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1. Korula A, Varghese J, Thomas M, Vyas F, Korula A: Malignant phyllodes tumour with intraductal and invasive carcinoma and lymph node metastasis. Singapore Med J; 2008 Nov;49(11):e318-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumour with intraductal and invasive carcinoma and lymph node metastasis.
  • Phyllodes tumours constitute 2-3 percent of fibroepithelial breast tumours, with a 1-2 percent rate of malignancy.
  • Carcinoma in a phyllodes tumour is distinctly uncommon, but has been known to occur in benign phyllodes tumours.
  • We describe a 51-year-old woman with a malignant phyllodes tumour with foci of intraductal carcinoma within the tumour and adjacent breast tissue.
  • Though the carcinoma was found to be invasive based on the presence of carcinomatous lymph node metastasis, extensive sampling did not yield an invasive component within the breast, probably because of the marked stromal overgrowth of the phyllodes.
  • A malignant phyllodes tumour with foci of intraductal carcinoma and axillary lymph node metastases was diagnosed rather than carcinosarcoma.
  • Coexistence of phyllodes tumour and carcinoma is rare, and extensive sampling may be necessary to find the foci of carcinoma within an extensive and obviously malignant stromal overgrowth.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / pathology. Breast / surgery. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19037540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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2. Jones AM, Mitter R, Poulsom R, Gillett C, Hanby AM, Tomlinson IP, Sawyer EJ, Phyllodes Tumour Consortium: mRNA expression profiling of phyllodes tumours of the breast: identification of genes important in the development of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumours. J Pathol; 2008 Dec;216(4):408-17
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  • [Title] mRNA expression profiling of phyllodes tumours of the breast: identification of genes important in the development of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in the development of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumours of the breast (PTs).
  • Expression profiling of 23 PTs (12 benign, 11 borderline/malignant) was performed using Affymetrix U133A GeneChips. mRNA expression in the borderline/malignant PTs was compared to the benign PTs.
  • PAX3, TGFB2 and HMGA2 were expressed predominantly in borderline/malignant PTs, but showed some expression in benign tumours; they may be important in the transition from the benign to borderline/malignant phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18937276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Department of Health / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
  • [Investigator] Walker R; Pinder S; Jones L; Ellis I; Tan PH; Macartney J; Green D; Hales S; Harding-Mackean C; Colclough A; MacNeill F; Rowlands D; Smith C; Fentiman I; Cane P; Desai A; Goderya R; Nerurkar A; Kissin M; Jackson P
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3. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: p16 and pRb immunohistochemical expression increases with increasing tumour grade in mammary phyllodes tumours. Histopathology; 2010 Jun;56(7):868-75
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  • [Title] p16 and pRb immunohistochemical expression increases with increasing tumour grade in mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • AIMS: Control of cell cycling and proliferation is critical to the development of neoplasia and may play a role in the pathogenesis of phyllodes tumours (PTs).
  • This study aimed to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of certain proteins from the G(1)/S transition of the cell cycle in a cohort of PTs, to determine their role in tumour pathogenesis and to identify any associations with patient outcome.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-five PTs (34 benign, 23 borderline and eight malignant) diagnosed at a single institution between 1990 and 2006 were analysed.
  • Expression of the following markers increased significantly with tumour grade: stromal nuclear and cytoplasmic p16 (P = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively), stromal and epithelial pRb (P = 0.000,000,06 and 0.004, respectively), and stromal and epithelial Ki67 (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis


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4. Huang KT, Dobrovic A, Yan M, Karim RZ, Lee CS, Lakhani SR, Fox SB: DNA methylation profiling of phyllodes and fibroadenoma tumours of the breast. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Nov;124(2):555-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] DNA methylation profiling of phyllodes and fibroadenoma tumours of the breast.
  • Phyllodes tumours and cellular fibroadenomas are both fibroepithelial tumours of the breast.
  • Phyllodes tumours, unlike fibroadenomas, have the ability to recur and metastasise.
  • We sought to evaluate whether DNA promoter methylation profiling using selected genes known to be methylated in cancer would allow us to learn more about the biology of these tumours, and whether it could identify methylation markers that could differentiate phyllodes tumours from fibroadenomas and/or distinguish phyllodes tumours of different grades.
  • Methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) was used to screen promoter DNA methylation changes in 86 phyllodes tumours (15 benign, 28 borderline, 43 malignant) and 26 fibroadenomas.
  • Five of the gene promoters showed some methylation in a proportion of phyllodes tumours; RASSF1A, 45.3%; TWIST1, 10.7%; APC, 4.1%; WIF1, 2.9% and MGMT, 1.3%.
  • No CDKN2A methylation was observed in either tumour type, contrary to previous reports.
  • However, significant levels of methylation of RASSF1A (24.4%) and TWIST1 (7.1%) was observed in some phyllodes tumours.
  • Elevated RASSF1A and/or TWIST1 methylation was significantly associated with phyllodes tumours compared with fibroadenomas (P = 0.02), TWIST1 methylation correlated with increasing malignancy in phyllodes tumours (P < 0.001).
  • In conclusion, assessment of methylation of RASSF1A and TWIST1 may aid in the diagnosis of phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Genetic Markers. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Australia. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Middle Aged. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Twist Transcription Factor / genetics. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20563638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / TWIST1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Twist Transcription Factor
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5. Seal SK, Kuusk U, Lennox PA: Bilateral and multifocal phyllodes tumours of the breast: A case report. Can J Plast Surg; 2010;18(4):145-6
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  • [Title] Bilateral and multifocal phyllodes tumours of the breast: A case report.
  • Phyllodes tumours are rare breast neoplasms that present as painless breast masses.
  • They are classified as benign, malignant and borderline.
  • It describes a patient presenting with synchronous bilateral, multifocal breast phyllodes tumours who underwent immediate reconstruction with tissue expanders at the time of her mastectomies.

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  • (PMID = 22131843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1918-1507
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of plastic surgery = Journal canadien de chirurgie plastique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3006114
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast neoplasm / Phyllodes tumour
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6. Hayes BD, O'Doherty A, Quinn CM: Correlation of needle core biopsy with excision histology in screen-detected B3 lesions: the Merrion Breast Screening Unit experience. J Clin Pathol; 2009 Dec;62(12):1136-40
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  • Although most NCBs are B2 (benign) or B5 (malignant), some fall into the B3 category of "uncertain malignant potential".
  • The NCB pathology reports were reviewed and the diagnosis correlated with excision histology; the latter was classified as benign, atypical or malignant.
  • The final diagnosis was malignant in 22 patients (16%), atypical in 40 (28%) and benign in 79 (56%).
  • The lesion-specific PPVs were: lobular neoplasia 50%, AIDEP 32%, columnar cell lesion with atypia 12.5%, RS 12.3%, papillary lesion 8.3%, suspected phyllodes tumour 7.7%, and spindle cell lesion 0%.

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  • (PMID = 19946101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Sando N, Oka K, Moriya T, Saito H, Nagakura S, Mori N, Suzuki T, Ueki H, Ohtani H: Osteosarcoma arising in the breast. APMIS; 2006 Jul-Aug;114(7-8):581-7
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  • The tumors were diagnosed as a fibroadenoma and a benign phyllodes tumor, respectively.
  • The tumor occupied the entire breast and measured 12x9x8.5 cm.
  • The tumor cells were spindle-shaped and pleomorphic, with large, irregular nuclei and distinct nucleoli.
  • Many tumor cells had characteristics of osteoblastic and chondroblastic elements producing osteoid, osseous, and cartilaginous intracellular substances.
  • Tumor cells expressed vimentin, osteopontin, vascular endothelial growth factor, CD10, and alkaline phosphatase, but did not express keratin.

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  • (PMID = 16907866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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8. Jacobs TW, Chen YY, Guinee DG Jr, Holden JA, Cha I, Bauermeister DE, Hashimoto B, Wolverton D, Hartzog G: Fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma on breast core needle biopsy: are there predictors of outcome on surgical excision? Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Sep;124(3):342-54
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  • Fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma (FELCS) in breast core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens may result in either fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor at excision.
  • On excision, 16 patients had fibroadenomas and 12 had phyllodes tumors.
  • All CNB specimens with mildly increased stromal cellularity were fibroadenomas on excision (n=4), and all with markedly cellular stroma were phyllodes tumors (n=4).
  • Among CNB specimens with moderate cellularity (12 fibroadenomas and 8 phyllodes tumors), only stromal mitoses were discriminatory histologically.
  • Stromal proliferation indices were significantly higher in CNB that were phyllodes tumors vs fibroadenomas.
  • Assessment of stromal cellularity, mitoses, and proliferation indices might help determine the probability of phyllodes tumor occurring and guide management of these cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16191502.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Agarwal P, Sparnon AL: Benign breast lesions in adolescent girls: an overview with a case report. Pediatr Surg Int; 2005 May;21(5):381-2
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  • [Title] Benign breast lesions in adolescent girls: an overview with a case report.
  • We report a case in an adolescent girl that was initially diagnosed and treated as fibroadenoma until a histological assessment proved it to be a phyllodes tumour with malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Humans

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  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
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10. Morgan JM, Douglas-Jones AG, Gupta SK: Analysis of histological features in needle core biopsy of breast useful in preoperative distinction between fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumour. Histopathology; 2010 Mar;56(4):489-500
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of histological features in needle core biopsy of breast useful in preoperative distinction between fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumour.
  • Despite the greater yield of material with spatial information, the distinction between fibroepithelial lesions of the breast, fibroadenoma (FA) and benign phyllodes tumour (PT), remains problematic.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20459556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Tse GM, Chaiwun B, Lau KM, Scolyer R, Lee CS, Karim RZ, Putti TC, Law BK, Lui PC, Tan PH: Endothelin-1 expression correlates with atypical histological features in mammary phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Sep;60(9):1051-6
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  • [Title] Endothelin-1 expression correlates with atypical histological features in mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endothelin-1 expression is increased in infiltrating duct carcinoma and is associated with larger tumour size, higher histological grade and lymphovascular permeation.
  • This has not been evaluated in phyllodes tumours, which are uncommon fibroepithelial lesions with potential for local recurrences or distant metastasis.
  • While the grading of phyllodes tumours depends on a combination of histological parameters, prediction of their behaviour remains difficult.
  • METHOD: A large series of 461 phyllodes tumours (291 benign, 115 borderline malignant and 55 frankly malignant) were evaluated for endothelin-1 expression in both the epithelial cells and stromal cells by immunohistochemistry; results were correlated with the tumour grade.
  • RESULTS: For benign phyllodes tumours, the epithelial staining of endothelin was negative, weak, moderate and strong in 6%, 26%, 15% and 53% of cases respectively; results were 4%, 18%, 19% and 59% respectively for borderline and 6%, 18%, 6% and 70% respectively for frankly malignant tumours.
  • For the stromal staining, the negative, weak, moderate and strong staining was 32%, 19%, 18% and 31% respectively for benign phyllodes, 24%, 13%, 10% and 53% respectively for borderline and 8%, 16%, 17% and 59% respectively for frankly malignant tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: These observations suggest a close relationship between the epithelial and stromal elements in phyllodes tumours; endothelin may play a significant role in the malignant progression of phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Endothelin-1 / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17158636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1972415
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12. Büchler T, Vorzilková E, Koukolík F, Melínova H, Abrahámová J: [Malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes with brain metastases]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(6):446-8
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  • [Title] [Malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes with brain metastases].
  • [Transliterated title] Maligní forma cystosarcoma phyllodes s metastázami do mozku.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes is an uncommon type of breast tumour.
  • Benign, borderline, and malignant subtypes have been described.
  • Central nervous system metastases of the malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes are rare and associated with poor prognosis.
  • We report on a patient with malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes who developed metastatic disease six years after resection of the primary breast tumour.
  • Because metastatic malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes are largely resistant to treatment, the most important objective is to provide optimal management of the primary tumour before dissemination occurs.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21351423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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13. Solberg OG, Blom GP, Stavem K: [A patient with pulmonary metastasis of phyllodes tumour of the breast]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen; 2005 Nov 3;125(21):2956-7
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  • [Title] [A patient with pulmonary metastasis of phyllodes tumour of the breast].
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumours are rare neoplasms of the female breast.
  • Tumours range from the benign to the highly malignant.
  • Based on histological growth pattern, number of mitoses, pleomorphism and stroma characteristics, tumours are classified as malignant, borderline, or benign.
  • After surgical treatment of malignant phyllodes tumours, ten-year survival of 42% is reported.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present the case history of a 59-year-old woman with a pulmonary metastasis from a malignant phyllodes tumour of the breast.
  • RESULTS: The patient presented with a rapidly growing tumour of the right lung.
  • Microscopic examination of the resected specimen showed a metastasis from a malignant sarcomatous tumour.
  • Review of the specimen from a mastectomy 14 months earlier, for what was then considered a benign phyllodes tumour, confirmed a diagnosis of a primary malignant phyllodes tumour with pulmonary metastases.
  • INTERPRETATION: Diagnosis and treatment of phyllodes tumours require close cooperation between the radiologist, the pathologist and the clinician.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary

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  • [CommentIn] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2005 Nov 3;125(21):2958 [16299883.001]
  • (PMID = 16299881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0807-7096
  • [Journal-full-title] Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
  • [Language] nor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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14. Beier JP, Jaeger K, Horch RE: Reduction mammaplasty for benign phyllodes tumour in an adolescent female--a 13-year follow up. Breast; 2006 Aug;15(4):550-3
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  • [Title] Reduction mammaplasty for benign phyllodes tumour in an adolescent female--a 13-year follow up.
  • Phyllodes tumours are rare neoplasms of the female breast, especially among adolescent women.
  • We present the case of a 17-year old female patient with a large benign phyllodes tumour.
  • Standard plastic surgical techniques like reduction mammaplasty might be applied in treating large benign tumours compromising the aesthetic aspect of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16310356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics
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15. Moriya T, Kozuka Y, Kanomata N, Tse GM, Tan PH: The role of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions. Pathology; 2009 Jan;41(1):68-76
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  • It can be used to assist in distinguishing benign and malignant conditions, or to clarify the histological subtype of invasive carcinomas.
  • High molecular weight cytokeratins (CK5/6, CK14, 34betaE12) typically show a mosaic-like pattern of expression in benign papillary/hyperplastic lesions, and are mostly negative in ductal in situ carcinoma, but some exceptions exist.
  • Cytokeratins, especially the antibody 34betaE12, are of value to differentiate spindle cell carcinoma from phyllodes tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods


16. Sorelli PG, Thomas D, Moore A, Khan M, Hoque H: Malignant phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old premenarchal girl. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Feb;45(2):e17-20
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  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old premenarchal girl.
  • Phyllodes tumor is uncommon in children, and the malignant form is rare.
  • There have only been a few cases of benign phyllodes tumor reported in peripubertal children and only one malignant case.
  • We report the second case of malignant phyllodes tumor in a premenarchal 11-year-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Menarche. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20152333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Destounis SV, Vogt C, Arieno AL, Morgan RC: Difficult management of a rapidly growing benign phyllodes tumor in a 49-year-old woman. J Ultrasound Med; 2010 Jul;29(7):1125-31
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  • [Title] Difficult management of a rapidly growing benign phyllodes tumor in a 49-year-old woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20587436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Foxcroft LM, Evans EB, Porter AJ: Difficulties in the pre-operative diagnosis of phyllodes tumours of the breast: a study of 84 cases. Breast; 2007 Feb;16(1):27-37
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  • [Title] Difficulties in the pre-operative diagnosis of phyllodes tumours of the breast: a study of 84 cases.
  • Eighty-four phyllodes tumours (71 benign, eight borderline and five malignant) diagnosed over a 16-year period were studied retrospectively, to assess the diagnostic value of the pre-operative modalities used.
  • The possibility of phyllodes tumour was raised in only 23% on fine needle aspiration cytology, and in 65% on core biopsy.
  • For phyllodes tumours whose growth was measured, almost all had growth rates greater than for growing fibroadenomas.
  • The pre-operative diagnosis of phyllodes tumours is difficult, and rapid growth and/or large size of apparent fibroadenomas may be the only imaging findings to suggest phyllodes tumour.
  • Whole breast ultrasound showed that nearly one third of women with phyllodes tumours had concurrent fibroadenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16876413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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19. Tan EY, Tan PH, Yong WS, Wong HB, Ho GH, Yeo AW, Wong CY: Recurrent phyllodes tumours of the breast: pathological features and clinical implications. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Jun;76(6):476-80
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  • [Title] Recurrent phyllodes tumours of the breast: pathological features and clinical implications.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumours (PT) of the breast are fibro-epithelial neoplasms that are known to recur locally in up to 19% of patients.
  • It is still debatable as to whether it is necessary to subject the patient to repeat surgery to obtain pathologically negative margins after a diagnosis of a benign or borderline PT is made.
  • Although the majority of recurrences are histologically similar to the initial tumour, a malignant recurrence is possible.
  • Comparisons were made between those with benign, borderline and malignant tumours, as well as between those who developed a malignant recurrence and those who did not.
  • RESULTS: The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 39.6 +/- 7.4 years and the mean tumour size was 6.0 +/- 5.1 cm.
  • A total of 22 patients were classified as having benign tumour, 9 as having borderline tumour and 6 as having malignant tumour.
  • Tumour grade did not influence the tumour size, the adequacy of surgical margins or the time interval to local recurrence or the number of recurrences.
  • The majority of recurrent tumours were histologically similar to the initial tumour; however, seven patients (19%) developed a malignant recurrence from an initially benign or borderline tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It may be acceptable to use an expectant management towards benign and borderline tumours that are excised without adequate surgical margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] ANZ J Surg. 2006 Oct;76(10):956. Hoon, Tan Puay [corrected to Tan, Puay Hoon]; Hui, Ho G [corrected to Ho, Gay Hui]
  • (PMID = 16768772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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20. Tan PH: 2005 Galloway Memorial Lecture: Breast phyllodes tumours--morphology and beyond. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Dec;34(11):671-7
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  • [Title] 2005 Galloway Memorial Lecture: Breast phyllodes tumours--morphology and beyond.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive role of morphology in a series of breast phyllodes tumours (PTs) in Asian women, and to determine the utility of immunohistochemical expression of p53 and CD117 in the stromal component.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Breast PTs, diagnosed between January 1992 and December 2002 at the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, were classified into benign, borderline and malignant categories.
  • Tumour size ranged from 0.9 to 25 cm (median, 4 cm).
  • Histologic classification revealed 250 (74.6%) benign, 54 (16.1%) borderline and 31 (9.3%) malignant PTs.
  • Though tumour grade was associated with an increased hazard of 1.63, it was not significant (P = 0.28).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16453039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Lectures; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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21. Pawlicki J, Król R, Kajor M, Ziaja J: [Case of malignant tumour phyllodes converting to fibrosarcoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2007 Mar;22(129):215-7
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  • [Title] [Case of malignant tumour phyllodes converting to fibrosarcoma].
  • Tumour phyllodes is rare breast neoplasm.
  • Tumours phyllodes are composed of hypercellular mesenchymal stroma and epithelial elements.
  • They are commonly classified as benign, rarely as borderline or malignant.
  • There is a case of large (28 x 24 cm) malignant tumour phyllodes presented in the article.
  • In spite of unfavorable prognostic features of the tumour (large size, malignant histological character) and recurrences, final therapeutic effect was good.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17682679.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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22. Hirose M, Hashizume T, Seino N, Kubota H, Nobusawa H, Gokan T: Atlas of breast magnetic resonance imaging. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2007 Mar-Apr;36(2):51-65
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast has become important not only for assessing the extent of breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery but also for the evaluation and diagnosis of other benign and malignant pathologies.
  • We will illustrate the MRI features of various breast pathologies including malignant tumors such as invasive and noninvasive ductal carcinoma, special types of invasive carcinoma (mucinous, apocrine, lobular carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and so on), inflammatory carcinoma, semimalignant tumor (phyllodes tumor), benign tumors (fibroadenoma, intraductal and intracystic papilloma), inflammatory conditions, and postsurgical changes.

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  • (PMID = 17331837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-0188
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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23. Kazakov DV, Spagnolo DV, Stewart CJ, Thompson J, Agaimy A, Magro G, Bisceglia M, Vazmitel M, Kacerovska D, Kutzner H, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors of anogenital mammary-like glands: a series of 13 neoplasms in 12 cases, including mammary-type juvenile fibroadenoma, fibroadenoma with lactation changes, and neurofibromatosis-associated pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with multinucleated giant cells. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jan;34(1):95-103
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  • [Title] Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors of anogenital mammary-like glands: a series of 13 neoplasms in 12 cases, including mammary-type juvenile fibroadenoma, fibroadenoma with lactation changes, and neurofibromatosis-associated pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with multinucleated giant cells.
  • Microscopically, 8 lesions were classified as fibroadenoma, and 5, including 1 recurrent tumor, as phyllodes tumor, of which 1 was benign and 4 low-grade malignant.
  • In addition to conventional findings, we describe several hitherto unreported features including juvenile fibroadenoma-like proliferation, fibroadenoma with lactation change, and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with multinucleated stromal giant cells in a patient with neurofibromatosis, type 1 all constituting potential diagnostic pitfalls, which are best averted by using the same approach to diagnosis as for their analogous mammary counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology


24. Rodríguez Ogando A, Fernández López T, Rodríguez Castaño MJ, Mata Fernández C, Alvarez Bernardi J, Cebollero Presmanes M: Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a case report in a 12-year-old girl. Clin Transl Oncol; 2010 Oct;12(10):704-6
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  • [Title] Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a case report in a 12-year-old girl.
  • Breast tumors in adolescents are very rare and mostly benign.
  • Fibroadenomas are the most frequent, but within the extensive differential diagnosis, the phyllodes tumor must be mentioned, which accounts for about 1% of breast tumors and the diagnosis of which is very rare in patients younger than 20 years.
  • There are no specific symptoms or radiological images to distinguish phyllodes tumor from fibroadenoma; therefore, histological examination is mandatory for diagnosis.
  • Histology also allows the classification of phyllodes tumor into benign, borderline, or malignant types for appropriate surgical treatment: freemargin excision in benign tumors and mastectomy in the other two types.
  • Fortunately, the majority of these tumors are benign, and treatment maximizes breast conservation with free infiltration margins surgery, given that this fact is the most important factor to prevent local recurrence.
  • In this article, we describe a rare case of borderline cystosarcoma phyllodes in a 12-year-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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25. Yamaguchi R, Tanaka M, Kishimoto Y, Ohkuma K, Ishida M, Kojiro M: Ductal carcinoma in situ arising in a benign phyllodes tumor: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(1):42-5
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  • [Title] Ductal carcinoma in situ arising in a benign phyllodes tumor: report of a case.
  • Malignant epithelial change within a phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare event.
  • The epithelial element consisted of irregularly dilated ducts with a phyllodes structure that had moderate to severe epithelial hyperplasia, and foci of cribriform ductal carcinoma in situ with comedo necrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18085361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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26. Basu S, Saxena V, Sharma CL, Kumar M: Image of the month. Phyllodes tumor (benign). Arch Surg; 2008 Feb;143(2):207-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Image of the month. Phyllodes tumor (benign).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology


28. Resetkova E, Khazai L, Albarracin CT, Arribas E: Clinical and radiologic data and core needle biopsy findings should dictate management of cellular fibroepithelial tumors of the breast. Breast J; 2010 Nov-Dec;16(6):573-80
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  • Fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma identified on core needle biopsy (CNB) may prove to be either fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor at excision; therefore, management of these rare lesions is highly controversial.
  • Cellular fibroepithelial lesions with indeterminate or suspect imaging findings, with larger size, and with an equivocal comment such as "cannot rule out phyllodes tumor" in the pathology report were excised more frequently (p = 0.05, p = 0.034, and p = 0.01, respectively).
  • Of 43 excised lesions, 13 were classified as benign phyllodes tumors, 23 as fibroadenoma and seven as benign cellular fibroepithelial lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Mammography. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 21070433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Kang Y, Kim JH, Lee TH, Kim TS, Jung WH, Chung HC, Park BW, Sheen SS, Han JH: Expression of anaphase-promoting complex7 in fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors of breast. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jan;40(1):98-107
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  • [Title] Expression of anaphase-promoting complex7 in fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors of breast.
  • The average values of the anaphase-promoting complex7 and Ki-67 labeling indices increased in order from benign to malignant within the phyllodes tumor group, and the fibroadenoma and juvenile fibroadenoma exhibited lower levels of anaphase-promoting complex7 and Ki-67 expression than did the phyllodes tumor.
  • The frequency of anaphase-promoting complex7-positive stromal cells correlated with Ki-67 expression in phyllodes tumor and in all of the examined breast tumors.
  • In addition, phyllodes tumor can be differentiated from juvenile fibroadenoma with increased mitotic figures mimicking phyllodes tumor by anaphase-promoting complex7 and Ki-67 immunochemistry.
  • Because anaphase-promoting complex7 is expressed at higher levels than is Ki-67, it may overcome the limitations of the Ki-67 labeling index with regard to the differentiation of benign phyllodes tumor from fibroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18789487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 6.3.2.19 / Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes
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30. Yohe S, Yeh IT: "Missed" diagnoses of phyllodes tumor on breast biopsy: pathologic clues to its recognition. Int J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;16(2):137-42
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  • [Title] "Missed" diagnoses of phyllodes tumor on breast biopsy: pathologic clues to its recognition.
  • Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors of the breast exhibit a continuum of pathologic features.
  • We examined phyllodes tumors initially called fibroadenoma for features that may accurately classify the tumor as phyllodes tumor on the first biopsy specimen.
  • The phyllodes tumors initially called fibroadenoma for features that may accurately classify the tumor as phyllodes tumors on the first biopsy specimen are examined.
  • Fifteen patients with phyllodes tumors were studied, initially called FA or another term short of PT.
  • Resected phyllodes tumors were larger on average than fibroadenoma, 6.8 cm (range = 1.7-16.2 cm) versus 2.6 cm (range = 1.0-4.8 cm).
  • Ki-67 showed higher proliferation indices in phyllodes tumors versus fibroadenoma (4.8% vs 0.6%).
  • Features suggesting phyllodes tumors include tissue fragmentation, increased stromal cellularity especially around glands, stromal overgrowth, and increased mitoses.
  • Increased sampling of a large tumor will likely yield more correct diagnoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18417670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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31. Orea-Estudillo D, Jaimes-López L, Bernal-Cano J: [Phyllodes tumor in a pediatric patient. Case report and literature review]. Cir Cir; 2008 Mar-Apr;76(2):165-8
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumor in a pediatric patient. Case report and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor phyllodes en un paciente pediátrico. Informe de un caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumors occur with a frequency of 0.3- 0.9% and are rare in young women.
  • We present a phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old female and we reviewed the literature regarding this pathology.
  • CASE REPORT: We present the case of an 11-year-old female with a diagnosis of phyllodes tumor.
  • Histological report demonstrated benign phyllodes tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Small phyllodes tumors can be excised with a 1-cm surgical border, whereas larger phyllodes tumors are treated with simple mastectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor

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  • (PMID = 18492439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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32. Sapino A, Bosco M, Cassoni P, Castellano I, Arisio R, Cserni G, Dei Tos AP, Fortunati N, Catalano MG, Bussolati G: Estrogen receptor-beta is expressed in stromal cells of fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors of the breast. Mod Pathol; 2006 Apr;19(4):599-606
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  • [Title] Estrogen receptor-beta is expressed in stromal cells of fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • In this study, the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and -beta was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 33 fibroadenomas and in 30 benign, three borderline and seven malignant phyllodes tumors, all with spindle cell growth and in one distant metastasis.
  • ER-beta was the only hormone receptor expressed by stroma of fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, both at protein and mRNA level.
  • The highest percentage of ER-beta was observed in fibroadenomas with cellular stroma and in phyllodes tumors.
  • In contrast, in phyllodes tumors, ER-beta expression was higher in older patients.
  • In conclusion, (i) only ER-beta is detected in the stroma of fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors;.
  • Conversely, the older age of patients with ER-beta-rich phyllodes tumors suggests that mechanisms, probably independent from estrogen stimulation, act on the growth of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Estrogen Receptor beta / genetics. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Calcium-Binding Proteins / analysis. Cell Line, Tumor. Estrogen Receptor alpha / analysis. Estrogen Receptor alpha / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microfilament Proteins / analysis. Middle Aged. Muscle, Smooth / chemistry. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16554735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / calponin
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33. Cîmpean AM, Raica M, Nariţa D: Diagnostic significance of the immunoexpression of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin in benign and malignant tumors of the breast. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(2):123-9
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  • [Title] Diagnostic significance of the immunoexpression of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin in benign and malignant tumors of the breast.
  • PURPOSE: Our aim was to investigate the distribution of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin positive myofibroblasts in the stroma of the normal mammary gland, benign and malignant tumors.
  • RESULTS: We have found normal breast tissue, sclerosing adenosis, fibroadenomas, fibrocystic diseases, phyllodes tumor, DCIS, ductal invasive, lobular, squamous, medullary, mucinous, and papillary carcinomas.
  • All the normal breast tissues and most of benign lesions were positive for CD34 and negative for SMA.
  • The exceptions were represented by a case of fibroadenoma and the phyllodes tumor, with CD34 positivity and a focal acquisition of SMA; fibrocystic disease with associated apocrine metaplasia adjacent to a squamous carcinoma with loss of CD34 expression and focal acquisition of SMA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although there were some exceptions especially when one of the two markers was interpreted separately and in some cases associated with sclerotic stroma, we conclude that the combined expression of CD34 and a-SMA is of potential diagnostic value in the distinction between benign and malignant tumors in some difficult cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / analysis. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Smad Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16286998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Smad Proteins
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34. Chung EM, Cube R, Hall GJ, González C, Stocker JT, Glassman LM: From the archives of the AFIP: breast masses in children and adolescents: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2009 May-Jun;29(3):907-31
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  • The spectrum of breast lesions in children and adolescents varies markedly from that for adults, with the former lesions being overwhelmingly benign.
  • After onset of puberty, most cases of breast enlargement arise from benign fibroadenoma in girls and gynecomastia in boys.
  • These conditions have specific imaging appearances, although juvenile (often giant) fibroadenoma cannot be distinguished from phyllodes tumor, which can be benign or malignant.
  • A diagnosis of juvenile papillomatosis (a benign lesion) portends later development of breast cancer, and patients with this condition should be closely monitored.
  • The most common primary breast malignancy is malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • Primary breast carcinoma is exceedingly rare in the pediatric age group, but its imaging appearance in children is the same as seen in adults and is different from that of almost all benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast / abnormalities. Breast / anatomy & histology. Breast / growth & development. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiography. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / ultrasonography. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / radiography. Granular Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / radiography. Gynecomastia / pathology. Gynecomastia / radiography. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Nipples / abnormalities. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / radiography. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / radiography. Puberty. Puberty, Precocious / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19448124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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35. Lenhard MS, Kahlert S, Himsl I, Ditsch N, Untch M, Bauerfeind I: Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinical follow-up of 33 cases of this rare disease. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Jun;138(2):217-21
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinical follow-up of 33 cases of this rare disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: The "cystosarcoma phyllodes" of the breast is a rare entity which accounts for 0.5% of all breast neoplasms.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The data of 5270 patients with primary breast neoplasms treated in our department between 1984 and 2005 were retrospectively analysed for the histopathologic diagnosis of a cystosarcoma phyllodes.
  • The clinical data was analysed with respect to tumour grading and size, treatment and prognosis.
  • In the histopathological analysis, tumour grade was classified as benign in 40%, borderline in 27% and malignant in 33% of patients.
  • Mean tumour size was 6.9 cm, and no lymph node infiltration was found in the 10 patients who received axillary lymph node dissection.
  • The local recurrence rate was 50% in malignant, 20% in borderline and only 8% in benign tumours.
  • Distant metastases were seen in three patients (9%) with malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • Neither regarding age at primary diagnosis nor in tumour size there was a significant difference between patients with local recurrence or metastatic spread and those without (p=0.284 tumour size; p=0.739 for age; Mann-Whitney U-test).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Rare Diseases. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17868973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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36. Wang ZC, Buraimoh A, Iglehart JD, Richardson AL: Genome-wide analysis for loss of heterozygosity in primary and recurrent phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma of breast using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2006 Jun;97(3):301-9
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  • [Title] Genome-wide analysis for loss of heterozygosity in primary and recurrent phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma of breast using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays.
  • Phyllodes tumors of the breast are biphasic stromal and epithelial tumors histologically similar to benign fibroadenomas, but with a neoplastic stromal component.
  • In contrast to fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumors can recur and be locally aggressive or be malignant.
  • This study uses SNP array analysis to present a genome-wide map of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a cohort of phyllodes tumors and fibroadenomas.
  • LOH is frequent and sometimes extensive in phyllodes tumors, but is rarely seen in fibroadenomas.
  • There is heterogeneity between phyllodes tumors of different patients and no one LOH marker identifies a majority of these lesions.
  • However, a subset of LOH loci occur in multiple cases of phyllodes tumors and are not found in fibroadenomas.
  • Primary phyllodes tumors and paired recurrences from the same patient share common regions of LOH.
  • Specific LOH loci may be associated with pathologic progression in recurrent phyllodes tumors.
  • In a single case of phyllodes tumor containing a malignant epithelial component the malignant epithelium and stroma partially share an LOH genotype, suggesting a common precursor cell for the biphasic malignant components.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Genome, Human. Humans. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16791486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / NCI P50 CA89393-01
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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37. Aranda C, Sotelo M, Torres A, Zárate M: [Phyllodes tumor and pregnancy. A report of a case]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2005 Jul;73(7):387-92
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumor and pregnancy. A report of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor phyllodes y embarazo. Reporte de un caso.
  • Phyllodes tumor is a rare breast fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast, predominant in females (0.3 to 0.5%).
  • Phyllodes tumor during pregnancy grows fast and its size is relatively big.
  • These tumors can be classified as benign, malignant or neighboring.
  • A possible phyllodes tumour in the right breast was observed during surgery, weight 9.6 pounds, with partial infiltration to major pectoral muscle.
  • Pathology reported a benign phyllodes tumor in the right breast, with surgical borders free of tumor.
  • Phyllodes tumor is rare and can occur during pregnancy.
  • It is unknown if the tumor is hormone-dependent.
  • The growth of a tumor on a subsequent pregnancy is not necessarily associated with recurrency or with a new disorder on the patient, who has had a complete excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic


38. Houssami N, Ciatto S, Bilous M, Vezzosi V, Bianchi S: Borderline breast core needle histology: predictive values for malignancy in lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3). Br J Cancer; 2007 Apr 23;96(8):1253-7
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  • Excision histology was benign in 181 (64.9%) and malignant in 98 (35.1%) subjects (61 ductal carcinoma in situ, 37 invasive carcinoma).
  • Lesion-specific PPV (estimates in parentheses for excision or follow-up) was atypical ductal hyperplasia 44.7% (40.6%); lobular intraepithelial neoplasia 60.9% (58.3%); papillary lesion 22.7% (15.9%); radial scar 16.7% (12.3%); phyllodes tumour 12.5% (12.5%); and B3 not specified 20.0%.
  • Research is needed to improve differentiation between malignant and benign diseases in B3 lesions using diagnostic or predictive methods.

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  • (PMID = 17438578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360144
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39. Bhargav PR, Mishra A, Agarwal G, Agarwal A, Verma AK, Mishra SK: Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of recurrent vs. non-recurrent cases. Asian J Surg; 2009 Oct;32(4):224-8
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of recurrent vs. non-recurrent cases.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to present our experience of dealing with patients with phyllodes tumours (PT) and to correlate the risk of local recurrence with different clinicopathological factors.
  • The mean tumour diameter was 10.5 +/- 5 cm.
  • The histology report was benign, borderline and malignant PT in 28%, 20% and 52% of cases respectively.

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  • (PMID = 19892625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0219-3108
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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40. Ezeome ER, Okafor OC, Nwajiobi CE, Osuagwu CC: Bilateral benign phyllodes tumour in a nulliparous woman: a case report and review of literature. Niger J Clin Pract; 2007 Mar;10(1):66-9
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  • [Title] Bilateral benign phyllodes tumour in a nulliparous woman: a case report and review of literature.
  • Cystosarcoma Phyllodes is an uncommon disease of the breast with variable clinical behaviour.
  • In this communication, we present a case of metachronous bilateral benign cystosarcoma phyllodes presenting in a 24year old nulliparous lady.
  • This case unlike most reported cases of bilateral Phyllodes tumour occurred in a nulliparous lady.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17668718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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41. Kraemer B, Hoffmann J, Roehm C, Gall C, Wallwiener D, Krainick-Strobel U: Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a rare diagnosis: case studies and review of literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2007 Dec;276(6):649-53
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  • [Title] Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a rare diagnosis: case studies and review of literature.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes (CP), otherwise known as phyllodes tumour (PT) of the breast, is a very rare but locally aggressive fibroepithelial tumour in its malignant form, and accounts for 0.3-1% of all breast neoplasias.
  • Using 4 cases reports with different histological classifications as examples (benign-borderline-malignant), we describe the (differential) diagnosis and treatment options of this tumour entity and give an additional review of the available literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17549503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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42. Bode MK, Rissanen T, Apaja-Sarkkinen M: Ultrasonography and core needle biopsy in the differential diagnosis of fibroadenoma and tumor phyllodes. Acta Radiol; 2007 Sep;48(7):708-13
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  • [Title] Ultrasonography and core needle biopsy in the differential diagnosis of fibroadenoma and tumor phyllodes.
  • BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of phyllodes tumors of the breast is challenging due to many similarities with common fibroadenomas.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of core needle biopsy in diagnosing phyllodes tumors and to analyze the ultrasonographic (US) features of phyllodes tumors and fibroadenomas.
  • Of these, 57 fibroadenomas and 12 phyllodes tumors were removed surgically.
  • The US and needle biopsy results of a total of 64 lesions (52 fibroadenomas and 12 phyllodes tumors) were further analyzed, compared, and correlated with surgical histological results.
  • RESULTS: The median sonographic sizes of the phyllodes tumors and the fibroadenomas were 3.2 cm and 1.6 cm, respectively.
  • At US, 58% of the phyllodes tumors (7/12) were classified as equivocal or suspicious of malignancy and 42% (5/12) as probably benign, while 54% of the fibroadenomas (28/52) were classified as probably benign and 46% (24/52) as equivocal.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of core needle biopsy histology regarding tumor phyllodes were 83%, 92%, 71%, and 96%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Imaging-guided core needle biopsy was accurate in differentiating between fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors.
  • Combined use of US feature analysis and needle biopsy may help to avoid the misinterpretation of phyllodes as fibroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / ultrasonography. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17728999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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43. Iyengar P, Cody HS 3rd, Brogi E: Pleomorphic adenoma of the breast: case report and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Dec;33(6):416-20
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  • Pleomorphic adenoma of the breast (PAB) is a very rare neoplasm.
  • On cytologic material, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor should also be considered within the differential diagnosis.
  • Correct identification of this benign mammary neoplasm is important to avoid unnecessarily aggressive treatment.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 16299746.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Sandhya B, Babu V, Parthasarathy G, Kate V, Ananthakrishnan N, Krishnan R: Primary leiomyosarcoma of the breast: A case report and review of literature. Indian J Surg; 2010 Jul;72(Suppl 1):286-8
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  • We describe herein a case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the breast in a 54-year-old woman whose preoperative clinical and cytological findings indicated a benign breast tumour.
  • It is necessary to excise the tumour with sufficient margins to prevent local recurrence.

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  • [Cites] Surg Today. 1997;27(11):1082-5 [9413066.001]
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  • (PMID = 23133273.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-2068
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3451846
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast / Phyllodes Sandhya / Stromal tumours
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46. Abdul Aziz M, Sullivan F, Kerin MJ, Callagy G: Malignant phyllodes tumour with liposarcomatous differentiation, invasive tubular carcinoma, and ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ: case report and review of the literature. Patholog Res Int; 2010;2010:501274
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  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumour with liposarcomatous differentiation, invasive tubular carcinoma, and ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ: case report and review of the literature.
  • Histology revealed a malignant phyllodes tumour (PT) with liposarcomatous differentiation and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) within the tumour with invasive tubular carcinoma, DCIS, and lobular carcinoma in situ in the surrounding breast.
  • Carcinoma is reported in malignant (n = 19), benign (n = 16) and in borderline PTs (n = 3) with invasive carcinoma (n = 18) and pure in situ carcinoma (n = 19) recorded in equal frequency.
  • Carcinoma is more commonly found within the confines of benign PTs; whereas it is more often found surrounding the PT or in the contralateral breast in malignant PTs.

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  • (PMID = 21151726.001).
  • [ISSN] 2042-003X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology research international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Patholog Res Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2990446
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47. Agabiti S, Gurrera A, Amico P, Vasquez E, Magro G: [Mammary hamartoma with atypical stromal cells: a potential diagnostic dilemma]. Pathologica; 2007 Dec;99(6):434-7
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  • Although atypical stromal cell (ASCs) can be encountered in several benign and malignant breast lesions, their occurrence in hamartoma has not been reported to date.
  • This unusual feature raised differential diagnostic problems with pleomorphic lipoma, well-differentiated liposarcoma and malignant phylloid tumour with a lipomatous heterologous component.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Biomarkers. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroblasts / chemistry. Fibroblasts / pathology. Humans. Lipoma / diagnosis. Liposarcoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Stromal Cells / chemistry. Stromal Cells / pathology. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18416336.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Vimentin
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48. Mannan AA, Kahvic M, Aziz AH: Phyllodes tumor of the vulva: Report of a rare case and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jun;32(4):384-6
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the vulva: Report of a rare case and review of the literature.
  • Phyllodes tumor occurring in the vulva is extremely rare; only 6 cases have been previously reported in the literature.
  • The histogenetic origin of this tumor is controversial as it is being debated whether such lesions evolve from ectopic breast tissue, cutaneous apocrine glands, and most recently, anogenital mammary-like gland.
  • Microscopic examination revealed morphologic pattern characteristic of benign phyllodes tumor.
  • We also discuss the histogenesis of phyllodes tumor and related lesions occurring in the anogenital region in light of the current literature along with a brief review of the previously reported cases of vulvar phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20514681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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49. El Hag IA, Aodah A, Kollur SM, Attallah A, Mohamed AA, Al-Hussaini H: Cytological clues in the distinction between phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Feb 25;118(1):33-40
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  • [Title] Cytological clues in the distinction between phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) sensitivity in discriminating between phyllodes tumor and its benign mimicker fibroadenoma (FA) remains low.
  • Because a preoperative categorization of phyllodes tumor is crucial for their appropriate management, the authors undertook this study in an effort to improve the outcome of FNA by identifying reliable distinguishing features.
  • METHODS: FNA smears from 15 and 12 histologically proven cases of phyllodes tumor and FA, respectively, were reviewed.
  • A group of cytological features that may distinguish between phyllodes tumor and FA were identified.
  • Their value and reproducibility in categorizing phyllodes tumor cases were tested.
  • RESULTS: Three major cytological features were exclusively seen in all of, or the vast majority of, the phyllodes tumor cases; fibromyxoid stromal fragments with spindle nuclei (90%), fibroblastic pavements (93%), and appreciable number of spindles cells of fibroblastic nature among dispersed cell population (100%).
  • The identification of these features improved the pick-up rate of phyllodes tumor from 40% to 100% and had substantial (kappa = 0.56-0.73) interobserver and almost perfect (kappa = 0.83) intraobserver reproducibility.
  • There was no significant difference in the epithelial component characteristics between phyllodes tumor and FA.
  • The frequency and degree of atypia in the dispersed cell population correlated well to the histological grade of phyllodes tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FNA has proven to be a reliable test in differentiating between phyllodes tumor and FA with high sensitivity and good reproducibility.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20094997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a clinicopathological analysis of 65 cases from a single institution. Breast; 2009 Jun;18(3):165-70
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a clinicopathological analysis of 65 cases from a single institution.
  • The aim of this study was to document the clinical and pathological features of a large single institutional series of ethnically diverse patients with phyllodes tumours (PTs), and to determine which characteristics were predictive of outcome.
  • Sixty five PTs were analysed; 34 were benign, 23 borderline and eight malignant (34 low grade and 31 high grade PTs on a two tiered grading system).
  • The mean age at diagnosis significantly increased with tumour grade.
  • The mean tumour volume also significantly increased with grade.
  • Tumour grade was the only parameter related significantly to outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Mastectomy / statistics & numerical data. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / statistics & numerical data. New South Wales / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 19329316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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51. Kuijper A, Snijders AM, Berns EM, Kuenen-Boumeester V, van der Wall E, Albertson DG, van Diest PJ: Genomic profiling by array comparative genomic hybridization reveals novel DNA copy number changes in breast phyllodes tumours. Cell Oncol; 2009;31(1):31-9
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  • [Title] Genomic profiling by array comparative genomic hybridization reveals novel DNA copy number changes in breast phyllodes tumours.
  • Breast phyllodes tumour (PT) is a rare fibroepithelial tumour.
  • 11 PTs and 3 fibroadenomas, a frequently occurring fibroepithelial breast tumour, were analyzed.
  • Since copy number change was found in all benign PT, genomic instability may be an early event in PT genesis.

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  • (PMID = 19096148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-8606
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular oncology : the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 101359; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 90421
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4618888
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52. Udapudi DG, Vasudeva P, Srikantiah R, Virupakshappa E: Massive benign phyllodes tumor. Breast J; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):521
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  • [Title] Massive benign phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16297126.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Horvath L, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: Proteins from the Wnt pathway are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of mammary phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2009 Nov;62(11):1016-20
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  • [Title] Proteins from the Wnt pathway are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: The Wnt pathway is important in cell signalling transduction and is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple tumour types.
  • A comprehensive analysis of the expression of Wnt signalling pathway proteins in mammary phyllodes tumours (PTs) has not been previously performed.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Wnt pathway proteins in a cohort of PTs, to determine their role in tumour pathogenesis and to identify any associations with patient outcome.
  • METHODS: 65 PTs (34 benign, 23 borderline and 8 malignant) diagnosed at a single institution between 1990 and 2006 were analysed.
  • Epithelial membranous and stromal nuclear beta-catenin, epithelial cytoplasmic Wnt1 and epithelial E-cadherin all also showed increasing expression with increasing tumour grade, however, the differences were not significant.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cadherins / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Survival Analysis. Tissue Array Analysis / methods. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19861560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / SFRP4 protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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54. Tse GM, Wong FC, Tsang AK, Lee CS, Lui PC, Lo AW, Law BK, Scolyer RA, Karim RZ, Putti TC: Stromal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression correlates with the grade of mammary phyllodes tumour. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Jun;58(6):600-4
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  • [Title] Stromal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression correlates with the grade of mammary phyllodes tumour.
  • In mammary fibroepithelial lesions, NOS expression in stromal cells has been reported to be lower in fibroadenomas than in phyllodes tumours.
  • AIMS: To investigate NOS expression in phyllodes tumours of varying degrees of malignancy.
  • METHODS: One hundred and sixty seven mammary phyllodes tumours (97 benign, 47 borderline malignant, and 23 frankly malignant) were evaluated for e-NOS and i-NOS expression by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Stromal expression of e-NOS was absent, weak, moderate, and strong in 43%, 31%, 13%, and 13% of benign tumours; 17%, 26%, 13%, and 44% of borderline malignant tumours; and 17%, 35%, 13%, and 35% of frankly malignant tumours, respectively.
  • Stromal expression of i-NOS was 77%, 18%, 4%, and 1% in benign tumours; 42%, 28%, 19%, and 11% in borderline malignant tumours; and 43%, 13%, 26%, and 18% in frankly malignant tumours, respectively.
  • Stromal expression of both i-NOS and e-NOS was significantly different between the benign and malignant (borderline and frank) groups of phyllodes tumours (p < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Higher stromal expression of NOS in phyllodes tumours is associated with malignancy, suggesting a possible role in malignant progression, particularly metastasising potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Nitric Oxide Synthase / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 15917410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.14.13.39 / NOS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.39 / NOS3 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770683
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55. Dey D, Nicol A, Singer S: Benign phyllodes tumor of the breast with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies identical to infantile digital fibromatosis. Breast J; 2008 Mar-Apr;14(2):198-9
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  • [Title] Benign phyllodes tumor of the breast with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies identical to infantile digital fibromatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroma / pathology. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology


56. Kohli K, Jain D: Benign phylloides tumour with leiomyoma breast: a rare occurrence. ANZ J Surg; 2009 Jun;79(6):499-500
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  • [Title] Benign phylloides tumour with leiomyoma breast: a rare occurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Leiomyoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19566888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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57. Cserni G, Orosz Z, Kulka J, Sápi Z, Kálmán E, Bori R: Divergences in diagnosing nodular breast lesions of noncarcinomatous nature. Pathol Oncol Res; 2006;12(4):216-21
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  • They may cause classification problems when they are hypocellular or hypercellular; the latter setting may also raise the differential diagnosis of phyllodes tumors.
  • The overall reproducibility of classifying these lesions into categories of fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumor or anything else was moderate (kappa value: 0.48).
  • The lack of a uniform nomenclature was not felt disturbing for hypocellular lesions, but the discordant diagnosis of tumors resembling or representing phyllodes tumors was acknowledged to require intervention, such as more obvious implication of guidelines and quality assurance programs aiming at assessing diagnoses and prognostic parameters.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / pathology. Breast Diseases / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17189984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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58. Chung A, Scharre K, Wilson M: Intraductal fibroadenomatosis: an unusual variant of fibroadenoma. Breast J; 2008 Mar-Apr;14(2):193-5
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  • [Title] Intraductal fibroadenomatosis: an unusual variant of fibroadenoma.
  • We present a case of a benign breast lesion that contains histopathologic characteristics of fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumor, intraductal adenoma and papilloma.
  • This may represent an unusual variant of fibroadenoma that has not been described in the literature and its likelihood of recurrence is unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18248554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Trabelsi A, Abdelkrim SB, Hammedi F, Sahraoui W, Abdelkader AB, Sriha B, Mokni M: Synchronous Bilateral Benign Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast in a 32-year-old Woman. World J Oncol; 2010 Feb;1(1):45-46
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  • [Title] Synchronous Bilateral Benign Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast in a 32-year-old Woman.
  • Bilateral phyllodes tumors are distinctly uncommon.
  • We report a new case of bilateral synchronous phyllodes tumor in a 32-year-old women.
  • Both tumors were classified as benign after large bilateral excision.
  • No tumor recurrence was noted during the 10 months follow-up.

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  • (PMID = 29147179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-454X
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast / Phyllodes tumor / Synchronous bilateral tumors
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60. Yamamoto H, Okumura K, Toshima S, Mukaisho K, Sugihara H, Hattori T, Kato M, Asano S: FXYD3 protein involved in tumor cell proliferation is overproduced in human breast cancer tissues. Biol Pharm Bull; 2009 Jul;32(7):1148-54
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  • [Title] FXYD3 protein involved in tumor cell proliferation is overproduced in human breast cancer tissues.
  • FXYD3, also known as Mat-8 (Mammary tumor 8 kDa), is one of mRNAs highly expressed in mouse and human breast cancers.
  • Here, we newly found that FXYD3 protein was also overexpressed in human breast cancer specimens; invasive ductal carcinomas and intra-ductal carcinomas, whereas its expression was low in benign lesion specimens; mastopathy, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Amino Acid Sequence. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Alignment. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19571376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-6158
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FXYD3 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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61. Hino N, Nakagawa Y, Ikushima Y, Yoshida M, Tsuyuguchi M: A case of a giant phyllodes tumor of the breast with hypoglycemia caused by high-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor II. Breast Cancer; 2010 Apr;17(2):142-5
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  • [Title] A case of a giant phyllodes tumor of the breast with hypoglycemia caused by high-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor II.
  • Because we suspected that the big IGF-II was produced by the breast tumor and was likely the cause of the hypoglycemia, a mastectomy was performed.
  • A histological examination determined that the mass was a benign phyllodes tumor.
  • We suspected that the patient had non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH), but the behavioral symptoms of the hypoglycemia caused by NICTH were similar to some mental diseases, which made diagnosis based on the behavior alone difficult.
  • We suggest that co-occurrence of symptoms such as recent appearance of mental disease-like behavior, hypoglycemia, and giant breast tumor may help diagnose NICTH caused by big IGF-II.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / etiology


62. Sakurai K, Enomoto K, Amano S: [Long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2784-5
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  • [Title] [Long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast].
  • We report that the long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast.
  • During ten years, we experienced twenty-eight patients of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • The patients with local recurrence were diagnosed the benign phyllodes tumor of the breast at the first operation.
  • If the pathological diagnosis was benign phyllodes tumor and surgical margin was negative at the first operation, it is necessary to follow up the patients, because there is a risk of local and distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21224712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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63. Jones AM, Mitter R, Springall R, Graham T, Winter E, Gillett C, Hanby AM, Tomlinson IP, Sawyer EJ, Phyllodes Tumour Consortium: A comprehensive genetic profile of phyllodes tumours of the breast detects important mutations, intra-tumoral genetic heterogeneity and new genetic changes on recurrence. J Pathol; 2008 Apr;214(5):533-44
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  • [Title] A comprehensive genetic profile of phyllodes tumours of the breast detects important mutations, intra-tumoral genetic heterogeneity and new genetic changes on recurrence.
  • The aims of this study were to identify genetic changes associated with malignant progression of the fibroepithelial neoplasms, phyllodes tumours of the breast (PTs), and to ascertain whether genetic progression occurs when PTs recur locally.
  • A further aim was to assess whether the genetic data support the classification of these tumours into three subtypes, benign, borderline and malignant.
  • 126 PTs (37 benign, 41 borderline, 48 malignant) were analysed by either array-CGH or the Illumina Goldengate assay.
  • Cluster analysis of the array-CGH data supported the division of malignant and borderline PTs into two separate groups, one comprising almost all malignant lesions and the other, benign and borderline tumours.
  • Analysis of paired primary and recurrent tumours showed that recurrent tumours often acquired new genetic changes; in particular, benign tumours tended to acquire changes characteristic of the malignant/borderline phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 / genetics. Cluster Analysis. DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Genes, p16. Humans. Mutation. Nucleic Acid Hybridization / methods. RNA, Messenger / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
  • (PMID = 18288784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Investigator] Walker R; Pinder S; Jones L; Ellis I; Tan PH; Macartney J; Green D; Hales S; Harding-Mackean C; Colclough A; MacNeill F; Rowlands D; Smith C; Fentiman I; Cane P; Desai A; Goderya R; Nerurkar A; Kissin M; Jackson P
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64. Tse GM, Tsang AK, Putti TC, Scolyer RA, Lui PC, Law BK, Karim RZ, Lee CS: Stromal CD10 expression in mammary fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;58(2):185-9
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  • [Title] Stromal CD10 expression in mammary fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours.
  • METHODS: Stromal CD10 expression was studied in 181 mammary phyllodes tumours (102 benign, 51 borderline malignant, and 28 frankly malignant) and 33 fibroadenomas using immunohistochemistry, to evaluate whether differences in expression correlated with the degree of malignancy.
  • RESULTS: There was a progressive increase in the patients' age and tumour size, from fibroadenoma to phyllodes tumours with an increasing degree of malignancy (p < 0.001).
  • Stromal CD10 expression was positive in one of 33 fibroadenomas, six of 102 benign phyllodes tumours, 16 of 51 borderline malignant phyllodes tumours, and 14 of 28 frankly malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • Stromal CD10 expression had a high specificity (95%) for differentiating between benign lesions (fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumours) and malignant (borderline and frankly malignant) phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Fibroadenoma / immunology. Neprilysin / immunology. Phyllodes Tumor / immunology. Stromal Cells / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15677540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770579
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65. Dubb M, Michelow P, Grayson W: Cytologic features of trichoblastoma in fine needle aspiration biopsies. Acta Cytol; 2009 Nov-Dec;53(6):679-82
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  • On fine needle aspiration, the patient was diagnosed as having a benign skin adnexal tumor.
  • RESULTS: The cytologic features of trichoblastoma resembled a cellular fibroadenoma/phyllodes tumor on aspiration, not previously described in the literature.
  • If the cytomorphology of a skin or subcutaneous aspirate appears to resemble that of a fibroadenoma, the diagnosis of a trichoblastoma should be entertained.
  • If the tumor occurs in the region of the breast, distinction from a fibroadenoma would be difficult if these additional features were not prominent.
  • CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the cytologic features of trichoblastoma will allow correct management of the patient and prevent misdiagnosis as other benign or malignant tumors.

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  • (PMID = 20014558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Giri D: Recurrent challenges in the evaluation of fibroepithelial lesions. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 May;133(5):713-21
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  • CONTEXT: The morphologic spectrum of mammary fibroepithelial lesions ranges from fibroadenoma, a common benign neoplasm, to phyllodes tumor, an uncommon lesion that can sometimes recur and metastasize.
  • OBJECTIVE: To focus on problems encountered in the diagnostic evaluation of fibroepithelial tumors, highlighting the diagnostically relevant morphologic features and providing an update on the immunohistochemical profile and genetic alterations of these rare neoplasms.
  • DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search of the English-language literature identified published reports on fibroepithelial lesions, with a special focus on phyllodes tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The distinction between fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor is usually not problematic, especially in excision specimens.
  • Morphologic predictors of local recurrence of phyllodes tumor include cellularity and cytologic atypia, mitotic activity, positive margins, infiltrative borders, fibroproliferative satellite nodules, and past history of fibroadenoma.
  • Predictors of distant metastasis include size, tumor necrosis, and stromal overgrowth.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 19415945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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