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6. Sebag P, Tourasse C, Rouyer N, Lebas P, Dénier JF, Michenet P: [Value of vacuum assisted biopsies under sonography guidance: results from a multicentric study of 650 lesions]. J Radiol; 2006 Jan;87(1):29-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Lesions were categorized, using the classification from Stavros, between "probably benign", "indeterminate", "probably malignant" and "malignant" Histology was validated only after review of the clinical and radiological data, as well as surgical data when available.
  • All benign cases were included in an on-going follow-up protocol.
  • RESULTS: We have identified 471 benign lesions and 179 malignant lesions.
  • Three cancers were diagnosed in the cases of "probably benign lesions" and in the cases of "probably malignant lesions" 18 (27%) were inflammatory disorders.
  • Specificity is excellent with no cancer detected so far among the patients with benign findings, under follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast / pathology. Ultrasonography, Interventional. Ultrasonography, Mammary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperplasia. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Papilloma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Vacuum

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  • (PMID = 16415777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] France
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7. Gobbi D, Dall'Igna P, Alaggio R, Nitti D, Cecchetto G: Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in adolescents: report of 2 cases. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Feb;44(2):e39-41
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  • [Title] Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in adolescents: report of 2 cases.
  • Giant fibroadenoma (GF) is an uncommon variant of fibroadenomas that represent the most frequent breast lesion in adolescents and young women.
  • The authors present 2 cases of GF of the breast in girls aged 12 and 14 years, and the respective diagnostic workup and conservative surgical treatment.
  • Giant fibroadenomas are benign tumors, but their rapid growth and large size together with their rarity may determine difficulties in the clinical approach.
  • Moreover, GF must be excised in all cases to exclude a phyllodes tumor and to prevent later deformity.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Fibroadenoma

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  • (PMID = 19231520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Tse GM, Chaiwun B, Lau KM, Scolyer R, Lee CS, Karim RZ, Putti TC, Law BK, Lui PC, Tan PH: Endothelin-1 expression correlates with atypical histological features in mammary phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Sep;60(9):1051-6
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  • [Title] Endothelin-1 expression correlates with atypical histological features in mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • This has not been evaluated in phyllodes tumours, which are uncommon fibroepithelial lesions with potential for local recurrences or distant metastasis.
  • While the grading of phyllodes tumours depends on a combination of histological parameters, prediction of their behaviour remains difficult.
  • METHOD: A large series of 461 phyllodes tumours (291 benign, 115 borderline malignant and 55 frankly malignant) were evaluated for endothelin-1 expression in both the epithelial cells and stromal cells by immunohistochemistry; results were correlated with the tumour grade.
  • RESULTS: For benign phyllodes tumours, the epithelial staining of endothelin was negative, weak, moderate and strong in 6%, 26%, 15% and 53% of cases respectively; results were 4%, 18%, 19% and 59% respectively for borderline and 6%, 18%, 6% and 70% respectively for frankly malignant tumours.
  • For the stromal staining, the negative, weak, moderate and strong staining was 32%, 19%, 18% and 31% respectively for benign phyllodes, 24%, 13%, 10% and 53% respectively for borderline and 8%, 16%, 17% and 59% respectively for frankly malignant tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: These observations suggest a close relationship between the epithelial and stromal elements in phyllodes tumours; endothelin may play a significant role in the malignant progression of phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Endothelin-1 / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17158636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1972415
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9. Kohli K, Jain D: Benign phylloides tumour with leiomyoma breast: a rare occurrence. ANZ J Surg; 2009 Jun;79(6):499-500
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  • [Title] Benign phylloides tumour with leiomyoma breast: a rare occurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Leiomyoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19566888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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10. Huo L, Gilcrease MZ: Fibroepithelial lesions of the breast with pleomorphic stromal giant cells: a clinicopathologic study of 4 cases and review of the literature. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Aug;13(4):226-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fibroepithelial lesions of the breast with pleomorphic stromal giant cells: a clinicopathologic study of 4 cases and review of the literature.
  • Pleomorphic stromal giant cells are occasionally found as an incidental finding in breast tissue but are only rarely seen in fibroepithelial lesions.
  • In this report, we describe 4 fibroadenoma-like lesions of the breast with pleomorphic stromal giant cells.
  • Two cases had focal stromal hypercellularity, one of which was with architectural features borderline between a fibroadenoma and a phyllodes tumor, but none was considered diagnostic of phyllodes tumor.
  • Follow-up for 3 cases at 16 to 59 months revealed no evidence of tumor recurrence.
  • It appears that the presence of pleomorphic stromal giant cells in an otherwise benign fibroepithelial lesion has no adverse clinical significance.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19608080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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11. Anyikam A, Nzegwu MA, Ozumba BC, Okoye I, Olusina DB: Benign breast lesions in Eastern Nigeria. Saudi Med J; 2008 Feb;29(2):241-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign breast lesions in Eastern Nigeria.
  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize benign breast diseases in Eastern Nigeria and to highlight the age variations of these lesions as base line data.
  • Seven hundred and twenty-two benign breast specimens were analyzed over 5 years from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2004, out of 1050 breast samples received.
  • RESULTS: Of 1050 breast specimens received, 722 (68.8%) were benign.
  • Normal breast in the axillary tail region was seen in 32 cases (4.4%), represented as no pathology, with a mean presentation age of 20-46 years.
  • Low grade Phyllodes tumor had 28 cases (3.9%), presenting at an average mean age of 17-32 years.
  • Benign breast lesions peaked at the 20-24 age range and then declined.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign breast lesions occur more frequently than malignant breast lesions with a ratio of 2.3:1 and were presented 20 years earlier than their malignant counterparts.
  • Fibroadenoma was the most common benign lesion followed by fibrocystic disease, similar to the findings in Western Nigeria.
  • In Northern Nigeria, fibrocystic breast disease was more common.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Fibroadenoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Child. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / epidemiology. Gynecomastia / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 18246234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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12. Sakurai K, Enomoto K, Amano S: [Long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2784-5
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  • [Title] [Long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast].
  • We report that the long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast.
  • During ten years, we experienced twenty-eight patients of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • The patients with local recurrence were diagnosed the benign phyllodes tumor of the breast at the first operation.
  • If the pathological diagnosis was benign phyllodes tumor and surgical margin was negative at the first operation, it is necessary to follow up the patients, because there is a risk of local and distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21224712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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13. Vargas HI, Vargas MP, Gonzalez K, Burla M, Khalkhali I: Percutaneous excisional biopsy of palpable breast masses under ultrasound visualization. Breast J; 2006 Sep-Oct;12(5 Suppl 2):S218-22
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  • [Title] Percutaneous excisional biopsy of palpable breast masses under ultrasound visualization.
  • A palpable breast mass is a common reason for surgical consultation.
  • Our goal was to determine whether ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted core biopsy (US-VACB) is safe and effective in completely removing presumed benign palpable breast masses.
  • We conducted a cohort study of 201 consecutive patients with presumed benign palpable masses who underwent removal with US-VACB.
  • Palpable masses were successfully removed with US-VACB in 99% of cases; 2% were cancer and 7.5% were atypical ductal hyperplasia or phyllodes tumor.
  • US-VACB is safe and effective in the initial diagnosis and management of presumed benign palpable breast masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. California / epidemiology. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Ultrasonography, Interventional / methods. Vacuum

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  • (PMID = 16959005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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1
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4. Basu S, Saxena V, Sharma CL, Kumar M: Image of the month. Phyllodes tumor (benign). Arch Surg; 2008 Feb;143(2):207-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Image of the month. Phyllodes tumor (benign).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology


15. Chang DS, McGrath MH: Management of benign tumors of the adolescent breast. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2007 Jul;120(1):13e-19e
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  • [Title] Management of benign tumors of the adolescent breast.
  • Describe the differential diagnosis of breast tumors in adolescent girls.
  • 2. Compare and contrast surgical options for the management of adolescent breast tumors.
  • SUMMARY: Although 99 percent of breast lesions in female adolescents are benign tumors, surgical intervention is commonly required.
  • This article reviews the differential diagnosis, evaluation, and management of these benign tumors.
  • A modified surgical technique for resection of large fibroadenomas and reconstruction of the remaining breast is described.
  • The authors review the approach to five specific breast lesions: fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumors, juvenile hypertrophy, inflammatory processes, and premature breast development.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Factors. Biopsy, Needle. Esthetics. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mastectomy / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008 Aug;122(2):679-80 [18626406.001]
  • (PMID = 17572540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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16. Lenhard MS, Kahlert S, Himsl I, Ditsch N, Untch M, Bauerfeind I: Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinical follow-up of 33 cases of this rare disease. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Jun;138(2):217-21
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinical follow-up of 33 cases of this rare disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: The "cystosarcoma phyllodes" of the breast is a rare entity which accounts for 0.5% of all breast neoplasms.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The data of 5270 patients with primary breast neoplasms treated in our department between 1984 and 2005 were retrospectively analysed for the histopathologic diagnosis of a cystosarcoma phyllodes.
  • RESULTS: Retrospective analysis of 5270 patients with primary breast neoplasms revealed 33 patients.
  • In the histopathological analysis, tumour grade was classified as benign in 40%, borderline in 27% and malignant in 33% of patients.
  • Breast conserving surgery was conducted in 58% of the patients, mastectomy in 42%.
  • The local recurrence rate was 50% in malignant, 20% in borderline and only 8% in benign tumours.
  • Distant metastases were seen in three patients (9%) with malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Rare Diseases. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17868973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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17. Akin M, Irkorucu O, Koksal H, Gonul II, Gultekin S, Kurukahvecioglu O, Anadol AZ, Tekin E: Phyllodes tumor of the breast; a case series. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2010;111(5):271-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast; a case series.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare neoplasm comprising less than 1% of all breast tumors.
  • Its clinical spectrum ranges from a benign and locally recurrent form of behavior to malignant and metastatic forms.
  • All cases were histologically examined by an experienced breast pathologist, and tumors were classified as benign, borderline malignant or malignant according to standard histological criteria.
  • Seven (70%) of 10 tumors were benign and 3 (30%) were malignant.
  • The median tumor size was 29 mm (range: 12-80 mm).
  • CONCLUSION: PT is a rare neoplasm of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor

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  • (PMID = 20568416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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18. Tan EY, Tan PH, Yong WS, Wong HB, Ho GH, Yeo AW, Wong CY: Recurrent phyllodes tumours of the breast: pathological features and clinical implications. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Jun;76(6):476-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent phyllodes tumours of the breast: pathological features and clinical implications.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumours (PT) of the breast are fibro-epithelial neoplasms that are known to recur locally in up to 19% of patients.
  • It is still debatable as to whether it is necessary to subject the patient to repeat surgery to obtain pathologically negative margins after a diagnosis of a benign or borderline PT is made.
  • Comparisons were made between those with benign, borderline and malignant tumours, as well as between those who developed a malignant recurrence and those who did not.
  • A total of 22 patients were classified as having benign tumour, 9 as having borderline tumour and 6 as having malignant tumour.
  • The majority of recurrent tumours were histologically similar to the initial tumour; however, seven patients (19%) developed a malignant recurrence from an initially benign or borderline tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It may be acceptable to use an expectant management towards benign and borderline tumours that are excised without adequate surgical margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] ANZ J Surg. 2006 Oct;76(10):956. Hoon, Tan Puay [corrected to Tan, Puay Hoon]; Hui, Ho G [corrected to Ho, Gay Hui]
  • (PMID = 16768772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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19. Hino N, Nakagawa Y, Ikushima Y, Yoshida M, Tsuyuguchi M: A case of a giant phyllodes tumor of the breast with hypoglycemia caused by high-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor II. Breast Cancer; 2010 Apr;17(2):142-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of a giant phyllodes tumor of the breast with hypoglycemia caused by high-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor II.
  • We report the case of a patient who presented with hypoglycemia associated with a giant breast mass and presence of serum high-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor II (big IGF-II).
  • In July 2005, a 49-year-old woman was admitted because of delirium, transient loss of consciousness, and a giant mass of about 28 cm in diameter on the right breast.
  • Because we suspected that the big IGF-II was produced by the breast tumor and was likely the cause of the hypoglycemia, a mastectomy was performed.
  • A histological examination determined that the mass was a benign phyllodes tumor.
  • We suspected that the patient had non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH), but the behavioral symptoms of the hypoglycemia caused by NICTH were similar to some mental diseases, which made diagnosis based on the behavior alone difficult.
  • We suggest that co-occurrence of symptoms such as recent appearance of mental disease-like behavior, hypoglycemia, and giant breast tumor may help diagnose NICTH caused by big IGF-II.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / etiology


20. Bode MK, Rissanen T, Apaja-Sarkkinen M: Ultrasonography and core needle biopsy in the differential diagnosis of fibroadenoma and tumor phyllodes. Acta Radiol; 2007 Sep;48(7):708-13
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  • [Title] Ultrasonography and core needle biopsy in the differential diagnosis of fibroadenoma and tumor phyllodes.
  • BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of phyllodes tumors of the breast is challenging due to many similarities with common fibroadenomas.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of core needle biopsy in diagnosing phyllodes tumors and to analyze the ultrasonographic (US) features of phyllodes tumors and fibroadenomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1999 to 2003, 1010 breast lesions underwent imaging-guided core needle biopsy.
  • Of these, 57 fibroadenomas and 12 phyllodes tumors were removed surgically.
  • The US and needle biopsy results of a total of 64 lesions (52 fibroadenomas and 12 phyllodes tumors) were further analyzed, compared, and correlated with surgical histological results.
  • RESULTS: The median sonographic sizes of the phyllodes tumors and the fibroadenomas were 3.2 cm and 1.6 cm, respectively.
  • At US, 58% of the phyllodes tumors (7/12) were classified as equivocal or suspicious of malignancy and 42% (5/12) as probably benign, while 54% of the fibroadenomas (28/52) were classified as probably benign and 46% (24/52) as equivocal.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of core needle biopsy histology regarding tumor phyllodes were 83%, 92%, 71%, and 96%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Imaging-guided core needle biopsy was accurate in differentiating between fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors.
  • Combined use of US feature analysis and needle biopsy may help to avoid the misinterpretation of phyllodes as fibroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / ultrasonography. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17728999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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26. Sönmez K, Türkyilmaz Z, Karabulut R, Demiroğullari B, Ozen IO, Moralioğlu S, Başaklar AC, Kale N: Surgical breast lesions in adolescent patients and a review of the literature. Acta Chir Belg; 2006 Jul-Aug;106(4):400-4
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  • [Title] Surgical breast lesions in adolescent patients and a review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Breast disease in adolescence is uncommon, with most presenting lesions being benign.
  • Breast lesions in adolescent patients are discussed in this article with a review of world literature.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical records of 30 patients operated upon for breast lesions in our hospital during 18 years were reviewed.
  • Twenty-five female patients were operated on for breast mass and/or discharge, and five male adolescents were operated on for gynaecomastia.
  • The most frequent (n = 27) complaint was palpation of mass in the breast.
  • CONCLUSION: The most frequently encountered breast masses were fibro-adenomas.
  • These lesions are mostly benign in nature and can be treated conservatively but the possibility of precancerous lesion should be considered during follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Child. Female. Fibroadenoma / surgery. Gynecomastia / surgery. Humans. Male. Nipples / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17017692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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27. Villarreal-Colín SP, Soto-Dávalos BA, Bargalló-Rocha JE, Bandera-Delgado A, Zumaran-Cuéllar O, Robles-Vidal CD: [Breast fibromatosis: a lesion mimicking cancer]. Cir Cir; 2008 Mar-Apr;76(2):169-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Breast fibromatosis: a lesion mimicking cancer].
  • BACKGROUND: Breast fibromatosis (BF) is a rare benign pathological entity.
  • The patient was a 17-year-old female with a 20 x 15 cm firm and fixed mass in the right breast.
  • A core-needle biopsy was taken with a pathology report of a phyllodes tumor.
  • The patient was a 49-year-old female with a 7 x 5 cm solid right breast mass located at the medial-upper quadrant and fixed to the pectoralis major muscle.
  • Its clinical and imaging features can mimic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroma / diagnosis


28. Granić M, Oprić D, Pupić G, Babić D, Ivanović N, Nikolić D, Dikić S, Oprić S: [Surgical methods for the treatment of breast phyllodes tumors--a report of 319 cases]. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2006;53(1):57-62
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  • [Title] [Surgical methods for the treatment of breast phyllodes tumors--a report of 319 cases].
  • Breast phyllodes tumors (FT) belong the fibroapitelial group of breast tumors arising in terminal ductulo-lobular unit (TDLU).
  • Their incidence do not exceed 1% of all breast tumors.
  • Biologicaly they can be divided into benign, borderline and malignant group.
  • Incomplete tumor excision can be the reason for local reccurence.
  • METHODS: We analyzed histopathology features of 319 FT of the breast surgicaly removed on Departement of surgery Institut of oncology and radiology of Serbia between 1.1.1985.
  • -31.12.1994. Retrospective study of surgical treatment 84 patients with FT of the breast (69 benign, 4 borderline and 11 malignant) and 5 year follow up after surgery we analysed.
  • RESULTS: local reccurence after surgery was found in 17 (20,2 %) patients(14 benign , 2 borderline and 1 malignant FT), pulmonary metastases in 6 (7,1%) patients with malignant FT.
  • CONCLUSION: According to biological behavior we propose wide excision for benign and borderline forms and simple mastectomy for malignant FT, and voluminous benign and borderline forms.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16989148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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29. Goel NB, Knight TE, Pandey S, Riddick-Young M, de Paredes ES, Trivedi A: Fibrous lesions of the breast: imaging-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6):1547-59
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fibrous lesions of the breast: imaging-pathologic correlation.
  • Fibroepithelial lesions of the breast are commonly seen in clinical practice.
  • Fibroadenomas, benign lesions that derive from the terminal duct lobular unit, are the most common and are often identified at clinical examination or mammography as circumscribed masses.
  • Benign mesenchymal tumors include focal fibrosis, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, and fibromatosis or desmoid tumor.
  • Phyllodes tumor, which is similar to fibroadenoma but has increased cellularity in the stroma, is typically benign but has malignant potential.
  • Except for fibromatosis and phyllodes tumor, fibroepithelial lesions need not be excised if the diagnosis is confirmed by the results of histologic analysis at percutaneous biopsy.
  • To correctly differentiate between fibrous breast lesions that are benign and those that should be resected, the physician must be familiar with the correlated radiologic-pathologic findings in the various lesion types.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 16284134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Khurshid A, Kayani N, Bhurgri Y: Phylloides tumors in adolescent girls and young women in Pakistan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2006 Oct-Dec;7(4):563-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of phylloides tumor (PT) in adolescent girls and young women (less than and equal to 25 years of age) and to define the clinico-pathological features of PT in this unusual clinical setting.
  • The number of benign (BPT), borderline (BLPT) and malignant (MPT) was identical i.e.
  • High grade PT (BLPT and MPT) is an uncommon mammary tumor in adolescent girls and young women but seems to be occurring with increased frequency in the study population.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17250427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1513-7368
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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36. Foxcroft LM, Evans EB, Porter AJ: Difficulties in the pre-operative diagnosis of phyllodes tumours of the breast: a study of 84 cases. Breast; 2007 Feb;16(1):27-37
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  • [Title] Difficulties in the pre-operative diagnosis of phyllodes tumours of the breast: a study of 84 cases.
  • Eighty-four phyllodes tumours (71 benign, eight borderline and five malignant) diagnosed over a 16-year period were studied retrospectively, to assess the diagnostic value of the pre-operative modalities used.
  • The possibility of phyllodes tumour was raised in only 23% on fine needle aspiration cytology, and in 65% on core biopsy.
  • For phyllodes tumours whose growth was measured, almost all had growth rates greater than for growing fibroadenomas.
  • The pre-operative diagnosis of phyllodes tumours is difficult, and rapid growth and/or large size of apparent fibroadenomas may be the only imaging findings to suggest phyllodes tumour.
  • Whole breast ultrasound showed that nearly one third of women with phyllodes tumours had concurrent fibroadenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16876413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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37. Hirose M, Hashizume T, Seino N, Kubota H, Nobusawa H, Gokan T: Atlas of breast magnetic resonance imaging. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2007 Mar-Apr;36(2):51-65
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  • [Title] Atlas of breast magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast has become important not only for assessing the extent of breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery but also for the evaluation and diagnosis of other benign and malignant pathologies.
  • We radiologists therefore need to know the appropriate indications for performing breast MRI and understand the MRI features of breast disease.
  • We herein review and discuss the application of current pulse sequences and the imaging strategies for MRI of breast pathologies.
  • We will illustrate the MRI features of various breast pathologies including malignant tumors such as invasive and noninvasive ductal carcinoma, special types of invasive carcinoma (mucinous, apocrine, lobular carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and so on), inflammatory carcinoma, semimalignant tumor (phyllodes tumor), benign tumors (fibroadenoma, intraductal and intracystic papilloma), inflammatory conditions, and postsurgical changes.
  • We will also demonstrate three-dimensional fusion images of MR ductography and breast MRI of patients with nipple discharge.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17331837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-0188
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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38. Tan PH, Jayabaskar T, Yip G, Tan Y, Hilmy M, Selvarajan S, Bay BH: p53 and c-kit (CD117) protein expression as prognostic indicators in breast phyllodes tumors: a tissue microarray study. Mod Pathol; 2005 Dec;18(12):1527-34
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  • [Title] p53 and c-kit (CD117) protein expression as prognostic indicators in breast phyllodes tumors: a tissue microarray study.
  • Breast phyllodes tumors are fibroepithelial neoplasms whose clinical behavior is difficult to predict on histology.
  • In this study, we determined if p53 and CD117 (c-kit) protein expression was predictive of behavior in a series of 335 phyllodes tumors diagnosed at the Singapore General Hospital, using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays.
  • Representative areas from 250 (75%) benign, 54 (16%) borderline and 31 (9%) malignant phyllodes tumors were selected for construction of tissue microarrays using the 2 mm punch.
  • Stromal p53 and CD117 protein expression was associated with tumor grade (P < 0.05).
  • We conclude that tissue microarrays are a convenient method for evaluating immunostaining results of large numbers of phyllodes tumors.
  • Although positive p53 stromal immunohistochemical detection may corroborate histologic malignancy, it is CD117 protein expression in phyllodes tumor stromal cells that may be of potential utility in predicting recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis / methods. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16258510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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39. Yamaguchi R, Tanaka M, Kishimoto Y, Ohkuma K, Ishida M, Kojiro M: Ductal carcinoma in situ arising in a benign phyllodes tumor: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(1):42-5
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  • [Title] Ductal carcinoma in situ arising in a benign phyllodes tumor: report of a case.
  • Malignant epithelial change within a phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare event.
  • The epithelial element consisted of irregularly dilated ducts with a phyllodes structure that had moderate to severe epithelial hyperplasia, and foci of cribriform ductal carcinoma in situ with comedo necrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18085361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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40. McKenna AM, Pintilie M, Youngson B, Done SJ: Quantification of the morphologic features of fibroepithelial tumors of the breast. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Oct;131(10):1568-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quantification of the morphologic features of fibroepithelial tumors of the breast.
  • CONTEXT: Phyllodes tumors of the breast are uncommon, comprising 0.3% to 0.9% of female primary breast tumors.
  • Owing in part to their rarity, definitive, objective, reproducible morphologic criteria that reliably distinguish benign from low-grade malignant or malignant phyllodes tumors have yet to be established.
  • OBJECTIVE: To use image analysis to quantitate and compare morphologic features of different groups of fibroepithelial tumors (FETs) of the breast.
  • DESIGN: Hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections of 41 FETs previously identified as fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, low-grade malignant phyllodes, or high-grade malignant phyllodes were blinded and studied using a Leica DMRA2 microscope and OpenLab Image Analysis software.
  • Features of each case including tumor size, margin status, and the presence of necrosis or heterologous elements were also considered; these data were retrieved from surgical pathology reports.
  • RESULTS: Quantitative measures of stromal cellularity, stromal-epithelial ratio, mitotic rate, stromal overgrowth, and mean nuclear diameter were developed and found to stratify a population of FETs by the current classification system of fibroadenoma, benign, and low-grade or high-grade malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17922594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Tomita T, Ren Y, Davis M, Tawfik O: Phyllodes tumor of borderline malignancy: seven year follow up with immunohistochemical study. Pathol Int; 2005 Sep;55(9):585-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of borderline malignancy: seven year follow up with immunohistochemical study.
  • The patient was 80 years old when she initially presented with a left breast mass.
  • Originally, a needle biopsy showed benign stromal and ductal cells.
  • Five years later, the breast mass increased in size and a core needle biopsy showed a biphasic intraductal papillomatous tumor with cellular stroma.
  • Eighteen months later, another biopsy was taken from the breast mass, revealing a well-developed phyllodes tumor (PT) of borderline malignancy.
  • Histolopathologic and immunohistochemical studies, including estrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki-67 and p53, performed on tissues from the different biopsy specimens confirmed the progressive transition of the tumor in a 7 year period.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy, Simple. Mitosis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16143035.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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42. Belkacémi Y, Bousquet G, Marsiglia H, Ray-Coquard I, Magné N, Malard Y, Lacroix M, Gutierrez C, Senkus E, Christie D, Drumea K, Lagneau E, Kadish SP, Scandolaro L, Azria D, Ozsahin M: Phyllodes tumor of the breast. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Feb 1;70(2):492-500
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast.
  • PURPOSE: To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast.
  • Tumors were benign in 284 cases (64%), borderline in 80 cases (18%), and malignant in 79 cases (18%).
  • Surgery consisted of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 377 cases (85%) and total mastectomy (TM) in 66 cases (15%).
  • Multivariate analysis revealed benign histology, negative margins, and no residual disease (no RD) after initial treatment and RT delivery as independent favorable prognostic factors for local control; benign histology and low number of mitosis for disease-free survival; and pathologic tumor size < or = 3 cm and no tumor necrosis for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that phyllodes tumor patients with no RD after treatment have better local control.
  • Benign tumors have a good prognosis after surgery alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate


43. Chung EM, Cube R, Hall GJ, González C, Stocker JT, Glassman LM: From the archives of the AFIP: breast masses in children and adolescents: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2009 May-Jun;29(3):907-31
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  • [Title] From the archives of the AFIP: breast masses in children and adolescents: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • The spectrum of breast lesions in children and adolescents varies markedly from that for adults, with the former lesions being overwhelmingly benign.
  • A breast mass in a young boy or girl may arise from normal and abnormal breast development.
  • After onset of puberty, most cases of breast enlargement arise from benign fibroadenoma in girls and gynecomastia in boys.
  • These conditions have specific imaging appearances, although juvenile (often giant) fibroadenoma cannot be distinguished from phyllodes tumor, which can be benign or malignant.
  • A diagnosis of juvenile papillomatosis (a benign lesion) portends later development of breast cancer, and patients with this condition should be closely monitored.
  • Malignant lesions of the breast in children are rare.
  • The most common primary breast malignancy is malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • Primary breast carcinoma is exceedingly rare in the pediatric age group, but its imaging appearance in children is the same as seen in adults and is different from that of almost all benign lesions.
  • In girls, diagnostic interventions may injure the developing breast and cause subsequent disfigurement.
  • Given this risk and the low prevalence of malignant disease in this population, a prudent course should be followed in the diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast / abnormalities. Breast / anatomy & histology. Breast / growth & development. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiography. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / ultrasonography. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / radiography. Granular Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / radiography. Gynecomastia / pathology. Gynecomastia / radiography. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Nipples / abnormalities. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / radiography. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / radiography. Puberty. Puberty, Precocious / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19448124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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44. Dey D, Nicol A, Singer S: Benign phyllodes tumor of the breast with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies identical to infantile digital fibromatosis. Breast J; 2008 Mar-Apr;14(2):198-9
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  • [Title] Benign phyllodes tumor of the breast with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies identical to infantile digital fibromatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroma / pathology. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology


45. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: p16 and pRb immunohistochemical expression increases with increasing tumour grade in mammary phyllodes tumours. Histopathology; 2010 Jun;56(7):868-75
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  • [Title] p16 and pRb immunohistochemical expression increases with increasing tumour grade in mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • AIMS: Control of cell cycling and proliferation is critical to the development of neoplasia and may play a role in the pathogenesis of phyllodes tumours (PTs).
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-five PTs (34 benign, 23 borderline and eight malignant) diagnosed at a single institution between 1990 and 2006 were analysed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis


46. Kuo YJ, Ho DM, Tsai YF, Hsu CY: Invasive ductal carcinoma arising in phyllodes tumor with isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph node. J Chin Med Assoc; 2010 Nov;73(11):602-4
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  • [Title] Invasive ductal carcinoma arising in phyllodes tumor with isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph node.
  • Phyllodes tumor (PT) consists of stroma of variable grading and benign ductal epithelium.
  • Although exceptional, carcinomas that arise from the epithelium in PTs do exist, and seem to behave less aggressively than the usually encountered breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21093830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-7731
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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47. Jayaram G, Jayalakshmi P, Yip CH: Leiomyosarcoma of the breast: report of a case with fine needle aspiration cytologic, histologic and immunohistochemical features. Acta Cytol; 2005 Nov-Dec;49(6):656-60
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  • [Title] Leiomyosarcoma of the breast: report of a case with fine needle aspiration cytologic, histologic and immunohistochemical features.
  • BACKGROUND: Leiomyosarcoma of the breast is a rare neoplasm.
  • We present a case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the breast in a middle-aged female in whom fine needle aspiration cytologic features suggested sarcoma.
  • CASE: A 55-year-old female presented with a rapidly growing breast lump of 1 month's duration.
  • On examination, an ulcerating, 12 x 10 cm tumor was seen involving the lower medial and lateral quadrants of the right breast.
  • A single cluster of benign ductal cells was seen.
  • The tumor cells did not express immunocytologic reactivity to estrogen receptor protein.
  • A cytologic diagnosis of sarcoma was given with differential diagnoses of metaplastic carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • Leiomyosarcoma of the breast shows fine needle aspiration cytologic features of sarcoma, but specific tumor typing may not be possible, especially when the cytologic material is inadequate for ancillary staining required to distinguish leiomyosarcoma from metaplastic carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [CommentIn] Diagn Cytopathol. 2007 Apr;35(4):254-6 [17351941.001]
  • (PMID = 16450908.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Fajdić J, Gotovac N, Hrgović Z, Kristek J, Horvat V, Kaufmann M: Phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Onkologie; 2007 Mar;30(3):113-8
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.
  • BACKGROUND: This article compares experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of phyllodes tumors from 2 regional institutions with the relevant literature.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1991 to 2005, 2,848 breast cancer patients were treated in our institutions, 36 (1.44%) for phyllodes tumors.
  • The average tumor size was 5.1 cm (range 1.4-19.6).
  • Wide excision with tumor-free margins was carried out in 29 (80.5%) cases and mastectomy in 7 (19.4%) cases.
  • RESULTS: Histology showed the phyllodes tumors to be benign in 27 (75.0%), malignant in 6 (16.6%), and borderline in 3 (8.3%) cases.
  • In this period, recurrences of 3 (8.3%) malignant and 2 (5.6%) benign phyllodes tumors were diagnosed and treated.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study shows that tumor size, margin infiltration, mitotic activity and degree of cellular atypia are important prognostic factors.
  • Although wide local excision is usually the treatment of choice, tumor recurrence is common.
  • Axillary lymphadenectomy in malignant phyllodes tumors is, in our opinion, still controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mammography. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17341897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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49. Büchler T, Vorzilková E, Koukolík F, Melínova H, Abrahámová J: [Malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes with brain metastases]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(6):446-8
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  • [Title] [Malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes with brain metastases].
  • [Transliterated title] Maligní forma cystosarcoma phyllodes s metastázami do mozku.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes is an uncommon type of breast tumour.
  • Benign, borderline, and malignant subtypes have been described.
  • Central nervous system metastases of the malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes are rare and associated with poor prognosis.
  • We report on a patient with malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes who developed metastatic disease six years after resection of the primary breast tumour.
  • Because metastatic malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes are largely resistant to treatment, the most important objective is to provide optimal management of the primary tumour before dissemination occurs.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21351423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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50. Hossain D, Meiers I, Qian J, MacLennan GT, Bostwick DG: Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia: follow-up study of 18 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Nov;132(11):1729-33
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  • RESULTS: Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia consists of 1 or more ill-defined, uncircumscribed, hyperplastic stromal nodules, with variable numbers of atypical, bizarre giant cells, with vacuolated nuclei, smudged chromatin, and frequent multinucleation infiltrating around benign acini.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia is a rare, benign lesion, composed of degenerative myocytes with atypia that is histologically and clinically reminiscent of benign counterparts in the myometrium, breast, vulva, vagina, and elsewhere.
  • Recognition of this distinctive entity should allow separation from phyllodes tumor and sarcoma of the prostate.
  • The phrase stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential is inappropriate for this benign tumor, and its use is discouraged.

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  • (PMID = 18976007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Vimentin
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51. Jaka RC, Kumar KM, Gopinath KS: Spontaneous expulsion of benign phyllodes. Breast J; 2009 May-Jun;15(3):309
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  • [Title] Spontaneous expulsion of benign phyllodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19645792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Norat F, Dreant N, Riah Y, Lebreton E: [Extraordinary case of malignant phylloid tumor of the breast: surgical reconstruction treatment]. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Nov-Dec;80(6):475-8
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  • [Title] [Extraordinary case of malignant phylloid tumor of the breast: surgical reconstruction treatment].
  • Phyllode tumors of the breast are fibroepithelial tumors similar to fibroadenomas but with a predominant conjunctive tissue component.
  • They are rare with an incidence of less than 1% of all breast neoplasms.
  • They can be divided in three categories: benign, borderline, malignant.
  • The Authors report the case of a 53 years old woman who presented an exceptional 6.5 kg phylloid tumor of the left mamma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20476683.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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53. Kraemer B, Hoffmann J, Roehm C, Gall C, Wallwiener D, Krainick-Strobel U: Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a rare diagnosis: case studies and review of literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2007 Dec;276(6):649-53
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  • [Title] Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a rare diagnosis: case studies and review of literature.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes (CP), otherwise known as phyllodes tumour (PT) of the breast, is a very rare but locally aggressive fibroepithelial tumour in its malignant form, and accounts for 0.3-1% of all breast neoplasias.
  • Using 4 cases reports with different histological classifications as examples (benign-borderline-malignant), we describe the (differential) diagnosis and treatment options of this tumour entity and give an additional review of the available literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17549503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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54. Aranda C, Sotelo M, Torres A, Zárate M: [Phyllodes tumor and pregnancy. A report of a case]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2005 Jul;73(7):387-92
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumor and pregnancy. A report of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor phyllodes y embarazo. Reporte de un caso.
  • Phyllodes tumor is a rare breast fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast, predominant in females (0.3 to 0.5%).
  • Phyllodes tumor during pregnancy grows fast and its size is relatively big.
  • These tumors can be classified as benign, malignant or neighboring.
  • A 32-year-old patient at 23.4 week of gestation was admitted in the National Institute of Perinatology with a rapidly growing mass in the right breast; diagnosis confirmed by ultrasound study reporting echoic images on right breast, 10 x 10 cm the greatest and 3x3 cm the smallest.
  • A simple mastectomy was performed at the 26.6 week of gestation on the right breast.
  • A possible phyllodes tumour in the right breast was observed during surgery, weight 9.6 pounds, with partial infiltration to major pectoral muscle.
  • Pathology reported a benign phyllodes tumor in the right breast, with surgical borders free of tumor.
  • Phyllodes tumor is rare and can occur during pregnancy.
  • It is unknown if the tumor is hormone-dependent.
  • The growth of a tumor on a subsequent pregnancy is not necessarily associated with recurrency or with a new disorder on the patient, who has had a complete excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic


55. Yamamoto H, Okumura K, Toshima S, Mukaisho K, Sugihara H, Hattori T, Kato M, Asano S: FXYD3 protein involved in tumor cell proliferation is overproduced in human breast cancer tissues. Biol Pharm Bull; 2009 Jul;32(7):1148-54
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  • [Title] FXYD3 protein involved in tumor cell proliferation is overproduced in human breast cancer tissues.
  • FXYD3, also known as Mat-8 (Mammary tumor 8 kDa), is one of mRNAs highly expressed in mouse and human breast cancers.
  • Here, we newly found that FXYD3 protein was also overexpressed in human breast cancer specimens; invasive ductal carcinomas and intra-ductal carcinomas, whereas its expression was low in benign lesion specimens; mastopathy, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors.
  • Here, we found that FXYD3a mRNA is a major transcript product expressed in human normal tissues as well as in breast, colon, stomach and pancreas cancer cell lines.
  • Cell proliferation rate of MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was drastically decreased when FXYD3a and 3b mRNAs were suppressed by the small interfering RNA.
  • These results suggest that FXYD3a protein is highly expressed in breast cancers, and responsible for cancer cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Amino Acid Sequence. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Alignment. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19571376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-6158
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FXYD3 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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56. Sando N, Oka K, Moriya T, Saito H, Nagakura S, Mori N, Suzuki T, Ueki H, Ohtani H: Osteosarcoma arising in the breast. APMIS; 2006 Jul-Aug;114(7-8):581-7
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  • [Title] Osteosarcoma arising in the breast.
  • We report on a 49-year-old woman with osteosarcoma arising in the breast.
  • She had undergone two consecutive excision biopsies for right breast tumors at ages 40 and 42 years.
  • The tumors were diagnosed as a fibroadenoma and a benign phyllodes tumor, respectively.
  • At age 46 years, she noticed a gradually enlarging mass in the same breast.
  • The tumor occupied the entire breast and measured 12x9x8.5 cm.
  • The tumor cells were spindle-shaped and pleomorphic, with large, irregular nuclei and distinct nucleoli.
  • Many tumor cells had characteristics of osteoblastic and chondroblastic elements producing osteoid, osseous, and cartilaginous intracellular substances.
  • Tumor cells expressed vimentin, osteopontin, vascular endothelial growth factor, CD10, and alkaline phosphatase, but did not express keratin.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Osteosarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16907866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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57. Kuijper A, de Vos RA, Lagendijk JH, van der Wall E, van Diest PJ: Progressive deregulation of the cell cycle with higher tumor grade in the stroma of breast phyllodes tumors. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 May;123(5):690-8
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  • [Title] Progressive deregulation of the cell cycle with higher tumor grade in the stroma of breast phyllodes tumors.
  • We studied cell cycle-regulating proteins in phyllodes tumor pathogenesis by immunohistochemical analysis for Ki-67, cyclin A, cyclin D1, retinoblastoma protein (pRb), p53, p16INK4A, bcl-2, and p21waf1 in the epithelium and stroma of 40 primary (benign, 21; borderline, 8; malignant, 11) and 7 recurrent tumors of different grades.
  • Stromal overexpression of p16INK4A, p53, cyclin A, pRb, and p21waf1 correlated significantly with tumor grade.
  • Stromal cyclin A expression was the best separating marker between tumor grades.
  • The stromal component of mammary phyllodes tumors displays an increasing level of cell cycle deregulation with higher tumor grade; the epithelial compartment mostly remains inconspicuous.
  • Several combinations of aberrantly expressed cell cycle proteins seem important in the stromal progression of phyllodes tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis


58. Ahmed HG, Ali AS, Almobarak AO: Frequency of breast cancer among Sudanese patients with breast palpable lumps. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Jan-Mar;47(1):23-6
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  • [Title] Frequency of breast cancer among Sudanese patients with breast palpable lumps.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer mortality is high in Sudan and most patients are detected at later stages of the disease due to the lack of awareness and absence of screening programs.
  • This study aimed to determine the pattern and frequency of breast cancer among patients presenting with palpable breast lumps within one year duration.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We obtained information (patient's personal data) and Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) materials, for occurrence of 200 breast lesions in patients.
  • RESULTS: The diagnoses of the 200 breast lesions were as follows: 68 (34%) were malignant, 56 cases (28%) were fibroadenoma, 23 cases (11.5%) were fibrocystic change, 22 cases (11%) were inflammatory lesions (including mastitis and abscess formation), 12 cases (6%) were benign cysts and the remaining 19 patients (9.5%) were with lactation changes (8 cases), lipoma (6 cases), gynecomastia (3 cases) and phyllodes tumor (2 cases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of advanced breast cancer among patients with breast lesions is high, in this subset of patients, which signals the urgency for implementation of breast screening programs.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Diseases / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sudan / epidemiology. Young Adult


59. Fernández-Aguilar S, Noël JC: [Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast with osteoclast-like giant cells: a case report]. Ann Pathol; 2007 Feb;27(1):31-4
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  • [Title] [Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast with osteoclast-like giant cells: a case report].
  • Breast tumors, particularly of stromal origin, containing multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells (OLGC) are rarely reported in the literature.
  • We report here the first case of a malignant phyllodes tumor associated with OLGC occurring in a 43 year-old African woman who presented with a painful palpable mass of the outer upper quadrant of the right breast.
  • After surgical excision, histological examination showed a malignant phyllodes tumor in which the stromal component displayed evident sarcomatous changes and was densely populated with benign multinucleated OLGC.
  • This lesion ressembles giant cell tumor of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Osteoclasts / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17568357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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60. Lien HC, Lu YS, Cheng AL, Chang WC, Jeng YM, Kuo YH, Huang CS, Chang KJ, Yao YT: Differential expression of glucocorticoid receptor in human breast tissues and related neoplasms. J Pathol; 2006 Jul;209(3):317-27
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  • [Title] Differential expression of glucocorticoid receptor in human breast tissues and related neoplasms.
  • Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a steroid hormone receptor that has been shown to play important roles in mammary development and differentiation, and has been implicated in breast tumourigenesis, but its precise biological significance in mammary pathophysiology remains unclear.
  • In order to generate a comprehensive expression profile for GR in normal versus neoplastic breast tissues, GR expression was investigated in situ in 400 human breast tissue samples, comprising normal tissue and a range of benign, pre-invasive, and invasive lesions, using immunohistochemical assays.
  • The novel expression of GR in myoepithelium, not observed in luminal epithelium, not only demonstrates expression patterns exclusive to the alpha form of oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and suggests distinctive functions between GR and these two important steroid hormone receptors in the breast, but may also indicate unique physiological and perhaps pathological roles for the myoepithelium in mediating the effects of glucocorticoid hormones in the breast.
  • The strong expression of GR in metaplastic carcinomas (94.4%) and malignant phyllodes tumours (92.3%) suggests a pathogenetic role for GR, and implies that targeting GR in these tumours may have potential therapeutic application.
  • This marked discrepancy warrants a re-examination of the biological roles of GR in the pathophysiology of breast malignancy.
  • The lack of methylation in the promoter region of the GR gene in all 118 non-metaplastic carcinomas, as demonstrated by methylation-specific PCR and bisulphite DNA sequencing analysis, indicates that methylation is less likely to play a role in the reduction of GR expression in non-metaplastic carcinoma of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • (PMID = 16639692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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61. Buch A, Rout P, Makhija P: Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Apr;49(2):259-61
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  • [Title] Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump.
  • An unusual combination of two benign breast neoplasms adenomyoepithelioma and phyllodes tumor presenting as a solitary breast lump have been described.
  • This patient also presented with a recurrent breast neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2006 Jul;49(3):476
  • (PMID = 16933731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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62. Abdelkrim SB, Trabelsi A, Bouzrara M, Boudagga MZ, Memmi A, Bakir DA, Mokni M: Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast: A Review of 26 Cases. World J Oncol; 2010 Jun;1(3):129-134
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  • [Title] Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast: A Review of 26 Cases.
  • Background: Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare and locally aggressive neoplasms.
  • Methods: The authors analyzed retrospectively clinical, radiological, histopathological and therapeutic features as well as outcome in a series of 26 cases diagnosed as phyllodes tumors of the breast at the Pathology Department of Farhat Hached Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia, from 2003 to 2009.
  • The slides were reviewed in order to classify the tumors into benign, borderline and malignant on the basis of the criteria proposed by the World Health Organization.
  • The analysis of this series showed the following characteristics: mean age at diagnosis was 40 years (19 - 66), tumor size was 1.5 - 40 cm (mean: 7.8 cm); the chief complaint was a mammary mass; the right breast was affected in 14 cases, the upper outer quadrant was the most commonly involved site (42.3%); surgical treatment was used in all cases, 21 patients (80.8%) were treated conservatively (13 benign, 6 borderline, and 2 malignant) and 5 (19.2%) by radical surgery (1 borderline and 4 malignant); seven patients underwent post-operative radiotherapy; in 14/19 cases (73.7%), a good correlation was observed between intraoperative frozen section analysis and definitive histology; the tumor was classed as benign in 13 cases (50%), borderline in 7 cases (27%) and malignant in 6 cases (23%); follow-up data was available in 22 cases; the rate of recurrence was 23% (1 benign, 3 borderline, and 2 malignant) after a mean follow-up of 13.6 months; all the recurrent tumors were initially treated by lumpectomy and were close to margin at the initial pathologic examination; the treatment of recurrences consisted of simple mastectomy in 5 cases, and local excision in one case; three patients developed metastases, one of whom after recurrence<b>;</b> three patients have died.
  • Conclusions: This is a substantial single institution experience of a rare tumor.
  • Phyllodes tumors of the breast have an unpredictable outcome, thus a wide local excision, with an adequate margin of normal breast tissue, is the preferred initial therapy.

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  • (PMID = 29147192.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-454X
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Outcome / Pathology / Phyllodes tumor / Prognosis / Treatment
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63. Esposito NN, Mohan D, Brufsky A, Lin Y, Kapali M, Dabbs DJ: Phyllodes tumor: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 30 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Oct;130(10):1516-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 30 cases.
  • CONTEXT: Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are biphasic neoplasms composed of epithelium and a spindle-cell stroma.
  • Currently, PTs are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant based on histopathologic features.
  • DESIGN: Sixteen benign, 8 borderline, and 6 malignant PTs with follow-up were examined for reactivity across a panel of immunohistochemical stains, including c-Kit, endothelin 1, p16, p21, p53, and Ki-67.
  • Tumor variables were compared among tumor subgroups and between tumors that did and did not recur.
  • RESULTS: Of the 30 PTs, 4 recurred (1 benign, 2 borderline, 1 malignant).
  • One patient with a malignant tumor died of metastatic disease 34 months after initial diagnosis.
  • The overall positive rate of c-Kit immunoreactivity was 13% in benign, 63% in borderline, and 67% in malignant PTs.
  • Endothelin 1 epithelial cytoplasmic staining was seen in 100% of benign, 50% of borderline, and 17% of malignant PTs.
  • Additionally, p16, p21, p53, and Ki-67 were differentially expressed among benign, borderline, and malignant tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stromal c-Kit positivity and epithelial endothelin 1 negativity are more often associated with malignant PTs; however, only positive margin status is significantly associated with tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease Progression. Endothelin-1 / metabolism. Epithelium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Staining and Labeling. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17090194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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64. Moriya T, Kozuka Y, Kanomata N, Tse GM, Tan PH: The role of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions. Pathology; 2009 Jan;41(1):68-76
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • Immunohistochemistry may be helpful in the diagnosis of various breast lesions.
  • It can be used to assist in distinguishing benign and malignant conditions, or to clarify the histological subtype of invasive carcinomas.
  • High molecular weight cytokeratins (CK5/6, CK14, 34betaE12) typically show a mosaic-like pattern of expression in benign papillary/hyperplastic lesions, and are mostly negative in ductal in situ carcinoma, but some exceptions exist.
  • Cytokeratins, especially the antibody 34betaE12, are of value to differentiate spindle cell carcinoma from phyllodes tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods


65. Tse GM, Wong FC, Tsang AK, Lee CS, Lui PC, Lo AW, Law BK, Scolyer RA, Karim RZ, Putti TC: Stromal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression correlates with the grade of mammary phyllodes tumour. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Jun;58(6):600-4
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  • [Title] Stromal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression correlates with the grade of mammary phyllodes tumour.
  • BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), particularly endothelial and inducible forms (e/i-NOS), are expressed in various cancers, including breast cancer.
  • In mammary fibroepithelial lesions, NOS expression in stromal cells has been reported to be lower in fibroadenomas than in phyllodes tumours.
  • AIMS: To investigate NOS expression in phyllodes tumours of varying degrees of malignancy.
  • METHODS: One hundred and sixty seven mammary phyllodes tumours (97 benign, 47 borderline malignant, and 23 frankly malignant) were evaluated for e-NOS and i-NOS expression by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Stromal expression of e-NOS was absent, weak, moderate, and strong in 43%, 31%, 13%, and 13% of benign tumours; 17%, 26%, 13%, and 44% of borderline malignant tumours; and 17%, 35%, 13%, and 35% of frankly malignant tumours, respectively.
  • Stromal expression of i-NOS was 77%, 18%, 4%, and 1% in benign tumours; 42%, 28%, 19%, and 11% in borderline malignant tumours; and 43%, 13%, 26%, and 18% in frankly malignant tumours, respectively.
  • Stromal expression of both i-NOS and e-NOS was significantly different between the benign and malignant (borderline and frank) groups of phyllodes tumours (p < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Higher stromal expression of NOS in phyllodes tumours is associated with malignancy, suggesting a possible role in malignant progression, particularly metastasising potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Nitric Oxide Synthase / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 15917410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.14.13.39 / NOS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.39 / NOS3 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770683
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66. Aron M, Ray R, Verma K: Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast-cytological features of two cases and review of literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Apr;48(2):260-4
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  • [Title] Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast-cytological features of two cases and review of literature.
  • Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a lesion characterized on histology by the presence of anastomosing slit like spaces embedded in a hyalinized fibrous stroma.
  • Till date, the cytological features of PASH have been described in only 12 cases, of which two cases were diagnosed on aspiration cytology as suspicious for carcinoma and in one case, for phyllodes tumor.
  • The first case was diagnosed as a phyllodes tumor and the other case as a benign proliferative breast disease, possibly a fibroadenoma.
  • FNAC findings of PASH are non-specific, and the role of FNAC in PASH is to confirm the benign nature of the lesion, rather than provide a definitive pre-surgical diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomatosis / pathology. Breast Diseases / pathology. Hyperplasia / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2010 Jul-Sep;53(3):573-4 [20699535.001]
  • (PMID = 16758690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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67. Orea-Estudillo D, Jaimes-López L, Bernal-Cano J: [Phyllodes tumor in a pediatric patient. Case report and literature review]. Cir Cir; 2008 Mar-Apr;76(2):165-8
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumor in a pediatric patient. Case report and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor phyllodes en un paciente pediátrico. Informe de un caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumors occur with a frequency of 0.3- 0.9% and are rare in young women.
  • We present a phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old female and we reviewed the literature regarding this pathology.
  • CASE REPORT: We present the case of an 11-year-old female with a diagnosis of phyllodes tumor.
  • Histological report demonstrated benign phyllodes tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Small phyllodes tumors can be excised with a 1-cm surgical border, whereas larger phyllodes tumors are treated with simple mastectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor

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  • (PMID = 18492439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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68. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Horvath L, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: Proteins from the Wnt pathway are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of mammary phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2009 Nov;62(11):1016-20
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  • [Title] Proteins from the Wnt pathway are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • A comprehensive analysis of the expression of Wnt signalling pathway proteins in mammary phyllodes tumours (PTs) has not been previously performed.
  • METHODS: 65 PTs (34 benign, 23 borderline and 8 malignant) diagnosed at a single institution between 1990 and 2006 were analysed.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cadherins / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Survival Analysis. Tissue Array Analysis / methods. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19861560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / SFRP4 protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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69. Tsai WC, Jin JS, Yu JC, Sheu LF: CD10, actin, and vimentin expression in breast phyllodes tumors correlates with tumor grades of the WHO grading system. Int J Surg Pathol; 2006 Apr;14(2):127-31
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  • [Title] CD10, actin, and vimentin expression in breast phyllodes tumors correlates with tumor grades of the WHO grading system.
  • The discrimination of borderline from malignant primary breast phyllodes (PT) tumor is still unclear.
  • In our results, the stromal staining of CD10 was positive in 4 of 6 malignant and 2 of 5 borderline PT cases, but negative in all benign PT cases.
  • Stromal actin and intraglandular vimentin-expressive tumor cells were found in 5 of 6 malignant PT cases but not in borderline and benign PT cases.
  • Besides, the progression of malignant potential breast phyllodes tumor may cause glandular epithelium atypia with loss of polarity.
  • [MeSH-major] Actins / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Neprilysin / biosynthesis. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Vimentin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16703173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vimentin; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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70. Rodríguez Ogando A, Fernández López T, Rodríguez Castaño MJ, Mata Fernández C, Alvarez Bernardi J, Cebollero Presmanes M: Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a case report in a 12-year-old girl. Clin Transl Oncol; 2010 Oct;12(10):704-6
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  • [Title] Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a case report in a 12-year-old girl.
  • Breast tumors in adolescents are very rare and mostly benign.
  • Fibroadenomas are the most frequent, but within the extensive differential diagnosis, the phyllodes tumor must be mentioned, which accounts for about 1% of breast tumors and the diagnosis of which is very rare in patients younger than 20 years.
  • There are no specific symptoms or radiological images to distinguish phyllodes tumor from fibroadenoma; therefore, histological examination is mandatory for diagnosis.
  • Histology also allows the classification of phyllodes tumor into benign, borderline, or malignant types for appropriate surgical treatment: freemargin excision in benign tumors and mastectomy in the other two types.
  • Fortunately, the majority of these tumors are benign, and treatment maximizes breast conservation with free infiltration margins surgery, given that this fact is the most important factor to prevent local recurrence.
  • In this article, we describe a rare case of borderline cystosarcoma phyllodes in a 12-year-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20947486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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71. Tse GM, Tsang AK, Putti TC, Scolyer RA, Lui PC, Law BK, Karim RZ, Lee CS: Stromal CD10 expression in mammary fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;58(2):185-9
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  • [Title] Stromal CD10 expression in mammary fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours.
  • In the breast, myoepithelial cells express CD10, but there are few studies of the expression of CD10 in mammary fibroepithelial lesions.
  • METHODS: Stromal CD10 expression was studied in 181 mammary phyllodes tumours (102 benign, 51 borderline malignant, and 28 frankly malignant) and 33 fibroadenomas using immunohistochemistry, to evaluate whether differences in expression correlated with the degree of malignancy.
  • RESULTS: There was a progressive increase in the patients' age and tumour size, from fibroadenoma to phyllodes tumours with an increasing degree of malignancy (p < 0.001).
  • Stromal CD10 expression was positive in one of 33 fibroadenomas, six of 102 benign phyllodes tumours, 16 of 51 borderline malignant phyllodes tumours, and 14 of 28 frankly malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • Stromal CD10 expression had a high specificity (95%) for differentiating between benign lesions (fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumours) and malignant (borderline and frankly malignant) phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Fibroadenoma / immunology. Neprilysin / immunology. Phyllodes Tumor / immunology. Stromal Cells / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15677540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770579
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72. Telli ML, Horst KC, Guardino AE, Dirbas FM, Carlson RW: Phyllodes tumors of the breast: natural history, diagnosis, and treatment. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2007 Mar;5(3):324-30
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast: natural history, diagnosis, and treatment.
  • Phyllodes tumors of the breast are unusual fibroepithelial tumors that exhibit a wide range of clinical behavior.
  • These tumors are categorized as benign, borderline, or malignant based on a combination of histologic features.
  • The prognosis of phyllodes tumors is favorable, with local recurrence occurring in approximately 15% of patients overall and distant recurrence in approximately 5% to 10% overall.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor

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  • (PMID = 17439760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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73. Chen SJ, Cheng KS, Dai YC, Sun YN, Chen YT, Chang KY, Yu SN, Chang TW, Tsai HM, Hsien CC: Quantitatively characterizing the textural features of sonographic images for breast cancer with histopathologic correlation. J Ultrasound Med; 2005 May;24(5):651-61
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  • [Title] Quantitatively characterizing the textural features of sonographic images for breast cancer with histopathologic correlation.
  • A statistical feature matrix was applied to quantify the texture difference (ie, the dissimilarity) of the sonographic images for malignant and benign breast tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: From the experimental results, it is shown that the cellular and fibrous content with spatial distribution of breast masses determine the dissimilarity values on sonographic images.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Ultrasonography, Mammary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / ultrasonography. Confidence Intervals. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / surgery. Fibroadenoma / ultrasonography. Humans. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15840797.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Istvanic S, Fischer AH, Banner BF, Eaton DM, Larkin AC, Khan A: Cell blocks of breast FNAs frequently allow diagnosis of invasion or histological classification of proliferative changes. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 May;35(5):263-9
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  • [Title] Cell blocks of breast FNAs frequently allow diagnosis of invasion or histological classification of proliferative changes.
  • Two major limitations of breast fine needle aspiration (FNA) compared with core needle biopsies (CNB) are the inability to determine whether a cancer is invasive and to classify proliferative lesions.
  • We studied 40 consecutive "rapid cell blocks" from breast FNAs with surgical pathology follow-up to test whether cell blocks can overcome these limitations.
  • One cystosarcoma phyllodes was suspected based on the cell block sections.
  • Cell blocks from 12 of 14 benign breast FNAs showed sufficient cells to assign a histologic diagnosis of no hyperplasia (1 case, confirmed on follow-up) and usual hyperplasia (11 cases; confirmed in eight of 11 on follow-up).
  • Cell blocks complement smears and monolayers and appear to overcome major limitations of breast FNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Ductal, Lobular, and Medullary / pathology. Paraffin Embedding / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / classification. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / classification. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Papilloma, Intraductal / classification. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / classification. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17427225.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Tse GM, Lui PC, Vong JS, Lau KM, Putti TC, Karim R, Scolyer RA, Lee CS, Yu AM, Ng DC, Tse AK, Tan PH: Increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in malignant mammary phyllodes tumors. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Apr;114(3):441-8
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  • [Title] Increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in malignant mammary phyllodes tumors.
  • Mammary phyllodes tumors are uncommon stromal-epithelial neoplasms, and are divided into benign, borderline malignant and frankly malignant groups on the basis of their histological features.
  • This study investigated 453 phyllodes tumors (296 benign, 98 borderline, 59 malignant) for EGFR expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for gene amplification.
  • The staining was correlated to tumor margin status, degree of malignancy, stromal cellularity, mitotic activity, nuclear pleomorphism and stromal overgrowth.
  • The overall positive rate for EGFR was 16.2% (48/296), 30.6% (30/98) and 56% (33/59) for benign, borderline malignant and frankly malignant phyllodes tumors, respectively.
  • The results of this study provide strong evidence that EGFR overexpression is involved in the pathogenesis of phyllodes tumors, although gene amplification may not be the major underlying mechanism for overexpression.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Ligands. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18443904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ligands; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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76. Agabiti S, Gurrera A, Amico P, Vasquez E, Magro G: [Mammary hamartoma with atypical stromal cells: a potential diagnostic dilemma]. Pathologica; 2007 Dec;99(6):434-7
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  • Hamartoma of the breast is a pseudotumoural lesion that does not usually pose diagnostic problems for the pathologist.
  • Although atypical stromal cell (ASCs) can be encountered in several benign and malignant breast lesions, their occurrence in hamartoma has not been reported to date.
  • The authors report a case of breast hamartoma containing numerous atypical mono- or multinucleated stromal cells within the fibro-fatty component.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Hamartoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Biomarkers. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroblasts / chemistry. Fibroblasts / pathology. Humans. Lipoma / diagnosis. Liposarcoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Stromal Cells / chemistry. Stromal Cells / pathology. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18416336.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Vimentin
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77. Franceschini G, D'Ugo D, Masetti R, Palumbo F, D'Alba PF, Mulè A, Costantini M, Belli P, Picciocchi A: Surgical treatment and MRI in phyllodes tumors of the breast: our experience and review of the literature. Ann Ital Chir; 2005 Mar-Apr;76(2):127-40
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment and MRI in phyllodes tumors of the breast: our experience and review of the literature.
  • AIMS: To reassess the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and surgical resection margins in an attempt to address the issue of appropriate surgical management of phyllodes tumors (PT).
  • METHODS: Three female patients with a large palpable mass suspicious for phyllodes tumors were studied by mammography (MX), ultrasound (US) and dynamic MRI and then underwent surgery.
  • Pathological results showed 1 case of benign phylloides tumor, 1 case of borderline phylloides tumor and 1 case of malignant phylloides tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MRI enabled complete visualization of the tumor even in the region close to the chest wall, as well as clear delineation from healthy glandular tissue and may help to define the appropriate surgical management of phylloides tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Breast / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. Palpation. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 16302651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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78. Verma S, Singh RK, Rai A, Pandey CP, Singh M, Mohan N: Extent of surgery in the management of phyllodes tumor of the breast: a retrospective multicenter study from India. J Cancer Res Ther; 2010 Oct-Dec;6(4):511-5
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  • [Title] Extent of surgery in the management of phyllodes tumor of the breast: a retrospective multicenter study from India.
  • INTRODUCTION: Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare tumor of the breast.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of this retrospective study is to study the clinicopathological correlation of phyllodes tumors in North-Central part of the India and also to evaluate efficacy of the various surgical options available for the management of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • RESULTS: The breast masses in our study were particularly large.
  • Histopathological report was benign, borderline, and malignant PT in 62.4%, 20.8%, and 16.8% of the cases, respectively.
  • This study shows that wide local excision for benign and borderline and simple mastectomy with or without reconstruction for the malignant PT of the breast are acceptable best surgical options.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21358091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] India
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79. Sabban F, Collinet P, Lucot JP, Boman F, Leroy JL, Vinatier D: [Phyllodes tumor of the breast: analysis of 8 patients]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2005 May;34(3 Pt 1):252-6
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumor of the breast: analysis of 8 patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs phyllodes du sein: à propose de 8 patientes.
  • INTRODUCTION: Phyllodes tumors of breast are rare and usually benign.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 8 cases of phyllodes tumors and the literature to report the circumstances of occurrence of these tumors, and their specific clinical diagnosis, therapeutic, prognostic features.
  • Mean tumor size was 3.75 cm.
  • Aspiration cytology demonstrated the phyllode tumor in 43% of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16012385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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80. Bhargav PR, Mishra A, Agarwal G, Agarwal A, Verma AK, Mishra SK: Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of recurrent vs. non-recurrent cases. Asian J Surg; 2009 Oct;32(4):224-8
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of recurrent vs. non-recurrent cases.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to present our experience of dealing with patients with phyllodes tumours (PT) and to correlate the risk of local recurrence with different clinicopathological factors.
  • The histology report was benign, borderline and malignant PT in 28%, 20% and 52% of cases respectively.

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  • (PMID = 19892625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0219-3108
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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81. Beier JP, Jaeger K, Horch RE: Reduction mammaplasty for benign phyllodes tumour in an adolescent female--a 13-year follow up. Breast; 2006 Aug;15(4):550-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reduction mammaplasty for benign phyllodes tumour in an adolescent female--a 13-year follow up.
  • Phyllodes tumours are rare neoplasms of the female breast, especially among adolescent women.
  • We present the case of a 17-year old female patient with a large benign phyllodes tumour.
  • Symmetry of breast contour and nipple-areola complex position could be restored.
  • Standard plastic surgical techniques like reduction mammaplasty might be applied in treating large benign tumours compromising the aesthetic aspect of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16310356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics
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82. Destounis SV, Vogt C, Arieno AL, Morgan RC: Difficult management of a rapidly growing benign phyllodes tumor in a 49-year-old woman. J Ultrasound Med; 2010 Jul;29(7):1125-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Difficult management of a rapidly growing benign phyllodes tumor in a 49-year-old woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20587436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Yoo JL, Woo OH, Kim YK, Cho KR, Yong HS, Seo BK, Kim A, Kang EY: Can MR Imaging contribute in characterizing well-circumscribed breast carcinomas? Radiographics; 2010 Oct;30(6):1689-702
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Can MR Imaging contribute in characterizing well-circumscribed breast carcinomas?
  • Most well-circumscribed breast masses are benign lesions such as cysts, fibroadenomas, and intramammary lymph nodes.
  • Nevertheless, 10%-20% of breast malignancies are well-circumscribed masses, and these malignancies include papillary, mucinous, medullary, and metaplastic carcinomas, as well as malignant phyllodes tumors.
  • Therefore, it is important to differentiate these well-circumscribed breast malignancies from benign breast lesions, but it is not easy to do so with conventional imaging modalities such as mammography and ultrasonography (US).
  • As an emerging adjunctive imaging method, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has substantial potential in characterizing well-circumscribed breast carcinomas.
  • Analysis of the lesion signal intensity on nonenhanced T2-weighted MR images, determination of the enhancement pattern, and kinetic curve assessment can greatly help differentiate malignant from benign well-circumscribed breast lesions.
  • Therefore, breast MR imaging can play a substantial role in distinguishing between well-circumscribed benign and malignant breast lesions, especially in cases that are difficult to diagnose by using conventional imaging.
  • In this article, the MR imaging findings of the subtypes of well-circumscribed malignant breast lesions-intracystic papillary carcinoma, invasive papillary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma, and malignant phyllodes tumor-are described and correlated with the histopathologic, mammographic, and US findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © RSNA, 2010.
  • [CommentIn] Radiographics. 2010 Oct;30(6):1703-4; discussion 1704 [21117281.001]
  • (PMID = 21071383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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84. Sorelli PG, Thomas D, Moore A, Khan M, Hoque H: Malignant phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old premenarchal girl. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Feb;45(2):e17-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old premenarchal girl.
  • Phyllodes tumor is uncommon in children, and the malignant form is rare.
  • There have only been a few cases of benign phyllodes tumor reported in peripubertal children and only one malignant case.
  • We report the second case of malignant phyllodes tumor in a premenarchal 11-year-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Menarche. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20152333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Bellolio J E, Guzmán G P, Orellana C J, Roa S JC, Villaseca H M, Araya O JC, Tapia E O, Ineda N V: [Diagnostic value of frozen section biopsy during surgery for breast lesions or neoplasms]. Rev Med Chil; 2009 Sep;137(9):1173-8
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic value of frozen section biopsy during surgery for breast lesions or neoplasms].
  • BACKGROUND: During the surgical treatment of breast neoplasms (benign or malignant), frozen section biopsy is frequently requested to assess the kind of lesion and determine the surgical margins.
  • AIM: To assess the diagnostic yield of frozen section breast biopsy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: AH the pathological reports of frozen section biopsies and definitive biopsies of 337 women aged 26 to 88 years, operated for suspected breast neoplasms between 2002 and 2006, were reviewed.
  • The diagnosis of phyllodes tumor was missed by frozen section biopsy in three cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Frozen section biopsy is useful and reliable for cancer detection and margin status assessment in breast cancer surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Frozen Sections / standards. Intraoperative Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 20011957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
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86. Iyengar P, Cody HS 3rd, Brogi E: Pleomorphic adenoma of the breast: case report and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Dec;33(6):416-20
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  • [Title] Pleomorphic adenoma of the breast: case report and review of the literature.
  • Pleomorphic adenoma of the breast (PAB) is a very rare neoplasm.
  • On cytologic material, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor should also be considered within the differential diagnosis.
  • Correct identification of this benign mammary neoplasm is important to avoid unnecessarily aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 16299746.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Wurdinger S, Herzog AB, Fischer DR, Marx C, Raabe G, Schneider A, Kaiser WA: Differentiation of phyllodes breast tumors from fibroadenomas on MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Nov;185(5):1317-21
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  • [Title] Differentiation of phyllodes breast tumors from fibroadenomas on MRI.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the MRI appearance of phyllodes breast tumors and to differentiate them from fibroadenomas.
  • MR images of 23 patients with 24 phyllodes breast tumors (one malignant, 23 benign) were analyzed with respect to morphology and contrast enhancement.
  • RESULTS: Well-defined margins were seen in 87.5% of the phyllodes tumors and 70.4% of the fibroadenomas, and a round or lobulated shape in 100% and 90.1%, respectively.
  • A heterogeneous internal structure was observed in 70.8% of phyllodes tumors and in 49.4% of fibroadenomas.
  • Nonenhancing internal septations were found in 45.8% of phyllodes tumors and 27.2% of fibroadenomas.
  • A significantly greater increase in signal was seen on T2-weighted images in the tissue surrounding phyllodes tumors (21%) compared with fibroadenomas (1.2%).
  • After the administration of contrast material, 33.3% of phyllodes tumors and 22.2% of fibroadenomas showed a suspicious signal intensity-time course.
  • CONCLUSION: Phyllodes breast tumors and other fibroadenomas cannot be precisely differentiated on breast MRI.
  • Phyllodes tumors have benign morphologic features and contrast enhancement characteristics suggestive of malignancy in 33% of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16247156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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88. Ferbeyre-Binelfa L, Ramírez-Bollas J, Bautista-Piña V, Espejo-Fonseca R, Ruvalcaba-Limón E, Serratos-Garduño E: [Fibromatosis of the breast. Report of two cases and review of the literature]. Cir Cir; 2009 Jul-Aug;77(4):313-8; 291-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Fibromatosis of the breast. Report of two cases and review of the literature].
  • BACKGROUND: Fibromatosis is a term used to describe a group of lesions characterized by well-differentiated fibroblast proliferation with an usually benign biological behavior but with an infiltrative pattern of growth, frequently recurrent and locally invasive.
  • The presence of this entity in breast tissue is an uncommon clinical situation, comprising approximately 0.2% of breast tumors and very often misdiagnosed as malignant disease or phyllodes tumor.
  • In this rare condition, immunohistochemistry is an important diagnostic tool in anatomopathological differential diagnosis with other spindle cell tumors of the breast.
  • CLINICAL CASES: We present two cases of breast fibromatosis confirmed immunohistochemically and also by biopsy.
  • One case had the clinical and imaging appearance of breast carcinoma with the classic irregular mass presentation and the other case was misdiagnosed as phyllodes tumor because of the size and density of the tumor and the cytology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 83 cases of breast fibromatosis have been reported during the last 30 years, including one male patient.
  • We reviewed clinicopathological features of two cases of fibromatosis of the breast treated at our institute.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19919794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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89. Pătraşcu A, Popescu CF, Pleşea IE, Bădulescu A, Tănase F, Mateescu G: Clinical and cytopathological aspects in phyllodes tumors of the breast. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2009;50(4):605-11
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  • [Title] Clinical and cytopathological aspects in phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • The frequency of mesenchymal breast tumors is very low, being represented mostly by tumors with biphasic proliferation (phyllodes tumors) and less by other types of non-epithelial tumors.
  • From clinical point of view, phyllodes tumors (PT) can mimic a breast carcinoma.
  • In current study, we assessed clinical aspects of 79 phyllodes tumors regarding patient's age and localization of the tumors.
  • The median age of the patients was 46.07-year-old, being progressively higher with grade of the tumors with significant values between benign and borderline tumors (p=0.04954) and between benign and malignant ones (p=0.02890).
  • The preoperative differentiation between a breast phyllodes tumor and a breast carcinoma is extremely important for avoiding of a useless radical surgery for the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19942954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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90. Ilić I, Randelović P, Ilić R, Katić V, Milentijević M, Velicković L, Krstić M: An approach to malignant mammary phyllodes tumors detection. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2009 Apr;66(4):277-82
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  • [Title] An approach to malignant mammary phyllodes tumors detection.
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: Mammary phyllodes tumors (MPT) are uncommon fibroepithelial (biphasic) neoplasms whose clinical behavior is difficult to predict on the basis of histological criteria only.
  • They are divided into benign, borderline malignant and malignant groups.
  • A total of 35 cases of MPT were included: 20 benign (57%), 6 borderline malignant (17%) and 9 malignant (26%).
  • The mean size of malignant MPT (7.8 cm) was larger than that of benign MPT (4.5 cm).
  • Significant features of the malignant MPT were: stromal cellularity, stromal cellular atypism, high mitotic activity, atypic mitoses, stromal overgrowth, infiltrative tumor contour and heterologous stromal elements.
  • Benign MPT showed strong enzymohistochemical Leucine Amino Peptidase (LAP) activity in both epithelial and stromal components while it was weak or absent in the epithelial parts of the malignant tumors.
  • Benign MPT had a lower Ki-67 than did borderline malignant MPT (4 versus 28).
  • Malignant MPT had a greater than 8-fold higher Ki-67 activity than did benign tumors (35 versus 4).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Middle Aged. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19441158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8450
  • [Journal-full-title] Vojnosanitetski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vojnosanit Pregl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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91. Jones AM, Mitter R, Poulsom R, Gillett C, Hanby AM, Tomlinson IP, Sawyer EJ, Phyllodes Tumour Consortium: mRNA expression profiling of phyllodes tumours of the breast: identification of genes important in the development of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumours. J Pathol; 2008 Dec;216(4):408-17
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  • [Title] mRNA expression profiling of phyllodes tumours of the breast: identification of genes important in the development of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in the development of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumours of the breast (PTs).
  • Expression profiling of 23 PTs (12 benign, 11 borderline/malignant) was performed using Affymetrix U133A GeneChips. mRNA expression in the borderline/malignant PTs was compared to the benign PTs.
  • PAX3, TGFB2 and HMGA2 were expressed predominantly in borderline/malignant PTs, but showed some expression in benign tumours; they may be important in the transition from the benign to borderline/malignant phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18937276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Department of Health / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
  • [Investigator] Walker R; Pinder S; Jones L; Ellis I; Tan PH; Macartney J; Green D; Hales S; Harding-Mackean C; Colclough A; MacNeill F; Rowlands D; Smith C; Fentiman I; Cane P; Desai A; Goderya R; Nerurkar A; Kissin M; Jackson P
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92. Morgan JM, Douglas-Jones AG, Gupta SK: Analysis of histological features in needle core biopsy of breast useful in preoperative distinction between fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumour. Histopathology; 2010 Mar;56(4):489-500
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  • [Title] Analysis of histological features in needle core biopsy of breast useful in preoperative distinction between fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumour.
  • AIMS: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) has been replaced by Needle core biopsy (NCB) as the pathological investigation of choice in pre-operative diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • Despite the greater yield of material with spatial information, the distinction between fibroepithelial lesions of the breast, fibroadenoma (FA) and benign phyllodes tumour (PT), remains problematic.
  • METHODS: Previously defined histological criteria were applied to 112 NCBs of fibroepithelial lesions of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20459556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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93. Biondi A, Di Giuntao M, Motta S, Privitera G, Fichera DS, Ciuni R, Basile F: [Benign phylloides tumor of the breast. Considerations on a clinical case]. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Nov-Dec;80(6):471-4
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  • [Title] [Benign phylloides tumor of the breast. Considerations on a clinical case].
  • Phyllodes tumors are unusual biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast, accounting for < 1% of all breast tumors and raising issues of diagnosis and therapeutic choice.
  • We talk about giant phyllodes tumors.
  • Conservative treatment can be effective also in giant tumors depending upon the size of the tumor and the breast if a complete excision with an adequate margin of normal breast tissue can be achieved, so avoiding local recurrence often accompanied by worse histopathology.
  • The Authors report the case of a giant benign phyllode tumor of the breast treated with conservative surgery, quadrantectomy and oncoplasty.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor

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  • (PMID = 20476682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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94. Ben Hassouna J, Damak T, Gamoudi A, Chargui R, Khomsi F, Mahjoub S, Slimene M, Ben Dhiab T, Hechiche M, Boussen H, Rahal K: Phyllodes tumors of the breast: a case series of 106 patients. Am J Surg; 2006 Aug;192(2):141-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast: a case series of 106 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are rare, and their prognosis and treatment are still subject of discussion.
  • According to criteria of Azzopardi and Salvadori, tumors were classified into 3 groups: benign (62 cases, 58.4%), borderline (16 cases, 15%), and malignant (28 cases, 26.4%).
  • Eighty-two patients (77.4%) were treated conservatively (62 benign, 11 borderline, and 9 malignant) and 24 (22.6%) by radical surgery (5 borderline and 19 malignant).
  • For malignant PTs treated by enucleation or local excision with or without reexcision of the tumor bed, the 5-year overall and disease-free survivals were 28.5% and 15.6% versus 72.7% and 73.6% when the surgery was radical (mastectomy with or without axillary dissection) (P = .12 and P = .0022).
  • The rate of recurrence was 12.2% (13) after a mean follow-up of 39 months (5 benign, 2 borderline, and 5 malignant).
  • In univariate analysis, age and recurrences are not of prognostic value for survival, whereas tumor size, histotype, necrosis, cytonuclear atypia, tumor margins, and number of mitosis were significant prognostic factors for survival.
  • CONCLUSION: According to our results, we recommend for malignant PT a simple mastectomy, whereas for borderline and benign PT, treatment is based rather on wide excision passing in healthy tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mastectomy / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 16860620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Tse GM, Niu Y, Shi HJ: Phyllodes tumor of the breast: an update. Breast Cancer; 2010;17(1):29-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast: an update.
  • Phyllodes tumor is an uncommon biphasic breast tumor, with the ability to recur and metastasize, and it behaves biologically like a stromal neoplasm.
  • Traditionally, phyllodes tumors are graded by the use of a set of histologic data into benign, borderline, and malignant.
  • In most series, all phyllodes tumors may recur, but only the borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors metastasize.
  • The expression of many biological markers, including p53, hormone receptors, proliferation markers, angiogenesis group of markers, c-kit, CD10 and epidermal growth factor receptor have been explored, and many have been shown to be variably expressed, depending on the grade of the tumor.
  • These markers are, however, of limited value in predicting the behavior of the tumor.
  • Recently investigators have reported a plethora of genetic changes in phyllodes tumors, the most consistent of which seems to be 1q gain by comparative genomic hybridization.
  • It is foreseeable that more exciting data will be generated to help us to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis


96. Suzuki-Uematsu S, Shiraishi K, Ito T, Adachi N, Inage Y, Taeda Y, Ueki H, Ohtani H: Malignant phyllodes tumor composed almost exclusively of a fibrosarcomatous component: a case report and review of malignant phyllodes tumors with metastases. Breast Cancer; 2010 Jul;17(3):218-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumor composed almost exclusively of a fibrosarcomatous component: a case report and review of malignant phyllodes tumors with metastases.
  • Here we present a case of malignant phyllodes tumor which was composed almost exclusively of a fibrosarcomatous component.
  • A 52-year-old Japanese female noted a rapid increase of her right breast tumor.
  • The tumor, 10 x 10 cm in the largest dimension, had somewhat of a pushing margin, and showed a flesh-like appearance with marked necrosis.
  • Microscopically, the tumor showed proliferation of atypical ovoid- or spindle-shaped cells in a myxoid matrix.
  • Multiple sectioning revealed that the tumor had only focal occurrence of elongated tubular structures, and the occurrence of a small component of benign phyllodes tumor, leading to the aforementioned final diagnosis.
  • We reviewed 15 malignant phyllodes tumors with metastases reported in Japan.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19350353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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97. Kinkor Z, Skálová A, Michal M, Janousek M, Kheck M: [Metastasing and relapsing "low grade" adenosquamous metaplastic breast cancer--is there a really indolent lesion? A description of three cases and review of literature]. Ceska Gynekol; 2005 May;70(3):211-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Metastasing and relapsing "low grade" adenosquamous metaplastic breast cancer--is there a really indolent lesion? A description of three cases and review of literature].
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe personnel experience with three unusual cases of low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast.
  • RESULTS: Partial mastectomy and segmentectomy were performed in three women 46, 72 and 74 years-old resp. for tumor, which size ranged from 20-35 mm in maximum diameter (mean 28 mm).
  • There were recognized metastases by one woman in two ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes mimicking benign breast heterotopia in one of them.
  • In two women with aggressive course the original biopsy was falsely interpreted, once as phyllodes tumor and secondly as benign sclerosing pseudotumor.
  • It arises in the deep breast tissue and structurally resembles the microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the skin.
  • Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, however, has nothing to do with syringomatous adenoma of the nipple, which is a benign tumor of the skin adnexa.
  • Differential diagnosis includes spectrum of non-neoplastic slerosing lesions and above-mentioned phylloid tumor.
  • The rarity of this neoplasm does not exclude deep knowledge.


98. Laé M, Vincent-Salomon A, Savignoni A, Huon I, Fréneaux P, Sigal-Zafrani B, Aurias A, Sastre-Garau X, Couturier J: Phyllodes tumors of the breast segregate in two groups according to genetic criteria. Mod Pathol; 2007 Apr;20(4):435-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast segregate in two groups according to genetic criteria.
  • Phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial tumors of the breast.
  • The pathologic grading of phyllodes tumors based on the aspect of the stromal component, is divided into 2 or 3 grades according to the system used.
  • To determine whether genetic markers could be of use for improving the classification of phyllodes tumors and to provide a better knowledge of the genetic alterations in these tumors, we analyzed chromosomal changes detected by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in comparison with histological data, in a series of 30 cases.
  • Recurrent chromosome imbalances were observed in 55, 91 and 100% of benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors, respectively.
  • The mean number of chromosome changes was one in benign, six in borderline, and six in malignant phyllodes tumors.
  • Gains of 1q, present in only one of nine benign tumors, were found in 11/21 (51%) borderline or malignant tumors.
  • Borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors could not be differentiated on the basis of their genomic imbalances (presence and number of chromosomal changes, presence of 1q gain and/or 13q loss).
  • Conversely, benign tumors could be significantly differentiated from the group composed of borderline and malignant tumors (P<0.01).
  • This study reveals two distinct patterns of genomic imbalance in phyllodes tumors: benign, with none or a few chromosome changes and malignant, with numerous recurrent chromosomal changes, in particular 1q gain and 13q loss.
  • Helpful additional pathological criteria for differentiating the two genetic groups of phyllodes tumors are the nuclear size and the mitotic rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17334353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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99. Agarwal P, Sparnon AL: Benign breast lesions in adolescent girls: an overview with a case report. Pediatr Surg Int; 2005 May;21(5):381-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign breast lesions in adolescent girls: an overview with a case report.
  • A wide spectrum of breast disorders occurs in the paediatric and adolescent age groups, but malignant disease is very rare.
  • We report a case in an adolescent girl that was initially diagnosed and treated as fibroadenoma until a histological assessment proved it to be a phyllodes tumour with malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15742186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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100. Shin SJ, Scamman W, Gopalan A, Rosen PP: Mammary presentation of adult-type "juvenile" xanthogranuloma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jun;29(6):827-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign histiocytic disorder of infants and childhood.
  • Herein, we report an exceptional case of adult xanthogranuloma in a 74-year-old woman who presented with ipsilateral breast masses and also found to have prior cutaneous lesions.
  • This is the first reported case of cutaneous and extracutaneous adult JXG where the latter manifested in the breast as a spindle cell xanthogranuloma.
  • In the breast, the morphologic features of JXG evoked several entities in the differential diagnosis, including spindle cell metaplastic carcinoma, inflammatory pseudotumor, fibromatosis, myofibroblastoma, and phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Diseases / pathology. Xanthogranuloma, Juvenile / pathology






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