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1. Koch M, Habazettl I, Dehghani F, Korf HW: The rat pineal gland comprises an endocannabinoid system. J Pineal Res; 2008 Nov;45(4):351-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The rat pineal gland comprises an endocannabinoid system.
  • In the mammalian pineal gland, the rhythm in melatonin biosynthesis depends on the norepinephrine (NE)-driven regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the penultimate enzyme of melatonin biosynthesis.
  • A recent study showed that phytocannabinoids like tetrahydrocannabinol reduce AANAT activity and attenuate NE-induced melatonin biosynthesis in rat pineal glands, raising the possibility that an endocannabinoid system is present in the pineal gland.
  • To test this hypothesis, we analyzed cannabinoid (CB) receptors and specific enzymes for endocannabinoid biosynthesis or catabolism in rat pineal glands and cultured pinealocytes.
  • Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed the presence of CB1 and CB2 receptor proteins, of N-acyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), an enzyme catalyzing endocannabinoid biosynthesis and of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid catabolizing enzyme, in pinealocytes, and in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers identified by double immunofluorescence with an antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase.
  • The immunosignal for NAPE-PLD found in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers was reduced in the middle of the dark phase (ZT 18).
  • Stimulation of cultured pinealocytes with NE affected neither the subcellular distribution nor the intensity of the immunosignals for the investigated CB receptors and enzymes.
  • In summary, the pineal gland comprises indispensable compounds of the endocannabinoid system indicating that endocannabinoids may be involved in the control of pineal physiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic Fibers / chemistry. Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators / analysis. Endocannabinoids. Pineal Gland / chemistry. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / analysis. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18554250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-079X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators; 0 / Endocannabinoids; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase; EC 3.1.4.4 / NAPE-PLD protein, rat; EC 3.1.4.4 / Phospholipase D; EC 3.5.- / Amidohydrolases; EC 3.5.1.- / fatty-acid amide hydrolase; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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2. Leveque S, Derrey S, Martinaud O, Freger P, Proust F: [Pineal cyst: usefulness of endoscopic treatment]. Neurochirurgie; 2007 Jun;53(2-3 Pt 1):95-9
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  • [Title] [Pineal cyst: usefulness of endoscopic treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Kyste épithélial de la région pinéale: intérêt de la fenestration endoscopique.
  • Glial cysts of the pineal gland are usually benign and asymptomatic.
  • They develop from the pineal parenchyma and contain liquid.
  • The diagnosis is made by magnetic resonance imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pineal Gland / pathology. Pineal Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17507051.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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3. Abraham U, Prior JL, Granados-Fuentes D, Piwnica-Worms DR, Herzog ED: Independent circadian oscillations of Period1 in specific brain areas in vivo and in vitro. J Neurosci; 2005 Sep 21;25(38):8620-6
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  • Surgery reliably reset the phase of the pineal gland and vascular organ of the lamina terminalis (VOLT) harvested from SCNX rats but had little effect on the phase of the OB.
  • We deduce that the SCN and OB contain self-sustained circadian oscillators, whereas the pineal gland and VOLT are weak oscillators that require input from the SCN to show coordinated circadian rhythms.

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  • (PMID = 16177029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-2401
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH63104; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA94056
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Per1 protein, mouse; 0 / Per1 protein, rat; 0 / Period Circadian Proteins
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4. Ferreira ZS, Fernandes PA, Duma D, Assreuy J, Avellar MC, Markus RP: Corticosterone modulates noradrenaline-induced melatonin synthesis through inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B. J Pineal Res; 2005 Apr;38(3):182-8
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  • In chronically inflamed animals, adrenal hormones exert a positive control on the secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland.
  • In this paper, the mechanism of corticosterone as a modulator of melatonin and N-acetylserotonin (NAS) was determined.
  • Rat pineal glands in culture, stimulated for 5 hr with noradrenaline (10 nm), were previously incubated with corticosterone (1.0 nm-1.0 microm) for 48 hr in the presence or absence of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, mifepristone (1.0 microm), the proteasome inhibitor, N-acetyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-norleucinal-H (ALLN, 12.5 microm) or the antagonist of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB), pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC, 12.5 microm).
  • Corticosterone potentiated noradrenaline-induced melatonin and NAS production in a bell-shaped manner.
  • The increase in NAS (12.9 +/- 2.7, n=6 versus 34.3 +/- 8.3 ng per pineal) and melatonin (16.3 +/- 2.0, n=6 versus 44.3 +/- 12.9 ng per pineal) content induced by 1 microm corticosterone was blocked by mifepristone, and mimicked by ALLN and PDTC.
  • Therefore, corticosterone potentiates noradrenaline-induced melatonin and NAS production through GR inhibition of NFkappaB nuclear translocation.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this relevant pathway for passive and acquired immune response is shown to modulate melatonin production in pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Corticosterone / pharmacology. Melatonin / biosynthesis. NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors. Norepinephrine / pharmacology. Pineal Gland / drug effects. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Serotonin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15725340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Leupeptins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Pyrrolidines; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 0 / Thiocarbamates; 110044-82-1 / acetylleucyl-leucyl-norleucinal; 25769-03-3 / pyrrolidine dithiocarbamic acid; 320T6RNW1F / Mifepristone; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9007-49-2 / DNA; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; P4TO3C82WV / N-acetylserotonin; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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5. Hartman S, Touchton G, Wynn J, Geng T, Chong NW, Smith E: Characterization of expressed sequence tags from a gallus gallus pineal gland cDNA library. Comp Funct Genomics; 2005;6(5-6):301-6
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  • [Title] Characterization of expressed sequence tags from a gallus gallus pineal gland cDNA library.
  • The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding.
  • Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library.
  • Here, we have described resources that may be useful in comparative and functional genomic analysis of genes expressed in an important organ, the pineal gland, in a model and agriculturally important organism.

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  • (PMID = 18629218.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-6912
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative and functional genomics
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6. Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S: Antiinflammatory activity of melatonin in central nervous system. Curr Neuropharmacol; 2010 Sep;8(3):228-42
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  • Melatonin is mainly produced in the mammalian pineal gland during the dark phase.
  • Its secretion from the pineal gland has been classically associated with circadian and circanual rhythm regulation.
  • However, melatonin production is not confined exclusively to the pineal gland, but other tissues including retina, Harderian glands, gut, ovary, testes, bone marrow and lens also produce it.

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  • (PMID = 21358973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-6190
  • [Journal-full-title] Current neuropharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Neuropharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3001216
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Melatonin / antioxidant / free radical. / inflammation / mitochondria / neurodegeneration
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7. Rosiak J, Michael Iuvone P, Zawilska JB: UV-A light regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in the chick pineal gland: role of cAMP and proteasomal proteolysis. J Pineal Res; 2005 Nov;39(4):419-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] UV-A light regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in the chick pineal gland: role of cAMP and proteasomal proteolysis.
  • Acute exposure of dark-adapted, cultured chick pineal glands to UV-A light significantly decreased the tissue cAMP concentration and the activity of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the penultimate and key regulatory enzyme in the melatonin biosynthetic pathway.
  • The UV-A light-evoked decline in pineal AANAT activity was blocked by cAMP protagonists (forskolin and dibutyryl-cAMP) and by inhibitors of the proteasomal degradation pathway (MG-132, proteasome inhibitor I, and lactacystin).
  • These results indicate that the chick pineal gland is directly sensitive to UV-A light.
  • By analogy to white light, the suppressive action of UV-A radiation on AANAT activity in the chick pineal gland involves changes in the tissue cAMP level and enhanced proteasomal proteolysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase / metabolism. Cyclic AMP / physiology. Pineal Gland / physiology. Pineal Gland / radiation effects. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / metabolism. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 16207298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY004864
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Leupeptins; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / benzyloxycarbonyl-isoleucyl-glutamyl(O-tert-butyl)-alanyl-leucinal; 133343-34-7 / lactacystin; 133407-82-6 / benzyloxycarbonylleucyl-leucyl-leucine aldehyde; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 63X7MBT2LQ / Bucladesine; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex; WYQ7N0BPYC / Acetylcysteine
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8. Kim JS, Bailey MJ, Ho AK, Møller M, Gaildrat P, Klein DC: Daily rhythm in pineal phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity reflects adrenergic/3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate induction of the PDE4B2 variant. Endocrinology; 2007 Apr;148(4):1475-85
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  • [Title] Daily rhythm in pineal phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity reflects adrenergic/3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate induction of the PDE4B2 variant.
  • The pineal gland is a photoneuroendocrine transducer that influences circadian and circannual dynamics of many physiological functions via the daily rhythm in melatonin production and release.
  • Melatonin synthesis is stimulated at night by a photoneural system through which pineal adenylate cyclase is adrenergically activated, resulting in an elevation of cAMP. cAMP enhances melatonin synthesis through actions on several elements of the biosynthetic pathway. cAMP degradation also appears to increase at night due to an increase in phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, which peaks in the middle of the night.
  • The evidence that PDE4B2 plays a negative feedback role in adrenergic/cAMP signaling in the pineal gland provides the first proof that cAMP control of PDE4B2 is a physiologically relevant control mechanism in cAMP signaling.
  • [MeSH-major] 3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases / metabolism. Circadian Rhythm. Cyclic AMP / pharmacology. Norepinephrine / pharmacology. Pineal Gland / enzymology

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  • [CommentIn] Endocrinology. 2007 Apr;148(4):1473-4 [17369498.001]
  • (PMID = 17204557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / RNA, Messenger; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 3.1.4.17 / 3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases; EC 3.1.4.17 / Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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9. Migaud H, Taylor JF, Taranger GL, Davie A, Cerdá-Reverter JM, Carrillo M, Hansen T, Bromage NR: A comparative ex vivo and in vivo study of day and night perception in teleosts species using the melatonin rhythm. J Pineal Res; 2006 Aug;41(1):42-52
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  • First, a range of light intensities were tested ex vivo on pineal melatonin production in culture during the dark phase.
  • Results showed that sea bass pineal gland ex vivo are at least 10 times more sensitive to light than that of the salmon.
  • These highlighted species-specific light sensitivities of pineal melatonin production that are likely to be the result of adaptation to particular photic niches.
  • Light transmission results showed that a significantly higher percentage of light penetrates the sea bass pineal window relative to salmon, and confirmed that penetration is directly related to wavelength with higher penetration towards the red end of the visible spectrum.
  • The pineal gland in isolation thus appeared to have different sensitivities as the whole animal, suggesting that retinal and/or deep brain photoreception may contribute, in vivo, to the control of melatonin production.

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  • (PMID = 16842540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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10. Peraud A, Goetz C, Siefert A, Tonn JC, Kreth FW: Interstitial iodine-125 radiosurgery alone or in combination with microsurgery for pediatric patients with eloquently located low-grade glioma: a pilot study. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Jan;23(1):39-46
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  • Radical surgical resection is the first-line treatment for large hemispheric tumors, whereas interstitial iodine-125 radiosurgery (IRS) might be an attractive treatment concept for selected patients with small (tumor diameter in the range of 4 cm) and circumscribed tumors in any location of the brain.
  • Therefore, the therapeutic impact and the risk of IRS alone or in combination with microsurgery (in case of larger tumor volumes) were prospectively examined.
  • Temporary iodine-125 seeds were used exclusively (tumor dose calculated to the boundary, 54 Gy; dose rate, 10 cGy/h).
  • Tumor location was hypothalamic/suprasellar in four, lobar in three, deep (thalamus and pineal gland) in two, and within the brain stem in two children.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Microsurgery. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Radiosurgery

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  • (PMID = 16972111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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11. Karakaş A, Kaya A, Gündüz B: The effect of pinealectomy, melatonin and leptin hormones on ovarian follicular development in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Acta Biol Hung; 2010 Dec;61(4):380-90
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  • The results of the present study indicate that the removal of the pineal gland and leptin hormone administration are playing a stimulatory while melatonin hormone administration is playing an inhibitory role on the follicular development in female Syrian hamsters.
  • [MeSH-major] Leptin / metabolism. Melatonin / metabolism. Ovary / drug effects. Ovary / growth & development. Pineal Gland / physiology. Pineal Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21112830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0236-5383
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta biologica Hungarica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta. Biol. Hung.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Leptin; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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12. Borges-Silva Cd, Takada J, Alonso-Vale MI, Peres SB, Fonseca-Alaniz MH, Andreotti S, Cipolla-Neto J, Pithon-Curi TC, Lima FB: Pinealectomy reduces hepatic and muscular glycogen content and attenuates aerobic power adaptability in trained rats. J Pineal Res; 2007 Aug;43(1):96-103
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  • The current study emphasizes the crucial role of the pineal gland on the effects of chronic training in different tissues focusing on carbohydrate metabolism.
  • In conclusion, these data show that the pineal gland integrity is necessary for the homeostatic control of energy metabolism among adipose, muscle and hepatic tissues.
  • Therefore, the pineal gland must be considered an influential participant in the complex adaptation to exercise and is involved in the improvement of endurance capacity.
  • [MeSH-major] Glycogen / metabolism. Liver / metabolism. Muscles / metabolism. Oxygen Consumption / physiology. Physical Conditioning, Animal. Pineal Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17614841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9005-79-2 / Glycogen
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13. Fischer TW, Slominski A, Tobin DJ, Paus R: Melatonin and the hair follicle. J Pineal Res; 2008 Jan;44(1):1-15
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  • Melatonin, the chief secretory product of the pineal gland, has long been known to modulate hair growth, pigmentation and/or molting in many species, presumably as a key neuroendocrine regulator that couples coat phenotype and function to photoperiod-dependent environmental and reproductive changes.
  • Moreover, HF melatonin production is enhanced by catecholamines (as it classically occurs in the pineal gland).

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  • (PMID = 18078443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Melatonin; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 197
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14. Peres MF: Melatonin, the pineal gland and their implications for headache disorders. Cephalalgia; 2005 Jun;25(6):403-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melatonin, the pineal gland and their implications for headache disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Headache Disorders / drug therapy. Headache Disorders / physiopathology. Melatonin / metabolism. Melatonin / therapeutic use. Pineal Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15910564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0333-1024
  • [Journal-full-title] Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cephalalgia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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15. Sinitskaya N, Salingre A, Klosen P, Revel FG, Pévet P, Simonneaux V: Differential expression of activator protein-1 proteins in the pineal gland of Syrian hamster and rat may explain species diversity in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene expression. Endocrinology; 2006 Nov;147(11):5052-60
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  • [Title] Differential expression of activator protein-1 proteins in the pineal gland of Syrian hamster and rat may explain species diversity in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene expression.
  • In particular, de novo synthesis of stimulatory transcription factors is required for Aa-nat transcription in the Syrian hamster but not in the rat pineal gland.
  • Therefore, composition and timing of the pineal activator protein-1 complexes differ between rat and Syrian hamster and may be an activator (Syrian hamster) or an inhibitor (rat) of Aa-nat transcription.
  • [MeSH-major] Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase / genetics. Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / analysis. Pineal Gland / chemistry. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16887909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic; 98600C0908 / Cycloheximide; EC 2.3.1.5 / Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase
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16. Kaur C, Sivakumar V, Ling EA: Expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) GluR2/3 receptors in the developing rat pineal gland. J Pineal Res; 2005 Oct;39(3):294-301
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  • [Title] Expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) GluR2/3 receptors in the developing rat pineal gland.
  • The expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) type glutamate (GluR2/3) receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype 1 (NMDAR1) was carried out by immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR analysis in the pineal glands of 1-day to 6-wk-old rats in the present study.
  • GluR2/3 immunopositive cells were distributed throughout the pineal gland and showed branching processes in all age groups.
  • A constitutive mRNA expression of NMDAR1, GluR2 and GluR3 was detected in the pineal glands of various ages and showed no significant difference between the age groups studied.
  • The expression of these receptors on the glial cells suggests that they may be involved in the development and growth of the pineal gland in the early postnatal period (1 day to 3 wk) and subsequently in the regulation of melatonin synthesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Pineal Gland / growth & development. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Receptors, AMPA / biosynthesis. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16150111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, AMPA; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 0 / glutamate receptor ionotropic, AMPA 2; 0 / glutamate receptor ionotropic, AMPA 3
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17. Wan L, Almers W, Chen W: Two ribeye genes in teleosts: the role of Ribeye in ribbon formation and bipolar cell development. J Neurosci; 2005 Jan 26;25(4):941-9
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  • Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that ribeye a is expressed in tissues containing synaptic ribbons, including the pineal gland, inner ear, and retina.
  • Ribeye b is absent in the pineal gland.

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  • (PMID = 15673675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-2401
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY014171; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK44239; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY14171; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH60600
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense
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18. Mouratova T: Trilateral retinoblastoma: a literature review, 1971-2004. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol; 2005;(297):25-35
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  • This study analyzes modern views on the history, variants, age at diagnosis of trilateral retinoblastoma, median time from retinoblastoma to trilateral retinoblastoma, the largest size and percentage of trilateral retinoblastoma among retinoblastoma cases, functions of pineal gland, genetics, ocular and intracranial histology, diagnosis, treatment, therapy results, survival rates and frequency of screening of trilateral retinoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Retinoblastoma / diagnosis. Retinoblastoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Age of Onset. Animals. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Male. Mass Screening / methods. Pineal Gland / physiopathology. Sex Distribution. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16281731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0081-0746
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de la Société belge d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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19. Jovanova-Nesic K, Eric-Jovicic M, Spector NH: MAgnetic stimulation of the brain increase Na+, K+-ATPase activity decreased by injection of AlCl3 into nucleus basalis magnocellularis of rats. Int J Neurosci; 2006 Jun;116(6):681-95
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  • This article reports here on the influence of the static magnetic fields (MFs), locally applied to the brain area, on Na, K-ATPase activity in the rat with lesioned nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) by intracerebral injection of 5 microl, 1% AlCl3 into the nucleus.
  • Two AKMA micromagnets (M) flux density of 60 miliTesla, 5 mm in diameter, were bilaterally implanted with "N" polarity facing down to the cranial bones in the vicinity of the pineal gland (PG), immediately after the lesioning of NBM, during the same operation procedure.

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  • (PMID = 16753895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7454
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aluminum Compounds; 0 / Chlorides; 3CYT62D3GA / aluminum chloride; EC 3.6.3.9 / Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase
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20. Bushell WC: From molecular biology to anti-aging cognitive-behavioral practices: the pioneering research of Walter Pierpaoli on the pineal and bone marrow foreshadows the contemporary revolution in stem cell and regenerative biology. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2005 Dec;1057:28-49
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  • [Title] From molecular biology to anti-aging cognitive-behavioral practices: the pioneering research of Walter Pierpaoli on the pineal and bone marrow foreshadows the contemporary revolution in stem cell and regenerative biology.
  • More than a quarter of a century ago, Walter Pierpaoli initiated a series of extraordinary studies that demonstrated in experimental animals the potential for dramatic regeneration associated with changes in the pineal gland and bone marrow.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Diet. Exercise. Humans. Meditation. Melatonin / metabolism. Mice. Neoplasms / metabolism. Pineal Gland. Stem Cells. Stress, Physiological

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  • (PMID = 16399886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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21. van der Spuy J, Munro PM, Luthert PJ, Preising MN, Bek T, Heegaard S, Cheetham ME: Predominant rod photoreceptor degeneration in Leber congenital amaurosis. Mol Vis; 2005;11:542-53
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  • The AIPL1 protein is expressed in the pineal gland and retinal photoreceptors.

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  • (PMID = 16052170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0535
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular vision
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Vis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AIPL1 protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / cone rod homeobox protein; 0 / guanylate cyclase 1; 9009-81-8 / Rhodopsin; EC 3.1.1.64 / retinoid isomerohydrolase; EC 4.6.1.2 / Guanylate Cyclase; EC 5.2.- / cis-trans-Isomerases
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22. Weinert D, Freyberg S, Touitou Y, Djeridane Y, Waterhouse JM: The phasing of circadian rhythms in mice kept under normal or short photoperiods. Physiol Behav; 2005 Apr 13;84(5):791-8
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  • The daily profiles of food intake, liver glycogen and melatonin in the serum and the pineal gland were estimated as transverse studies under L/D=12:12 h and L/D=6:18 h.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Eating. Female. Liver / metabolism. Liver Glycogen / metabolism. Melatonin / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred ICR. Motor Activity / physiology. Pineal Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15885257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-9384
  • [Journal-full-title] Physiology & behavior
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Physiol. Behav.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liver Glycogen; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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23. Sahach VF, Rudyk OV, Vavilova HL, Kotsiuruba AV, Tkachenko IuP: [Melatonin recovers ischemic tolerance and decreases the sensitivity of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in the heart of aging rats]. Fiziol Zh; 2006;52(3):3-14
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  • The effect of the hormone of pineal gland melatonin on the ischemic tolerance and the sensitivity of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in old rat heart were studied.

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  • (PMID = 16909751.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Fiziolohichnyĭ zhurnal (Kiev, Ukraine : 1994)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fiziol Zh
  • [Language] ukr
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bax protein, rat; 0 / Free Radicals; 0 / Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0 / mitochondrial permeability transition pore; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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24. Danielczyk K, Dziegiel P: [MT1 melatonin receptors and their role in the oncostatic action of melatonin]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online); 2009 Sep 15;63:425-34
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  • Melatonin, the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, strongly inhibits the growth of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

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  • (PMID = 19837985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1732-2693
  • [Journal-full-title] Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej (Online)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online)
  • [Language] POL
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Melatonin, MT1; 0 / Receptor, Melatonin, MT2; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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25. Tordjman S, Anderson GM, Pichard N, Charbuy H, Touitou Y: Nocturnal excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Biol Psychiatry; 2005 Jan 15;57(2):134-8
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  • [Title] Nocturnal excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in children and adolescents with autistic disorder.
  • BACKGROUND: Many studies in autistic disorder report sleep problems and altered circadian rhythms, suggesting abnormalities in melatonin physiology.
  • Additionally, melatonin, a pineal gland hormone produced from serotonin, is of special interest in autistic disorder given reported alterations in central and peripheral serotonin neurobiology.
  • METHODS: Nocturnal urinary excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin was measured by radioimmunoassay in groups of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (n = 49) and normal control individuals (n = 88) matched on age, sex, and Tanner stage of puberty.
  • Further research is warranted in order to understand the mechanisms underlying the lower melatonin production, to assess the impact of altered melatonin on the pathophysiology and behavioral expression of autistic disorder, and to determine the utility of melatonin administration in individuals with autism.
  • [MeSH-major] Autistic Disorder / urine. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Communication Disorders / urine. Melatonin / analogs & derivatives. Melatonin / secretion. Melatonin / urine

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  • (PMID = 15652871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3223
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 2208-40-4 / 6-sulfatoxymelatonin; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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26. Møller M, Lund-Andersen C, Rovsing L, Sparre T, Bache N, Roepstorff P, Vorum H: Proteomics of the photoneuroendocrine circadian system of the brain. Mass Spectrom Rev; 2010 Mar-Apr;29(2):313-25
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  • The photoneuroendocrine circadian system of the brain consists of (a) specialized photoreceptors in the retina, (b) a circadian generator located in the forebrain that contains "clock genes," (c) specialized nuclei in the forebrain involved in neuroendocrine secretion, and (d) the pineal gland.
  • In this survey, the anatomy and function of the circadian-generating system in mammals is described, and recent proteomic studies that investigate day/night changes in the retina, SCN, and pineal gland are reviewed.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19437489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2787
  • [Journal-full-title] Mass spectrometry reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mass Spectrom Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteome
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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27. Huang TS, Ruoff P, Fjelldal PG: Effect of continuous light on daily levels of plasma melatonin and cortisol and expression of clock genes in pineal gland, brain, and liver in atlantic salmon postsmolts. Chronobiol Int; 2010 Oct;27(9-10):1715-34
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  • [Title] Effect of continuous light on daily levels of plasma melatonin and cortisol and expression of clock genes in pineal gland, brain, and liver in atlantic salmon postsmolts.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the daily expression of clock (Per1-like, Cry2, and Clock), the nuclear transcription factor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, PPAR; CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, C/EBP), and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (protein disulfide isomerase associated 3, PDIA3) genes in the pineal gland, brain, and liver of Atlantic salmon postsmolts reared under 12-h light:12-h dark (LD) regimes or under continuous light (LL) for 6 wks following transfer to seawater.
  • Similar variations were noted in the liver c/ebpα, pineal c/ebpδ, and pdia3 mRNAs.
  • Under LL, the clock and nuclear transcription factor mRNAs did not show any daily variation in the studied organs, with the exception of pineal pdia3.
  • Furthermore, LL had the opposite effect on the levels of melatonin and cortisol, as observed by the increase in pineal Clock, Per2, pparα, and c/ebpα and c/ebpδ mRNAs and decrease in liver Clock, Per2, and pparα mRNAs compared to those under LD.
  • The present findings show that the expression of clock genes is affected by the light across organs and that there is a relation between PPAR, C/EBP, and clock mRNAs; however, the functional role of the individual nuclear transcription factors related to this observation remains to be established in the pineal gland and liver. (Author correspondence: Tihu@nifes.no ).
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / physiology. Cryptochromes / genetics. DNA Primers. Growth / radiation effects. Liver / physiology. Molting / physiology. Pineal Gland / physiology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Seasons

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  • (PMID = 20969519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-6073
  • [Journal-full-title] Chronobiology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chronobiol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cryptochromes; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Period Circadian Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.3.1.48 / CLOCK Proteins; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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28. Karaganis SP, Kumar V, Beremand PD, Bailey MJ, Thomas TL, Cassone VM: Circadian genomics of the chick pineal gland in vitro. BMC Genomics; 2008 May 03;9:206
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  • [Title] Circadian genomics of the chick pineal gland in vitro.
  • These properties make the in vitro pineal a particularly useful model for exploring circadian control of gene transcription in a pacemaker tissue, as well as regulation of the transcriptome by primary inputs to the clock (both photic and noradrenergic).
  • CONCLUSION: Our combined approach of utilizing a temporal, photic and pharmacological microarray experiment allowed us to identify novel genes linking clock input to clock function within the pineal.
  • We identified approximately 30 rhythmic, light-responsive, NE-insensitive genes with no previously known clock function, which may play a role in circadian regulation of the pineal.
  • Further, we hypothesize that the pineal circadian transcriptome is reduced but functionally conserved in vitro, and supports an endogenous role for the pineal in regulating local rhythms in metabolism, immune function, and other conserved pathways.

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  • (PMID = 18454867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2164
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Genomics
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01-NS35846
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2405806
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29. Brivio F, Fumagalli L, Fumagalli G, Pescia S, Brivio R, Di Fede G, Rovelli F, Lissoni P: Synchronization of cortisol circadian rhythm by the pineal hormone melatonin in untreatable metastatic solid tumor patients and its possible prognostic significance on tumor progression. In Vivo; 2010 Mar-Apr;24(2):239-41
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  • [Title] Synchronization of cortisol circadian rhythm by the pineal hormone melatonin in untreatable metastatic solid tumor patients and its possible prognostic significance on tumor progression.
  • Finally, cancer progression has been proven to be associated with alterations in the pineal gland, which plays a fundamental role in the control of circadian biological rhythms.
  • On this basis, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of a chronic treatment with the pineal hormone melatonin (MLT) in advanced cancer patients with altered cortisol circadian rhythm.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Hydrocortisone / blood. Melatonin / administration & dosage. Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antioxidants / administration & dosage. Anxiety / drug therapy. Asthenia / drug therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pineal Gland / drug effects. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20364003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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30. Pavese N, Moore RY, Scherfler C, Khan NL, Hotton G, Quinn NP, Bhatia KP, Wood NW, Brooks DJ, Lees AJ, Piccini P: In vivo assessment of brain monoamine systems in parkin gene carriers: a PET study. Exp Neurol; 2010 Mar;222(1):120-4
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  • The same structures showed reduced uptake in IPD patients, who additionally had significant reductions in hypothalamus, ventral anterior thalamus, and pineal gland.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Exp Neurol. 2010 Sep;225(1):48-50 [20450912.001]
  • (PMID = 20043906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2430
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U120036861
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biogenic Monoamines; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; EC 2.3.2.27 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases; EC 2.3.2.27 / parkin protein; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / PTEN-induced putative kinase
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31. Naugler C, Xu Z: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma metastatic to the pineal gland. J Clin Neurosci; 2008 Nov;15(11):1284-6
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  • [Title] Pancreatic adenocarcinoma metastatic to the pineal gland.
  • Metastases to the pineal gland are rare and reported cases have consisted primarily of gastrointestinal and lung primary malignancies.
  • Here we present the case of a 66-year-old female with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney and liver disease who was found at autopsy to have an unrecognized infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with metastases to the liver, lungs and pineal gland.
  • As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a metastasis of infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas to the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pineal Gland. Pinealoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18829324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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32. Dalio MB, Haikel Júnior LF, Dalio RB, Pinto AP, Silva JC, Vespúcio MV, Guimarães MA, Garcia SB: A study of the effects of pinealectomy on intestinal cell proliferation in infant newborn rats. Acta Cir Bras; 2006 Jan-Feb;21(1):16-20
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  • Six animals of each group were operated for removal of the pineal gland (pinealectomy-PnX), and other six were controls (sham pinealectomy-C).
  • CONCLUSION: As the increase of intestinal crypts epithelial cells in chronic group is a carcinogenesis predetermining factor, the understanding of the interaction between pineal gland and this event has great importance.

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  • (PMID = 16491217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0102-8650
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cirurgica brasileira
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cir Bras
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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33. Herwig A, Revel F, Saboureau M, Pévet P, Steinlechner S: Daily torpor alters multiple gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland of the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Chronobiol Int; 2006;23(1-2):269-76
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  • [Title] Daily torpor alters multiple gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland of the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).
  • To reveal changes in the clockwork during torpor, we compared clock gene and neuropeptide expression by in situ hybridization in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and pineal gland of normothermic and torpid Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).
  • In the pineal gland, an important clock output, Aanat expression, peaked between ZT16 and ZT22 in normothermic animals.
  • Furthermore, the rhythmic gene expression in a peripheral oscillator, the pineal gland, is also affected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptation, Physiological. Gene Expression Regulation. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16687300.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-0528
  • [Journal-full-title] Chronobiology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chronobiol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ARNTL Transcription Factors; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Neuropeptides; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase
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34. Salingre A, Klosen P, Pévet P, Simonneaux V: Daytime gating in the Syrian hamster pineal gland. J Neuroendocrinol; 2009 Sep;21(9):760-9
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  • [Title] Daytime gating in the Syrian hamster pineal gland.
  • Taken together, our results indicate that the diurnal gating of pineal activity in the Syrian hamster is not caused by the repressor ICER and that it may occur at the level of noradrenergic receptor signalling.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm / genetics. Mesocricetus / genetics. Mesocricetus / physiology. Pineal Gland / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19549096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2826
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic Agonists; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 135844-64-3 / Cyclic AMP Response Element Modulator; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases
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35. Wiechmann AF, Summers JA: Circadian rhythms in the eye: the physiological significance of melatonin receptors in ocular tissues. Prog Retin Eye Res; 2008 Mar;27(2):137-60
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  • The diurnal changes in environmental illumination are conveyed by the retina to the brain to entrain circadian rhythms throughout the body.
  • The circadian signaling molecule, melatonin, is secreted into the circulation from the pineal gland, and is also produced within specific ocular cells such as retinal photoreceptors, ciliary epithelial cells, and perhaps cells of the lens.
  • Melatonin receptors have been identified in many ocular tissues, including the neural retina, retinal pigment epithelium, ciliary body, cornea, sclera, and lens.

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  • (PMID = 18316227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1350-9462
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in retinal and eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog Retin Eye Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY09391; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY13686
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Melatonin; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 226
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36. Mayo JC, Sainz RM, Tan DX, Antolín I, Rodríguez C, Reiter RJ: Melatonin and Parkinson's disease. Endocrine; 2005 Jul;27(2):169-78
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  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease.
  • However, over 70% of dopaminergic neuronal death occurs before the first symptoms appear, which makes either early diagnosis or effective treatments extremely difficult.
  • Only symptomatic therapies have been used, including levodopa (l-dopa), to restore dopamine content; however, the use of l-dopa leads to some long-term pro-oxidant damage.
  • Melatonin, or N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine, an indole mainly produced in the pineal gland, has been shown to have potent endogenous antioxidant actions.

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  • (PMID = 16217130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Free Radical Scavengers; 0 / Free Radicals; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 126
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37. Peschke E: Doctor medicinae honoris causa of the Medical Faculty of the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg for the anatomist and researcher of the pineal gland Professor Dr. Lutz Vollrath from Mainz. Ann Anat; 2008;190(3):199-207
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  • [Title] Doctor medicinae honoris causa of the Medical Faculty of the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg for the anatomist and researcher of the pineal gland Professor Dr. Lutz Vollrath from Mainz.
  • [MeSH-major] Anatomy / history. Pineal Gland / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 18668721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-9602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Anat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Vollrath L
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38. Shah R, Medina-Martinez O, Chu LF, Samaco RC, Jamrich M: Expression of FoxP2 during zebrafish development and in the adult brain. Int J Dev Biol; 2006;50(4):435-8
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  • However, in contrast to emx1, FoxP2 is not expressed in the pineal gland or in the pronephric duct.
  • The developing optic tectum becomes the major area of FoxP2 expression.

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  • (PMID = 16525940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-6282
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ BQ617568/ BQ783717
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / FoxP2 protein, zebrafish; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Zebrafish Proteins
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39. Couto-Moraes R, Palermo-Neto J, Markus RP: The immune-pineal axis: stress as a modulator of pineal gland function. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2009 Feb;1153:193-202
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  • [Title] The immune-pineal axis: stress as a modulator of pineal gland function.
  • The environmental light detected by the retina adjusts the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which innervate the pineal gland through a polysynaptic pathway.
  • During the night, this gland produces and releases the nocturnal hormone melatonin, which circulates throughout the whole body and adjusts several bodily functions according to the existence and duration of darkness.
  • We have previously shown that during the time frame of an inflammatory response, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inhibit while anti-inflammatory mediators, such as glucocorticoids, enhance the synthesis of melatonin, interfering in the daily adjustment of the light/dark cycle.
  • Taking into account the data obtained with models of inflammation and stress, we reinforce the hypothesis that the activity of the pineal gland is modulated by the state of the immune system and the HPA axis, implicating the darkness hormone melatonin as a modulator of defense responses.
  • [MeSH-major] Immune System / physiopathology. Pineal Gland / immunology. Pineal Gland / physiopathology. Stress, Psychological / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19236342.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-6632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Inflammation Mediators; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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40. Dagnino-Subiabre A, Zepeda-Carreño R, Díaz-Véliz G, Mora S, Aboitiz F: Chronic stress induces upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland. Brain Res; 2006 May 1;1086(1):27-34
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  • [Title] Chronic stress induces upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland.
  • Moreover, stress induces deleterious actions on the epithalamic pineal organ, a gland involved in a wide range of physiological functions.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether the stress effects on the pineal gland are related with changes in the expression of neurotrophic factors and cell adhesion molecules.
  • Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, we analyzed the effect of chronic immobilization stress on the BDNF mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland.
  • We found that BDNF is produced in situ in the pineal gland.
  • Chronic immobilization stress induced upregulation of BDNF mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland but did not produce changes in beta-actin mRNA or in GAPDH expression.
  • Furthermore, this study proposes that the pineal gland may be a target of glucocorticoid damage during stress.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor / metabolism. Gene Expression / physiology. Integrin alpha5 / metabolism. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Stress, Psychological / physiopathology. Up-Regulation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16626638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; 0 / Integrin alpha5; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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41. Foà A, Brandstätter R, Bertolucci C: The circadian system of ruin lizards: a seasonally changing neuroendocrine loop? Chronobiol Int; 2006;23(1-2):317-27
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  • Previous studies have shown that the amplitude of daily melatonin production in cultured ruin lizard pineal organs explanted in the summer is significantly higher than that from organs explanted in the winter.
  • To test whether seasonal photoperiodic changes are decoded autonomously by the pineal gland, pineals explanted in summer were cultured in vitro and exposed to changes between winter and summer photoperiods.
  • The discrepancy between the present in vitro results and those from lizards exposed to winter or summer photoperiods before pineal explantation supports the view that circadian information entering the pineal gland via its innervation is involved in determining seasonal changes of melatonin production in ruin lizards.
  • We further examined whether a central component of the circadian system of ruin lizards, specifically the retinae of the lateral eyes, expresses similar seasonal changes in function as does the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm. Pineal Gland / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 16687305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-0528
  • [Journal-full-title] Chronobiology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chronobiol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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42. Bob P, Fedor-Freybergh P: Melatonin, consciousness, and traumatic stress. J Pineal Res; 2008 May;44(4):341-7
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  • Descartes intuitively anticipated the so-called 'binding problem' of consciousness and thought that the pineal gland enables spatio-temporal integration in cognitive processing.
  • Recent findings indicate that a major role in the process of temporal integration and binding involve neurons in suprachiasmatic nuclei, specifically targeting the pineal gland and other structures, and control the neuroendocrine rhythms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cerebral Cortex / metabolism. Circadian Rhythm. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Long-Term Potentiation. Memory. Mental Disorders / metabolism. Neurons / metabolism. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18410583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-079X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 136
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43. Herwig A, Pévet P, Bothorel B, Steinlechner S, Saboureau M: Trans-pineal microdialysis in the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus): a tool to study seasonal changes of circadian clock activities. J Pineal Res; 2006 Mar;40(2):177-83
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  • [Title] Trans-pineal microdialysis in the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus): a tool to study seasonal changes of circadian clock activities.
  • The rhythmic secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland is under control of the circadian clock, conveying the photoperiodic message to the organism.
  • Trans-pineal microdialysis permits the in vivo study of this well-defined and precise clock output by measuring melatonin release directly in the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Melatonin / secretion. Microdialysis / methods. Pineal Gland / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16441555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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44. Lee CO: Complementary and alternative medicines patients are talking about: melatonin. Clin J Oncol Nurs; 2006 Feb;10(1):105-7
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  • Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone produced by the pineal gland in the brain in response to darkness.
  • Melatonin is made available when tryptophan is converted to serotonin and then enzymatically converted to melatonin in the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Complementary Therapies / organization & administration. Evidence-Based Medicine / organization & administration. Melatonin / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy


45. Spessert R, Gupta BB, Rohleder N, Gerhold S, Engel L: Cyclic AMP-inducible genes respond uniformly to seasonal lighting conditions in the rat pineal gland. Neuroscience; 2006 Dec 1;143(2):607-13
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  • [Title] Cyclic AMP-inducible genes respond uniformly to seasonal lighting conditions in the rat pineal gland.
  • In the present study, we compared the influence of the photoperiodic history on the cAMP-inducible genes AA-NAT, inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER), fos-related antigen-2 (FRA-2), mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), nerve growth factor inducible gene-A (NGFI-A) and nerve growth factor inducible gene-B (NGFI-B) in the pineal gland of rats.
  • For this purpose, we monitored the daily profiles of each gene in the same pineal gland under a long (light/dark 16:8) and a short (light/dark 8:16) photoperiod by measuring the respective mRNA amounts by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis.
  • Our study indicates that, despite differences regarding the expressional control and the temporal phasing of the daily profile, cAMP-inducible genes are uniformly influenced by photoperiodic history in the rat pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm. Cyclic AMP / pharmacology. Cyclic AMP Response Element Modulator / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Light. Pineal Gland


46. Hacker GW, Pawlak E, Pauser G, Tichy G, Jell H, Posch G, Kraibacher G, Aigner A, Hutter J: Biomedical evidence of influence of geopathic zones on the human body: scientifically traceable effects and ways of harmonization. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd; 2005 Dec;12(6):315-27
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  • [Title] Biomedical evidence of influence of geopathic zones on the human body: scientifically traceable effects and ways of harmonization.
  • It has often been tried to experimentally detect direct influences on the body.
  • The target of this study was to verify influences of 2 different zones above ground on the human body and to test a device for which pilot studies have indicated a potential harmonizing effect in this context.
  • The main analytical parameter was the GDV glow image area (area of glow).
  • With the Geowave blindly mounted in an adjacent room of the above story, a marked increase of the glow image area was found in both zones.
  • The corona projections showed well-recognizable points of body energy deficits in the geopathic zone, mostly associated with the lymphatic system, the cardiovascular system and the pineal gland, which were -- to a distinctly lesser degree -- also present in the more neutral zone.
  • CONCLUSION: The significant differences in the physical area of glow parameter, which were also noticed for the complementary parameters analyzed, lead to the conclusion that the 2 different zones within the same room (geopathic vs. more neutral zone) exerted different influences on the human body, which may have caused a geopathic stress phenomenon.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Double-Blind Method. Electromagnetic Fields. Energy Metabolism / physiology. Evidence-Based Medicine. Female. Humans. Immune System / physiopathology. Male. Meridians. Middle Aged. Pineal Gland / physiopathology. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 16391480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-7364
  • [Journal-full-title] Forschende Komplementärmedizin und klassische Naturheilkunde = Research in complementary and natural classical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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47. Esteban MA, Cuesta A, Rodríguez A, Meseguer J: Effect of photoperiod on the fish innate immune system: a link between fish pineal gland and the immune system. J Pineal Res; 2006 Oct;41(3):261-6
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  • [Title] Effect of photoperiod on the fish innate immune system: a link between fish pineal gland and the immune system.
  • The pineal gland via its secretory product, melatonin, influences the light-dark rhythm in most vertebrates including fish.
  • The present results demonstrate that the humoral innate immune system has a circadian rhythm based on the light-dark cycle and that this cycle might be affected by the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Bass / immunology. Immunity, Innate / physiology. Photoperiod. Pineal Gland / physiology. Sea Bream / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16948787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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48. Wang GQ, Fu CL, Li JX, Du YZ, Tong J: Circadian rhythms and different photoresponses of Clock gene transcription in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland. Sheng Li Xue Bao; 2006 Aug 25;58(4):359-64
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  • [Title] Circadian rhythms and different photoresponses of Clock gene transcription in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland.
  • The aim of this study was to observe and compare the endogenous circadian rhythm and photoresponse of Clock gene transcription in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and pineal gland (PG) of rats.
  • [MeSH-major] CLOCK Proteins / genetics. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate / physiology. Pineal Gland / physiology. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16906337.001).
  • [ISSN] 0371-0874
  • [Journal-full-title] Sheng li xue bao : [Acta physiologica Sinica]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sheng Li Xue Bao
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.1.48 / CLOCK Proteins
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49. Doljansky JT, Dagan Y: [A chronobiological approach in treatment of sleep disturbances in Alzheimer's dementia patients]. Harefuah; 2006 Jun;145(6):437-40, 470
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  • The SCN, in turn, innervates the pineal gland, that is responsible for the production and release of melatonin.
  • Light stimulus causes the attenuation of melatonin secretion from the pineal gland; whereas the cessation of light increases melatonin secretion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chronobiology Phenomena. Humans. Pineal Gland / physiology. Pineal Gland / physiopathology. Signal Transduction. Sleep. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / physiology. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / physiopathology. Wakefulness

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  • [CommentIn] Harefuah. 2006 Jun;145(6):433-6, 470 [16838899.001]
  • (PMID = 16838900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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50. Larsen KB, Lutterodt MC, Møllgård K, Møller M: Expression of the homeobox genes OTX2 and OTX1 in the early developing human brain. J Histochem Cytochem; 2010 Jul;58(7):669-78
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  • At later stages, the OTX2 protein was found in the subcommissural organ, pineal gland, and cerebellum.

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  • (PMID = 20354145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-5044
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / OTX1 protein, human; 0 / OTX2 protein, human; 0 / Otx Transcription Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2889402
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51. Pritz MB: Forebrain and midbrain fiber tract formation during early development in Alligator embryos. Brain Res; 2010 Feb 8;1313:34-44
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  • With the exception of a few fine fibers that occupied only a part of certain inter-diencephalic boundaries, fiber tracts were present within the parenchyma of respective subdivisions.
  • The other was the absence of the dorsoventral diencephalic tract in Alligator which lacks a pineal gland.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19968970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6240
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tubulin
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52. Dinet V, Girard-Naud N, Voisin P, Bernard M: Melatoninergic differentiation of retinal photoreceptors: activation of the chicken hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase promoter requires a homeodomain-binding element that interacts with Otx2. Exp Eye Res; 2006 Aug;83(2):276-90
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  • The gene encoding the last enzyme of the melatonin-synthesis pathway, hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), is selectively expressed in retinal photoreceptors and pineal cells.
  • Here, we analysed the promoter of the chicken HIOMT gene and we found that a homeodomain-binding element located in the proximal region of this promoter was essential for its activation in primary cultures of embryonic chicken retinal cells.
  • This homeodomain-regulatory element interacted with a protein expressed in the chicken retina and pineal gland, which was recognized by an anti-Otx2 antiserum.
  • In adult chicken, Otx2 mRNA was found to be present in those two tissues that express HIOMT: the retina and the pineal gland.
  • In the pineal, Otx2 immunolabelling was specifically localized in the nuclei of photoreceptor cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Northern / methods. Blotting, Western / methods. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Cells, Cultured. Chick Embryo. Eye Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / genetics. In Situ Hybridization / methods. Pineal Gland / growth & development. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Recombinant Proteins / genetics. Transcription, Genetic / genetics. Transcriptional Activation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16563383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4835
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Otx Transcription Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; EC 2.1.1.4 / Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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53. Zajac A, Skowronek-Bała B, Wesołowska E, Kaciński M: [The pineal cyst in children with different central nervous system diseases]. Przegl Lek; 2010;67(11):1136-9
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  • [Title] [The pineal cyst in children with different central nervous system diseases].
  • BACKGROUND: In the group of adult patients being diagnosed from different neurological complaints frequency of pineal cyst occurrence is estimated at 0,1-4,9%.
  • However, neoplastic lesions may also localize in pineal cyst.
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: Characterization of pineal cysts found in children diagnosed from different neurological diseases.
  • MR examination with contrast (with the use of Siemens device 1,5 T) revealed lesions in pineal gland defined as pineal cysts.
  • In 24/45 children serum tumor markers AFP and betaHCG were determined.
  • RESULTS: The diameter of pineal cyst was between 3-10 mm in 40/45 children, 13 mm in 2 children and 11 mm in 3 children (most often 4-5 mm in 18 children).
  • No positive values of tumor markers were found in any of examined children.
  • Pineal cysts are common structural lesions in children hospitalized from different neurological symptoms.
  • 2. Pineal cysts were usually found in children diagnosed because of headaches and epilepsy, and these were the most often final diagnosis.
  • 4. It is suspected that in majority of hospitalized patients pineal cyst was an incidental finding, with no association with clinical symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Brain Diseases / epidemiology. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / epidemiology. Epilepsy / epidemiology. Headache / epidemiology. Pineal Gland

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  • (PMID = 21442964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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54. Susko I, Mornjaković Z, Alicelebić S: [Early changes in rats cervical lymph nodes after pinealectomy]. Med Arh; 2006;60(3):149-52
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  • OBJECTIVES: Pineal gland acts as a reley where an anabolic activity be replaced to catabolic and conversely, to adapt a biological rhythm according to the organisme requirement.
  • It is established that pineal extracts stimulate lymphopoiesis in the lymph node and had a radioprotective effects in lymph tissues.
  • METHODS: One group of animals ( Wistar rats of both sex) was shame-pinealectomized (chirurgic treatment without pineal extirpation/control) and the other was submitted to surgical ablation of pineal gland.(experimental group).
  • DISCUSSION: Established changes in the lymph nodes of pinealectomized a rat was analogous with that observed after treatment with the pineal extracts but in the reverse means.
  • CONCLUSION: Pineal gland-lymph nodes correlations established possibly via hypophyso-adreno-genital axis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Pineal Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16719226.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicinski arhiv
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Arh
  • [Language] bos
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
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55. Holthues H, Engel L, Spessert R, Vollrath L: Circadian gene expression patterns of melanopsin and pinopsin in the chick pineal gland. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2005 Jan 7;326(1):160-5
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  • [Title] Circadian gene expression patterns of melanopsin and pinopsin in the chick pineal gland.
  • The directly light-sensitive chick pineal gland contains at least two photopigments.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation / radiation effects. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Pineal Gland / radiation effects. Rod Opsins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15567166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Avian Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Rod Opsins; 0 / melanopsin; 0 / pinopsin protein, chicken
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56. Peliciari-Garcia RA, Marçal AC, Silva JA, Carmo-Buonfiglio D, Amaral FG, Afeche SC, Cipolla-Neto J, Carvalho CR: Insulin temporal sensitivity and its signaling pathway in the rat pineal gland. Life Sci; 2010 Jul 31;87(5-6):169-74
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  • [Title] Insulin temporal sensitivity and its signaling pathway in the rat pineal gland.
  • A second question raised was whether windows of sensitivity to insulin exist in the pineal gland due to insulin rhythmic secretion pattern.
  • MAIN METHODS: Melatonin content from norepinephrine(NE)-synchronized pineal gland cultures was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity was assayed by radiometry.
  • In some Timed-insulin Stimulation (TSs), insulin also promoted a reduction on melatonin synthesis, showing its dual action in cultured pineal glands.
  • The major ISP components, such as IRbeta, IGF-1R, IRS-1, IRS-2 and PI3K(p85), as well tyrosine phosphorylation of pp85 were characterized within pineal glands.
  • SIGNIFICANCE: The present study demonstrated windows of differential insulin sensitivity, a functional ISP and the PI3K-dependent insulin potentiating effect on NE-mediated melatonin synthesis, supporting the hypothesis of a crosstalk between noradrenergic and insulin pathways in the rat pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulin / pharmacology. Melatonin / biosynthesis. Norepinephrine / pharmacology. Pineal Gland / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20600146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Life sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Life Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 14-3-3 Proteins; 0 / Insulin; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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57. Song JH, Kong DS, Shin HJ: Feasibility of neuroendoscopic biopsy of pediatric brain tumors. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Nov;26(11):1593-8
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  • Neuroendoscopic biopsies were performed to verify the histological diagnosis of neoplasms and to establish pathological diagnoses necessary for planning appropriate treatment strategies.
  • RESULTS: In 45 of 49 patients (91.8%) neuroendoscopic biopsy specimens were appropriate for diagnosis and revealed 27 germinomas, 11 astrocytomas, and one ependymoma, etc.
  • The tumor location included the pineal gland (n = 28), thalamus (n = 7), intraventricle (n = 3), hypothalamus (n = 3), suprasellar area (n = 2), and diffuse multifocal area (n = 3).
  • Tumor tissue specimens were undiagnostic in two patients (4.1%).
  • One patient experienced postoperative tumor bleeding requiring emergent operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendoscopy / methods. Pinealoma / pathology. Thalamic Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cerebral Ventricles / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Hypothalamus / pathology. Infant. Male. Pineal Gland / pathology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Thalamus / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20390421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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58. Cardoso FR, de Oliveira Cruz FA, Silva D, Cortez CM: Computational modeling of synchronization process of the circadian timing system of mammals. Biol Cybern; 2009 May;100(5):385-93
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  • Circadian timing system in mammals is constituted by a group of structures which includes the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the intergeniculate leaflet and the pineal gland.

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  • (PMID = 19367410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0770
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological cybernetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol Cybern
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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59. Luchetti F, Canonico B, Mannello F, Masoni C, D'Emilio A, Battistelli M, Papa S, Falcieri E: Melatonin reduces early changes in intramitochondrial cardiolipin during apoptosis in U937 cell line. Toxicol In Vitro; 2007 Mar;21(2):293-301
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  • Melatonin (Mel), the secretory product of the pineal gland, is a potent and efficient endogenous radical scavenger.
  • The cardiolipin-sensitive probe 10-nonyl acridine orange (NAO) was used to monitor changes in mitochondrial lipids.

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  • (PMID = 17045454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3177
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol In Vitro
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiolipins; 11062-77-4 / Superoxides; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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60. Grommen SV, Taniuchi S, Janssen T, Schoofs L, Takahashi S, Takeuchi S, Darras VM, De Groef B: Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and ontogenic thyroidal expression of the chicken thyrotropin receptor. Endocrinology; 2006 Aug;147(8):3943-51
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  • TSH and the interaction with its receptor (TSHR) in the thyroid gland play a crucial role in the pituitary-thyroid axis of all vertebrates.
  • Released upon stimulation by TSH, thyroid hormones influence numerous processes in the body and are extremely important during the last week of chicken embryonic development.
  • In situ hybridization showed the expression of cTSHR mRNA in the thyroidal follicular cells. cTSHR mRNA expression, as determined by real-time PCR, was also found in several other tissues such as brain, pituitary, pineal gland, and retina, suggesting that the TSH-TSHR interaction is not only important in regulating thyroid function.
  • TSHR mRNA expression in the thyroid gland did not change significantly during the last week of embryonic development, which suggests that an increased thyroidal sensitivity is not part of the cause of the concomitant increasing T4 levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Thyroid Gland / embryology. Thyroid Gland / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16709612.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AB234613
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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61. Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Korkmaz A: The circadian melatonin rhythm and its modulation: possible impact on hypertension. J Hypertens Suppl; 2009 Aug;27(6):S17-20
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  • In experimental rodents, surgical removal of the pineal gland, the major source of circulating melatonin, causes a gradual and sustained rise in blood pressure.

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  • (PMID = 19633446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1747-3667
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hypertension. Supplement : official journal of the International Society of Hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hypertens Suppl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 2208-40-4 / 6-sulfatoxymelatonin; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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62. Cardinali DP: [Melatonin. Physiology and clinical applications]. Vertex; 2007 Jul-Aug;18(74):288-93
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  • The neurohormone melatonin is released from the pineal gland in close association with the light-dark cycle.
  • This association, as well as the sleep promoting effect of exogenous melatonin, implicates the pineal product in the physiological regulation of sleep.

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  • (PMID = 18219402.001).
  • [ISSN] 0327-6139
  • [Journal-full-title] Vertex (Buenos Aires, Argentina)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vertex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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63. Ho AK, Chik CL: Modulation of Aanat gene transcription in the rat pineal gland. J Neurochem; 2010 Jan;112(2):321-31
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  • [Title] Modulation of Aanat gene transcription in the rat pineal gland.
  • The main function of the rat pineal gland is to transform the circadian rhythm generated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus into a rhythmic signal of circulating melatonin characterized by a large nocturnal increase that closely reflects the duration of night period.
  • This review highlights the pineal gland as an excellent model system for studying neurotransmitter-regulated rhythmic gene expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase / metabolism. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Pineal Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19860854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-4159
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histones; EC 2.3.1.48 / CREB-Binding Protein; EC 2.3.1.87 / Aanat protein, rat; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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64. Chen L, Zhou J, Xu H, Xu G, Xue J: Identification and developmental expression of Dec2 in zebrafish. Fish Physiol Biochem; 2010 Sep;36(3):667-75
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  • Dec2 is dynamically expressed in zebrafish pineal gland, tract of the postoptic commissure, brain, notochord, heart, common cardinal vein (CCV), axial vein, pronephric duct, swim bladder, and early somites during embryogenesis, which implies that Dec2 is involved in zebrafish central nervous system development, cardiogenesis, and internal organs and somites formation.

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  • (PMID = 19578937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-5168
  • [Journal-full-title] Fish physiology and biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fish Physiol. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Dec2 protein, zebrafish; 0 / Zebrafish Proteins
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65. Yamazaki S, Yoshikawa T, Biscoe EW, Numano R, Gallaspy LM, Soulsby S, Papadimas E, Pezuk P, Doyle SE, Tei H, Sakaki Y, Block GD, Menaker M: Ontogeny of circadian organization in the rat. J Biol Rhythms; 2009 Feb;24(1):55-63
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  • To examine the relationship between postnatal development, which is dependent on endogenous programs and maternal/environmental influences, and the phase of circadian oscillators, the authors assessed the circadian phase of pineal, liver, lung, adrenal, and thyroid tissues cultured from Period 1-luciferase (Per1-luc ) rat pups of various postnatal ages.
  • The liver, thyroid, and pineal were rhythmic at birth, but the phases of their Per1-luc expression rhythms shifted remarkably during development.
  • The phase of Per1-luc expression in the pineal gland shifted from day to night coincident with its sympathetic innervation at around P5.

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  • (PMID = 19150929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7304
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biological rhythms
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Rhythms
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH056647-07; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH056647-06A1; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH056647; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH56647; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH056647-07; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH056647-06A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Per1 protein, rat; 0 / Period Circadian Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS94762; NLM/ PMC2665126
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66. Zajac A, Herman-Sucharska I, Kubik A, Skowronek-Bała B, Gergont A, Szafirska M: [MRI and MRA data in children with migraine with aura]. Przegl Lek; 2007;64(11):934-6
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  • Isolated pathology, such as a calcification of the pineal gland and focal demyelination of vascular origin were detected in individual children.
  • [MeSH-major] Intracranial Aneurysm / diagnosis. Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Migraine with Aura / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Angiography, Digital Subtraction. Brain / radiography. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Male


67. Firth BT, Christian KA, Belan I, Kennaway DJ: Melatonin rhythms in the Australian freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni): a reptile lacking a pineal complex? J Comp Physiol B; 2010 Jan;180(1):67-72
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  • [Title] Melatonin rhythms in the Australian freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni): a reptile lacking a pineal complex?
  • The vertebrate pineal gland is the primary source of melatonin, the rhythmic secretion of which is influenced by environmental light and temperature, thereby providing animals with information about seasonally changing photoperiod and thermoperiod.
  • Although pineal glands are present in the majority of vertebrate species, a discrete organ is reported to be absent in the Crocodilia.

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  • (PMID = 19585125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-136X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative physiology. B, Biochemical, systemic, and environmental physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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68. Tanuri FC, de Lima E, Peres MF, Cabral FR, da Graça Naffah-Mazzacoratti M, Cavalheiro EA, Cipolla-Neto J, Zukerman E, Amado D: Melatonin treatment decreases c-fos expression in a headache model induced by capsaicin. J Headache Pain; 2009 Apr;10(2):105-10
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  • Our data provide experimental evidence to support the role of melatonin and pineal gland in the pathophysiology of neurovascular headaches.
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Capsaicin. Disease Models, Animal. Immunohistochemistry. Injections, Intraperitoneal. Male. Microinjections. Pineal Gland / surgery. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 19172228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1129-2377
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of headache and pain
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Headache Pain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; S07O44R1ZM / Capsaicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3451652
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69. Bellipanni G, DI Marzo F, Blasi F, Di Marzo A: Effects of melatonin in perimenopausal and menopausal women: our personal experience. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2005 Dec;1057:393-402
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  • It is accepted that a close link exists between the pineal gland, MEL, and human reproduction and that a relationship exists between adenohypophyseal and steroid hormones and MEL during the ovarian cycle, perimenopause, and menopause.

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  • (PMID = 16399909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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70. Al-Hussain SM: The pinealocytes of the human pineal gland: A light and electron microscopic study. Folia Morphol (Warsz); 2006 Aug;65(3):181-7
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  • [Title] The pinealocytes of the human pineal gland: A light and electron microscopic study.
  • The pinealocytes of the pineal gland of children and adults were studied at both light and electron microscopic levels.
  • In addition to the light and dark pinealocytes a very small cell type with an extremely thin and elongated cell body and nucleus was found.
  • [MeSH-major] Pineal Gland / cytology. Pineal Gland / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 16988913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0015-5659
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia morphologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Morphol. (Warsz)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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71. Wang GQ, Du YZ, Tong J: Daily oscillation and photoresponses of clock gene, Clock, and clock-associated gene, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene transcriptions in the rat pineal gland. Chronobiol Int; 2007;24(1):9-20
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  • [Title] Daily oscillation and photoresponses of clock gene, Clock, and clock-associated gene, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene transcriptions in the rat pineal gland.
  • This study was conducted to investigate the circadian rhythms and light responses of Clock and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) gene expressions in the rat pineal gland under the environmental conditions of a 12 h light (05:00-17:00 h): 12 h-dark (17:00-05:00 h) cycle (LD) and constant darkness (DD).
  • The pineal gland of Sprague-Dawley rats housed under a LD regime (n=42) for four weeks and of a regime (n=42) for eight weeks were sampled at six different times, every 4 h (n=7 animals per time point), during a 24 h period.
  • In the DD or LD condition, both the Clock and NAT mRNA levels in the pineal gland showed robust circadian oscillation (p<0.05) with the peak at the subjective night or at nighttime.
  • In comparison with the DD regime, the amplitudes and mRNA levels at the peaks of Clock and NAT expressions in LD in the pineal gland were significantly reduced (p<0.05).
  • In the DD or LD condition, the circadian expressions of NAT were similar in pattern to those of Clock in the pineal gland (p>0.05).
  • These findings indicate that the transcriptions of Clock and NAT genes in the pineal gland not only show remarkably synchronous endogenous circadian rhythmic changes, but also respond to the ambient light signal in a reduced manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase / genetics. Circadian Rhythm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation / radiation effects. Light. Pineal Gland / radiation effects. Trans-Activators / genetics. Transcription, Genetic / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 17364576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-0528
  • [Journal-full-title] Chronobiology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chronobiol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Trans-Activators; EC 2.3.1.48 / CLOCK Proteins; EC 2.3.1.48 / Clock protein, rat; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase
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72. Prieto Peres MF, Valença MM: Headache endocrinological aspects. Handb Clin Neurol; 2010;97:717-37
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  • The main elements for synchronization between internal biological events and the external environment are the pineal gland and its main secretory product, melatonin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Circadian Rhythm. Headache Disorders / drug therapy. Headache Disorders, Primary. Humans. Melatonin. Pineal Gland

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20816466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0072-9752
  • [Journal-full-title] Handbook of clinical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Handb Clin Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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73. Hazlerigg D, Loudon A: New insights into ancient seasonal life timers. Curr Biol; 2008 Sep 09;18(17):R795-R804
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  • In mammals, extraretinal photoreceptors have been lost, and the nocturnal melatonin signal generated from the pineal gland has been co-opted to provide the photoperiodic message.
  • Pineal function is phased to the light-dark cycle by retinal input, and photoperiodic changes in melatonin secretion control neuroendocrine pathway function.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Breeding. Circadian Rhythm. Gene Expression Regulation. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / metabolism. Light Signal Transduction. Models, Biological. Photoperiod. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Vertebrates / metabolism. Vertebrates / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18786385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9822
  • [Journal-full-title] Current biology : CB
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/G003033/1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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74. Cheung KK, Mok SC, Rezaie P, Chan WY: Dynamic expression of Dab2 in the mouse embryonic central nervous system. BMC Dev Biol; 2008 Aug 04;8:76
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  • Dab2 protein was also identified within circumventricular organs including the choroid plexus, subcommissural organ and pineal gland during their early development.
  • While Dab2 was still strongly expressed in the adult choroid plexus, immunoreactivity within the subcommissural organ and pineal gland was lost after birth.

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  • (PMID = 18680569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-213X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA103595; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA165009; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33CA103595
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport; 0 / Dab2 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2527319
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75. Merkur'eva GA, Ryzhak GA: [Effect of the pineal gland peptide preparation on the diurnal profile of arterial pressure in middle-aged and elderly women with ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension]. Adv Gerontol; 2008;21(1):132-42
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  • [Title] [Effect of the pineal gland peptide preparation on the diurnal profile of arterial pressure in middle-aged and elderly women with ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension].
  • Analysis of the study results shows that the administration of Epithalamin pineal gland peptide medication to middle-aged and elderly women with ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension improves lipid metabolism and reduces the diurnal arterial pressure level, thus decreasing the risk of fatal cardiovascular complications.


76. Ackermann K, Bux R, Rüb U, Korf HW, Kauert G, Stehle JH: Characterization of human melatonin synthesis using autoptic pineal tissue. Endocrinology; 2006 Jul;147(7):3235-42
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  • [Title] Characterization of human melatonin synthesis using autoptic pineal tissue.
  • The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes rhythmically the hormone melatonin, which provides the body with a signal coding the duration of the night period.
  • In contrast to the central importance of a transcriptional regulation of the Aa-nat gene for rodent melatonin synthesis, mechanisms in the human pineal gland are elusive.
  • Therefore, pineal tissue, taken from regular autopsies (n = 69; postmortem intervals ranging from 9 to 147 h) was analyzed simultaneously for Aa-nat and Hiomt mRNA levels by PCR, AA-NAT activity using (14)C-acetyl-coenzyme A, HIOMT activity using S-adenosyl-l-[(14)C]-methionine, and melatonin content using an ELISA.
  • In particular, our results give strong experimental support for the idea that transcriptional mechanisms are not dominant for the generation of rhythmic melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Melatonin / biosynthesis. Pineal Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16556767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.1.1.4 / Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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77. Leclerc B, Kang SW, Mauro LJ, Kosonsiriluk S, Chaiseha Y, El Halawani ME: Photoperiodic modulation of clock gene expression in the avian premammillary nucleus. J Neuroendocrinol; 2010 Feb;22(2):119-28
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  • The premammillary nucleus (PMM) has been shown to contain a daily endogenous dual-oscillation in dopamine (DA)/melatonin (MEL) as well as c-fos mRNA expression that is associated with the daily photo-inducible phase of gonad growth in turkeys.
  • In the present study, the expression of clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Cry1, Cry2, Per2 and Per3) in the PMM was determined under short (8 : 16 h light/dark cycle) and long (16 : 8 h light/dark cycle) photoperiods relative to changes associated with the diurnal rhythm of DA and MEL.
  • Gene expression in established circadian pacemakers, the visual suprachiasmatic nucleus (vSCN) and the pineal, was also determined.
  • Clock genes in the pineal gland were rhythmic under both photoperiods, and were not altered after light pulses at ZT 14, which suggests that pineal clock genes may not be associated with the photosensitive phase and reproductive activities.
  • Taken together, the changes in clock gene expression observed within the PMM were unique compared to the pineal and vSCN, and were induced by long photoperiod and light during the daily photosensitive phase; stimuli that are also documented to promote reproductive activity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Light. Microdissection. Neurons / metabolism. Photoperiod. Pineal Gland / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / metabolism. Time Factors. Turkeys

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  • (PMID = 20002961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2826
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Avian Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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78. Magnanou E, Attia J, Fons R, Boeuf G, Falcon J: The timing of the shrew: continuous melatonin treatment maintains youthful rhythmic activity in aging Crocidura russula. PLoS One; 2009;4(6):e5904
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  • 1) The diel fluctuations of melatonin levels in young, adult and aging shrews were quantified in the pineal gland and plasma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melatonin / administration & dosage. Melatonin / metabolism. Melatonin / physiology. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Shrews / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19526053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2690841
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79. Chaurasia SS, Rollag MD, Jiang G, Hayes WP, Haque R, Natesan A, Zatz M, Tosini G, Liu C, Korf HW, Iuvone PM, Provencio I: Molecular cloning, localization and circadian expression of chicken melanopsin (Opn4): differential regulation of expression in pineal and retinal cell types. J Neurochem; 2005 Jan;92(1):158-70
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  • [Title] Molecular cloning, localization and circadian expression of chicken melanopsin (Opn4): differential regulation of expression in pineal and retinal cell types.
  • The avian retina and pineal gland contain autonomous circadian oscillators and photo-entrainment pathways, but the photopigment(s) that mediate entrainment have not been definitively identified.
  • Here, we report the cDNA cloning of chicken melanopsin and show its expression in retina, brain and pineal gland.
  • In pineal gland, expression was strong throughout the parenchyma of the gland.
  • In brain, expression was observed in a few discrete nuclei, including the lateral septal area and medial preoptic nucleus.
  • The retina and pineal gland showed distinct diurnal expression patterns.
  • In pineal gland, melanopsin mRNA levels were highest at night at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 16.
  • Expression of melanopsin mRNA peaked during the daytime in the retinal pigment epithelium and inner nuclear layer but, like in the pineal, at night in the photoreceptors.
  • Localization and regulation of melanopsin mRNA in the retina and pineal gland is consistent with the hypothesis that this novel photopigment plays a role in photic regulation of circadian function in these tissues.

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  • (PMID = 15606905.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurochem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY036061
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY004864; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY04864; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH62405; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS43459
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Rod Opsins; 0 / melanopsin
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80. Olszańska B, Majewski P, Lewczuk B, Stepińska U: Melatonin and its synthesizing enzymes (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase-like and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase) in avian eggs and early embryos. J Pineal Res; 2007 Apr;42(3):310-8
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  • The activity of AA-NAT in yolk was comparable with that found in the pineal gland when calculated per milligram of yolk or pineal gland, but was significantly lower when re-calculated per milligram of protein in the yolk or pineal gland.

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  • [ErratumIn] J Pineal Res. 2007 Oct;43(3):315. Bozenna, Olszańska [corrected to Olszańska, Bozenna]; Paweł, Majewski [corrected to Majewski, Paweł]; Bogdan, Lewczuk [corrected to Lewczuk, Bogdan]; Urszula, Stepińska [corrected to Stepińska, Urszula]
  • (PMID = 17349030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.1.1.4 / Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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81. Goncharova ND, Vengerin AA, Khavinson VKh, Lapin BA: Pineal peptides restore the age-related disturbances in hormonal functions of the pineal gland and the pancreas. Exp Gerontol; 2005 Jan-Feb;40(1-2):51-7
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  • [Title] Pineal peptides restore the age-related disturbances in hormonal functions of the pineal gland and the pancreas.
  • The purpose of this research was to study age-related changes in functioning of pineal and pancreatic glands of non-human primates, rhesus monkeys, and to elucidate the possibility of their corrections with the help of epitalon, a synthetic analogue of the pharmacopoeia drug epithalamin.
  • After the glucose administration to old monkeys, a larger area under the curve of the plasma glucose response, a reduced glucose 'disappearance' rate, and a reduced insulin peak (5 min after the glucose administration) were observed in comparison with young animals in similar experiments.
  • Additionally, in the case of old monkeys, epitalon decreased the area under the plasma glucose response curve, markedly increased the glucose 'disappearance' rate and normalized the plasma insulin dynamics in response to glucose administration.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / physiology. Islets of Langerhans / physiopathology. Oligopeptides / pharmacology. Pineal Gland / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 15664732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0531-5565
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental gerontology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Gerontol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Oligopeptides; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; O65P17785G / alanyl-glutamyl-aspartyl-glycine
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82. Zhang R, Hrushesky WJ, Wood PA, Lee SH, Hunt RC, Jahng WJ: Melatonin reprogrammes proteomic profile in light-exposed retina in vivo. Int J Biol Macromol; 2010 Aug 01;47(2):255-60
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  • Melatonin, a small organic molecule synthesized by the pineal gland and the retina, has a variety of physiologic functions such as circadian clock pacemaker and antioxidant.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20434483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0003
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biological macromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR023476
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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83. Ishido M: Melatonin inhibits maneb-induced aggregation of alpha-synuclein in rat pheochromocytoma cells. J Pineal Res; 2007 Mar;42(2):125-30
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  • Melatonin, a secretory product of the pineal gland, is involved in the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms, in oncostasis, and in inducing osteoblast differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Fungicides, Industrial / antagonists & inhibitors. Maneb / antagonists & inhibitors. Melatonin / physiology. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. alpha-Synuclein / antagonists & inhibitors. alpha-Synuclein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17286743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fungicides, Industrial; 0 / alpha-Synuclein; 12427-38-2 / Maneb; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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84. Drobnik J, Olczak S, Owczarek K, Hrabec Z, Hrabec E: Melatonin augments expression of the procollagen α1 (I) and α1 (III) genes in the infarcted heart scar of pinealectomized rats. Connect Tissue Res; 2010 Dec;51(6):491-6
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  • The pineal gland is involved in the regulation of collagen accumulation in peripheral wounds and scars of the infarcted heart.
  • This study is aimed to provide an explanation of whether the pineal gland and melatonin (MLT) is involved in the regulation of α1 (I) and α1 (III) procollagen gene expression.
  • Because the pineal product does not have an influence on the myofibroblast of the scar, the indirect mechanism of MLT action is suggested.
  • [MeSH-major] Cicatrix / metabolism. Collagen Type I / biosynthesis. Collagen Type III / biosynthesis. Melatonin / administration & dosage. Myocardial Infarction / metabolism. Pineal Gland / physiology. Procollagen / biosynthesis. Up-Regulation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20388018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8438
  • [Journal-full-title] Connective tissue research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Connect. Tissue Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Collagen Type III; 0 / Procollagen; 0 / collagen type I, alpha 1 chain; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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85. Rosiak J, Zawilska JB: Near-ultraviolet light perceived by the retina generates the signal suppressing melatonin synthesis in the chick pineal gland-an involvement of NMDA glutamate receptors. Neurosci Lett; 2005 May 13;379(3):214-7
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  • [Title] Near-ultraviolet light perceived by the retina generates the signal suppressing melatonin synthesis in the chick pineal gland-an involvement of NMDA glutamate receptors.
  • Exposure of dark-adapted chicks to near ultraviolet (UV-A) light significantly decreased melatonin (MEL) content and the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT; the penultimate and key regulatory enzyme in MEL production) in the pineal glands.
  • Significant reduction in MEL level and AA-NAT activity was also found in pineals of animals whose heads were covered with black opaque tape, an observation suggesting that in the chicken UV-A light perceived by the eyes alone is capable of affecting MEL synthesis in the pineal gland.
  • Although SCH 23390 (a selective D1-dopamine receptor antagonist), injected directly into both eyes at a dose of 10 nmol/eye, prevented the decline in pineal AA-NAT activity produced by retinal illumination with white light, the drug did not modify the UV-A light-evoked decrease in the enzyme activity.
  • MK-801 (a selective antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors; 1 nmol/eye) abolished the suppressive action of UV-A light on pineal AA-NAT activity, but it was inactive in the case of white light.
  • Intraocularly injected sulpiride and CNQX (selective antagonists of D2-dopamine and AMPA/kainite glutamate receptors, respectively) had no effect on the actions of both UV-A and white light (acting on the eyes only) on pineal AA-NAT activity.
  • It is concluded that in the chick retinally perceived UV-A light generates a signal which suppresses MEL production in the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Melatonin / biosynthesis. Pineal Gland / radiation effects. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / physiology. Retina / radiation effects. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 15843066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzazepines; 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 6LR8C1B66Q / Dizocilpine Maleate; 6OTE87SCCW / 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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86. du Plessis SS, Hagenaar K, Lampiao F: The in vitro effects of melatonin on human sperm function and its scavenging activities on NO and ROS. Andrologia; 2010 Apr;42(2):112-6
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  • Various systems of antioxidants exist endogenously in the body to help protect it against free radical damage by scavenging excessive ROS and RNS.
  • Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, and responsible for controlling the circadian rhythm, is one such endogenous antioxidant.
  • Spermatozoa were incubated with 2 mm melatonin (120 min, 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2)) after which motility parameters were measured by computer aided motility analysis, while cell viability (PI), intracellular NO (DAF-2/DA) and ROS (DCFH-DA) were assessed using flow cytometry.

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  • (PMID = 20384801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0272
  • [Journal-full-title] Andrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Andrologia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Free Radical Scavengers; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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87. Canpolat S, Aydin M, Yasar A, Colakoglu N, Yilmaz B, Kelestimur H: Effects of pinealectomy and exogenous melatonin on immunohistochemical ghrelin staining of arcuate nucleus and serum ghrelin leves in the rat. Neurosci Lett; 2006 Dec 20;410(2):132-6
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  • Lack of effect of melatonin on hypothalamic ghrelin in PNX rats implicates that exogenous melatonin requires an intact pineal to exert its effects.
  • We have demonstrated for the first time that the pineal gland may play a role in ghrelin amount in the hypothalamus.
  • [MeSH-major] Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus / drug effects. Melatonin / pharmacology. Peptide Hormones / metabolism. Pineal Gland / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Body Weight / physiology. Eating / drug effects. Eating / physiology. Ghrelin. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 17095160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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88. Aydogan S, Yerer MB, Goktas A: Melatonin and nitric oxide. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Mar;29(3):281-7
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  • Melatonin is a product of the amino acid tryptophan in the pineal gland.
  • Once synthesized, the specific mechanisms governing the release of melatonin from the pineal gland and its functions are largely unknown.

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  • (PMID = 16682846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Free Radical Scavengers; 0 / Oxidants; 14691-52-2 / Peroxynitrous Acid; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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89. Cipri S, Gangemi A, Cafarelli F, Messina G, Iacopino P, Al Sayyad S, Capua A, Comi M, Musitano A: Neuroendoscopic management of hydrocephalus secondary to midline and pineal lesions. J Neurosurg Sci; 2005 Sep;49(3):97-106
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  • [Title] Neuroendoscopic management of hydrocephalus secondary to midline and pineal lesions.
  • AIM: In patients with space-occupying lesions of the pineal region, increased intracranial pressure is due to direct compression of the sylvian aqueduct.
  • Based on results of the recent literature, neuroendoscopic management of obstructive hydrocephalus, secondary to tumors of the pineal gland, has gained a preeminent role respect to shunting procedures.
  • METHODS: In 14 select cases, hydrocephalus was secondary to midline and pineal lesions.
  • RESULTS: In our series, obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to midline and pineal lesions, was successful treated by neuroendoscopic approach alone in 9 cases, with an unremarkable course and good outcome, except in 1 case.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neuroendoscopic approach affords a minimally invasive way to obtain 4 objectives by one-step surgical approach, such as resolution of obstructive hydrocephalus by endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), cerebrospinal fluid sample to detect tumor markers and to perform cytological analysis, biopsy specimens and tissue diagnosis, associated to absence of shunt-related complications.
  • Therefore, in experienced hands, ETV should be the treatment of first choice, in cases of hydrocephalus secondary to lesions of the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Neuroendoscopy. Pinealoma / complications


90. Boudreau EA, Johnson KP, Jackman AR, Blancato J, Huizing M, Bendavid C, Jones M, Chandrasekharappa SC, Lewy AJ, Smith AC, Magenis RE: Review of disrupted sleep patterns in Smith-Magenis syndrome and normal melatonin secretion in a patient with an atypical interstitial 17p11.2 deletion. Am J Med Genet A; 2009 Jul;149A(7):1382-91
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  • Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and behavior problems, including abnormal sleep patterns.
  • Secretion of melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is the body's signal for nighttime darkness.

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  • (PMID = 19530184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4833
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD042125-05; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD042125; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD042125-05; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS135387; NLM/ PMC2760428
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91. Jaworek J, Nawrot-Porabka K, Leja-Szpak A, Bonior J, Szklarczyk J, Kot M, Konturek SJ, Pawlik WW: Melatonin as modulator of pancreatic enzyme secretion and pancreatoprotector. J Physiol Pharmacol; 2007 Dec;58 Suppl 6:65-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Melatonin, the main product of the pineal gland, is also released from the gastrointestinal endocrine-neurocrine (EE) cells.

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  • (PMID = 18212401.001).
  • [ISSN] 0867-5910
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Free Radical Scavengers; 0 / Receptor, Cholecystokinin A; 888Y08971B / Ceruletide; 8DUH1N11BX / Tryptophan; 9011-97-6 / Cholecystokinin; EC 3.2.1.- / Amylases; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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92. Huang Z, Liu T, Borjigin J: N-terminal residues regulate proteasomal degradation of AANAT. J Pineal Res; 2010 Apr;48(3):290-6
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  • We have shown that inhibition of proteasome activities in vivo in the intact pineal gland fails to prevent the light-induced suppression of melatonin secretion.
  • Deletion analysis of N-terminus identified the second amino acid leucine (L2) as the key residue that contributes to the proteasomal proteolysis of AANAT protein.
  • These results suggest that rat AANAT protein is degraded via the N-end rule pathway of proteasomal proteolysis and the leucine at the N-terminus appears to be the key residue recognized by N-end rule pathway.

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  • (PMID = 20210853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-079X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS057583
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Leupeptins; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 133407-82-6 / benzyloxycarbonylleucyl-leucyl-leucine aldehyde; EC 2.3.1.87 / Aanat protein, rat; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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93. Paul S, Sharma AV, Mahapatra PD, Bhattacharya P, Reiter RJ, Swarnakar S: Role of melatonin in regulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 via tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 during protection against endometriosis. J Pineal Res; 2008 May;44(4):439-49
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  • The effect of melatonin, a major secretory product of the pineal gland, on endometriosis was examined in preventive and therapeutic models in mice.

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  • (PMID = 18298469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-079X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Enzyme Precursors; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; EC 3.4.24.- / pro-matrix metalloproteinase 9; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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94. Olovnikov AM: Hypothesis: lifespan is regulated by chronomere DNA of the hypothalamus. J Alzheimers Dis; 2007 May;11(2):241-52
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  • In adults, this process is under control of the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alzheimer Disease / genetics. Animals. Biological Clocks. Biological Evolution. Chromosome Deletion. Cytoskeleton / genetics. Free Radicals / metabolism. Gravitation. Humans. Lipid Peroxidation / physiology. Moon. Pineal Gland / physiopathology. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology. Werner Syndrome / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17522448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1387-2877
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Alzheimers Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Free Radicals; 9007-49-2 / DNA
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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95. Pandi-Perumal SR, Zisapel N, Srinivasan V, Cardinali DP: Melatonin and sleep in aging population. Exp Gerontol; 2005 Dec;40(12):911-25
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  • The neurohormone melatonin is released from the pineal gland in close association with the light-dark cycle.
  • This association, as well as the sleep promoting effect of exogenous melatonin, implicates the pineal product in the physiological regulation of sleep.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Alzheimer Disease / complications. Alzheimer Disease / drug therapy. Body Temperature Regulation. Female. Humans. Indenes / therapeutic use. Indoles / therapeutic use. Male. Pineal Gland / secretion. Receptors, Melatonin / agonists. Sleep Wake Disorders / complications. Sleep Wake Disorders / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16183237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0531-5565
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental gerontology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Gerontol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indenes; 0 / Indoles; 0 / LY 156735; 0 / Receptors, Melatonin; 901AS54I69 / ramelteon; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 232
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96. Bartlett RM, Holden JE, Nickles RJ, Murali D, Barbee DL, Barnhart TE, Christian BT, DeJesus OT: Paraquat is excluded by the blood brain barrier in rhesus macaque: An in vivo pet study. Brain Res; 2009 Mar 9;1259:74-9
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  • The highest concentrations of paraquat were seen in the pineal gland and the lateral ventricles.

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  • (PMID = 19135428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6240
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA09206; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009206; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009206-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009206-28; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009206-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009206-28
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; 0 / Neurotoxins; PLG39H7695 / Paraquat
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS108043; NLM/ PMC2700775
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97. Nakamura K, Hasegawa H: Developmental role of tryptophan hydroxylase in the nervous system. Mol Neurobiol; 2007 Feb;35(1):45-54
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  • TPH2 is abundant in the brain, whereas TPH1 is mainly expressed in the pineal gland and the periphery.
  • An increasing body of evidence suggests the involvement of developmental brain disturbances in psychiatric disorders.

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  • (PMID = 17519505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-7648
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; EC 1.14.16.4 / Tryptophan Hydroxylase
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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98. Chowdhury I, Sengupta A, Maitra SK: Melatonin: fifty years of scientific journey from the discovery in bovine pineal gland to delineation of functions in human. Indian J Biochem Biophys; 2008 Oct;45(5):289-304
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  • [Title] Melatonin: fifty years of scientific journey from the discovery in bovine pineal gland to delineation of functions in human.
  • Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) was first purified and characterized from the bovine pineal gland extract by Aron Lerner and co-workers in 1958.
  • Since then, a plethora of information has piled up on its biosynthesis, metabolism, time-bound periodicity, physiological and patho-physiological functions, as well as its interactions with other endocrine or neuro-endocrine organs and tissues in the body.
  • Consistent efforts have uncovered the mystery of this indoleamine, and demonstrated its role in regulation of a large as well as diverse body functions in different groups of animals in general, and in humans in particular.
  • [MeSH-major] Melatonin. Pineal Gland / secretion

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  • (PMID = 19069840.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1208
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of biochemistry & biophysics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J. Biochem. Biophys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 164
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99. Zawilska JB, Berezińska M, Stasikowska O, Lorenc A, Skene DJ, Nowak JZ: Posthatching developmental changes in noradrenaline content in the chicken pineal gland. J Pineal Res; 2005 Mar;38(2):123-9
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  • [Title] Posthatching developmental changes in noradrenaline content in the chicken pineal gland.
  • Noradrenaline (NA) levels in pineal gland of chickens at various posthatching stages (P2, P4, P8, P15, P30 and P57) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.
  • Pineal NA content markedly increased between P2 and P30.
  • P30 and P57 chickens, kept from the day of hatching under a 12:12 hr light-dark (LD) illumination cycle, exhibited rhythmic changes in pineal NA, with levels in the dark period being markedly higher than in the light period.
  • In younger birds pineal NA concentrations did not show pronounced daily variations.
  • In 4-wk-old chickens (P28-30) kept under constant darkness (DD), the rhythmic pattern of pineal NA persisted for 1 day (with higher values during the subjective dark phase than during the subjective light phase), but this disappeared 24 hr after the introduction of DD.
  • In contrast, NA content in pineal glands isolated from birds maintained for 2 days under continuous light was similar to that found during the light phase of the LD cycle, and did not exhibit significant rhythmicity.
  • In P30 chickens, pretreated with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT, an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase, the key regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamines), pineal NA content declined slowly and monophasically during the light phase.
  • Acute exposure of the dark-adapted P30 and P57 chickens to light significantly decreased pineal NA content, but did not affect pineal NA concentrations in younger birds.
  • Our results suggest that the NA rhythm in the chicken pineal gland and its sensitivity to light regulation progressively develop during the first month of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / metabolism. Chickens / metabolism. Norepinephrine / metabolism. Pineal Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15683467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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100. Huang Z, Liu T, Chattoraj A, Ahmed S, Wang MM, Deng J, Sun X, Borjigin J: Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland. J Pineal Res; 2008 Nov;45(4):506-14
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  • [Title] Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland.
  • Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals.
  • The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night.
  • Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrate that pineal 5-HT secretion exhibits dynamic circadian rhythms with elevated levels during the early night, and that the increase is controlled by adrenergic signaling at night.
  • In this study, we report that (a) 5-HT total output from the pineal gland and TPH1 protein levels both display diurnal rhythms with a twofold increase at night;.
  • (c) 5-HT total output and TPH1 protein content in rat pineal gland are both acutely inhibited by light exposure at night.
  • Consistent with these findings, molecular analysis of TPH1 protein revealed that (a) TPH1 is phosphorylated at the serine 58 in vitro and in the night pineal gland; and (b) phosphorylation of TPH1 at this residue is required for cAMP-enhanced TPH1 protein stability.
  • These data support the model that increased nocturnal 5-HT synthesis in the pineal gland is mediated by the phosphorylation of TPH1 at the serine 58, which elevates the TPH1 protein content and activity at night.

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  • (PMID = 18705647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-079X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K02 NS054724-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS057583-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS057583-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS057583; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K02 NS054724; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS054724-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 1.14.16.4 / Tryptophan Hydroxylase; EC 1.14.16.4 / tph1 protein, rat; EC 2.3.1.87 / Aanat protein, rat; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS101126; NLM/ PMC2669754
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