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1. Ezeome ER, Okafor OC, Nwajiobi CE, Osuagwu CC: Bilateral benign phyllodes tumour in a nulliparous woman: a case report and review of literature. Niger J Clin Pract; 2007 Mar;10(1):66-9
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  • [Title] Bilateral benign phyllodes tumour in a nulliparous woman: a case report and review of literature.
  • Cystosarcoma Phyllodes is an uncommon disease of the breast with variable clinical behaviour.
  • In this communication, we present a case of metachronous bilateral benign cystosarcoma phyllodes presenting in a 24year old nulliparous lady.
  • This case unlike most reported cases of bilateral Phyllodes tumour occurred in a nulliparous lady.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17668718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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2. Tan PH, Jayabaskar T, Yip G, Tan Y, Hilmy M, Selvarajan S, Bay BH: p53 and c-kit (CD117) protein expression as prognostic indicators in breast phyllodes tumors: a tissue microarray study. Mod Pathol; 2005 Dec;18(12):1527-34
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  • [Title] p53 and c-kit (CD117) protein expression as prognostic indicators in breast phyllodes tumors: a tissue microarray study.
  • Breast phyllodes tumors are fibroepithelial neoplasms whose clinical behavior is difficult to predict on histology.
  • In this study, we determined if p53 and CD117 (c-kit) protein expression was predictive of behavior in a series of 335 phyllodes tumors diagnosed at the Singapore General Hospital, using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays.
  • Representative areas from 250 (75%) benign, 54 (16%) borderline and 31 (9%) malignant phyllodes tumors were selected for construction of tissue microarrays using the 2 mm punch.
  • Stromal p53 and CD117 protein expression was associated with tumor grade (P < 0.05).
  • We conclude that tissue microarrays are a convenient method for evaluating immunostaining results of large numbers of phyllodes tumors.
  • Although positive p53 stromal immunohistochemical detection may corroborate histologic malignancy, it is CD117 protein expression in phyllodes tumor stromal cells that may be of potential utility in predicting recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis / methods. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16258510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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3. Kinkor Z, Skálová A, Michal M, Janousek M, Kheck M: [Metastasing and relapsing "low grade" adenosquamous metaplastic breast cancer--is there a really indolent lesion? A description of three cases and review of literature]. Ceska Gynekol; 2005 May;70(3):211-6
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  • RESULTS: Partial mastectomy and segmentectomy were performed in three women 46, 72 and 74 years-old resp. for tumor, which size ranged from 20-35 mm in maximum diameter (mean 28 mm).
  • There were recognized metastases by one woman in two ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes mimicking benign breast heterotopia in one of them.
  • In two women with aggressive course the original biopsy was falsely interpreted, once as phyllodes tumor and secondly as benign sclerosing pseudotumor.
  • Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, however, has nothing to do with syringomatous adenoma of the nipple, which is a benign tumor of the skin adnexa.
  • Differential diagnosis includes spectrum of non-neoplastic slerosing lesions and above-mentioned phylloid tumor.
  • The rarity of this neoplasm does not exclude deep knowledge.


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4. Shah SN: Giant myofibroblastoma of breast: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Jul;50(3):583-5
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  • Myofibroblastoma of the breast is a very rare benign neoplasm usually seen in elderly male and is of very small size.
  • The case was clinically diagnosed as Phyllodes tumor Left mastectomy was done.
  • The tumor was histopathologically and immunohistochemically diagnosed as Myofibroblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 17883145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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5. Bhargav PR, Mishra A, Agarwal G, Agarwal A, Verma AK, Mishra SK: Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of recurrent vs. non-recurrent cases. Asian J Surg; 2009 Oct;32(4):224-8
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of recurrent vs. non-recurrent cases.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to present our experience of dealing with patients with phyllodes tumours (PT) and to correlate the risk of local recurrence with different clinicopathological factors.
  • The mean tumour diameter was 10.5 +/- 5 cm.
  • The histology report was benign, borderline and malignant PT in 28%, 20% and 52% of cases respectively.

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  • (PMID = 19892625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0219-3108
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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6. Ben Hassouna J, Damak T, Gamoudi A, Chargui R, Khomsi F, Mahjoub S, Slimene M, Ben Dhiab T, Hechiche M, Boussen H, Rahal K: Phyllodes tumors of the breast: a case series of 106 patients. Am J Surg; 2006 Aug;192(2):141-7
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast: a case series of 106 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are rare, and their prognosis and treatment are still subject of discussion.
  • According to criteria of Azzopardi and Salvadori, tumors were classified into 3 groups: benign (62 cases, 58.4%), borderline (16 cases, 15%), and malignant (28 cases, 26.4%).
  • Eighty-two patients (77.4%) were treated conservatively (62 benign, 11 borderline, and 9 malignant) and 24 (22.6%) by radical surgery (5 borderline and 19 malignant).
  • For malignant PTs treated by enucleation or local excision with or without reexcision of the tumor bed, the 5-year overall and disease-free survivals were 28.5% and 15.6% versus 72.7% and 73.6% when the surgery was radical (mastectomy with or without axillary dissection) (P = .12 and P = .0022).
  • The rate of recurrence was 12.2% (13) after a mean follow-up of 39 months (5 benign, 2 borderline, and 5 malignant).
  • In univariate analysis, age and recurrences are not of prognostic value for survival, whereas tumor size, histotype, necrosis, cytonuclear atypia, tumor margins, and number of mitosis were significant prognostic factors for survival.
  • CONCLUSION: According to our results, we recommend for malignant PT a simple mastectomy, whereas for borderline and benign PT, treatment is based rather on wide excision passing in healthy tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mastectomy / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 16860620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Granić M, Oprić D, Pupić G, Babić D, Ivanović N, Nikolić D, Dikić S, Oprić S: [Surgical methods for the treatment of breast phyllodes tumors--a report of 319 cases]. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2006;53(1):57-62
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  • [Title] [Surgical methods for the treatment of breast phyllodes tumors--a report of 319 cases].
  • Breast phyllodes tumors (FT) belong the fibroapitelial group of breast tumors arising in terminal ductulo-lobular unit (TDLU).
  • Biologicaly they can be divided into benign, borderline and malignant group.
  • Incomplete tumor excision can be the reason for local reccurence.
  • -31.12.1994. Retrospective study of surgical treatment 84 patients with FT of the breast (69 benign, 4 borderline and 11 malignant) and 5 year follow up after surgery we analysed.
  • RESULTS: local reccurence after surgery was found in 17 (20,2 %) patients(14 benign , 2 borderline and 1 malignant FT), pulmonary metastases in 6 (7,1%) patients with malignant FT.
  • CONCLUSION: According to biological behavior we propose wide excision for benign and borderline forms and simple mastectomy for malignant FT, and voluminous benign and borderline forms.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16989148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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8. Giri D: Recurrent challenges in the evaluation of fibroepithelial lesions. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 May;133(5):713-21
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  • CONTEXT: The morphologic spectrum of mammary fibroepithelial lesions ranges from fibroadenoma, a common benign neoplasm, to phyllodes tumor, an uncommon lesion that can sometimes recur and metastasize.
  • OBJECTIVE: To focus on problems encountered in the diagnostic evaluation of fibroepithelial tumors, highlighting the diagnostically relevant morphologic features and providing an update on the immunohistochemical profile and genetic alterations of these rare neoplasms.
  • DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search of the English-language literature identified published reports on fibroepithelial lesions, with a special focus on phyllodes tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The distinction between fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor is usually not problematic, especially in excision specimens.
  • Morphologic predictors of local recurrence of phyllodes tumor include cellularity and cytologic atypia, mitotic activity, positive margins, infiltrative borders, fibroproliferative satellite nodules, and past history of fibroadenoma.
  • Predictors of distant metastasis include size, tumor necrosis, and stromal overgrowth.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 19415945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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9. Sando N, Oka K, Moriya T, Saito H, Nagakura S, Mori N, Suzuki T, Ueki H, Ohtani H: Osteosarcoma arising in the breast. APMIS; 2006 Jul-Aug;114(7-8):581-7
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  • The tumors were diagnosed as a fibroadenoma and a benign phyllodes tumor, respectively.
  • The tumor occupied the entire breast and measured 12x9x8.5 cm.
  • The tumor cells were spindle-shaped and pleomorphic, with large, irregular nuclei and distinct nucleoli.
  • Many tumor cells had characteristics of osteoblastic and chondroblastic elements producing osteoid, osseous, and cartilaginous intracellular substances.
  • Tumor cells expressed vimentin, osteopontin, vascular endothelial growth factor, CD10, and alkaline phosphatase, but did not express keratin.

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  • (PMID = 16907866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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10. Jacobs TW, Chen YY, Guinee DG Jr, Holden JA, Cha I, Bauermeister DE, Hashimoto B, Wolverton D, Hartzog G: Fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma on breast core needle biopsy: are there predictors of outcome on surgical excision? Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Sep;124(3):342-54
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  • Fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma (FELCS) in breast core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens may result in either fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor at excision.
  • On excision, 16 patients had fibroadenomas and 12 had phyllodes tumors.
  • All CNB specimens with mildly increased stromal cellularity were fibroadenomas on excision (n=4), and all with markedly cellular stroma were phyllodes tumors (n=4).
  • Among CNB specimens with moderate cellularity (12 fibroadenomas and 8 phyllodes tumors), only stromal mitoses were discriminatory histologically.
  • Stromal proliferation indices were significantly higher in CNB that were phyllodes tumors vs fibroadenomas.
  • Assessment of stromal cellularity, mitoses, and proliferation indices might help determine the probability of phyllodes tumor occurring and guide management of these cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16191502.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Yonemori K, Hasegawa T, Shimizu C, Shibata T, Matsumoto K, Kouno T, Ando M, Katsumata N, Fujiwara Y: Correlation of p53 and MIB-1 expression with both the systemic recurrence and survival in cases of phyllodes tumors of the breast. Pathol Res Pract; 2006;202(10):705-12
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  • [Title] Correlation of p53 and MIB-1 expression with both the systemic recurrence and survival in cases of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • Phyllodes tumors are rare primary tumors of the breast.
  • The study aimed at evaluating the immunohistochemical features of phyllodes tumors of the breast that may be useful for predicting the clinical outcome.
  • The study included 41 patients with phyllodes tumor (20 benign, 5 borderline, and 16 malignant).
  • None of the phyllodes tumors was positive for HER2/neu or CD117/c-kit.
  • Positive staining for p53 was seen in 10 phyllodes tumors (24%), and the median MIB-1 index was 10%.
  • Both p53 expression and the MIB-1 index, but not the expression status of EGFR, were significantly correlated with the recurrence-free and overall survival. p53 expression status and MIB-1 index may be significant prognostic factors in patients with phyllodes tumors, and careful postoperative follow-up may be important in those cases showing positive expression of p53 and/or MIB-1 index.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Rate


12. Destounis SV, Vogt C, Arieno AL, Morgan RC: Difficult management of a rapidly growing benign phyllodes tumor in a 49-year-old woman. J Ultrasound Med; 2010 Jul;29(7):1125-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Difficult management of a rapidly growing benign phyllodes tumor in a 49-year-old woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20587436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Seal SK, Kuusk U, Lennox PA: Bilateral and multifocal phyllodes tumours of the breast: A case report. Can J Plast Surg; 2010;18(4):145-6
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  • [Title] Bilateral and multifocal phyllodes tumours of the breast: A case report.
  • Phyllodes tumours are rare breast neoplasms that present as painless breast masses.
  • They are classified as benign, malignant and borderline.
  • It describes a patient presenting with synchronous bilateral, multifocal breast phyllodes tumours who underwent immediate reconstruction with tissue expanders at the time of her mastectomies.

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  • (PMID = 22131843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1918-1507
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of plastic surgery = Journal canadien de chirurgie plastique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3006114
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast neoplasm / Phyllodes tumour
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14. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: p16 and pRb immunohistochemical expression increases with increasing tumour grade in mammary phyllodes tumours. Histopathology; 2010 Jun;56(7):868-75
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  • [Title] p16 and pRb immunohistochemical expression increases with increasing tumour grade in mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • AIMS: Control of cell cycling and proliferation is critical to the development of neoplasia and may play a role in the pathogenesis of phyllodes tumours (PTs).
  • This study aimed to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of certain proteins from the G(1)/S transition of the cell cycle in a cohort of PTs, to determine their role in tumour pathogenesis and to identify any associations with patient outcome.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-five PTs (34 benign, 23 borderline and eight malignant) diagnosed at a single institution between 1990 and 2006 were analysed.
  • Expression of the following markers increased significantly with tumour grade: stromal nuclear and cytoplasmic p16 (P = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively), stromal and epithelial pRb (P = 0.000,000,06 and 0.004, respectively), and stromal and epithelial Ki67 (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis


15. Akin M, Irkorucu O, Koksal H, Gonul II, Gultekin S, Kurukahvecioglu O, Anadol AZ, Tekin E: Phyllodes tumor of the breast; a case series. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2010;111(5):271-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast; a case series.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare neoplasm comprising less than 1% of all breast tumors.
  • Its clinical spectrum ranges from a benign and locally recurrent form of behavior to malignant and metastatic forms.
  • All cases were histologically examined by an experienced breast pathologist, and tumors were classified as benign, borderline malignant or malignant according to standard histological criteria.
  • Seven (70%) of 10 tumors were benign and 3 (30%) were malignant.
  • The median tumor size was 29 mm (range: 12-80 mm).
  • CONCLUSION: PT is a rare neoplasm of the breast.
  • It resembles fibroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor

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  • (PMID = 20568416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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16. Wang ZC, Buraimoh A, Iglehart JD, Richardson AL: Genome-wide analysis for loss of heterozygosity in primary and recurrent phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma of breast using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2006 Jun;97(3):301-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genome-wide analysis for loss of heterozygosity in primary and recurrent phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma of breast using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays.
  • Phyllodes tumors of the breast are biphasic stromal and epithelial tumors histologically similar to benign fibroadenomas, but with a neoplastic stromal component.
  • In contrast to fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumors can recur and be locally aggressive or be malignant.
  • This study uses SNP array analysis to present a genome-wide map of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a cohort of phyllodes tumors and fibroadenomas.
  • LOH is frequent and sometimes extensive in phyllodes tumors, but is rarely seen in fibroadenomas.
  • There is heterogeneity between phyllodes tumors of different patients and no one LOH marker identifies a majority of these lesions.
  • However, a subset of LOH loci occur in multiple cases of phyllodes tumors and are not found in fibroadenomas.
  • Primary phyllodes tumors and paired recurrences from the same patient share common regions of LOH.
  • Specific LOH loci may be associated with pathologic progression in recurrent phyllodes tumors.
  • In a single case of phyllodes tumor containing a malignant epithelial component the malignant epithelium and stroma partially share an LOH genotype, suggesting a common precursor cell for the biphasic malignant components.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Genome, Human. Humans. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16791486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / NCI P50 CA89393-01
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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17. Pawlicki J, Król R, Kajor M, Ziaja J: [Case of malignant tumour phyllodes converting to fibrosarcoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2007 Mar;22(129):215-7
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  • [Title] [Case of malignant tumour phyllodes converting to fibrosarcoma].
  • Tumour phyllodes is rare breast neoplasm.
  • Tumours phyllodes are composed of hypercellular mesenchymal stroma and epithelial elements.
  • They are commonly classified as benign, rarely as borderline or malignant.
  • There is a case of large (28 x 24 cm) malignant tumour phyllodes presented in the article.
  • In spite of unfavorable prognostic features of the tumour (large size, malignant histological character) and recurrences, final therapeutic effect was good.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17682679.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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18. Esposito NN, Mohan D, Brufsky A, Lin Y, Kapali M, Dabbs DJ: Phyllodes tumor: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 30 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Oct;130(10):1516-21
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 30 cases.
  • CONTEXT: Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are biphasic neoplasms composed of epithelium and a spindle-cell stroma.
  • Currently, PTs are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant based on histopathologic features.
  • DESIGN: Sixteen benign, 8 borderline, and 6 malignant PTs with follow-up were examined for reactivity across a panel of immunohistochemical stains, including c-Kit, endothelin 1, p16, p21, p53, and Ki-67.
  • Tumor variables were compared among tumor subgroups and between tumors that did and did not recur.
  • RESULTS: Of the 30 PTs, 4 recurred (1 benign, 2 borderline, 1 malignant).
  • One patient with a malignant tumor died of metastatic disease 34 months after initial diagnosis.
  • The overall positive rate of c-Kit immunoreactivity was 13% in benign, 63% in borderline, and 67% in malignant PTs.
  • Endothelin 1 epithelial cytoplasmic staining was seen in 100% of benign, 50% of borderline, and 17% of malignant PTs.
  • Additionally, p16, p21, p53, and Ki-67 were differentially expressed among benign, borderline, and malignant tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stromal c-Kit positivity and epithelial endothelin 1 negativity are more often associated with malignant PTs; however, only positive margin status is significantly associated with tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease Progression. Endothelin-1 / metabolism. Epithelium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Staining and Labeling. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17090194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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19. Hirose M, Hashizume T, Seino N, Kubota H, Nobusawa H, Gokan T: Atlas of breast magnetic resonance imaging. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2007 Mar-Apr;36(2):51-65
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast has become important not only for assessing the extent of breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery but also for the evaluation and diagnosis of other benign and malignant pathologies.
  • We will illustrate the MRI features of various breast pathologies including malignant tumors such as invasive and noninvasive ductal carcinoma, special types of invasive carcinoma (mucinous, apocrine, lobular carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and so on), inflammatory carcinoma, semimalignant tumor (phyllodes tumor), benign tumors (fibroadenoma, intraductal and intracystic papilloma), inflammatory conditions, and postsurgical changes.

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  • (PMID = 17331837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-0188
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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20. Grenier J, Delbaldo C, Zelek L, Piedbois P: [Phyllodes tumors and breast sarcomas: a review]. Bull Cancer; 2010 Oct;97(10):1197-207
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumors and breast sarcomas: a review].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs phyllodes et sarcomes du sein: mise au point.
  • Phyllodes tumors and sarcomas of the breast are non-epithelial tumors of the breast.
  • Phyllodes tumors are benign tumors, tumors of intermediate malignancy or malignant tumors.
  • The differential diagnosis with a very proliferant fibroadenoma may be difficult.
  • Radiotherapy is recommended in case of high-grade tumor and after conservativetreatment.
  • Grade, involved margins and sometimes tumor necrosis are major prognostics factors.
  • In some situations, a conservative treatment can be discussed, based on tumor size, grade and volume of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / secondary. Hemangiosarcoma / therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20855241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
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21. Yamamoto H, Okumura K, Toshima S, Mukaisho K, Sugihara H, Hattori T, Kato M, Asano S: FXYD3 protein involved in tumor cell proliferation is overproduced in human breast cancer tissues. Biol Pharm Bull; 2009 Jul;32(7):1148-54
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  • [Title] FXYD3 protein involved in tumor cell proliferation is overproduced in human breast cancer tissues.
  • FXYD3, also known as Mat-8 (Mammary tumor 8 kDa), is one of mRNAs highly expressed in mouse and human breast cancers.
  • Here, we newly found that FXYD3 protein was also overexpressed in human breast cancer specimens; invasive ductal carcinomas and intra-ductal carcinomas, whereas its expression was low in benign lesion specimens; mastopathy, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Amino Acid Sequence. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Alignment. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19571376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-6158
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FXYD3 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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22. Kazakov DV, Spagnolo DV, Stewart CJ, Thompson J, Agaimy A, Magro G, Bisceglia M, Vazmitel M, Kacerovska D, Kutzner H, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors of anogenital mammary-like glands: a series of 13 neoplasms in 12 cases, including mammary-type juvenile fibroadenoma, fibroadenoma with lactation changes, and neurofibromatosis-associated pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with multinucleated giant cells. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jan;34(1):95-103
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  • [Title] Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors of anogenital mammary-like glands: a series of 13 neoplasms in 12 cases, including mammary-type juvenile fibroadenoma, fibroadenoma with lactation changes, and neurofibromatosis-associated pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with multinucleated giant cells.
  • Microscopically, 8 lesions were classified as fibroadenoma, and 5, including 1 recurrent tumor, as phyllodes tumor, of which 1 was benign and 4 low-grade malignant.
  • In addition to conventional findings, we describe several hitherto unreported features including juvenile fibroadenoma-like proliferation, fibroadenoma with lactation change, and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with multinucleated stromal giant cells in a patient with neurofibromatosis, type 1 all constituting potential diagnostic pitfalls, which are best averted by using the same approach to diagnosis as for their analogous mammary counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology


23. Tan PH, Jayabaskar T, Chuah KL, Lee HY, Tan Y, Hilmy M, Hung H, Selvarajan S, Bay BH: Phyllodes tumors of the breast: the role of pathologic parameters. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Apr;123(4):529-40
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast: the role of pathologic parameters.
  • We aimed to establish whether morphologic parameters were prognostically important in a large series of breast phyllodes tumors in Asian women.
  • Of 335 phyllodes tumors diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, between January 1992 and December 2002, 250 (74.6%) were benign, 54 (16.1%) borderline, and 31 (9.3%) malignant, based on histologic review of archival slides.
  • The 7 women who died of disease during follow-up had malignant phyllodes tumor at the outset and experienced recurrences, and death was preceded by distant metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aged. Asia. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15743740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Rodríguez Ogando A, Fernández López T, Rodríguez Castaño MJ, Mata Fernández C, Alvarez Bernardi J, Cebollero Presmanes M: Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a case report in a 12-year-old girl. Clin Transl Oncol; 2010 Oct;12(10):704-6
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  • [Title] Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a case report in a 12-year-old girl.
  • Breast tumors in adolescents are very rare and mostly benign.
  • Fibroadenomas are the most frequent, but within the extensive differential diagnosis, the phyllodes tumor must be mentioned, which accounts for about 1% of breast tumors and the diagnosis of which is very rare in patients younger than 20 years.
  • There are no specific symptoms or radiological images to distinguish phyllodes tumor from fibroadenoma; therefore, histological examination is mandatory for diagnosis.
  • Histology also allows the classification of phyllodes tumor into benign, borderline, or malignant types for appropriate surgical treatment: freemargin excision in benign tumors and mastectomy in the other two types.
  • Fortunately, the majority of these tumors are benign, and treatment maximizes breast conservation with free infiltration margins surgery, given that this fact is the most important factor to prevent local recurrence.
  • In this article, we describe a rare case of borderline cystosarcoma phyllodes in a 12-year-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20947486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
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25. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Horvath L, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: Proteins from the Wnt pathway are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of mammary phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2009 Nov;62(11):1016-20
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  • [Title] Proteins from the Wnt pathway are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: The Wnt pathway is important in cell signalling transduction and is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple tumour types.
  • A comprehensive analysis of the expression of Wnt signalling pathway proteins in mammary phyllodes tumours (PTs) has not been previously performed.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Wnt pathway proteins in a cohort of PTs, to determine their role in tumour pathogenesis and to identify any associations with patient outcome.
  • METHODS: 65 PTs (34 benign, 23 borderline and 8 malignant) diagnosed at a single institution between 1990 and 2006 were analysed.
  • Epithelial membranous and stromal nuclear beta-catenin, epithelial cytoplasmic Wnt1 and epithelial E-cadherin all also showed increasing expression with increasing tumour grade, however, the differences were not significant.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cadherins / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Survival Analysis. Tissue Array Analysis / methods. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19861560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / SFRP4 protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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26. Yamaguchi R, Tanaka M, Kishimoto Y, Ohkuma K, Ishida M, Kojiro M: Ductal carcinoma in situ arising in a benign phyllodes tumor: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(1):42-5
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  • [Title] Ductal carcinoma in situ arising in a benign phyllodes tumor: report of a case.
  • Malignant epithelial change within a phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare event.
  • The epithelial element consisted of irregularly dilated ducts with a phyllodes structure that had moderate to severe epithelial hyperplasia, and foci of cribriform ductal carcinoma in situ with comedo necrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18085361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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27. Basu S, Saxena V, Sharma CL, Kumar M: Image of the month. Phyllodes tumor (benign). Arch Surg; 2008 Feb;143(2):207-8
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  • [Title] Image of the month. Phyllodes tumor (benign).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology


28. Korula A, Varghese J, Thomas M, Vyas F, Korula A: Malignant phyllodes tumour with intraductal and invasive carcinoma and lymph node metastasis. Singapore Med J; 2008 Nov;49(11):e318-21
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  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumour with intraductal and invasive carcinoma and lymph node metastasis.
  • Phyllodes tumours constitute 2-3 percent of fibroepithelial breast tumours, with a 1-2 percent rate of malignancy.
  • Carcinoma in a phyllodes tumour is distinctly uncommon, but has been known to occur in benign phyllodes tumours.
  • We describe a 51-year-old woman with a malignant phyllodes tumour with foci of intraductal carcinoma within the tumour and adjacent breast tissue.
  • Though the carcinoma was found to be invasive based on the presence of carcinomatous lymph node metastasis, extensive sampling did not yield an invasive component within the breast, probably because of the marked stromal overgrowth of the phyllodes.
  • A malignant phyllodes tumour with foci of intraductal carcinoma and axillary lymph node metastases was diagnosed rather than carcinosarcoma.
  • Coexistence of phyllodes tumour and carcinoma is rare, and extensive sampling may be necessary to find the foci of carcinoma within an extensive and obviously malignant stromal overgrowth.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / pathology. Breast / surgery. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19037540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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29. Ozumba BC, Nzegwu MA, Anyikam A, Okoye I, Okafor OC: Breast disease in children and adolescents in eastern Nigeria--a five-year study. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Jun;22(3):169-72
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  • (1) To define the spectrum of breast diseases in the children and adolescents in Eastern Nigeria. (2) To provide where possible, an international comparison of statistical variations of both benign and malignant lesions in these age groups.
  • The number of phyllodes tumors seen in the child and adolescent population was compared to those seen in the adult population at the same period.
  • On the average most patients with benign breast lesions presented within 3-5 months of their symptoms, which usually was a palpable lump detected in all cases by either the child or the mother.
  • Those with phyllodes presented typically within 3 months probably because of the faster rate of growth.
  • Phyllodes tumor in this age group constitute 28.6% of all phyllodes seen in this period and were all benign.
  • CONCLUSION: Fibro adenoma, fibrocystic breast disease, and low grade phyllodes tumor were the most common breast lesions seen in our children and adolescent population.
  • Phyllodes tumors were typically larger in size and tended to present earlier.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nigeria / epidemiology. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19539203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Resetkova E, Khazai L, Albarracin CT, Arribas E: Clinical and radiologic data and core needle biopsy findings should dictate management of cellular fibroepithelial tumors of the breast. Breast J; 2010 Nov-Dec;16(6):573-80
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  • Fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma identified on core needle biopsy (CNB) may prove to be either fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor at excision; therefore, management of these rare lesions is highly controversial.
  • Cellular fibroepithelial lesions with indeterminate or suspect imaging findings, with larger size, and with an equivocal comment such as "cannot rule out phyllodes tumor" in the pathology report were excised more frequently (p = 0.05, p = 0.034, and p = 0.01, respectively).
  • Of 43 excised lesions, 13 were classified as benign phyllodes tumors, 23 as fibroadenoma and seven as benign cellular fibroepithelial lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Mammography. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 21070433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Tse GM, Chaiwun B, Lau KM, Scolyer R, Lee CS, Karim RZ, Putti TC, Law BK, Lui PC, Tan PH: Endothelin-1 expression correlates with atypical histological features in mammary phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Sep;60(9):1051-6
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  • [Title] Endothelin-1 expression correlates with atypical histological features in mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endothelin-1 expression is increased in infiltrating duct carcinoma and is associated with larger tumour size, higher histological grade and lymphovascular permeation.
  • This has not been evaluated in phyllodes tumours, which are uncommon fibroepithelial lesions with potential for local recurrences or distant metastasis.
  • While the grading of phyllodes tumours depends on a combination of histological parameters, prediction of their behaviour remains difficult.
  • METHOD: A large series of 461 phyllodes tumours (291 benign, 115 borderline malignant and 55 frankly malignant) were evaluated for endothelin-1 expression in both the epithelial cells and stromal cells by immunohistochemistry; results were correlated with the tumour grade.
  • RESULTS: For benign phyllodes tumours, the epithelial staining of endothelin was negative, weak, moderate and strong in 6%, 26%, 15% and 53% of cases respectively; results were 4%, 18%, 19% and 59% respectively for borderline and 6%, 18%, 6% and 70% respectively for frankly malignant tumours.
  • For the stromal staining, the negative, weak, moderate and strong staining was 32%, 19%, 18% and 31% respectively for benign phyllodes, 24%, 13%, 10% and 53% respectively for borderline and 8%, 16%, 17% and 59% respectively for frankly malignant tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: These observations suggest a close relationship between the epithelial and stromal elements in phyllodes tumours; endothelin may play a significant role in the malignant progression of phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Endothelin-1 / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17158636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1972415
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33. Kang Y, Kim JH, Lee TH, Kim TS, Jung WH, Chung HC, Park BW, Sheen SS, Han JH: Expression of anaphase-promoting complex7 in fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors of breast. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jan;40(1):98-107
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  • [Title] Expression of anaphase-promoting complex7 in fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors of breast.
  • The average values of the anaphase-promoting complex7 and Ki-67 labeling indices increased in order from benign to malignant within the phyllodes tumor group, and the fibroadenoma and juvenile fibroadenoma exhibited lower levels of anaphase-promoting complex7 and Ki-67 expression than did the phyllodes tumor.
  • The frequency of anaphase-promoting complex7-positive stromal cells correlated with Ki-67 expression in phyllodes tumor and in all of the examined breast tumors.
  • In addition, phyllodes tumor can be differentiated from juvenile fibroadenoma with increased mitotic figures mimicking phyllodes tumor by anaphase-promoting complex7 and Ki-67 immunochemistry.
  • Because anaphase-promoting complex7 is expressed at higher levels than is Ki-67, it may overcome the limitations of the Ki-67 labeling index with regard to the differentiation of benign phyllodes tumor from fibroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18789487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 6.3.2.19 / Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes
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34. Kelly RJ, Barrett C, Swan N, McDermott R: Metastatic phyllodes tumor causing small-bowel obstruction. Clin Breast Cancer; 2009 Aug;9(3):193-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic phyllodes tumor causing small-bowel obstruction.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes is an important but relatively uncommon fibroepithelial breast neoplasm that accounts for 0.5%-1.0% of female breast carcinomas.
  • This report highlights a unique case of a metastatic phyllodes breast tumor leading to small bowel obstruction.
  • Phyllodes tumors are generally classified into histologic subtypes of benign, intermediate, and malignant, using agreed classification systems.
  • The tumor characteristics that can lead to the dedifferentiation of a relatively benign phenotype to an overt malignant process are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Ileal Neoplasms / secondary. Intestinal Obstruction / etiology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 19661046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0666
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical breast cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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35. Yohe S, Yeh IT: "Missed" diagnoses of phyllodes tumor on breast biopsy: pathologic clues to its recognition. Int J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;16(2):137-42
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  • [Title] "Missed" diagnoses of phyllodes tumor on breast biopsy: pathologic clues to its recognition.
  • Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors of the breast exhibit a continuum of pathologic features.
  • We examined phyllodes tumors initially called fibroadenoma for features that may accurately classify the tumor as phyllodes tumor on the first biopsy specimen.
  • The phyllodes tumors initially called fibroadenoma for features that may accurately classify the tumor as phyllodes tumors on the first biopsy specimen are examined.
  • Fifteen patients with phyllodes tumors were studied, initially called FA or another term short of PT.
  • Resected phyllodes tumors were larger on average than fibroadenoma, 6.8 cm (range = 1.7-16.2 cm) versus 2.6 cm (range = 1.0-4.8 cm).
  • Ki-67 showed higher proliferation indices in phyllodes tumors versus fibroadenoma (4.8% vs 0.6%).
  • Features suggesting phyllodes tumors include tissue fragmentation, increased stromal cellularity especially around glands, stromal overgrowth, and increased mitoses.
  • Increased sampling of a large tumor will likely yield more correct diagnoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18417670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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36. Jayaram G, Jayalakshmi P, Yip CH: Leiomyosarcoma of the breast: report of a case with fine needle aspiration cytologic, histologic and immunohistochemical features. Acta Cytol; 2005 Nov-Dec;49(6):656-60
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  • BACKGROUND: Leiomyosarcoma of the breast is a rare neoplasm.
  • On examination, an ulcerating, 12 x 10 cm tumor was seen involving the lower medial and lateral quadrants of the right breast.
  • A single cluster of benign ductal cells was seen.
  • The tumor cells did not express immunocytologic reactivity to estrogen receptor protein.
  • A cytologic diagnosis of sarcoma was given with differential diagnoses of metaplastic carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • Leiomyosarcoma of the breast shows fine needle aspiration cytologic features of sarcoma, but specific tumor typing may not be possible, especially when the cytologic material is inadequate for ancillary staining required to distinguish leiomyosarcoma from metaplastic carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [CommentIn] Diagn Cytopathol. 2007 Apr;35(4):254-6 [17351941.001]
  • (PMID = 16450908.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Huang KT, Dobrovic A, Yan M, Karim RZ, Lee CS, Lakhani SR, Fox SB: DNA methylation profiling of phyllodes and fibroadenoma tumours of the breast. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Nov;124(2):555-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] DNA methylation profiling of phyllodes and fibroadenoma tumours of the breast.
  • Phyllodes tumours and cellular fibroadenomas are both fibroepithelial tumours of the breast.
  • Phyllodes tumours, unlike fibroadenomas, have the ability to recur and metastasise.
  • We sought to evaluate whether DNA promoter methylation profiling using selected genes known to be methylated in cancer would allow us to learn more about the biology of these tumours, and whether it could identify methylation markers that could differentiate phyllodes tumours from fibroadenomas and/or distinguish phyllodes tumours of different grades.
  • Methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) was used to screen promoter DNA methylation changes in 86 phyllodes tumours (15 benign, 28 borderline, 43 malignant) and 26 fibroadenomas.
  • Five of the gene promoters showed some methylation in a proportion of phyllodes tumours; RASSF1A, 45.3%; TWIST1, 10.7%; APC, 4.1%; WIF1, 2.9% and MGMT, 1.3%.
  • No CDKN2A methylation was observed in either tumour type, contrary to previous reports.
  • However, significant levels of methylation of RASSF1A (24.4%) and TWIST1 (7.1%) was observed in some phyllodes tumours.
  • Elevated RASSF1A and/or TWIST1 methylation was significantly associated with phyllodes tumours compared with fibroadenomas (P = 0.02), TWIST1 methylation correlated with increasing malignancy in phyllodes tumours (P < 0.001).
  • In conclusion, assessment of methylation of RASSF1A and TWIST1 may aid in the diagnosis of phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Genetic Markers. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Australia. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Middle Aged. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Twist Transcription Factor / genetics. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20563638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / TWIST1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Twist Transcription Factor
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38. Orea-Estudillo D, Jaimes-López L, Bernal-Cano J: [Phyllodes tumor in a pediatric patient. Case report and literature review]. Cir Cir; 2008 Mar-Apr;76(2):165-8
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumor in a pediatric patient. Case report and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor phyllodes en un paciente pediátrico. Informe de un caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumors occur with a frequency of 0.3- 0.9% and are rare in young women.
  • We present a phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old female and we reviewed the literature regarding this pathology.
  • CASE REPORT: We present the case of an 11-year-old female with a diagnosis of phyllodes tumor.
  • Histological report demonstrated benign phyllodes tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Small phyllodes tumors can be excised with a 1-cm surgical border, whereas larger phyllodes tumors are treated with simple mastectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor

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  • (PMID = 18492439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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39. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a clinicopathological analysis of 65 cases from a single institution. Breast; 2009 Jun;18(3):165-70
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a clinicopathological analysis of 65 cases from a single institution.
  • The aim of this study was to document the clinical and pathological features of a large single institutional series of ethnically diverse patients with phyllodes tumours (PTs), and to determine which characteristics were predictive of outcome.
  • Sixty five PTs were analysed; 34 were benign, 23 borderline and eight malignant (34 low grade and 31 high grade PTs on a two tiered grading system).
  • The mean age at diagnosis significantly increased with tumour grade.
  • The mean tumour volume also significantly increased with grade.
  • Tumour grade was the only parameter related significantly to outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Mastectomy / statistics & numerical data. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / statistics & numerical data. New South Wales / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 19329316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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40. Tan EY, Tan PH, Yong WS, Wong HB, Ho GH, Yeo AW, Wong CY: Recurrent phyllodes tumours of the breast: pathological features and clinical implications. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Jun;76(6):476-80
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  • [Title] Recurrent phyllodes tumours of the breast: pathological features and clinical implications.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumours (PT) of the breast are fibro-epithelial neoplasms that are known to recur locally in up to 19% of patients.
  • It is still debatable as to whether it is necessary to subject the patient to repeat surgery to obtain pathologically negative margins after a diagnosis of a benign or borderline PT is made.
  • Although the majority of recurrences are histologically similar to the initial tumour, a malignant recurrence is possible.
  • Comparisons were made between those with benign, borderline and malignant tumours, as well as between those who developed a malignant recurrence and those who did not.
  • RESULTS: The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 39.6 +/- 7.4 years and the mean tumour size was 6.0 +/- 5.1 cm.
  • A total of 22 patients were classified as having benign tumour, 9 as having borderline tumour and 6 as having malignant tumour.
  • Tumour grade did not influence the tumour size, the adequacy of surgical margins or the time interval to local recurrence or the number of recurrences.
  • The majority of recurrent tumours were histologically similar to the initial tumour; however, seven patients (19%) developed a malignant recurrence from an initially benign or borderline tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It may be acceptable to use an expectant management towards benign and borderline tumours that are excised without adequate surgical margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] ANZ J Surg. 2006 Oct;76(10):956. Hoon, Tan Puay [corrected to Tan, Puay Hoon]; Hui, Ho G [corrected to Ho, Gay Hui]
  • (PMID = 16768772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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41. Sapino A, Bosco M, Cassoni P, Castellano I, Arisio R, Cserni G, Dei Tos AP, Fortunati N, Catalano MG, Bussolati G: Estrogen receptor-beta is expressed in stromal cells of fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors of the breast. Mod Pathol; 2006 Apr;19(4):599-606
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  • [Title] Estrogen receptor-beta is expressed in stromal cells of fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • In this study, the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and -beta was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 33 fibroadenomas and in 30 benign, three borderline and seven malignant phyllodes tumors, all with spindle cell growth and in one distant metastasis.
  • ER-beta was the only hormone receptor expressed by stroma of fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, both at protein and mRNA level.
  • The highest percentage of ER-beta was observed in fibroadenomas with cellular stroma and in phyllodes tumors.
  • In contrast, in phyllodes tumors, ER-beta expression was higher in older patients.
  • In conclusion, (i) only ER-beta is detected in the stroma of fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors;.
  • Conversely, the older age of patients with ER-beta-rich phyllodes tumors suggests that mechanisms, probably independent from estrogen stimulation, act on the growth of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Estrogen Receptor beta / genetics. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Calcium-Binding Proteins / analysis. Cell Line, Tumor. Estrogen Receptor alpha / analysis. Estrogen Receptor alpha / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microfilament Proteins / analysis. Middle Aged. Muscle, Smooth / chemistry. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16554735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / calponin
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42. Iyengar P, Cody HS 3rd, Brogi E: Pleomorphic adenoma of the breast: case report and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Dec;33(6):416-20
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  • Pleomorphic adenoma of the breast (PAB) is a very rare neoplasm.
  • On cytologic material, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor should also be considered within the differential diagnosis.
  • Correct identification of this benign mammary neoplasm is important to avoid unnecessarily aggressive treatment.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 16299746.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Kuo YJ, Ho DM, Tsai YF, Hsu CY: Invasive ductal carcinoma arising in phyllodes tumor with isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph node. J Chin Med Assoc; 2010 Nov;73(11):602-4
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  • [Title] Invasive ductal carcinoma arising in phyllodes tumor with isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph node.
  • Phyllodes tumor (PT) consists of stroma of variable grading and benign ductal epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21093830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-7731
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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44. Fang Y, Gao JD, Tian YT, Xie YQ, Zhen S: [Analysis of the treatment and prognosis of recurrent breast phyllodes tumor]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Jan;31(1):72-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Analysis of the treatment and prognosis of recurrent breast phyllodes tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the methods of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for patients with recurrent breast phyllodes tumor.
  • METHODS: Clinicopathological data of 26 patients with pathologically proven recurrent phyllodes tumors treated from March 1972 to June 2006 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • The primary breast phyllodes tumor was > or = 5 cm in 10 cases with a recurrence rate of 60.0% (6/10 cases); < 5 cm in 16 cases with a recurrence rate of 31.3% 5/16 cases).
  • After surgical removal of the breast primary tumor, the recurrent tumor was > or = 5 cm in 14 cases with a re-recurrence rate of 35.7% (5/14 cases); < 5 cm was in 12 cases with are-recurrence rate of 50.0% (6/12 cases).
  • There was no statistically significant relationship between the (primary and reccurent) tumor size and recurrence rate (P = 0.094, P = 0.383) or prognosis (P = 0.142, P = 0.486).
  • The benign or malignant nature of the breast phyllodes tumor was significantly correlated with the rate of local re-recurrence (P = 0.046) and prognosis (P = 0.028).
  • CONCLUSION: The benign or malignant nature of the breast phyllodes tumor is significantly correlated with the local re-recurrence and prognosis, while the size of the primary breast phyllodes tumor has no significant effect on either re-recrruence or prognosis.
  • The first rescue operation is most important in the treatment of recurrent breast phyllodes tumor.
  • Active surgical treatment can still effectively save the life of the patients with a local re-recurrent tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19538877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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45. Buch A, Rout P, Makhija P: Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Apr;49(2):259-61
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  • [Title] Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump.
  • An unusual combination of two benign breast neoplasms adenomyoepithelioma and phyllodes tumor presenting as a solitary breast lump have been described.
  • This patient also presented with a recurrent breast neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2006 Jul;49(3):476
  • (PMID = 16933731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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46. Chung EM, Cube R, Hall GJ, González C, Stocker JT, Glassman LM: From the archives of the AFIP: breast masses in children and adolescents: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2009 May-Jun;29(3):907-31
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  • The spectrum of breast lesions in children and adolescents varies markedly from that for adults, with the former lesions being overwhelmingly benign.
  • After onset of puberty, most cases of breast enlargement arise from benign fibroadenoma in girls and gynecomastia in boys.
  • These conditions have specific imaging appearances, although juvenile (often giant) fibroadenoma cannot be distinguished from phyllodes tumor, which can be benign or malignant.
  • A diagnosis of juvenile papillomatosis (a benign lesion) portends later development of breast cancer, and patients with this condition should be closely monitored.
  • The most common primary breast malignancy is malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • Primary breast carcinoma is exceedingly rare in the pediatric age group, but its imaging appearance in children is the same as seen in adults and is different from that of almost all benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast / abnormalities. Breast / anatomy & histology. Breast / growth & development. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiography. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / ultrasonography. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / radiography. Granular Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / radiography. Gynecomastia / pathology. Gynecomastia / radiography. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Nipples / abnormalities. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / radiography. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / radiography. Puberty. Puberty, Precocious / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19448124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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47. Barrio AV, Clark BD, Goldberg JI, Hoque LW, Bernik SF, Flynn LW, Susnik B, Giri D, Polo K, Patil S, Van Zee KJ: Clinicopathologic features and long-term outcomes of 293 phyllodes tumors of the breast. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2961-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features and long-term outcomes of 293 phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumors (PT) are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast with unpredictable behavior.
  • RESULTS: All cases occurred in women, with a median age of 42, with 203 originally categorized as benign and 90 as malignant.
  • These patients constituted 71% of the seven patients who had uniformly aggressive pathologic features, including large tumor size (>or=7.0 cm), infiltrative borders, marked stromal overgrowth, marked stromal cellularity, high mitotic count, and necrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Cell Division / physiology. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitosis / physiology. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17562113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Morgan JM, Douglas-Jones AG, Gupta SK: Analysis of histological features in needle core biopsy of breast useful in preoperative distinction between fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumour. Histopathology; 2010 Mar;56(4):489-500
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  • [Title] Analysis of histological features in needle core biopsy of breast useful in preoperative distinction between fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumour.
  • Despite the greater yield of material with spatial information, the distinction between fibroepithelial lesions of the breast, fibroadenoma (FA) and benign phyllodes tumour (PT), remains problematic.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20459556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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49. Lenhard MS, Kahlert S, Himsl I, Ditsch N, Untch M, Bauerfeind I: Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinical follow-up of 33 cases of this rare disease. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Jun;138(2):217-21
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinical follow-up of 33 cases of this rare disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: The "cystosarcoma phyllodes" of the breast is a rare entity which accounts for 0.5% of all breast neoplasms.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The data of 5270 patients with primary breast neoplasms treated in our department between 1984 and 2005 were retrospectively analysed for the histopathologic diagnosis of a cystosarcoma phyllodes.
  • The clinical data was analysed with respect to tumour grading and size, treatment and prognosis.
  • In the histopathological analysis, tumour grade was classified as benign in 40%, borderline in 27% and malignant in 33% of patients.
  • Mean tumour size was 6.9 cm, and no lymph node infiltration was found in the 10 patients who received axillary lymph node dissection.
  • The local recurrence rate was 50% in malignant, 20% in borderline and only 8% in benign tumours.
  • Distant metastases were seen in three patients (9%) with malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • Neither regarding age at primary diagnosis nor in tumour size there was a significant difference between patients with local recurrence or metastatic spread and those without (p=0.284 tumour size; p=0.739 for age; Mann-Whitney U-test).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Rare Diseases. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17868973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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50. Abdalla HM, Sakr MA: Predictive factors of local recurrence and survival following primary surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors of the breast. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2006 Jun;18(2):125-33
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  • [Title] Predictive factors of local recurrence and survival following primary surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The phyllodes tumor is characterized by its tendency to recur locally and occasionally to metastasize.
  • Local recurrence and death from metastases are occasional, but consistent, theme in reports of patients with phyllodes tumors (PTs).
  • The aim of this study was to determine parameters that influence outcome in this uncommon neoplasm.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 79 patients with phyllodes tumors were reviewed retrospectively, reclassifying the pathological material using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria.
  • The tumor size ranged from 2.5 to 24 cm, with a median of 11 cm.
  • Based on the criteria proposed by WHO, 31 cases were benign tumors (39.2%), 27 borderline tumors (34.2%), and 21 malignant tumors (26.6%).
  • Following local excision, the local recurrence rates were 14.3%, 50%, and 75% in patients with benign, borderline, and malignant tumors; respectively, while after wide local excision the local recurrence rates were 0%, 36.3% and 40%; respectively.
  • Whereas, 0%, 8.3%, and 8.3% of patients with benign, borderline and malignant tumors; respectively, locally recurred after mastectomy.
  • Distant metastases developed in 3.2%, 11.1%, and in 28.6% of patients with benign, borderline and malignant tumors; respectively.
  • The 5-year survival with no evidence of disease was 90% for the patients with benign tumors compared to 69% for borderline and 61% for malignant PTs (p= 0.02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The histotype of phyllodes tumors and resection margins were the principal determinants of local recurrence and distant metastases.
  • Complete surgical excision by either wide local excision or mastectomy if necessary is important in the primary surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17496937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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51. Tse GM, Niu Y, Shi HJ: Phyllodes tumor of the breast: an update. Breast Cancer; 2010;17(1):29-34
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast: an update.
  • Phyllodes tumor is an uncommon biphasic breast tumor, with the ability to recur and metastasize, and it behaves biologically like a stromal neoplasm.
  • Traditionally, phyllodes tumors are graded by the use of a set of histologic data into benign, borderline, and malignant.
  • In most series, all phyllodes tumors may recur, but only the borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors metastasize.
  • The expression of many biological markers, including p53, hormone receptors, proliferation markers, angiogenesis group of markers, c-kit, CD10 and epidermal growth factor receptor have been explored, and many have been shown to be variably expressed, depending on the grade of the tumor.
  • These markers are, however, of limited value in predicting the behavior of the tumor.
  • Recently investigators have reported a plethora of genetic changes in phyllodes tumors, the most consistent of which seems to be 1q gain by comparative genomic hybridization.
  • It is foreseeable that more exciting data will be generated to help us to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis


53. Chen WH, Cheng SP, Tzen CY, Yang TL, Jeng KS, Liu CL, Liu TP: Surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors of the breast: retrospective review of 172 cases. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Sep 1;91(3):185-94
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors of the breast: retrospective review of 172 cases.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Phyllodes tumors (PTs) are uncommon biphasic breast tumors that usually occur in adult females.
  • They are composed of a benign epithelial component and a cellular, spindle cell stroma forming a leaf-like structure.
  • No one morphologic finding is reliable in predicting the clinical behavior of the tumor.
  • Clinical data analyzed included age, presenting symptoms and signs, tumor size, location, type of surgery, time to recurrence, and metastasis.
  • The pathologic diagnoses included 131 benign, 12 borderline, and 29 malignant lesions.
  • The initial diagnosis of all 19 recurrent tumors were benign.
  • Stromal cellularity, stromal overgrowth, stromal atypia, mitotic activity, tumor margin, and heterologous stromal elements were significantly correlated with metastases (P = 0.032, 0.00008, 0.000002, 0.004, 0.005, and 0.046, respectively).
  • Fifteen patients in our series had tumors with infiltrating tumor margin, severe stromal overgrowth, atypia, and cellularity.
  • Patients have tumors with infiltrating tumor margin, severe stromal overgrowth, atypia, and cellularity are at high risk for metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Taiwan / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16118768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Sorelli PG, Thomas D, Moore A, Khan M, Hoque H: Malignant phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old premenarchal girl. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Feb;45(2):e17-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old premenarchal girl.
  • Phyllodes tumor is uncommon in children, and the malignant form is rare.
  • There have only been a few cases of benign phyllodes tumor reported in peripubertal children and only one malignant case.
  • We report the second case of malignant phyllodes tumor in a premenarchal 11-year-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Menarche. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20152333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Jones AM, Mitter R, Springall R, Graham T, Winter E, Gillett C, Hanby AM, Tomlinson IP, Sawyer EJ, Phyllodes Tumour Consortium: A comprehensive genetic profile of phyllodes tumours of the breast detects important mutations, intra-tumoral genetic heterogeneity and new genetic changes on recurrence. J Pathol; 2008 Apr;214(5):533-44
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  • [Title] A comprehensive genetic profile of phyllodes tumours of the breast detects important mutations, intra-tumoral genetic heterogeneity and new genetic changes on recurrence.
  • The aims of this study were to identify genetic changes associated with malignant progression of the fibroepithelial neoplasms, phyllodes tumours of the breast (PTs), and to ascertain whether genetic progression occurs when PTs recur locally.
  • A further aim was to assess whether the genetic data support the classification of these tumours into three subtypes, benign, borderline and malignant.
  • 126 PTs (37 benign, 41 borderline, 48 malignant) were analysed by either array-CGH or the Illumina Goldengate assay.
  • Cluster analysis of the array-CGH data supported the division of malignant and borderline PTs into two separate groups, one comprising almost all malignant lesions and the other, benign and borderline tumours.
  • Analysis of paired primary and recurrent tumours showed that recurrent tumours often acquired new genetic changes; in particular, benign tumours tended to acquire changes characteristic of the malignant/borderline phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 / genetics. Cluster Analysis. DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Genes, p16. Humans. Mutation. Nucleic Acid Hybridization / methods. RNA, Messenger / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
  • (PMID = 18288784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Investigator] Walker R; Pinder S; Jones L; Ellis I; Tan PH; Macartney J; Green D; Hales S; Harding-Mackean C; Colclough A; MacNeill F; Rowlands D; Smith C; Fentiman I; Cane P; Desai A; Goderya R; Nerurkar A; Kissin M; Jackson P
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56. Bode MK, Rissanen T, Apaja-Sarkkinen M: Ultrasonography and core needle biopsy in the differential diagnosis of fibroadenoma and tumor phyllodes. Acta Radiol; 2007 Sep;48(7):708-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasonography and core needle biopsy in the differential diagnosis of fibroadenoma and tumor phyllodes.
  • BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of phyllodes tumors of the breast is challenging due to many similarities with common fibroadenomas.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of core needle biopsy in diagnosing phyllodes tumors and to analyze the ultrasonographic (US) features of phyllodes tumors and fibroadenomas.
  • Of these, 57 fibroadenomas and 12 phyllodes tumors were removed surgically.
  • The US and needle biopsy results of a total of 64 lesions (52 fibroadenomas and 12 phyllodes tumors) were further analyzed, compared, and correlated with surgical histological results.
  • RESULTS: The median sonographic sizes of the phyllodes tumors and the fibroadenomas were 3.2 cm and 1.6 cm, respectively.
  • At US, 58% of the phyllodes tumors (7/12) were classified as equivocal or suspicious of malignancy and 42% (5/12) as probably benign, while 54% of the fibroadenomas (28/52) were classified as probably benign and 46% (24/52) as equivocal.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of core needle biopsy histology regarding tumor phyllodes were 83%, 92%, 71%, and 96%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Imaging-guided core needle biopsy was accurate in differentiating between fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors.
  • Combined use of US feature analysis and needle biopsy may help to avoid the misinterpretation of phyllodes as fibroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / ultrasonography. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17728999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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57. Fajdić J, Gotovac N, Hrgović Z, Kristek J, Horvat V, Kaufmann M: Phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Onkologie; 2007 Mar;30(3):113-8
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.
  • BACKGROUND: This article compares experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of phyllodes tumors from 2 regional institutions with the relevant literature.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1991 to 2005, 2,848 breast cancer patients were treated in our institutions, 36 (1.44%) for phyllodes tumors.
  • The average tumor size was 5.1 cm (range 1.4-19.6).
  • Wide excision with tumor-free margins was carried out in 29 (80.5%) cases and mastectomy in 7 (19.4%) cases.
  • RESULTS: Histology showed the phyllodes tumors to be benign in 27 (75.0%), malignant in 6 (16.6%), and borderline in 3 (8.3%) cases.
  • In this period, recurrences of 3 (8.3%) malignant and 2 (5.6%) benign phyllodes tumors were diagnosed and treated.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study shows that tumor size, margin infiltration, mitotic activity and degree of cellular atypia are important prognostic factors.
  • Problems in diagnosing this condition arise from its similarity to fibroadenoma.
  • Although wide local excision is usually the treatment of choice, tumor recurrence is common.
  • Axillary lymphadenectomy in malignant phyllodes tumors is, in our opinion, still controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mammography. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17341897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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58. Sakurai K, Enomoto K, Amano S: [Long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2784-5
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  • [Title] [Long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast].
  • We report that the long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast.
  • During ten years, we experienced twenty-eight patients of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • The patients with local recurrence were diagnosed the benign phyllodes tumor of the breast at the first operation.
  • If the pathological diagnosis was benign phyllodes tumor and surgical margin was negative at the first operation, it is necessary to follow up the patients, because there is a risk of local and distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21224712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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59. Taira N, Takabatake D, Aogi K, Ohsumi S, Takashima S, Nishimura R, Teramoto N: Phyllodes tumor of the breast: stromal overgrowth and histological classification are useful prognosis-predictive factors for local recurrence in patients with a positive surgical margin. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2007 Oct;37(10):730-6
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast: stromal overgrowth and histological classification are useful prognosis-predictive factors for local recurrence in patients with a positive surgical margin.
  • BACKGROUND: The local recurrence rate of phyllodes tumors is high and ensuring a sufficient surgical margin is considered important for local control.
  • However, the preoperative diagnosis rate of phyllodes tumors is low and we often encounter cases in which a sufficient surgical margin is not achieved, since in routine medical practice the lesion may not be diagnosed as phyllodes tumor until postoperative biopsy of a mammary mass.
  • Furthermore, there are no established therapeutic guidelines for surgical stump-positive phyllodes tumors.
  • We reviewed the outcomes of excision of phyllodes tumors to investigate factors involved in local recurrence and to determine the indication for re-excision in stump-positive cases.
  • METHODS: The subjects were 45 patients treated for phyllodes tumors at our institution from January 1980 to July 2005.
  • Age, tumor size, surgical method, stromal cellular atypia, mitotic activity, stromal overgrowth, histological classification and surgical stump status were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Median age was 45 years old (range 28-75) and tumor size was 1-17 cm (median 3.5 cm).
  • Pathologic diagnoses were benign, borderline and malignant in 31, five and nine cases, respectively, and the surgical stump was negative in 27 lesions and positive in 15.
  • CONCLUSION: Wide excision is the preferred therapy for phyllodes tumor and preoperative diagnosis is important for good local control.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17932112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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60. Mannan AA, Kahvic M, Aziz AH: Phyllodes tumor of the vulva: Report of a rare case and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jun;32(4):384-6
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the vulva: Report of a rare case and review of the literature.
  • Phyllodes tumor occurring in the vulva is extremely rare; only 6 cases have been previously reported in the literature.
  • The histogenetic origin of this tumor is controversial as it is being debated whether such lesions evolve from ectopic breast tissue, cutaneous apocrine glands, and most recently, anogenital mammary-like gland.
  • Microscopic examination revealed morphologic pattern characteristic of benign phyllodes tumor.
  • We also discuss the histogenesis of phyllodes tumor and related lesions occurring in the anogenital region in light of the current literature along with a brief review of the previously reported cases of vulvar phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20514681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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61. El Hag IA, Aodah A, Kollur SM, Attallah A, Mohamed AA, Al-Hussaini H: Cytological clues in the distinction between phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Feb 25;118(1):33-40
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  • [Title] Cytological clues in the distinction between phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) sensitivity in discriminating between phyllodes tumor and its benign mimicker fibroadenoma (FA) remains low.
  • Because a preoperative categorization of phyllodes tumor is crucial for their appropriate management, the authors undertook this study in an effort to improve the outcome of FNA by identifying reliable distinguishing features.
  • METHODS: FNA smears from 15 and 12 histologically proven cases of phyllodes tumor and FA, respectively, were reviewed.
  • A group of cytological features that may distinguish between phyllodes tumor and FA were identified.
  • Their value and reproducibility in categorizing phyllodes tumor cases were tested.
  • RESULTS: Three major cytological features were exclusively seen in all of, or the vast majority of, the phyllodes tumor cases; fibromyxoid stromal fragments with spindle nuclei (90%), fibroblastic pavements (93%), and appreciable number of spindles cells of fibroblastic nature among dispersed cell population (100%).
  • The identification of these features improved the pick-up rate of phyllodes tumor from 40% to 100% and had substantial (kappa = 0.56-0.73) interobserver and almost perfect (kappa = 0.83) intraobserver reproducibility.
  • There was no significant difference in the epithelial component characteristics between phyllodes tumor and FA.
  • The frequency and degree of atypia in the dispersed cell population correlated well to the histological grade of phyllodes tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FNA has proven to be a reliable test in differentiating between phyllodes tumor and FA with high sensitivity and good reproducibility.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20094997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Kuijper A, de Vos RA, Lagendijk JH, van der Wall E, van Diest PJ: Progressive deregulation of the cell cycle with higher tumor grade in the stroma of breast phyllodes tumors. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 May;123(5):690-8
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  • [Title] Progressive deregulation of the cell cycle with higher tumor grade in the stroma of breast phyllodes tumors.
  • We studied cell cycle-regulating proteins in phyllodes tumor pathogenesis by immunohistochemical analysis for Ki-67, cyclin A, cyclin D1, retinoblastoma protein (pRb), p53, p16INK4A, bcl-2, and p21waf1 in the epithelium and stroma of 40 primary (benign, 21; borderline, 8; malignant, 11) and 7 recurrent tumors of different grades.
  • Stromal overexpression of p16INK4A, p53, cyclin A, pRb, and p21waf1 correlated significantly with tumor grade.
  • Stromal cyclin A expression was the best separating marker between tumor grades.
  • The stromal component of mammary phyllodes tumors displays an increasing level of cell cycle deregulation with higher tumor grade; the epithelial compartment mostly remains inconspicuous.
  • Several combinations of aberrantly expressed cell cycle proteins seem important in the stromal progression of phyllodes tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis


63. Sotheran W, Domjan J, Jeffrey M, Wise MH, Perry PM: Phyllodes tumours of the breast--a retrospective study from 1982-2000 of 50 cases in Portsmouth. Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2005 Sep;87(5):339-44
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumours of the breast--a retrospective study from 1982-2000 of 50 cases in Portsmouth.
  • INTRODUCTION: This study is a retrospective analysis of 50 phyllodes tumours to determine the optimal surgical procedure for these types of tumours.
  • Fifty patients with phyllodes tumours were identified.
  • These comprised 29 benign, 12 borderline and 9 malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • RESULTS: All benign phyllodes tumours were treated with breast-conserving surgery, these included 16 tumours over 40 mm.
  • Malignant and borderline phyllodes tumours had a recurrence rate of 28%.
  • Recurrence occurred in 1/29 benign tumours.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Breast-conserving surgery is the treatment of choice for all benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16176692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1963973
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64. Beier JP, Jaeger K, Horch RE: Reduction mammaplasty for benign phyllodes tumour in an adolescent female--a 13-year follow up. Breast; 2006 Aug;15(4):550-3
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  • [Title] Reduction mammaplasty for benign phyllodes tumour in an adolescent female--a 13-year follow up.
  • Phyllodes tumours are rare neoplasms of the female breast, especially among adolescent women.
  • We present the case of a 17-year old female patient with a large benign phyllodes tumour.
  • Standard plastic surgical techniques like reduction mammaplasty might be applied in treating large benign tumours compromising the aesthetic aspect of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16310356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics
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65. Tea MK, Asseryanis E, Kroiss R, Kubista E, Wagner T: Surgical breast lesions in adolescent females. Pediatr Surg Int; 2009 Jan;25(1):73-5
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  • PURPOSE: Breast diseases in teenage girls are fortunately uncommon, with most presenting masses being benign.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-seven female patients with an average age of 16 years (ranging 12-18 years) were operated on for breast tumor and/or discharge.
  • Both patients were diagnosed with a noninvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) within a fibroadenoma at the age of 16.
  • As breast neoplasm was found in two cases, a malignancy rate of 4.7% was observed.
  • The most common histologies were fibroadenoma (n=27) and fibrocystic disease (n=4).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Austria. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Child. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / surgery. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Mastectomy. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18985359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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66. Udapudi DG, Vasudeva P, Srikantiah R, Virupakshappa E: Massive benign phyllodes tumor. Breast J; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):521
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  • [Title] Massive benign phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16297126.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Djordjevic B, Hanna WM: Expression of c-kit in fibroepithelial lesions of the breast is a mast cell phenomenon. Mod Pathol; 2008 Oct;21(10):1238-45
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  • The expression of c-kit, a protooncogene tyrosine kinase receptor (CD117), in phyllodes tumors of the breast has been the subject of recent investigations.
  • We examined stromal c-kit expression by immunohistochemistry in 68 cases comprising fibroadenomas, fibroadenomas with cellular stroma, and benign, borderline, and malignant phyllodes tumors.
  • One borderline and one malignant phyllodes tumor showed a diffuse weak stromal signal, which could not be accounted for by toluidine blue and tryptase.
  • C-kit, therefore, has neither a diagnostic nor a prognostic role in phyllodes tumors, and there is no rationale for the treatment of recurrent of malignant phyllodes tumor patients with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Mast Cells / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mastectomy. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18500266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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68. Dey D, Nicol A, Singer S: Benign phyllodes tumor of the breast with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies identical to infantile digital fibromatosis. Breast J; 2008 Mar-Apr;14(2):198-9
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  • [Title] Benign phyllodes tumor of the breast with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies identical to infantile digital fibromatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroma / pathology. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology


69. Fleshman RL, Wasman JK, Bodner DG, Young RH, MacLennan GT: Mesodermal adenosarcoma of the testis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Mar;29(3):420-3
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  • Biphasic neoplasms with a benign to atypical epithelial component and a usually low-grade malignant stromal component have been reported in various sites, probably being best known for their occurrence in the uterine corpus (mullerian adenosarcoma).
  • We report a tumor of this type that occurred in the testis of a 76-year-old man and, to our knowledge, is the first mesodermal adenosarcoma reported at this site.
  • A large complex solid-cystic testicular tumor was evident on ultrasound, and examination of a radical orchiectomy specimen showed a 6.5-cm mass.
  • On microscopic examination, the neoplasm had a phyllodes-like appearance with bland cuboidal to flattened epithelium covering polypoid fronds, and lining glands and cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mesodermal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Desmin / metabolism. Humans. Male. Neprilysin / metabolism. Orchiectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15725814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Desmin; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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70. Cserni G, Orosz Z, Kulka J, Sápi Z, Kálmán E, Bori R: Divergences in diagnosing nodular breast lesions of noncarcinomatous nature. Pathol Oncol Res; 2006;12(4):216-21
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  • They may cause classification problems when they are hypocellular or hypercellular; the latter setting may also raise the differential diagnosis of phyllodes tumors.
  • The overall reproducibility of classifying these lesions into categories of fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumor or anything else was moderate (kappa value: 0.48).
  • The lack of a uniform nomenclature was not felt disturbing for hypocellular lesions, but the discordant diagnosis of tumors resembling or representing phyllodes tumors was acknowledged to require intervention, such as more obvious implication of guidelines and quality assurance programs aiming at assessing diagnoses and prognostic parameters.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / pathology. Breast Diseases / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17189984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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71. Chung A, Scharre K, Wilson M: Intraductal fibroadenomatosis: an unusual variant of fibroadenoma. Breast J; 2008 Mar-Apr;14(2):193-5
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  • [Title] Intraductal fibroadenomatosis: an unusual variant of fibroadenoma.
  • We present a case of a benign breast lesion that contains histopathologic characteristics of fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumor, intraductal adenoma and papilloma.
  • This may represent an unusual variant of fibroadenoma that has not been described in the literature and its likelihood of recurrence is unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18248554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Istvanic S, Fischer AH, Banner BF, Eaton DM, Larkin AC, Khan A: Cell blocks of breast FNAs frequently allow diagnosis of invasion or histological classification of proliferative changes. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 May;35(5):263-9
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  • One cystosarcoma phyllodes was suspected based on the cell block sections.
  • Cell blocks from 12 of 14 benign breast FNAs showed sufficient cells to assign a histologic diagnosis of no hyperplasia (1 case, confirmed on follow-up) and usual hyperplasia (11 cases; confirmed in eight of 11 on follow-up).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / classification. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / classification. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Papilloma, Intraductal / classification. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / classification. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17427225.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Dillon MF, Quinn CM, McDermott EW, O'Doherty A, O'Higgins N, Hill AD: Needle core biopsy in the diagnosis of phyllodes neoplasm. Surgery; 2006 Nov;140(5):779-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Needle core biopsy in the diagnosis of phyllodes neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND: Accurate identification of phyllodes neoplasms without surgical intervention is difficult, reducing the ability to manage "benign" lumps non-operatively and impacting on the open benign biopsy rate.
  • Its accuracy in the diagnosis of phyllodes neoplasm has not been established.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-three patients had phyllodes neoplasm on excisional biopsy with prior core biopsy findings as follows: phyllodes neoplasm (n=2), "equivocal" for phyllodes neoplasm (n=12), fibroadenoma (n=3), benign (n=6).
  • The false negative rate for phyllodes neoplasm was therefore 39% (n=9/23).
  • Of the total biopsy series, 35 patients had a core biopsy suggesting the possibility of phyllodes neoplasm.
  • Of these, 32% (n=11) were found to be phyllodes neoplasm on excision, 3% (n=1) phyllodes neoplasm with breast carcinoma, 6% (n=2) breast carcinoma, and 3% (n=1) sarcoma.
  • When a preference for phyllodes neoplasm (n=4) was stated on the equivocal core biopsies, excision correlated with the stated preference; this correlation also occurred in 90% (n=9/10) of core biopsies where fibroadenoma was favored.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Needle core biopsy rarely produces a definite preoperative diagnosis of phyllodes neoplasm.
  • A diagnosis of fibroadenoma or equivocal phyllodes neoplasm on core biopsy should not prevent excision if clinical suspicion remains.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17084721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Trabelsi A, Abdelkrim SB, Hammedi F, Sahraoui W, Abdelkader AB, Sriha B, Mokni M: Synchronous Bilateral Benign Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast in a 32-year-old Woman. World J Oncol; 2010 Feb;1(1):45-46
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  • [Title] Synchronous Bilateral Benign Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast in a 32-year-old Woman.
  • Bilateral phyllodes tumors are distinctly uncommon.
  • We report a new case of bilateral synchronous phyllodes tumor in a 32-year-old women.
  • Both tumors were classified as benign after large bilateral excision.
  • No tumor recurrence was noted during the 10 months follow-up.

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  • [Cites] Isr J Med Sci. 1981 Sep-Oct;17(9-10):895-8 [6273359.001]
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  • (PMID = 29147179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-454X
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast / Phyllodes tumor / Synchronous bilateral tumors
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75. Solberg OG, Blom GP, Stavem K: [A patient with pulmonary metastasis of phyllodes tumour of the breast]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen; 2005 Nov 3;125(21):2956-7
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  • [Title] [A patient with pulmonary metastasis of phyllodes tumour of the breast].
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumours are rare neoplasms of the female breast.
  • Tumours range from the benign to the highly malignant.
  • Based on histological growth pattern, number of mitoses, pleomorphism and stroma characteristics, tumours are classified as malignant, borderline, or benign.
  • After surgical treatment of malignant phyllodes tumours, ten-year survival of 42% is reported.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present the case history of a 59-year-old woman with a pulmonary metastasis from a malignant phyllodes tumour of the breast.
  • RESULTS: The patient presented with a rapidly growing tumour of the right lung.
  • Microscopic examination of the resected specimen showed a metastasis from a malignant sarcomatous tumour.
  • Review of the specimen from a mastectomy 14 months earlier, for what was then considered a benign phyllodes tumour, confirmed a diagnosis of a primary malignant phyllodes tumour with pulmonary metastases.
  • INTERPRETATION: Diagnosis and treatment of phyllodes tumours require close cooperation between the radiologist, the pathologist and the clinician.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary

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  • [CommentIn] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2005 Nov 3;125(21):2958 [16299883.001]
  • (PMID = 16299881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0807-7096
  • [Journal-full-title] Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
  • [Language] nor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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76. Hino N, Nakagawa Y, Ikushima Y, Yoshida M, Tsuyuguchi M: A case of a giant phyllodes tumor of the breast with hypoglycemia caused by high-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor II. Breast Cancer; 2010 Apr;17(2):142-5
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  • [Title] A case of a giant phyllodes tumor of the breast with hypoglycemia caused by high-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor II.
  • Because we suspected that the big IGF-II was produced by the breast tumor and was likely the cause of the hypoglycemia, a mastectomy was performed.
  • A histological examination determined that the mass was a benign phyllodes tumor.
  • We suspected that the patient had non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH), but the behavioral symptoms of the hypoglycemia caused by NICTH were similar to some mental diseases, which made diagnosis based on the behavior alone difficult.
  • We suggest that co-occurrence of symptoms such as recent appearance of mental disease-like behavior, hypoglycemia, and giant breast tumor may help diagnose NICTH caused by big IGF-II.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / etiology


77. Aranda C, Sotelo M, Torres A, Zárate M: [Phyllodes tumor and pregnancy. A report of a case]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2005 Jul;73(7):387-92
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumor and pregnancy. A report of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor phyllodes y embarazo. Reporte de un caso.
  • Phyllodes tumor is a rare breast fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast, predominant in females (0.3 to 0.5%).
  • Phyllodes tumor during pregnancy grows fast and its size is relatively big.
  • These tumors can be classified as benign, malignant or neighboring.
  • A possible phyllodes tumour in the right breast was observed during surgery, weight 9.6 pounds, with partial infiltration to major pectoral muscle.
  • Pathology reported a benign phyllodes tumor in the right breast, with surgical borders free of tumor.
  • Phyllodes tumor is rare and can occur during pregnancy.
  • It is unknown if the tumor is hormone-dependent.
  • The growth of a tumor on a subsequent pregnancy is not necessarily associated with recurrency or with a new disorder on the patient, who has had a complete excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic


78. Yoo JL, Woo OH, Kim YK, Cho KR, Yong HS, Seo BK, Kim A, Kang EY: Can MR Imaging contribute in characterizing well-circumscribed breast carcinomas? Radiographics; 2010 Oct;30(6):1689-702
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  • Most well-circumscribed breast masses are benign lesions such as cysts, fibroadenomas, and intramammary lymph nodes.
  • Nevertheless, 10%-20% of breast malignancies are well-circumscribed masses, and these malignancies include papillary, mucinous, medullary, and metaplastic carcinomas, as well as malignant phyllodes tumors.
  • Therefore, it is important to differentiate these well-circumscribed breast malignancies from benign breast lesions, but it is not easy to do so with conventional imaging modalities such as mammography and ultrasonography (US).
  • Analysis of the lesion signal intensity on nonenhanced T2-weighted MR images, determination of the enhancement pattern, and kinetic curve assessment can greatly help differentiate malignant from benign well-circumscribed breast lesions.
  • Therefore, breast MR imaging can play a substantial role in distinguishing between well-circumscribed benign and malignant breast lesions, especially in cases that are difficult to diagnose by using conventional imaging.
  • In this article, the MR imaging findings of the subtypes of well-circumscribed malignant breast lesions-intracystic papillary carcinoma, invasive papillary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma, and malignant phyllodes tumor-are described and correlated with the histopathologic, mammographic, and US findings.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © RSNA, 2010.
  • [CommentIn] Radiographics. 2010 Oct;30(6):1703-4; discussion 1704 [21117281.001]
  • (PMID = 21071383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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79. Tan PH: 2005 Galloway Memorial Lecture: Breast phyllodes tumours--morphology and beyond. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Dec;34(11):671-7
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  • [Title] 2005 Galloway Memorial Lecture: Breast phyllodes tumours--morphology and beyond.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive role of morphology in a series of breast phyllodes tumours (PTs) in Asian women, and to determine the utility of immunohistochemical expression of p53 and CD117 in the stromal component.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Breast PTs, diagnosed between January 1992 and December 2002 at the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, were classified into benign, borderline and malignant categories.
  • Tumour size ranged from 0.9 to 25 cm (median, 4 cm).
  • Histologic classification revealed 250 (74.6%) benign, 54 (16.1%) borderline and 31 (9.3%) malignant PTs.
  • Though tumour grade was associated with an increased hazard of 1.63, it was not significant (P = 0.28).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16453039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Lectures; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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80. Lien HC, Lu YS, Cheng AL, Chang WC, Jeng YM, Kuo YH, Huang CS, Chang KJ, Yao YT: Differential expression of glucocorticoid receptor in human breast tissues and related neoplasms. J Pathol; 2006 Jul;209(3):317-27
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  • In order to generate a comprehensive expression profile for GR in normal versus neoplastic breast tissues, GR expression was investigated in situ in 400 human breast tissue samples, comprising normal tissue and a range of benign, pre-invasive, and invasive lesions, using immunohistochemical assays.
  • The strong expression of GR in metaplastic carcinomas (94.4%) and malignant phyllodes tumours (92.3%) suggests a pathogenetic role for GR, and implies that targeting GR in these tumours may have potential therapeutic application.
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • (PMID = 16639692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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81. Dubb M, Michelow P, Grayson W: Cytologic features of trichoblastoma in fine needle aspiration biopsies. Acta Cytol; 2009 Nov-Dec;53(6):679-82
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  • On fine needle aspiration, the patient was diagnosed as having a benign skin adnexal tumor.
  • RESULTS: The cytologic features of trichoblastoma resembled a cellular fibroadenoma/phyllodes tumor on aspiration, not previously described in the literature.
  • If the cytomorphology of a skin or subcutaneous aspirate appears to resemble that of a fibroadenoma, the diagnosis of a trichoblastoma should be entertained.
  • If the tumor occurs in the region of the breast, distinction from a fibroadenoma would be difficult if these additional features were not prominent.
  • CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the cytologic features of trichoblastoma will allow correct management of the patient and prevent misdiagnosis as other benign or malignant tumors.

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  • (PMID = 20014558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Tse GM, Tsang AK, Putti TC, Scolyer RA, Lui PC, Law BK, Karim RZ, Lee CS: Stromal CD10 expression in mammary fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;58(2):185-9
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  • [Title] Stromal CD10 expression in mammary fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours.
  • METHODS: Stromal CD10 expression was studied in 181 mammary phyllodes tumours (102 benign, 51 borderline malignant, and 28 frankly malignant) and 33 fibroadenomas using immunohistochemistry, to evaluate whether differences in expression correlated with the degree of malignancy.
  • RESULTS: There was a progressive increase in the patients' age and tumour size, from fibroadenoma to phyllodes tumours with an increasing degree of malignancy (p < 0.001).
  • Stromal CD10 expression was positive in one of 33 fibroadenomas, six of 102 benign phyllodes tumours, 16 of 51 borderline malignant phyllodes tumours, and 14 of 28 frankly malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • Stromal CD10 expression had a high specificity (95%) for differentiating between benign lesions (fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumours) and malignant (borderline and frankly malignant) phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Fibroadenoma / immunology. Neprilysin / immunology. Phyllodes Tumor / immunology. Stromal Cells / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15677540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770579
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83. Belkacémi Y, Bousquet G, Marsiglia H, Ray-Coquard I, Magné N, Malard Y, Lacroix M, Gutierrez C, Senkus E, Christie D, Drumea K, Lagneau E, Kadish SP, Scandolaro L, Azria D, Ozsahin M: Phyllodes tumor of the breast. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Feb 1;70(2):492-500
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast.
  • PURPOSE: To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast.
  • Tumors were benign in 284 cases (64%), borderline in 80 cases (18%), and malignant in 79 cases (18%).
  • Multivariate analysis revealed benign histology, negative margins, and no residual disease (no RD) after initial treatment and RT delivery as independent favorable prognostic factors for local control; benign histology and low number of mitosis for disease-free survival; and pathologic tumor size < or = 3 cm and no tumor necrosis for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that phyllodes tumor patients with no RD after treatment have better local control.
  • Benign tumors have a good prognosis after surgery alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate


84. Cîmpean AM, Raica M, Nariţa D: Diagnostic significance of the immunoexpression of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin in benign and malignant tumors of the breast. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(2):123-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic significance of the immunoexpression of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin in benign and malignant tumors of the breast.
  • PURPOSE: Our aim was to investigate the distribution of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin positive myofibroblasts in the stroma of the normal mammary gland, benign and malignant tumors.
  • RESULTS: We have found normal breast tissue, sclerosing adenosis, fibroadenomas, fibrocystic diseases, phyllodes tumor, DCIS, ductal invasive, lobular, squamous, medullary, mucinous, and papillary carcinomas.
  • All the normal breast tissues and most of benign lesions were positive for CD34 and negative for SMA.
  • The exceptions were represented by a case of fibroadenoma and the phyllodes tumor, with CD34 positivity and a focal acquisition of SMA; fibrocystic disease with associated apocrine metaplasia adjacent to a squamous carcinoma with loss of CD34 expression and focal acquisition of SMA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although there were some exceptions especially when one of the two markers was interpreted separately and in some cases associated with sclerotic stroma, we conclude that the combined expression of CD34 and a-SMA is of potential diagnostic value in the distinction between benign and malignant tumors in some difficult cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / analysis. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Smad Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16286998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Smad Proteins
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