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1. Tsai EC, Santoreneos S, Rutka JT: Tumors of the skull base in children: review of tumor types and management strategies. Neurosurg Focus; 2002 May 15;12(5):e1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumors of the skull base in children: review of tumor types and management strategies.
  • Although many treatment strategies for skull base tumors in adults have been reported, relatively little has been reported regarding such therapies in the pediatric population.
  • Skull base tumors in children present a therapeutic challenge because of their unique pathological composition, the constraints of the maturing skull and brain, and the small size of the patients.
  • In this review, the authors examine the pediatric skull base lesions that occur in the anterior, middle, and posterior cranial base, focusing on unique pediatric tumors such as encepahalocele, fibrous dysplasia, esthesioneuroblastoma, craniopharyngioma, juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, cholesteatoma, chordoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma.
  • Evidence for the advantages and limitations of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery as it pertains to the pediatric population will be examined.
  • Outcomes in this population may be better than those in adults, in part because of the benign histopathology that frequently affects the pediatric skull base, as well as the plasticity of the maturing nervous system.
  • [MeSH-major] Skull Base Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Angiofibroma / radiotherapy. Angiofibroma / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cholesteatoma / surgery. Chondrosarcoma / drug therapy. Chondrosarcoma / radiotherapy. Chondrosarcoma / surgery. Chordoma / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniopharyngioma / epidemiology. Craniopharyngioma / radiotherapy. Craniopharyngioma / surgery. Encephalocele / epidemiology. Encephalocele / surgery. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / drug therapy. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / mortality. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Female. Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone / pathology. Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone / surgery. Humans. Infant. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Nose Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Sarcoma, Ewing / therapy. Skull / pathology. Skull / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16119897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 143
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2. Benesch M, Windelberg M, Sauseng W, Witt V, Fleischhack G, Lackner H, Gadner H, Bode U, Urban C: Compassionate use of bevacizumab (Avastin) in children and young adults with refractory or recurrent solid tumors. Ann Oncol; 2008 Apr;19(4):807-13
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients (male: n = 8; female: n = 7; median age, 14.6 years) received bevacizumab for recurrent or progressive solid tumors (carcinoma: n = 3; neuroblastoma: n = 2; astrocytoma grade III: n = 2; rhabdomyosarcoma: n = 2; nephroblastoma: n = 2; benign vascular tumors: n = 2; synovial sarcoma: n = 1; and malignant hemangiopericytoma: n = 1) on a compassionate basis.
  • Prospective clinical trials are urgently needed to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab in pediatric patients.

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  • (PMID = 18056650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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3. Fujisawa H, Yoshida Y, Niida Y, Hasegawa M, Yamashita J: Cyanotic breath-holding spell: a life-threatening complication after radical resection of a cervicomedullary ganglioglioma. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2005 Mar-Apr;41(2):93-7
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  • Cyanotic breath-holding spell is a benign and self-limiting disease of young children but occasionally associated with sudden, unexpected death.
  • Since magnetic resonance imaging showed a cervicomedullary tumor, she underwent a radical resection and histology showed the tumor to be a ganglioglioma.
  • The former responded to medication but the latter failed and continued several times per day with a rapid onset and progression of hypoxemia, loss of consciousness, sweating and opisthotonos.
  • This is the first report observing that such spells may occur as a complication of radical resection of a cervicomedullary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Apnea / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Cyanosis / etiology. Ganglioglioma / surgery. Postoperative Complications


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4. Ammoury RF, Heptulla RA, Tatevian N, Elenberg E: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient. Pediatr Nephrol; 2006 Mar;21(3):433-6
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  • Although the tumor is usually asymptomatic, sometimes it may result in serious manifestations.
  • The laboratory work-up was inconclusive of the nature of the tumor.
  • Plasma and urinary hormonal studies were not diagnostic.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scanning were normal.
  • After tumor resection the hypertension resolved, and within 1 month the patient was off medications.
  • This is a case in which an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma, a benign and usually asymptomatic tumor, presented as severe hypertension resolving with surgical resection of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Hypertension / etiology. Laparoscopy. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery


5. Grill J, Pascal C, Chantal K: Childhood ependymoma: a systematic review of treatment options and strategies. Paediatr Drugs; 2003;5(8):533-43
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  • [Title] Childhood ependymoma: a systematic review of treatment options and strategies.
  • Childhood intracranial ependymoma have a dismal prognosis, especially in young children and when a gross total resection cannot be performed.
  • Despite some indication that benign ependymoma (WHO grade II) could show a better outcome, histology cannot be used at present to stratify treatment protocols.Craniospinal irradiation combined with posterior fossa boost has deleterious adverse effects on cognition.
  • Consequently, pediatric oncology teams have, firstly, tried to use chemotherapy to delay or avoid irradiation, and secondly, progressively reduced irradiation fields to the tumor bed without altering the prognosis.
  • Cisplatin, at a dose of 120 mg/m(2) (cumulated response rate of 34% [95% CI 19-54%]) is the only single agent that has reproducibly shown some efficacy in ependymoma.
  • Despite some combinations showing efficacy in the adjuvant setting, childhood intracranial ependymomas can, in general, be considered as chemoresistant.
  • As the use of chemotherapy with current agents is questionable, phase II studies with new agents and combinations are necessary.
  • Since the main problem of this disease is local relapse, it may not be necessary to irradiate the whole posterior fossa.
  • There is no doubt that any possible improvement in the management of this rare tumor will only be the result of well designed cooperative trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ependymoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12895136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1174-5878
  • [Journal-full-title] Paediatric drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Paediatr Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 120
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6. Hsu TR, Wong TT, Chang FC, Ho DM, Tang RB, Thien PF, Chang KP: Responsiveness of progressive optic pathway tumors to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in children. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Dec;24(12):1457-61
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  • BACKGROUND: Though the pathology of optic pathway tumor is mostly pilocytic astrocytoma, the benign tumor behaves like malignant tumor because total resection is not feasible.
  • We evaluate the responsiveness of optic pathway tumor to cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Brain MRI was performed every 3 months to evaluate the objective response to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow Diseases / chemically induced. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Gastrointestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Infection / chemically induced. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CIS-DIAMINEDICHLOROPLATINUM .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ETOPOSIDE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. VINBLASTINE .
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  • (PMID = 18769928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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7. Kobayashi H, Ishii N, Murata J, Saito H, Kubota KC, Nagashima K, Iwasaki Y: Cystic meningioangiomatosis. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(5):320-4
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  • A 14-year-old boy without any stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 2 presented intractable complex partial and generalized seizures since the age of 12 years.
  • The tumor was located in the leptomeninges and cerebral cortex.
  • It is important to distinguish meningioangiomatosis from other possible cortical lesions and epileptic foci should be carefully considered before resection, because it is a benign and surgically manageable cause of seizures.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomatosis / surgery. Brain Diseases / surgery. Cerebral Cortex / surgery. Meninges / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Electroencephalography. Humans. Male. Seizures / drug therapy. Seizures / etiology. Seizures / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16902347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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8. Qaddoumi I, Sultan I, Broniscer A: Pediatric low-grade gliomas and the need for new options for therapy: Why and how? Cancer Biol Ther; 2009 Jan;8(1):4-10
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  • [Title] Pediatric low-grade gliomas and the need for new options for therapy: Why and how?
  • Pediatric low-grade gliomas are the most common tumors of the central nervous system in children, accounting for almost 50% of all childhood brain tumors.
  • This is mostly due to a lack of understanding of tumor biology at the molecular level.
  • Pediatric low-grade gliomas are not benign, and most incompletely resected tumors will progress and negatively affect quality of life.
  • The advancements made in understanding sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma and neurofibromatosis 1-associated pilocytic astrocytoma in particular have paved the way for potential targeted therapy and biological stratification.
  • Such progress in pilocytic astrocytoma needs to be consolidated and expanded to other histologic varieties of pediatric low-grade gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 19164945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; None / None / / P30 CA021765-31; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-31; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 97
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS161402; NLM/ PMC2810626
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9. Kenerson H, Dundon TA, Yeung RS: Effects of rapamycin in the Eker rat model of tuberous sclerosis complex. Pediatr Res; 2005 Jan;57(1):67-75
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  • Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) presents in the pediatric population with a constellation of benign tumors that affect the brain, heart, kidney, lung, and skin.
  • In both types of pathology, tumor response was accompanied by down-regulation of ribosomal S6 kinase activity, reduction in cell size, and induction of apoptosis.
  • Evidence for drug resistance was found in a small percentage of lesions after prolonged therapy.
  • We conclude that rapamycin-sensitive mTOR activity was critical to tumor progression in the Eker rat model, but rapamycin is unlikely to eradicate all disease as a result of the development of drug resistance.
  • Our data also suggest the role of a rapamycin-insensitive pathway during tumor initiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology. Sirolimus / pharmacology. Tuberous Sclerosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Disease Models, Animal. Disease Progression. Down-Regulation. Immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney / pathology. Mutation. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Protein Kinases / metabolism. Rats. Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases / metabolism. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases. Time Factors. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 15557109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA102662; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA61889
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / mTOR protein, rat; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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