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1. Brouwers FM, Petricoin EF 3rd, Ksinantova L, Breza J, Rajapakse V, Ross S, Johann D, Mannelli M, Shulkin BL, Kvetnansky R, Eisenhofer G, Walther MM, Hitt BA, Conrads TP, Veenstra TD, Mannion DP, Wall MR, Wolfe GM, Fusaro VA, Liotta LA, Pacak K: Low molecular weight proteomic information distinguishes metastatic from benign pheochromocytoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):263-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Low molecular weight proteomic information distinguishes metastatic from benign pheochromocytoma.
  • Metastatic lesions occur in up to 36% of patients with pheochromocytoma.
  • Currently there is no way to reliably detect or predict which patients are at risk for metastatic pheochromocytoma.
  • Thus, the discovery of biomarkers that could distinguish patients with benign disease from those with metastatic disease would be of great clinical value.
  • Using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization protein chips combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry, we tested the hypothesis that pheochromocytoma pathologic states can be reflected as biomarker information within the low molecular weight (LMW) region of the serum proteome.
  • LMW protein profiles were generated from the serum of 67 pheochromocytoma patients from four institutions and analyzed by two different bioinformatics approaches employing pattern recognition algorithms to determine if the LMW component of the circulatory proteome contains potentially useful discriminatory information.
  • Both approaches were able to identify combinations of LMW molecules which could distinguish all metastatic from all benign pheochromocytomas in a separate blinded validation set.
  • In conclusion, for this study set low molecular mass biomarker information correlated with pheochromocytoma pathologic state using blinded validation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Proteome / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15947101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteome
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2. Singh PK, Buch HN: Adrenal incidentaloma: evaluation and management. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Nov;61(11):1168-73
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  • Although most adrenal incidentalomas are non-functioning benign adenomas, their increasing prevalence presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.
  • Adrenalectomy is indicated for phaeochromocytoma, other symptomatic hormone-secreting tumours and those with a high risk of malignancy.
  • The diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma is of paramount importance because of its life-threatening complications.
  • However, the possibility of acquiring autonomous hypersecretion or conversion to malignancy in an incidentaloma diagnosed to be a benign non-functioning lesion is very low, and most patients may be safely discharged after an initial follow-up period of 2 years.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Long-Term Care / methods. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18955573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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3. Cotesta D, Petramala L, Serra V, Pergolini M, Crescenzi E, Zinnamosca L, De Toma G, Ciardi A, Carbone I, Massa R, Filetti S, Letizia C: Clinical experience with pheochromocytoma in a single centre over 16 years. High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev; 2009 Dec;16(4):183-93
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  • [Title] Clinical experience with pheochromocytoma in a single centre over 16 years.
  • BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumours of neuroectodermal origin.
  • Pheochromocytoma occurs in 0.1-2% of people with hypertension, while the incidence rises to 4-5% in patients with incidental adrenal mass.
  • AIM: To analyse the presentation, diagnosis and localization, pathology, molecular genetic aspects, surgical management and long-term outcome of a large series of patients with pheochromocytoma referred to a single centre.
  • METHODS: From 1992 to 2008, we observed 91 patients with pheochromocytoma, 70 (77%) with the sporadic form and 21 (23%) with the hereditary form.
  • RESULTS: Eighty (88%) patients with pheochromocytoma were symptomatic and the classical triad of palpitations, headache and diaphoresis was present in 30% of patients.
  • In 12% of patients, the pheochromocytoma was discovered during radiological images (adrenal incidentaloma).
  • All pheochromocytoma patients underwent surgical procedure and the laparotomic approach was used in 49 (53%) patients, while the laparoscopic approach was performed in 42 (47%) patients.
  • Pheochromocytoma was benign in 86 patients (93%) [mean size was 4.3 cm] and the malignant form was found in five patients (7%) [mean size was 10 cm].
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data from a large cohort of patients are consistent with those reported in the literature and show that pheochromocytoma is an in important challenge for clinicians.

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  • (PMID = 23334910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-9879
  • [Journal-full-title] High blood pressure & cardiovascular prevention : the official journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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4. Han XN, Chen B, Ye XD, Wang J, Liu GH: [Clinical manifestation and multiphasic spiral CT scanning features of abdominal pheochromocytoma: report of 70 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;31(2):139-42
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  • [Title] [Clinical manifestation and multiphasic spiral CT scanning features of abdominal pheochromocytoma: report of 70 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the imaging characteristics of abdominal pheochromocytoma in multiphasic spiral CT scanning, and to determine whether these image characteristics can aid in differentiating pheochromocytoma from other types of tumors or not.
  • RESULTS: Among the 70 patients, there were 41 patients with endocrine symptoms related to pheochromocytoma, 15 had a latent pheochromocytoma and the remaining 14 cases presented with a non-functioning pheochromocytoma.
  • Sixty patients had a benign pheochromocytoma, the other 10 had a malignant one or relapse after operation.
  • Furthermore, a part of malignant pheochromocytomas is really difficult to be differentiated from some benign lesions by spiral CT images alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19538893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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5. Tsitouridis I, Michaelides M, Stratilati S, Sidiropoulos D, Bintoudi A, Rodokalakis G: CT guided percutaneous adrenal biopsy for lesions with equivocal findings in chemical shift MR imaging. Hippokratia; 2008 Jan;12(1):37-42
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  • RESULTS: From the 57 lesions that were sent for histopathological evaluation, 31 proved to be metastases (54.4%), 20 adenomas (35.1%), 3 cortical carcinomas (5.3%), 1 benign pheochromocytoma (1.8%) and 2 samples were non diagnostic(3.5%).
  • Since most adrenal lesions are benign, dedicated adrenal imaging is necessary for choosing which of them have to be further evaluated by biopsy.

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  • (PMID = 18923755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-8019
  • [Journal-full-title] Hippokratia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hippokratia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2532963
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CT / MRI / adrenal biopsy / chemical shift / enhancement washout
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6. Lehrfeld T, Natale R, Sharma S, Mendoza PJ, Schwab Ii CW, Lee DI: Robot-assisted excision of a retroperitoneal mass between the left renal artery and vein. JSLS; 2010 Jul-Sep;14(3):447-9
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  • The pathology demonstrated a benign pheochromocytoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a peri-hilar excision of a pheochromocytoma using this approach.

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  • (PMID = 21333207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3041050
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7. Nap RR, Meinardi JR, van den Berg G, Dullaart RP, de Vries J, Wolffenbuttel BH: [Long-term follow-up is indicated after surgery for a phaeochromocytoma]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2006 May 13;150(19):1045-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Long-term follow-up is indicated after surgery for a phaeochromocytoma].
  • Two patients presented with symptoms that suggested a recurrence of phaeochromocytoma, 17 and 14 years after a first manifestation of this disease for which they had undergone successful surgery.
  • The first patient, a 57-year-old man, had typical symptoms of phaeochromocytoma and had recently experienced deterioration of the glycaemic control of his diabetes mellitus type 2.
  • In addition to peritoneal metastases confirmed to be caused by malignant phaeochromocytoma he also had a carcinoma of the caecum.
  • Ultrasound examination revealed a tumour in the right upper abdomen and a recurrence of phaeochromocytoma was diagnosed; an intact pregnancy was also found.
  • Studies report recurrence ofphaeochromocytoma in 8-20% of cases, and such a recurrence may be either benign or malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16733977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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8. Cadden IS, Atkinson AB, Johnston BT, Pogue K, Connolly R, McCance D, Ardill JE, Russell CF, McGinty A: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression correlates with phaeochromocytoma malignancy: evidence for a Bcl-2-dependent mechanism. Histopathology; 2007 Dec;51(6):743-51
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 expression correlates with phaeochromocytoma malignancy: evidence for a Bcl-2-dependent mechanism.
  • There are no histological features which reliably differentiate benign from malignant phaeochromocytomas.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and Bcl-2 as tissue-based biomarkers of phaeochromocytoma prognosis.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: COX-2 and Bcl-2 expression were examined immunohistochemically in tissue from 41 sporadic phaeochromocytoma patients followed up for a minimum of 5 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: COX-2 and Bcl-2 may promote phaeochromocytoma malignancy, and these oncoproteins may be valuable surrogate markers of an aggressive tumour phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17916073.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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9. Safwat AS, Bissada NK, Seyam RM, Al Sobhi S, Hanash KA: The clinical spectrum of phaeochromocytoma: analysis of 115 patients. BJU Int; 2008 Jun;101(12):1561-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The clinical spectrum of phaeochromocytoma: analysis of 115 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyse the presentation, manifestations and outcome in consecutive patients with phaeochromocytoma, as this disease has a wide range of pathological and clinical expressions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of 115 patients with phaeochromocytoma were analysed retrospectively, recording the patients' age, sex, presenting symptoms and clinical signs, chemical, radiological and pathological findings and associated conditions.
  • Ten patients had malignant and 105 had benign phaeochromocytoma.
  • Eighty-six patients had sporadic and 29 had familial phaeochromocytoma, comprising eight with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, 17 with multiple endocrine neoplasia type II (MEN II) and four with von Recklinghausen disease.
  • Two patients with sporadic phaeochromocytoma had Grave's disease.
  • Ten patients (8.7%) had malignant phaeochromocytoma, of whom two had MEN II.
  • CONCLUSION: Phaeochromocytoma is an interesting clinical entity with a wide spectrum of pathological and clinical manifestations.
  • The diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma is confirmed by chemical methods, and located using imaging techniques, with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and (131)I-meta-iodobenzyl guanidine radioisotope scanning being the most common.
  • This series reflects the pathological and clinical spectrum of phaeochromocytoma.
  • The presence of other manifestations of familial phaeochromocytoma influenced the presentation and prognosis of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Hypertension / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology


10. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Reimondo G, Angeli A: Management of adrenal incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):233-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cortical adenoma is the most frequent tumour detected incidentally, but adrenocortical cancer, phaeochromocytoma and metastasis are not rare.
  • (2) identify phaeochromocytoma.
  • Radiological evaluation is the key to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • Endocrine testing is necessary to exclude phaeochromocytoma in all patients with an adrenal incidentaloma because this tumour may remain undiagnosed after imaging studies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Animals. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19500766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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11. Grossrubatscher E, Dalino P, Vignati F, Gambacorta M, Pugliese R, Boniardi M, Rossetti O, Marocchi A, Bertuzzi M, Loli P: The role of chromogranin A in the management of patients with phaeochromocytoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Sep;65(3):287-93
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  • [Title] The role of chromogranin A in the management of patients with phaeochromocytoma.
  • Supranormal CgA concentrations have been recorded in patients with tumours of neuroectodermal origin such as phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • DESIGN: The present study was performed to assess the role of CgA determination in the management of patients with phaeochromocytoma, in comparison with urinary catecholamines and their metabolites.
  • PATIENTS: The patients studied included 22 cases with phaeochromocytoma at initial presentation or at relapse some years after surgical cure or during follow-up of a malignant phaeochromocytoma.
  • Seventeen patients were evaluated before and after surgical removal of phaeochromocytoma.
  • To assess the specificity of the hormonal parameters, 20 subjects were enrolled as controls; they were from a group of patients referred to our observation for possible phaeochromocytoma and who were subsequently proven not to have the disease.
  • The combination of urinary metanephrine and normetanephrine had a sensitivity of 100% in identifying a phaeochromocytoma.
  • Combining the results of CgA and urinary catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine), the sensitivity for diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma was 100%.
  • Urinary catecholamines, metabolites (metanephrine and normetanephrine) and CgA levels in patients with malignant phaeochromocytoma did not differ significantly from those of patients with benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that CgA is a good marker of phaeochromocytoma; measurement of CgA could have a role in the follow-up of patients operated on for phaeochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chromogranin A / blood. Pheochromocytoma / blood

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  • (PMID = 16918946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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12. Mackenzie IS, Gurnell M, Balan KK, Simpson H, Chatterjee K, Brown MJ: The use of 18-fluoro-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in the assessment of metaiodobenzylguanidine-negative phaeochromocytoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Oct;157(4):533-7
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  • [Title] The use of 18-fluoro-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in the assessment of metaiodobenzylguanidine-negative phaeochromocytoma.
  • 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy scanning is commonly used in the imaging of phaeochromocytoma (and paraganglioma) to confirm the site of disease and whether any spread has occurred.
  • However, 123I-MIBG imaging is negative in 15% of cases of benign phaeochromocytoma and around 50% of cases of malignant phaeochromocytoma.
  • In recent years, positron emission tomography (PET) scanning using various different radiotracers has been shown to be a good alternative or supplementary investigation in phaeochromocytoma.
  • We present the cases of four patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of phaeochromocytoma, but who had negative 123I-MIBG scans, and illustrate the usefulness of 18-fluoro-dihydroxyphenylalanine PET scanning in their assessment.
  • These illustrative cases lend further support for the use of PET scanning in the assessment of phaeochromocytoma and suggest that it may have a particularly important role in the investigation of patients in whom 123I-MIBG scanning is negative.

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  • (PMID = 17893270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 2C598205QX / fluorodopa F 18; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 63-84-3 / Dihydroxyphenylalanine
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13. Ohta S, Lai EW, Pang AL, Brouwers FM, Chan WY, Eisenhofer G, de Krijger R, Ksinantova L, Breza J, Blazicek P, Kvetnansky R, Wesley RA, Pacak K: Downregulation of metastasis suppressor genes in malignant pheochromocytoma. Int J Cancer; 2005 Mar 10;114(1):139-43
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  • [Title] Downregulation of metastasis suppressor genes in malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • There is no reliable method currently available to predict malignant potential of pheochromocytoma based on conventional histology or genetic, molecular or immunohistochemical markers.
  • Metastasis suppressor genes affect the spread of several cancers and, therefore, may provide promise as prognostic markers or therapeutic targets for malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • We hypothesized that the downregulation of metastasis suppressor genes in malignant pheochromocytoma may play a role in malignant behavior.
  • The study included 15 benign and 10 malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • Six metastasis suppressor genes (nm23-H1, TIMP-4, BRMS-1, TXNIP, CRSP-3 and E-Cad) were downregulated significantly in malignant compared to benign pheochromocytoma (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test).
  • We applied a non-linear rule using median malignant value (MMV) as a threshold to use metastasis suppressor genes to distinguish malignant from benign samples.
  • After cross-validation, the non-linear rule produced no errors in 10 malignant samples and 3 errors in the 15 benign samples, with an overall error rate of 12%.
  • These results suggest that downregulation of metastasis suppressor genes reflect malignant pheochromocytoma with a high degree of sensitivity.
  • Thus, we conclude that altered function of these metastasis suppressor gene pathways may play an important role in the malignant behavior of pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15523699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / MED23 protein, human; 0 / Mediator Complex; 0 / NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4; EC 2.7.4.6 / NME1 protein, human; EC 2.7.4.6 / Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase
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14. Bissada NK, Safwat AS, Seyam RM, Al Sobhi S, Hanash KA, Jackson RJ, Sakati N, Bissada MA: Pheochromocytoma in children and adolescents: a clinical spectrum. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Mar;43(3):540-3
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma in children and adolescents: a clinical spectrum.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to identify the spectrum of disease characteristics of pheochromocytoma in children.
  • METHODS: Records of 21 consecutive children diagnosed with pheochromocytoma were reviewed.
  • Seventeen had sporadic and 4 had familial pheochromocytoma.
  • Associated manifestations were the predominant features in 1 of the 4 patients with familial pheochromocytoma.
  • The patient with bladder pheochromocytoma presented with gross hematuria.
  • Two patients (1 sporadic and 1 familial) had malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • One patient with benign pheochromocytoma had multiple recurrences in chromaffin-containing sites.
  • One patient with malignant pheochromocytoma died of the disease, and 1 with recurrent pheochromocytoma had neurologic consequences.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pheochromocytoma in children has unique characteristics.
  • To our knowledge, this series is one of the largest reports of adrenal pheochromocytoma in children.
  • It also reflects the spectrum of pheochromocytoma in this age group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery


15. Lai EW, Perera SM, Havekes B, Timmers HJ, Brouwers FM, McElroy B, Adams KT, Ohta S, Wesley RA, Eisenhofer G, Pacak K: Gender-related differences in the clinical presentation of malignant and benign pheochromocytoma. Endocrine; 2008 Aug-Dec;34(1-3):96-100
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  • [Title] Gender-related differences in the clinical presentation of malignant and benign pheochromocytoma.
  • In this study, we evaluated 23 male and 35 female pheochromocytoma patients for symptoms and signs of pheochromocytoma with special regard to gender-related differences in presentation.
  • Subgroup analyses and multiple regression analysis revealed gender differences to be irrespective of benign or malignant disease, use of adrenoceptor-blockade, age and biochemical phenotype.
  • We conclude female patients have significantly more self-reported pheochromocytoma signs and symptoms than male patients irrespective of biochemical phenotype and tumor presentation which may be related to distinct catecholamine receptor sensitivity.
  • Clinicians should be aware of these complaints in female pheochromocytoma patients and offer adequate treatment if indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Sex Characteristics

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  • (PMID = 18982461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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16. Timmers HJ, Brouwers FM, Hermus AR, Sweep FC, Verhofstad AA, Verbeek AL, Pacak K, Lenders JW: Metastases but not cardiovascular mortality reduces life expectancy following surgical resection of apparently benign pheochromocytoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Dec;15(4):1127-33
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  • [Title] Metastases but not cardiovascular mortality reduces life expectancy following surgical resection of apparently benign pheochromocytoma.
  • The treatment of choice for non-metastatic pheochromocytoma is surgical resection.
  • Data on long-term mortality and morbidity after pheochromocytoma surgery are limited.
  • We here report a retrospective study on the long-term outcome after surgery for apparently benign pheochromocytoma at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre.
  • Two patients experienced a benign recurrence. Mean+/-s.d. follow-up was 10.2+/-7.5 (median 9, range 1-38) years.
  • In conclusion, compared with the general population patients have a reduced life expectancy following pheochromocytoma surgery, due to their risk of developing metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality. Life Expectancy. Pheochromocytoma / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18824558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines
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17. Korpershoek E, Loonen AJ, Corvers S, van Nederveen FH, Jonkers J, Ma X, Ziel-van der Made A, Korsten H, Trapman J, Dinjens WN, de Krijger RR: Conditional Pten knock-out mice: a model for metastatic phaeochromocytoma. J Pathol; 2009 Mar;217(4):597-604
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  • [Title] Conditional Pten knock-out mice: a model for metastatic phaeochromocytoma.
  • Phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) are neuro-endocrine tumours of the adrenal medulla that are usually benign, but approximately 10% of patients develop metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Disease Models, Animal. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / secondary


18. Vassilatou E, Vryonidou A, Michalopoulou S, Manolis J, Caratzas J, Phenekos C, Tzavara I: Hormonal activity of adrenal incidentalomas: results from a long-term follow-up study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 May;70(5):674-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the natural course of apparently benign adrenal incidentalomas with no overt hyperfunction at diagnosis, as their clinical significance and appropriate management are still controversial.
  • Overt endocrine disease was diagnosed in 4 patients (Cushing's syndrome in 2 and phaeochromocytoma in 2).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / physiopathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / secretion. Prospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


19. Kanthan R, Gomez D, Senger JL, Kanthan SC: Endoscopic biopsies of duodenal polyp/mass lesions: a surgical pathology review. J Clin Pathol; 2010 Oct;63(10):921-5
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  • The accurate diagnoses of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, metastatic phaeochromocytoma and metastatic malignant melanoma, respectively, were confirmed with retrospective analysis of previous clinical and pathological records.
  • 33% of these lesions were malignant and 67% were benign/normal.
  • 41% of the benign cases had no significant pathological abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Child. Child, Preschool. Duodenoscopy / methods. Humans. Infant. Kidney Neoplasms. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / secondary. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20876326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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20. Beuschlein F: Adrenal incidentalomas: presentation and clinical work-up. Horm Res; 2007;68 Suppl 5:191-4
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  • The majority of these adrenal lesions are benign and without evidence of endocrine activity or malignancy.
  • However, in addition to the classic forms of overt adrenal hypersecretion, it has become evident in recent years that even modest adrenal hormonal autonomy, as exhibited in clinically silent phaeochromocytoma, normokalaemic primary aldosteronism and subclinical Cushing syndrome, is associated with significant morbidity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18174744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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21. Opocher G, Schiavi F, Iacobone M, Toniato A, Sattarova S, Erlic Z, Martella M, Mian C, Merante Boschin I, Zambonin L, De Lazzari P, Murgia A, Pelizzo MR, Favia G, Mantero F: Familial nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:149-55
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  • [Title] Familial nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma.
  • The molecular basis for the familial pheochromocytoma has been largely elucidated and the role of germline mutation of the VHL, RET, SDHB, and SDHD genes has been established.
  • The proband of family 1 is a man who had a bilateral pheochromocytoma at the age of 32 and a local recurrence at the age of 48 years.
  • His brother died of malignant pheochromocytoma and his nephew died suddenly of an undiagnosed pheochromocytoma.
  • The proband of family 2 is a female who had a 5-cm benign adrenal pheochromocytoma at the age of 34 years, while her cousin (maternal branch) had a monolateral pheochromocytoma at the age of 42 years.
  • The proband of family 3 is a female who had a bilateral pheochromocytoma at the age of 66 years.
  • Her sister had a bilateral pheochromocytoma and breast cancer at the age of 54 years.
  • In family 4, the proband was a female who had a bilateral pheochromocytoma at the age of 46 years and a local recurrence a few years later, with liver metastases from the pheochromocytoma.
  • Her brother had a monolateral benign pheochromocytoma.
  • This case revealed a VHL sequence variant IVS2+43 A>G, which was also found in one other unrelated sporadic pheochromocytoma.
  • In family 5, the proband was a female who had a right adrenal pheochromocytoma at the age of 50 years and a breast cancer at 49 years of age.
  • Her mother had had a right adrenal pheochromocytoma at 61 years of age.
  • Although other molecular mechanisms, such as particular variants in untranslated regions or partial gene deletions, cannot be ruled out, we think finding families with nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma without any RET, VHL, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, or EGLN3 mutation may argue in favor of the presence of other pheochromocytoma susceptibility genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17102081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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22. Gomy I, Molfetta GA, de Andrade Barreto E, Ferreira CA, Zanette DL, Casali-da-Rocha JC, Silva WA Jr: Clinical and molecular characterization of Brazilian families with von Hippel-Lindau disease: a need for delineating genotype-phenotype correlation. Fam Cancer; 2010 Dec;9(4):635-42
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  • von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome that predisposes to the development of a variety of benign and malignant tumours, especially cerebellar haemangioblastomas, retinal angiomas and clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC).
  • VHL disease is classified into type 1 and type 2, showing a clear genotype-phenotype correlation, as type 2 is associated with phaeochromocytoma and essentially caused by missense mutations.

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  • (PMID = 20567917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] Familial cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fam. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.3.2.27 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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23. Pozo J, Muñoz MT, Martos G, Argente J: Sporadic phaeochromocytoma in childhood: clinical and molecular variability. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;18(6):527-32
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  • [Title] Sporadic phaeochromocytoma in childhood: clinical and molecular variability.
  • Sporadic phaeochromocytoma is an infrequent tumour during paediatric age and may or may not be associated with specific autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL) type 2 or neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1.
  • We report two cases of benign, adrenal, and unilateral phaeochromocytoma that clearly demonstrate the clinical and molecular heterogeneity of this disease during the paediatric period.
  • The first patient presented a characteristic symptomatic form of sporadic phaeochromocytoma.
  • The frequency of de novo mutations in susceptible genes (especially the VHL gene) in paediatric patients with sporadic phaeochromocytoma and the elevated mortality of these cancer syndromes suggest that screening for mutations should be performed even in cases of non-familial sporadic phaeochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16042317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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24. Bembo SA, Elimian A, Waltzer W, Carlson HE: Pheochromocytoma in a pregnant woman with a history of intracerebral aneurysms. Am J Med Sci; 2005 Jun;329(6):317-9
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma in a pregnant woman with a history of intracerebral aneurysms.
  • Pheochromocytoma in pregnancy is rare; if unrecognized, potentially fatal hypertensive crises may occur.
  • A benign pheochromocytoma was removed without incident.
  • This case illustrates the importance of early diagnosis and management of pheochromocytoma in pregnancy and is also an example of the rare association of pheochromocytoma with intracerebral aneurysms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis


25. Zhu Y, He HC, Yuan F, Zhang J, Rui WB, Zhao JP, Shen ZJ, Ning G: Heparanase-1 and Cyclooxygenase-2: prognostic indicators of malignancy in pheochromocytomas. Endocrine; 2010 Aug;38(1):93-9
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  • The objective of this article is to evaluate Heparanase-1 and Cyclooxygenase-2 as tissue-based markers of pheochromocytoma prognosis.
  • Ninety-two sporadic pheochromocytoma patients with a minimum of 8-year follow-up post-diagnosis were enrolled.
  • Slides of normal adrenal glands in nephrectomy specimens from 20 patients with benign renal tumors were as control.
  • Positive staining for Heparanase-1 was observed in 23.68% of the benign and 77.78% of the malignant cases, whereas none of the normal adrenal controls showed positive staining.
  • Similarly, Cyclooxygenase-2 staining was seen in 23.68% of the benign versus 83.33% of the malignant cases, and none of the normal controls appeared positive for Cyclooxygenase-2.
  • Malignant cases showed higher microvessel density compared to benign tumors and normal controls (36.41, 21.43, and 13.36%, respectively).
  • Heparanase-1 and Cyclooxygenase-2 combined is better than their own to be used as a marker to distinguish malignant from benign pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3 / metabolism. Glucuronidase / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20960108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / EIF3A protein, human; 0 / Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 3.2.1.- / heparanase; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase
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26. Mischke K, Graf J, Rulands D, Koch KC, Hanrath P, Janssens U: [Cardiogenic shock in a 61 year old female with recurrent panic attacks]. Internist (Berl); 2005 May;46(5):580-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The suspected diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was confirmed by elevated catecholamine levels in the urine and a CT scan.
  • After recompensation and subsequent administration of phenoxybenzamine a benign pheochromocytoma was resected.
  • A massive catecholamine secretion due to a pheochromocytoma can lead to a cardiogenic shock and multiple organ failure.
  • In patients with recurrent panic attacks and hypertension a pheochromocytoma should be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Panic Disorder / diagnosis. Panic Disorder / prevention & control. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Secondary Prevention. Shock, Cardiogenic / diagnosis. Shock, Cardiogenic / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 15806412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
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27. Meyer-Rochow GY, Soon PS, Delbridge LW, Sywak MS, Bambach CP, Clifton-Bligh RJ, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for phaeochromocytoma. ANZ J Surg; 2009 May;79(5):367-70
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  • [Title] Outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for phaeochromocytoma.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is now accepted as the procedure of choice for the resection of benign adrenocortical tumours, but few studies have assessed whether the outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal phaeochromocytoma are similar to that of other adrenal tumour types.
  • A total of 191 patients had laparoscopic adrenalectomy, of which 36 were for phaeochromocytoma, over a 12-year period.
  • Length of hospital stay (4.8 vs 3.6 days, P= 0.03) and total operating times (183 vs 157 min, P= 0.01) were greater in the laparoscopic phaeochromocytoma resection group.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma is a safe procedure with similar outcomes to laparoscopic adrenalectomy for other adrenal tumour types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19566519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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28. Druce MR, Kaltsas GA, Fraenkel M, Gross DJ, Grossman AB: Novel and evolving therapies in the treatment of malignant phaeochromocytoma: experience with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001). Horm Metab Res; 2009 Sep;41(9):697-702
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  • [Title] Novel and evolving therapies in the treatment of malignant phaeochromocytoma: experience with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001).
  • Phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare neuroendocrine tumours (NETS).
  • They may be benign or malignant but the pathological distinction is mainly made when metastases are present.
  • This short review outlines the main molecular and histological features of malignant phaeochromocytoma and the difficulties in differentiating between benign and malignant disease.
  • We list current therapies used for malignant pheochromocytoma; however, these generally achieve relatively low success rates.
  • In vitro studies have implicated the PI3/Akt/mTOR pathway in the pathogenesis of malignant NETS, including phaeochromocytoma.
  • We have used RAD001 in four patients with progressive malignant paraganglioma/phaeochromocytoma in addition to other therapies (with institutional approval for compassionate use), and evaluated the effects of this treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 19424940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 9HW64Q8G6G / Everolimus; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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29. Welsh SJ, Khan S: Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):161-9
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  • Although the majority of adrenal lesions are benign, in patients with an extra-adrenal primary cancer the probability of an adrenal mass being a metastasis is 52%.
  • Unfortunately, there may be significant overlap between the imaging appearances of benign lesions such as lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions, particularly metastases and small adrenal carcinomas.
  • This review highlights recent advances in radiological imaging of adrenal lesions and we discuss the relative merits of CT and magnetic resonance imaging to aid the identification of benign and malignant adrenal lesions and their roles, in combination with biochemical and clinical data, in recognizing common pathologies such as adrenal adenoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoma and metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19471240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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30. Chrisoulidou A, Kaltsas G, Ilias I, Grossman AB: The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):569-85
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  • [Title] The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • Although a subset of these tumours has metastatic disease at initial presentation, a significant number develops metastases during follow-up after excision of an apparently benign tumour.
  • Clinical, biochemical and histological features cannot reliably distinguish malignant from benign tumours.
  • Functional imaging using radiolabelled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and more recently, (18)F-fluorodopamine and (18)F-fluorodopa positron emission tomography offer substantial sensitivity and specificity to correctly detect metastatic phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma and helps identify patients suitable for treatment with radiopharmaceuticals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17914089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 159
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31. Owecki M, Majewska KA, Stawny B, Nikisch E, Drews M, Sowiński J: [Adrenal tumours in a selected 10-years surgical material]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2006 Jun;20(120):678-81
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  • Malignant tumours where significantly larger than benign (12.20 +/- 6.81 vs 6.71 +/- 5.62 cm, p < 0.005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most common tumour was phaeochromocytoma.
  • The malignant tumours where larger than benign ones.

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  • (PMID = 17007266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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32. Sánchez Andrés A, Valdés Diéguez E, Marco Macián A, Carrasco Moreno JI: [Immature ovarian tumour and dilated myocardiopathy]. An Pediatr (Barc); 2010 Dec;73(6):347-51
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  • Teratomas are rare tumours in childhood that generally have a benign course.
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) secondary to, chromaffin cell tumours (phaeochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma), leukaemia infiltrates, and treatment with anthracyclines have been described, but there is no case reported in the literature regarding a teratoma with dilated cardiomyopathy.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20863775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1695-9531
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de pediatría (Barcelona, Spain : 2003)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Pediatr (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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33. Koeth O, Mark B, Cornelius B, Senges J, Zeymer U: [Cardiogenic shock after adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma]. Internist (Berl); 2007 Feb;48(2):189-93
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  • [Title] [Cardiogenic shock after adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma].
  • A 56 year old patient underwent left-sided adrenalectomy for a benign pheochromocytoma.
  • Catecholamine release during a left-sided adrenalectomy for a benign pheochromocytoma was associated with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy complicated by cardiogenic shock.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenalectomy / adverse effects. Cardiomyopathies / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Shock, Cardiogenic / etiology






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