circannual rhythm generator centered in the pituitary gland based on the interaction between melatonin-responsive cells in the pars tuberalis that act to decode photoperiod, and lactotroph cells of the adjacent pars distalis that secrete prolactin.
  • The authors highlight specific features of the pituitary dynamics as a guide to future research on circannual rhythms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / physiology. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / secretion. Prolactin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 18487417.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7304
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biological rhythms
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Rhythms
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0600678
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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71. Harvey S: Extrapituitary growth hormone. Endocrine; 2010 Dec;38(3):335-59
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  • Pituitary somatotrophs secrete growth hormone (GH) into the bloodstream, to act as a hormone at receptor sites in most, if not all, tissues.
  • These endocrine actions of circulating GH are abolished after pituitary ablation or hypophysectomy, indicating its pituitary source.
  • GH gene expression is, however, not confined to the pituitary gland, as it occurs in neural, immune, reproductive, alimentary, and respiratory tissues and in the integumentary, muscular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems, in which GH may act locally rather than as an endocrine.
  • These actions are likely to be involved in the proliferation and differentiation of cells and tissues prior to the ontogeny of the pituitary gland.
  • They are also likely to complement the endocrine actions of GH and are likely to maintain them after pituitary senescence and the somatopause.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Cardiovascular System / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Tract / metabolism. Genitalia / metabolism. Humans. Immune System / metabolism. Muscles / metabolism. Neoplasms / metabolism. Nervous System / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Respiratory System / metabolism. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 20972718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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72. Azevedo MF, Xekouki P, Keil MF, Lange E, Patronas N, Stratakis CA: An unusual presentation of pediatric Cushing disease: recurrent corticotropinoma of the posterior pituitary lobe. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jun;23(6):607-12
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  • [Title] An unusual presentation of pediatric Cushing disease: recurrent corticotropinoma of the posterior pituitary lobe.
  • Cushing's syndrome (CS) is rare in childhood and adolescence and its diagnosis and work up are often challenging.
  • We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with a recurrent corticotrophin (ACTH)-secreting adenoma, located in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
  • At the age of 11, she presented with classic CS symptoms; biochemical investigation was compatible with ACTH-dependent Cushing disease, although pituitary gland imaging did not show any tumor.
  • Following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), histopathological analysis identified an ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenoma arising from the posterior gland.
  • The patient went into remission but 4 years later she presented with recurrent CS; this time, pituitary gland imaging showed a microadenoma located in the posterior lobe, which was resected after TSS.
  • Posterior lobe pituitary adenomas are very rare and often hard to diagnose and treat; this is the first case of such a tumor causing recurrent Cushing's disease in a child.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20662335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD000642-12
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS752367; NLM/ PMC4727444
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73. Ciric IS, Zhao J: Transsphenoidal microsurgery: past, present and future. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2006 Sep;6 Suppl 9:S75-8
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  • We further elaborate on three fundamental surgical anatomy principles of transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas.
  • First, the pituitary gland and, therefore, pituitary adenomas are extra-arachnoid structures, therefore the operation should be executed without penetration into the subarachnoid space.
  • Second, the pituitary gland and, therefore, pituitary adenomas are midline structures, thus, veering off midline can result in potentially serious complications.
  • Third, pituitary adenomas commence inside the pituitary gland, which distends around them as they grow.
  • Thus, pituitary macroadenomas are surrounded on their surface by a layer of attenuated residual normal anterior pituitary.
  • The operative technique for pituitary micro- and macroadenomas is described in detail.
  • Finally, we discuss the likely future treatment methods for pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Forecasting. Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17004860.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 5
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74. Grommen SV, Geysens S, Darras VM, De Groef B: Chicken folliculo-stellate cells express thyrotropin receptor mRNA. Domest Anim Endocrinol; 2009 Nov;37(4):236-42
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  • We investigated the presence of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) mRNA in chicken pituitary and brain, and quantified the changes in its expression during the last week of embryonic development.
  • We found that in the pituitary gland, TSHR mRNA co-localizes with folliculo-stellate cells but not with thyrotropic cells, suggesting the existence of a paracrine ultra-short thyrotropin feedback loop.
  • During late embryogenesis, when the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroidal axis increases markedly, a significant rise in TSHR mRNA expression was observed in pituitary, which may signify an important change in pituitary ultra-short thyrotropin feedback regulation around the period of hatching.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / metabolism. Chickens / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Cells / metabolism. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Thyrotropin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19683409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0054
  • [Journal-full-title] Domestic animal endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin
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75. Guerrero CA, Krayenbühl N, Husain M, Krisht AF: Ectopic suprasellar growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma: case report. Neurosurgery; 2007 Oct;61(4):E879; discussion E879
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  • [Title] Ectopic suprasellar growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: Ectopic pituitary adenomas are rare.
  • We present an unusual case of an ectopic growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma in the suprasellar space.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a suprasellar mass not arising from the normal looking pituitary gland.
  • INTERVENTION: The patient underwent gross total removal of the tumor through a pterional approach.
  • Histological examination showed a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma CONCLUSION: Although uncommon, growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas are encountered in the suprasellar region.
  • They should be added to the differential diagnosis of tumors in this location.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Choristoma. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / radiography


76. Chacko G, Chacko AG, Lombardero M, Mani S, Seshadri MS, Kovacs K, Scheithauer BW: Clinicopathologic correlates of giant pituitary adenomas. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 May;16(5):660-5
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic correlates of giant pituitary adenomas.
  • Giant adenomas comprise a clinical/therapeutic subset of pituitary adenomas that pose a surgical challenge.
  • The study population consisted of 28 patients who had giant pituitary adenomas, which are defined as tumors with a diameter greater than 5cm.
  • Clinically, five tumors (18%) were endocrinologically functional and 23 (82%) were not.
  • During surgery, one tumor was radically excised, four were subtotally excised, 12 were partially excised, and 11 were biopsied.
  • All of the tumors showed typical histological features of pituitary adenoma.
  • Of the 23 clinically non-functional adenomas, 18 were gonadotrophic tumors, four were null cell adenomas and one was a silent corticotroph adenoma.
  • The present study found giant adenomas to be invasive but slow growing, histologically benign and often gonadotrophic in subtype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Adult. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19285407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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77. Galter D, Westerlund M, Belin AC, Olson L: DJ-1 and UCH-L1 gene activity patterns in the brains of controls, Parkinson and schizophrenia patients and in rodents. Physiol Behav; 2007 Sep 10;92(1-2):46-53
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  • Of note, DJ-1 is expressed in several other tissues such as the liver, gastrointestinal tract, adrenal and pituitary gland and during embryonic development, while UCH-L1 has a strictly neuronal expression also outside the CNS.
  • We conclude that DJ-1 and UCH-L1, like other genes linked to PD, are not expressed specifically in DA neurons, but instead generally in neurons.

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  • (PMID = 17599367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-9384
  • [Journal-full-title] Physiology & behavior
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Physiol. Behav.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / OMHHE CDC HHS / MN / R24-MN069955
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / PARK7 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.1.2.15 / Ubiquitin Thiolesterase; EC 3.1.2.15 / Ubiquitin carboxyl-Terminal Hydrolase L-1, human; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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78. Oliveira KJ, Paula GS, Costa-e-Sousa RH, Souza LL, Moraes DC, Curty FH, Pazos-Moura CC: Peptide YY (PYY)3-36 modulates thyrotropin secretion in rats. J Endocrinol; 2006 Nov;191(2):459-63
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  • In addition, recently, the ability of the hormone to regulate gonadotropin secretion, acting at pituitary and at hypothalamus has been reported.
  • PYY3-36-incubated rat pituitary glands showed a dose-dependent decrease in TSH release, with 44 and 62% reduction at 10(-8) and 10(-6) M (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001 respectively), and no alteration in TSH response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone.
  • Therefore, in the present paper, we have demonstrated that the gut hormone PYY3-36 acts directly on the pituitary gland to inhibit TSH release, and in the fasting situation, in vivo, when serum PYY3-36 is reduced, the activity of thyroid axis is reduced as well.
  • In such a situation, systemically injected PYY3-36 was able to acutely activate the thyrotrope axis, suggesting a new role for PYY3-36 as a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis.
  • [MeSH-major] Fasting / metabolism. Peptide YY / pharmacology. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / secretion. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 17088415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Leptin; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 106388-42-5 / Peptide YY; 5Y5F15120W / Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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79. Nasr C, Mason A, Mayberg M, Staugaitis SM, Asa SL: Acromegaly and somatotroph hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation due to pituitary metastasis of a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting pulmonary endocrine carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Dec;91(12):4776-80
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  • [Title] Acromegaly and somatotroph hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation due to pituitary metastasis of a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting pulmonary endocrine carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: GHRH excess from extracranial endocrine tumors is known to cause somatotroph hyperplasia and acromegaly.
  • Hypothalamic gangliocytomas producing GHRH are also known to be associated with pituitary adenomas causing acromegaly.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe a case of acromegaly due to a pulmonary GHRH-secreting endocrine carcinoma with metastasis to the pituitary gland and to look at the peculiar histological features of this case.
  • SUBJECT: The patient was a 44-yr-old woman who was diagnosed with a biopsy-proven metastatic pulmonary endocrine tumor during pregnancy.
  • The patient underwent uneventful transsphenoidal resection of the sellar tumor.
  • Histological examination confirmed metastatic endocrine carcinoma to the pituitary, and immunohistochemistry localized GHRH to the tumor cells.
  • The adjacent pituitary exhibited somatotroph hyperplasia with abundant reactivity for GH and alpha-subunit.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a GHRH-producing endocrine tumor metastasizing to the pituitary and causing local hyperstimulation with somatotroph hyperplasia and adenomatous transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / complications. Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / etiology. Carcinoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Somatotrophs / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16968791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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80. Santos-Silva AP, Moura EG, Pinheiro CR, Rios AS, Abreu-Villaça Y, Passos MC, Oliveira E, Lisboa PC: Neonatal nicotine exposure alters leptin signaling in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in the late postnatal period and adulthood in rats. Life Sci; 2010 Jul 31;87(5-6):187-95
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  • [Title] Neonatal nicotine exposure alters leptin signaling in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in the late postnatal period and adulthood in rats.
  • As leptin and thyroid hormones share the ability to increase energy expenditure, we studied the effects of maternal nicotine exposure during lactation on the leptin signaling in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis of suckling and adult offspring.
  • In the pituitary gland, NIC offspring showed lower JAK-2 content (-52%) at 15 days, but no differences in adulthood.
  • In the thyroid gland, the NIC group presented lower OB-R, JAK-2 and STAT-3 (-44%, -50%, -47%) and higher pSTAT-3 expression (+80%) at 15 days.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Animals, Suckling. Blotting, Western. Female. Hypothalamus / drug effects. Hypothalamus / metabolism. Hypothyroidism / chemically induced. Lactation. Male. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20600149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Life sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Life Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Leptin; 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine
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81. Menetti F, Bartolomei I, Ambrosini-Spaltro A, Salvi F, Agati R, Leonardi M: Amyloidoma Involving the Orbit, Meckel's Cave and Infratemporal Fossa: 3T MRI Findings. Neuroradiol J; 2009 Mar 23;22(1):41-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The few literature reports of intracranial amyloidomas include lesions involving the pituitary gland, orbit, cerebral hemispheres, temporal bone, cerebellopontine angle and jugular foramen.
  • The lesion closely mimicked a malignant tumor with perineural tumor infiltration, so we performed fine needle biopsy of the portion of the lesion near the right foramen ovale under fluoroscopic guidance.
  • Further clinical and blood examinations, serum chemistry, followed by biopsy of the periumbilical fat showed no signs of systemic amyloidosis or an underlying inflammatory or neoplastic disorder.

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  • (PMID = 24206952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1971-4009
  • [Journal-full-title] The neuroradiology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Nonogaki K: Ghrelin and feedback systems. Vitam Horm; 2008;77:149-70
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  • Ghrelin also stimulates pituitary gland secretion of growth hormone (GH) via the afferent vagus nerve.

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  • (PMID = 17983856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0083-6729
  • [Journal-full-title] Vitamins and hormones
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vitam. Horm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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83. Rudnik A, Zawadzki T, Gałuszka-Ignasiak B, Larysz D, Bazowski P, Zdeb M: Endoscopic transsphenoidal treatment of empty sella turcica syndrome using a silastic coil. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2006 Dec;49(6):376-9
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  • An empty sella turcica is due to the presence of an arachnoid diverticulum with its fluid content in the sella turcica, exerting pressure on the pituitary gland.

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  • (PMID = 17323268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dimethylpolysiloxanes; 0 / Silicones; 0 / Tissue Adhesives; 63148-62-9 / baysilon
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84. Andersson AC, Yun Z, Sperber GO, Larsson E, Blomberg J: ERV3 and related sequences in humans: structure and RNA expression. J Virol; 2005 Jul;79(14):9270-84
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  • A search in dbEST revealed ERV3 RNA expression in placenta, skin, carcinoid tumor, and adrenal glands.
  • QPCR results for ERV3 were compatible with previously published results, with a stronger expression in adrenal gland and placenta than in 15 other human tissues.
  • Expression was found in corpus luteum, testis, adrenal gland, Hassal's bodies in thymus, brown fat, pituitary gland, and epithelium of the lung.

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  • (PMID = 15994821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Viral Envelope Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1168766
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85. Amiya N, Amano M, Takahashi A, Yamanome T, Yamamori K: Profiles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the Japanese flounder as revealed by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2007 Mar;151(1):135-41
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  • A TR-FIA for alpha-MSH was newly developed, and its levels in the pituitary gland and plasma of Japanese flounder reared in a white or black tank for 5 months were compared.
  • Displacement curves of serially twofold-diluted hypothalamus extract, pituitary gland extract, and plasma extract of Japanese flounder with the assay buffer were parallel to the alpha-MSH standard curve.
  • Moreover, displacement curves of serially twofold-diluted hypothalamus and/or pituitary gland extract of masu salmon, goldfish, red seabream, Japanese eel, tiger puffer, and barfin flounder with the assay buffer were also parallel to the alpha-MSH standard.
  • In Japanese flounder, total immunoreactive (ir)-alpha-MSH levels in the pituitary gland were lower in the black tank, whereas those in the plasma tended to be higher in the black tank, suggesting that the synthesis and release of alpha-MSH are higher in the black tank. alpha-MSH-ir cells were detected in the pars intermedia and a small part of the pars distalis of the pituitary gland. alpha-MSH-ir cell bodies were located in the basal hypothalamus and alpha-MSH-ir fibers were distributed not only in the hypothalamus but also in the telencephalon, midbrain, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata, suggesting that alpha-MSH functions as a neuromodulator in the brain.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / metabolism. Hypothalamus / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Reference Standards. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 17286977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6480
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 581-05-5 / alpha-MSH
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86. Chiu EK, Nichols JW: Sellar lesions and visual loss: key concepts in neuro-ophthalmology. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2006 Sep;6 Suppl 9:S23-8
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  • The pituitary gland serves an essential role in the activity and regulation of the endocrine system.
  • Mass lesions within the pituitary gland account for approximately 10-15% of intracranial neoplasms.
  • Patients with pituitary adenomas may present with endocrine dysfunction or neuro-ophthalmic pathology, resulting from compression of surrounding structures, most notably the optic chiasm.
  • Visual deficits from chiasmal tumors may manifest as visual field defects, visual loss, diplopia, nystagmus and visual hallucinations.
  • The specific visual field defect usually results from the anatomic compression of the tumor upon the optic chiasm.
  • It is important to recognize characteristic visual deficits in the diagnosis and treatment of chiasmal tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skull Neoplasms / etiology. Skull Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17004853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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87. Ozdemir D, Dagdelen S, Erbas T: Endocrine involvement in systemic amyloidosis. Endocr Pract; 2010 Nov-Dec;16(6):1056-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: We conducted a review of the medical literature using MEDLINE data sources, including clinical trials, in vitro studies, and case reports on pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreatic, adrenal, and gonadal involvement in systemic amyloidosis.
  • Amyloid deposition commonly seen in the pituitary gland and the pancreas of patients with Alzheimer disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively, is generally classified as local amyloidosis and should not be confused with systemic involvement.
  • Involvement of pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic sites in systemic amyloidosis still remains to be clarified.

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  • (PMID = 20570812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Boelen A, Kwakkel J, Chassande O, Fliers E: Thyroid hormone receptor β mediates acute illness-induced alterations in central thyroid hormone metabolism. J Neuroendocrinol; 2009 May;21(5):465-72
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  • Acute illness in mice profoundly affects thyroid hormone metabolism in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
  • LPS decreased pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone β mRNA expression in WT at 24 h but not in TRβ(-/-) mice.
  • The peak in pituitary D2 expression at t = 4 h in WT was absent in TRβ(-/-) mice.
  • Our results suggest that TRβ is involved in suppression of the central component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in acute illness.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute Disease. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta / metabolism. Thyroid Hormones / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19302190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2826
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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89. Unlu A, Meco C, Ugur HC, Comert A, Ozdemir M, Elhan A: Endoscopic anatomy of sphenoid sinus for pituitary surgery. Clin Anat; 2008 Oct;21(7):627-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoscopic anatomy of sphenoid sinus for pituitary surgery.
  • This study aimed to highlight surgical landmarks and their anatomical relationships for pituitary surgery through endoscopic perspective.
  • The width of the pituitary, which is the distance between the medial margins of the carotid prominences, was measured as 21 +/- 2.5 mm and the distance between the medial margin of the carotid prominences at the lower margin of the pituitary was 18 +/- 3.1 mm.
  • The width of the pituitary, which is the distance between the medial margins of the anterior curvature of the ICA, was measured as 23.2 +/- 3 mm, while the distance between the posterior curvature of the ICA was 19.7 +/- 4.9 mm.
  • Endoscopic view provided superior detailed visualization of the close relationships between pituitary gland, internal carotid arteries, and optic nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Gland / surgery. Sphenoid Sinus / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carotid Arteries / anatomy & histology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Optic Nerve / anatomy & histology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18816443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2353
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Anat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Ramachandran R, Ocón-Grove OM, Metzger SL: Molecular cloning and tissue expression of chicken AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 complementary deoxyribonucleic acids. Domest Anim Endocrinol; 2007 Jul;33(1):19-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We also investigated the effect of feed deprivation on the expression of AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 mRNA in the chicken diencephalon, liver, anterior pituitary gland, and adipose tissue.
  • By RT-PCR, we detected AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA in adipose tissue, liver, anterior pituitary gland, diencephalon, skeletal muscle, kidney, spleen, ovary, and blood.
  • AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 mRNA expression in various tissues was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR, and AdipoR1 mRNA expression was the highest in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and diencephalon, followed by kidney, ovary, liver, anterior pituitary gland, and spleen.
  • AdipoR2 mRNA expression was the highest in adipose tissue followed by skeletal muscle, liver, ovary, diencephalon, anterior pituitary gland, kidney, and spleen.
  • We also found that a 48 h feed deprivation significantly decreased AdipoR1 mRNA quantity in the chicken pituitary gland, while AdipoR2 mRNA quantity was significantly increased in adipose tissue (P<0.05).
  • We conclude that the AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 genes are ubiquitously expressed in chicken tissues and that their expression is altered by feed deprivation in the anterior pituitary gland and adipose tissue.

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  • (PMID = 16697136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0739-7240
  • [Journal-full-title] Domestic animal endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ DQ072275/ DQ072276
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adiponectin; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 63231-63-0 / RNA
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91. Walvoord E: Sex steroid replacement for induction of puberty in multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev; 2009 Jan;6 Suppl 2:298-305
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sex steroid replacement for induction of puberty in multiple pituitary hormone deficiency.
  • Hypopituitarism results from the inability of the pituitary gland to make sufficient levels of more than one of the following hormones: adrenocorticotrophic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and growth hormone (GH).
  • This review addresses the main factors that need to be considered when initiating sex steroid replacement in pubertal age patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency and offers some insight into newer treatment options.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogens / administration & dosage. Hormone Replacement Therapy / methods. Hypopituitarism / drug therapy. Pituitary Hormones / administration & dosage. Pituitary Hormones / deficiency. Puberty / drug effects. Testosterone / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19337185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-4753
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric endocrinology reviews : PER
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Endocrinol Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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92. Kim JP, Park BJ, Kim SB, Lim YJ: Pituitary Apoplexy due to Pituitary Adenoma Infarction. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2008 May;43(5):246-9
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  • [Title] Pituitary Apoplexy due to Pituitary Adenoma Infarction.
  • Cause of pituitary apoplexy has been known as hemorrhage, hemorrhagic infarction or infarction of pituitary adenoma or adjacent tissues of pituitary gland.
  • However, pituitary apoplexy caused by pure infarction of pituitary adenoma has been rarely reported.
  • Here, we present the two cases pituitary apoplexies caused by pituitary adenoma infarction that were confirmed by transsphenoidal approach (TSA) and pathologic reports.
  • Pathologic report of first case revealed total tumor infarction of a nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma and second case partial tumor infarction of ACTH secreting pituitary macroadenoma.
  • Patients with pituitary apoplexy which was caused by pituitary adenoma infarction unrelated to hemorrhage or hemorrhagic infarction showed good response to TSA treatment.
  • Further study on the predisposing factors of pituitary apoplexy and the mechanism of infarction in pituitary adenoma is necessary.

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  • [Cites] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007 Nov-Dec;28(10):2023-9 [17898201.001]
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  • (PMID = 19096606.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2588219
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Pituitary adenoma infarction / Pituitary apoplexy
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93. Bertola G, Giambona S, Balza G, Oriani A, Sironi C, Calabrese G, Colombo E: [Panhypopituitarism from pituitary metastases of breast cancer]. Recenti Prog Med; 2007 Feb;98(2):87-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Panhypopituitarism from pituitary metastases of breast cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Panipopituitarismo da metastasi ipofisarie di carcinoma mammario.
  • Metastases to the pituitary gland are uncommon causes of hypopituitarism, to be particularly considered in patients affected with disseminated cancers, arising in the breast or in the lung.
  • Differential diagnosis could be correctly addressed by the concomitant presence of diabetes insipidus, due to the prominent involvement of the posterior lobe, and by some neuroradiological findings.
  • Magnetic resonance images showed diffuse encephalic metastatic lesions, with a thickened pituitary stalk, loss of high signal intensity of posterior lobe and a mildly enlarged and inhomogeneously enhanced adenohypophysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / diagnosis. Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Time Factors


94. Dogan M, Karakilic E, Oz II, Zorlu F, Akbulut H: Breast cancer with diabetes insipidus. Exp Oncol; 2008 Dec;30(4):324-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare clinical condition, which is usually caused by neurohypophyseal or pituitary stalk infiltration in cancer patients.
  • The CT scan of the brain yielded a suspicious area in pituitary gland.
  • A pituitary stalk metastasis was found on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pituitary.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cancer patients who have symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, polyuria and polydipsia while they are not on chemotherapy should be evaluated for not only metabolic complications like hypercalcemia but also posterior pituitary or stalk metastasis MRI could be the choice of imaging for pituitary metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diabetes Insipidus / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary


95. Knappe UJ, Jaursch-Hancke C, Schönmayr R, Lörcher U: Assessment of normal perisellar anatomy in 1.5 T T2-weighted MRI and comparison with the anatomic criteria defining cavernous sinus invasion of pituitary adenomas. Cent Eur Neurosurg; 2009 Aug;70(3):130-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessment of normal perisellar anatomy in 1.5 T T2-weighted MRI and comparison with the anatomic criteria defining cavernous sinus invasion of pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the anatomical relations of sellar and perisellar structures with T2-weighted MRI and to apply criteria for cavernous sinus (CS) invasion by pituitary adenomas to normal sellar anatomy.
  • METHODS: Thin slice (3 mm) coronal T2-weighted MR-images (1.5 Tesla) were obtained in 117 individuals (234 CS) without pituitary disorders (58 females, 59 males; age 17 months to 87 years).
  • The mean distance between the pituitary and the ICA in AH was significantly shorter than in patients without AH (Chi-square, p=0.01).
  • There was contact between the gland and the ICA in 41.5% of the cases.
  • In 16.7% (39 sides) of all 234 SCs investigated, the area of contact between the ICA and the gland was at least 25% of the vessel's circumference.
  • The medial intercarotid line (ICL) was crossed by the pituitary gland in 9% (21 of 234 CS), the central ICL was touched in another 5% (11 of 234 CS), lateral ICL was never reached.
  • There was a weak correlation with age: a more extensive lateral extension of the gland was seen in individuals older than 40 years compared to younger individuals (Chi-square, p=0.03).
  • CONCLUSION: Inter- and intra-individual variations of the perisellar anatomy and its relation to the pituitary gland exist, which are partly related to age and AH.
  • This must be remembered when the invasiveness of pituitary adenomas is assessed in MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Cavernous Sinus / pathology. Pituitary Gland / anatomy & histology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aging / physiology. Blood Pressure / physiology. Carotid Artery, Internal / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cranial Nerves / pathology. Dura Mater / pathology. Empty Sella Syndrome / pathology. Female. Humans. Hypertension / pathology. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.
  • (PMID = 19701871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-4912
  • [Journal-full-title] Central European neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cent Eur Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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96. Calle M, Corstens GJ, Wang L, Kozicz T, Denver RJ, Barendregt HP, Roubos EW: Evidence that urocortin I acts as a neurohormone to stimulate alpha MSH release in the toad Xenopus laevis. Brain Res; 2005 Apr 8;1040(1-2):14-28
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  • We have raised the hypothesis that in the South African clawed toad Xenopus laevis, urocortin 1 (UCN1), a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide family, functions not only within the brain as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator but also as a neurohormone, promoting the release of alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) from the neuroendocrine melanotrope cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland.
  • This hypothesis has been investigated by (1) assessing the distribution of UCN1 and CRF by light immunocytochemistry, (2) determining the subcellular presence of UCN1 in the neural lobe of the pituitary gland by immuno-electron microscopy applying high-pressure freezing and cryosubstitution, and (3) testing the effect of UCN1 on MSH release from toad melanotrope cells using in vitro superfusion.
  • From the internal zone of the median eminence, UCN1-ir fibers, but few CRF-ir fibers, were found to project to the pituitary neural lobe, where they form numerous neurohemal axon terminals.
  • Our results support the hypothesis that in X. laevis, UCN1 released from neurohemal axon terminals in the pituitary neural lobe functions as a stimulatory neurohormone for alphaMSH release from melanotrope cells of the pituitary intermediate lobe.
  • [MeSH-major] Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Pituitary Gland / secretion. alpha-MSH / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / drug effects. Brain / metabolism. Brain / secretion. In Vitro Techniques. Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism. Neurotransmitter Agents / secretion. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism. Pituitary Hormones / secretion. Urocortins. Xenopus laevis

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  • (PMID = 15804422.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurotransmitter Agents; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Urocortins; 581-05-5 / alpha-MSH; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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97. Mohanty B: Extracellular accumulations in the avian pituitary gland: histochemical analysis in two species of Indian wild birds. Cells Tissues Organs; 2006;183(2):99-106
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extracellular accumulations in the avian pituitary gland: histochemical analysis in two species of Indian wild birds.
  • Extracellular accumulations of two distinct types, colloid-filled follicles and fibrous-material-containing cysts, were observed in the pituitary gland of two species of Indian wild birds, Halcyon smyrnensis perpulchra and Lonchura striata striata.
  • Neither the colloid nor the fibrous material showed any immunoreaction to any of the pituitary hormone antisera.
  • Colloid depositions in the pituitary gland of these two wild birds were correlated to age, more in numbers in the adult birds than in the young ones.
  • Fibrous-material-containing cysts were elucidated in the pituitary gland of adult birds only.
  • These were more prevalent in the pituitary of reproductively active birds.
  • Regular morphology of the colloid follicles, overall distribution in the adenohypophysis and dense nature of deposition of the colloid suggest the accumulation of this type may be the secretory products of both granulated and agranulated pituitary cell types.
  • Absence of immunoreactivity of the colloid against pituitary hormone antisera points out that the storage form may differ chemically from the bioactive hormones.
  • [MeSH-major] Birds / metabolism. Extracellular Space / chemistry. Pituitary Gland / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 17053326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1422-6405
  • [Journal-full-title] Cells, tissues, organs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cells Tissues Organs (Print)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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98. De Bellis A, Kelestimur F, Sinisi AA, Ruocco G, Tirelli G, Battaglia M, Bellastella G, Conzo G, Tanriverdi F, Unluhizarci K, Bizzarro A, Bellastella A: Anti-hypothalamus and anti-pituitary antibodies may contribute to perpetuate the hypopituitarism in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Feb;158(2):147-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anti-hypothalamus and anti-pituitary antibodies may contribute to perpetuate the hypopituitarism in patients with Sheehan's syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: While anti-pituitary antibodies (APAs) were detected in some patients with Sheehan's syndrome (SS) suggesting an autoimmune pituitary involvement in the development of their hypopituitarism, hypothalamic cell anti-hypothalamus antibodies (AHAs) have not been investigated so far.
  • DESIGN: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of AHA and APA in SS patients to verify whether an autoimmune hypothalamic-pituitary process can contribute to their late hypopituitarism.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SS, even many years after the onset of SS, can show antibodies to pituitary and/or hypothalamic but not AVP-secreting cells.
  • Antibodies to unknown hypothalamic cells (releasing factor-secreting cells) other than APAs suggest that an autoimmune process involving both the hypothalamus and pituitary gland may contribute to late pituitary dysfunction in SS patients.

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  • (PMID = 18230820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Pituitary Hormones
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99. Rehfeld JF, Friis-Hansen L, Goetze JP, Hansen TV: The biology of cholecystokinin and gastrin peptides. Curr Top Med Chem; 2007;7(12):1154-65