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1. Liu AK, Bagrosky B, Fenton LZ, Gaspar LE, Handler MH, McNatt SA, Foreman NK: Vascular abnormalities in pediatric craniopharyngioma patients treated with radiation therapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Feb;52(2):227-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vascular abnormalities in pediatric craniopharyngioma patients treated with radiation therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Craniopharyngioma is a benign brain tumor that can be treated with some combination of surgery, intracystic chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18937328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin
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2. Jaiswal AK, Jaiswal S, Sahu RN, Das KB, Jain VK, Behari S: Choroid plexus papilloma in children: Diagnostic and surgical considerations. J Pediatr Neurosci; 2009 Jan;4(1):10-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) is a benign neoplasm that arises from the ventricular choroid plexus.
  • The clinical features, radiological characteristics, and treatment have been discussed in this study for a pediatric population.
  • METHODS: Over an eight-year period, seven pediatric (≤12 years) CPP patients were treated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Coagulation of the tumor under constant irrigation to shrink and excise it in toto, avoids excessive bleeding during surgery.
  • The vascular pedicle supplying the tumor should be adequately dealt with during the last part of tumor removal as retraction of a bleeding pedicle may result in ventricular hemorrhage and brain edema.

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  • [Cites] Neurol India. 2002 Sep;50(3):352-8 [12391469.001]
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  • (PMID = 21887168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1817-1745
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric neurosciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3162829
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Choroid plexus / intraventricular tumor / tumor
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3. Teo C, Broggi M: Surgical outcome of patients considered to have "inoperable" tumors by specialized pediatric neuro-oncological multidisciplinary teams. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Sep;26(9):1219-25
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  • [Title] Surgical outcome of patients considered to have "inoperable" tumors by specialized pediatric neuro-oncological multidisciplinary teams.
  • PURPOSE: Despite the lack of evidence in literature, it is widely felt that patient outcomes will be improved by adopting a multidisciplinary team (MDT) approach to children with brain tumors.
  • This study focuses on a series of pediatric patients treated surgically despite a MDT recommendation against surgery.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on all pediatric brain and spinal cord tumor patients operated in a single center from 1999 to 2009.
  • In ten cases, radical removal of the tumor resulted in a change in histological diagnosis, usually from a presumed diagnosis of malignancy to a more benign variety (n = 6).
  • CONCLUSION: In the majority of patients, surgical decision making is congruent with the collective opinion of dedicated pediatric neuro-oncological MDT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Salvage Therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Childs Nerv Syst. 2010 Sep;26(9):1227-8 [20574741.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Childs Nerv Syst. 2010 Dec;26(12):1833. Charles, Teo [corrected to Teo, Charles]; Morgan, Broggi [corrected to Broggi, Morgan]
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  • (PMID = 20563727.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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4. Kobayashi H, Ishii N, Murata J, Saito H, Kubota KC, Nagashima K, Iwasaki Y: Cystic meningioangiomatosis. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(5):320-4
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  • The tumor was located in the leptomeninges and cerebral cortex.
  • It is important to distinguish meningioangiomatosis from other possible cortical lesions and epileptic foci should be carefully considered before resection, because it is a benign and surgically manageable cause of seizures.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomatosis / surgery. Brain Diseases / surgery. Cerebral Cortex / surgery. Meninges / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16902347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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5. Rush SZ, Abel TW, Valadez JG, Pearson M, Cooper MK: Activation of the Hedgehog pathway in pilocytic astrocytomas. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Aug;12(8):790-8
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  • Pilocytic astrocytoma is commonly viewed as a benign lesion.
  • Expression levels of the Hh pathway transcriptional target PTCH were elevated in 45% of tumor specimens analyzed (ages 1-22 years) and correlated inversely with patient age.
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that Hh pathway activation is common in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas and may be associated with younger age at diagnosis and tumor growth.

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  • (PMID = 20223881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA068485; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K02NS053614
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GLI1 protein, human; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / patched receptors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940682
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6. Distelmaier F, Fahsold R, Reifenberger G, Messing-Juenger M, Schaper J, Schneider DT, Göbel U, Mayatepek E, Rosenbaum T: Fatal glioblastoma multiforme in a patient with neurofibromatosis type I: the dilemma of systematic medical follow-up. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Mar;23(3):343-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • DISCUSSION: The girl's death 3 days after diagnosis of the brain tumor exemplifies that NF1 still is a life-threatening disease despite its generally benign course in most patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Mutation, Missense. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Neurofibromin 1 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17009007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurofibromin 1
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7. Rosenfeld A, Listernick R, Charrow J, Goldman S: Neurofibromatosis type 1 and high-grade tumors of the central nervous system. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 May;26(5):663-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common genetic disorder, predisposes patients to the development of both benign and malignant tumors.
  • Although the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumor is a low-grade pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic pathway, there have been sporadic reports of NF1 patients with more aggressive CNS lesions.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with NF1 and any CNS tumor being followed in the Children's Memorial Hospital NF1 Clinic.
  • Although tumors in NF patients are generally benign, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of malignancy in patients whose tumors are in an unusual location or behave in an uncharacteristically aggressive manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications


8. Fassett DR, Pingree J, Kestle JR: The high incidence of tumor dissemination in myxopapillary ependymoma in pediatric patients. Report of five cases and review of the literature. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(1 Suppl):59-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The high incidence of tumor dissemination in myxopapillary ependymoma in pediatric patients. Report of five cases and review of the literature.
  • Myxopapillary ependymomas (MPEs) have historically been thought to be benign tumors occurring most frequently in adults.
  • Only 8 to 20% of these tumors occur in the first two decades of life, making this tumor a rarity in pediatric neurosurgery.
  • Four (80%) of these five patients suffered from disseminated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) at the time of presentation; this incidence is much higher than that reported in the combined adult and pediatric literature.
  • Combining five pediatric case series reported in the literature with the present series, the authors review a total of 26 cases of pediatric patients with intraspinal MPEs.
  • In those cases in which patients underwent screening for CNS tumor dissemination, however, the incidence of disseminated disease was 58% (seven of 12 patients).
  • In pediatric patients MPEs may spread throughout the CNS via cerebrospinal fluid pathways; therefore, MR imaging of the entire CNS axis is recommended at both presentation and follow-up review to detect tumor dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology


9. Mentzel HJ, Seidel J, Fitzek C, Eichhorn A, Vogt S, Reichenbach JR, Zintl F, Kaiser WA: Pediatric brain MRI in neurofibromatosis type I. Eur Radiol; 2005 Apr;15(4):814-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric brain MRI in neurofibromatosis type I.
  • The purpose of this pictorial review is to illustrate characteristic brain MR imaging lesions in children with NF I and to give some recommendations about diagnostic imaging procedures in children suffering from NF I.
  • Typical findings in brain MRI are hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted images, so-called unknown bright objects, which may be useful as an additional imaging criterion for NF I.
  • Contrast administration is necessary in MR studies to maximize tumor detection and characterization, to add confidence to the diagnosis of benign probable myelin vacuolization, and to document stability of neoplasm on follow-up examinations.
  • The frequency of follow-up in children with known brain tumors will vary with the tumor grade, biological activity and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology


10. Smith JS, Lin H, Mayo MC, Bannerjee A, Gupta N, Perry V, Cha S: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging abnormalities in pediatric patients with surgically-treated intracranial mass lesions. J Neurooncol; 2006 Sep;79(2):203-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diffusion-weighted MR imaging abnormalities in pediatric patients with surgically-treated intracranial mass lesions.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of these postoperative abnormalities in pediatric patients with intracranial mass lesions.
  • Infiltrative and noninfiltrative, as well as benign and malignant lesions, were included.
  • There was no association between the occurrence of these abnormalities and whether the lesion was infiltrative, non-infiltrative, benign, or malignant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: DWI abnormality on immediate postoperative MRI is common following surgery for newly diagnosed intracranial mass lesions in pediatric patients.
  • Our study suggests that immediate postoperative DWI is useful in interpreting new areas of focal contrast enhancement on subsequent imaging in children who have had surgery for brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / diagnostic imaging. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Infratentorial Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging. Supratentorial Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging

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  • (PMID = 16598419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS045013
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Ternier J, Wray A, Puget S, Bodaert N, Zerah M, Sainte-Rose C: Tectal plate lesions in children. J Neurosurg; 2006 Jun;104(6 Suppl):369-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECT: The authors characterized the clinical course of tectal plate lesions in a group of pediatric patients to identify the prognostic factors at presentation that predict progression, in an attempt to differentiate tectal hamartomas from tumors.
  • Histologically, 80% of the surgically treated lesions were low grade (with the other 20% consisting of one dysplasia, one high-grade tumor, and one unidentified tumor).
  • The only factor predictive of tumor enlargement was lesion volume at presentation (p = 0.002).
  • Lesions with a volume less than 4 cm3 were likely to be hamartomas and followed a predominantly benign course, with few atypical cases progressing.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / surgery. Tectum Mesencephali

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  • (PMID = 16776370.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Kantar M, Sezak M, Turhan T, Kitis O, Mutluer S, Demirag BK, Aksoylar S, Akalin T, Ersahin Y, Cetingul N: Melanotic progonoma of the skull in infancy. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Nov;24(11):1371-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Melanotic progonoma or melanotic neuroectodermal tumor is a rare tumor in infancy.
  • This lesion has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of benign or malignant lesions of calvarium.
  • The tumor was removed by surgery.
  • A tumor, brownish-black in color, was diagnosed as melanotic progonoma.
  • Benign or malignant lesions may occur as lumps on calvarium.
  • Benign or malignant lesions can be differentiated by craniography, CT, or MRI scans, but exact diagnosis of melanotic progonoma is made by histopathology and immunostaining, as was in the presented case.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroectodermal Tumor, Melanotic / diagnostic imaging. Neuroectodermal Tumor, Melanotic / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Skull Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18592253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Schobitz E, Qureshi F, Lewis D: Pediatric headaches in the emergency department. Curr Pain Headache Rep; 2006 Oct;10(5):391-6
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  • [Title] Pediatric headaches in the emergency department.
  • Headache is a common presenting complaint in the pediatric emergency department.
  • Although the majority of headaches are benign in nature, headache may be secondary to more serious pathology, such as tumor, meningitis, hemorrhage, or brain abscess.

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  • (PMID = 16945258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-3433
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pain and headache reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Pain Headache Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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14. Berger A, Sadeh M, Tzur G, Shuper A, Kornreich L, Inbar D, Cohen IJ, Michowiz S, Yaniv I, Constantini S, Kessler Y, Merian N: Task switching after cerebellar damage. Neuropsychology; 2005 May;19(3):362-370
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  • The study group consisted of 7 children and adolescents (M age=13.8 years) who underwent surgical removal of a benign posterior fossa tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Cerebellar Diseases / physiopathology. Cognition / physiology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / physiopathology. Psychomotor Performance / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 15910122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-4105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropsychology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropsychology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Larouche V, Huang A, Bartels U, Bouffet E: Tumors of the central nervous system in the first year of life. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Dec;49(7 Suppl):1074-82
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  • The most important prognostic factors are histology (malignant vs. benign) and extent of resection.
  • Significant differences are noted for some tumor types by comparison with older children, for example in the aggressive behavior of low grade gliomas and the chemosensitivity of some high grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17943961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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16. Ammoury RF, Heptulla RA, Tatevian N, Elenberg E: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient. Pediatr Nephrol; 2006 Mar;21(3):433-6
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  • Although the tumor is usually asymptomatic, sometimes it may result in serious manifestations.
  • The laboratory work-up was inconclusive of the nature of the tumor.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scanning were normal.
  • After tumor resection the hypertension resolved, and within 1 month the patient was off medications.
  • This is a case in which an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma, a benign and usually asymptomatic tumor, presented as severe hypertension resolving with surgical resection of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Hypertension / etiology. Laparoscopy. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery


17. Benesch M, Windelberg M, Sauseng W, Witt V, Fleischhack G, Lackner H, Gadner H, Bode U, Urban C: Compassionate use of bevacizumab (Avastin) in children and young adults with refractory or recurrent solid tumors. Ann Oncol; 2008 Apr;19(4):807-13
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients (male: n = 8; female: n = 7; median age, 14.6 years) received bevacizumab for recurrent or progressive solid tumors (carcinoma: n = 3; neuroblastoma: n = 2; astrocytoma grade III: n = 2; rhabdomyosarcoma: n = 2; nephroblastoma: n = 2; benign vascular tumors: n = 2; synovial sarcoma: n = 1; and malignant hemangiopericytoma: n = 1) on a compassionate basis.
  • Prospective clinical trials are urgently needed to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab in pediatric patients.

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  • (PMID = 18056650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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18. Benedict WJ Jr, Brown HG, Sivarajan G, Prabhu VC: Intraventricular schwannoma in a 15-year-old adolescent: a case report. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Apr;24(4):529-32
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  • INTRODUCTION: Schwannomas are benign tumors that originate from the myelin-forming Schwann cells of peripheral nerves or at the Obersteiner-Redlich zone of the vestibular division of the eighth cranial nerve.
  • DISCUSSION: This case report illustrates a right occipital horn schwannoma in a 15-year-old adolescent boy who was successfully treated with surgical resection and discusses the possible origins of the tumor in this unique location.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18175126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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19. Muzumdar D, Balasubramaniam S, Jhawar S, Goel A: Massive benign osteoblastoma of the suboccipital bone and foramen magnum region. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2010;46(3):232-7
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  • [Title] Massive benign osteoblastoma of the suboccipital bone and foramen magnum region.
  • Benign osteoblastoma is an uncommon primary bone tumor frequently found in the vertebral column and long tubular bones, and rarely occurring in the calvarium.
  • A case of a massive benign osteoblastoma of the suboccipital bone and foramen magnum region in a 9-year-old boy is reported.
  • Computed tomography (CT) of the brain showed a large midline occipital/suboccipital bony lesion extending to either side (R > L) and extending from the torcula till the foramen magnum region, causing moderate obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • The atlas was uninvolved by the tumor.
  • The tumor was completely resected with wide margins via a suboccipital route.
  • The occurrence of benign osteoblastoma in the suboccipital bone and foramen magnum region has not been reported earlier in the pediatric population.
  • [MeSH-major] Foramen Magnum / surgery. Occipital Bone / surgery. Osteoblastoma / surgery. Skull Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21051923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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20. Yao Y, Tang X, Li S, Mao Y, Zhou L: Brain tumor stem cells: view from cell proliferation. Surg Neurol; 2009 Mar;71(3):274-9
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  • [Title] Brain tumor stem cells: view from cell proliferation.
  • A small population of TSCs, which form neurospheres and possess the capacity for self-renewal, has been recently identified in adult and pediatric brain tumors.
  • The understanding of brain TSCs has been greatly advanced by the knowledge of cell proliferation, which contributes to initiate and sustain the malignant phenotype.
  • In this article, the authors summarized the evidence of the presence of TSCs in human brain tumors and emphasized the significance of the proliferative status of TSCs.
  • Finally, the preliminary evidence that TSCs in malignant brain tumors have more proliferative capacity than stem/progenitor cells in benign brain tumors was discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adult Stem Cells / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19249579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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21. Cajaiba MM, Bale AE, Alvarez-Franco M, McNamara J, Reyes-Múgica M: Rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms tumor, and deletion of the patched gene in Gorlin syndrome. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2006 Oct;3(10):575-80
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  • [Title] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms tumor, and deletion of the patched gene in Gorlin syndrome.
  • The patient underwent surgical removal of both neoplasms, which were diagnosed as a rhabdomyosarcoma and a Wilms tumor.
  • Seven years later, she presented with macroglossia and a benign mandibular cyst.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Physical examination, karyotyping, abdominal and pelvic ultrasound, brain CT scan, anatomic pathology analysis with immunohistochemistry, and typing of polymorphic markers in the patched (PTCH) gene region.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Gorlin syndrome with synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma and Wilms tumor.
  • MANAGEMENT: Left nephrectomy, excision of paravesical tumor, excision of mandibular cysts, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Wilms Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17019435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / patched receptors
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22. Gupta R, Suri V, Arora R, Sharma MC, Mishra S, Singh M, Sarkar C: Suprasellar ganglioglioma presenting with diabetes insipidus in a young boy: a rare clinical presentation. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Feb;26(2):255-8
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  • Radiographic studies of the brain showed a solid and cystic mass in the suprasellar region effacing the third ventricle.
  • This benign tumor should be kept in mind in patients with central diabetes insipidus and a suprasellar mass lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diabetes Insipidus / complications. Diabetes Insipidus / pathology. Ganglioglioma / complications. Ganglioglioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Brain / surgery. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male


23. Hourani R, Horská A, Albayram S, Brant LJ, Melhem E, Cohen KJ, Burger PC, Weingart JD, Carson B, Wharam MD, Barker PB: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging to differentiate between nonneoplastic lesions and brain tumors in children. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2006 Feb;23(2):99-107
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  • [Title] Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging to differentiate between nonneoplastic lesions and brain tumors in children.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate whether in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can differentiate between 1) tumors and nonneoplastic brain lesions, and 2) high- and low-grade tumors in children.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two children (20 males and 12 females, mean age = 10 +/- 5 years) with primary brain lesions were evaluated retrospectively.
  • Nineteen patients had a neuropathologically confirmed brain tumor, and 13 patients had a benign lesion.
  • RESULTS: Considering all possible combinations of metabolite ratios, the best discriminant function to differentiate between nonneoplastic lesions and brain tumors was found to include only the ratio of Cho/Cr (Wilks' lambda, P = 0.012; 78.1% of original grouped cases correctly classified).
  • CONCLUSION: Proton MRSI may have a promising role in differentiating pediatric brain lesions, and an important diagnostic value, particularly for inoperable or inaccessible lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Germinoma / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy, Needle. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Published 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16374884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS042851; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41RR15241
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Pascual-Castroviejo I, Pascual-Pascual SI, Velazquez-Fragua R, García-Guereta L, López-Gutiérrez JC, Olivares P, Tovar J: Association of cutaneous red-to-purple hemangiomas with leptomeningeal hemangiomas. a clinical study of two patients. Neuropediatrics; 2010 Feb;41(1):7-11
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  • Cutaneous hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor of infancy with an initial proliferating period that appears between 1 to 2 weeks of life, extends during 18 months to 2 years of life, and then slowly regresses during several years until it disappears completely.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma. Meningeal Neoplasms. Skin Diseases, Vascular. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gadolinium. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male

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  • (PMID = 20571984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1899
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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25. Vladimirova V, Mikeska T, Waha A, Soerensen N, Xu J, Reynolds PC, Pietsch T: Aberrant methylation and reduced expression of LHX9 in malignant gliomas of childhood. Neoplasia; 2009 Jul;11(7):700-11
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  • [Title] Aberrant methylation and reduced expression of LHX9 in malignant gliomas of childhood.
  • High-grade gliomas (HGGs) of childhood represent approximately 7% of pediatric brain tumors.
  • In the current study, to identify aberrantly methylated genes that may be involved in the tumorigenesis of pediatric HGGs, we performed a microarray-based differential methylation hybridization approach and found frequent hypermethylation of the LHX9 (human Lim-homebox 9) gene encoding a transcription factor involved in brain development.
  • Bisulfite genomic sequencing and combined bisulfite restriction analysis showed that HGGs were frequently methylated at two CpG-rich LHX9 regions in comparison to benign, nondiffuse pilocytic astrocytomas and normal brain tissues.
  • The LHX9 hypermethylation was associated with reduced messenger RNA expression in pediatric HGG samples and corresponding cell lines.
  • This epigenetic modification was reversible by pharmacological inhibition (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine), and reexpression of LHX9 transcript was induced in pediatric glioma cell lines.
  • Our results demonstrate that the LHX9 gene is frequently silenced in pediatric malignant astrocytomas by hypermethylation and that this epigenetic alteration is involved in glioma cell migration and invasiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Apoptosis / genetics. Base Sequence. Blotting, Western. Cell Movement / genetics. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. LIM-Homeodomain Proteins. Microarray Analysis. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 19568415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / LHX9 protein, human; 0 / LIM-Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2697356
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26. Adamson DC, Rasheed BA, McLendon RE, Bigner DD: Central nervous system. Cancer Biomark; 2010;9(1-6):193-210
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  • Several different types of tumors, benign and malignant, have been identified in the central nervous system (CNS).
  • The prognoses for these tumors are related to several factors, such as the age of the patient and the location and histology of the tumor.
  • In adults, about half of all CNS tumors are malignant, whereas in pediatric patients, more than 75% are malignant.
  • For most benign CNS tumors that require treatment, neurosurgeons can offer curative resections or at least provide significant relief from mass effect.
  • The vast majority of these are meningiomas, of which over 90% are benign.
  • Other much less common sites of primary CNS tumors include the pineal region, ventricular system, cerebellum, brain stem, cranial nerves, and spinal cord.
  • The benign meningiomas make up 32% of primary CNS tumors, followed by nerve sheath tumors and pituitary tumors.
  • We also review the importance of glioma stem cell biology and tumor immunology in early gliomagenesis.
  • In addition, we present a brief description of the most common malignant primary CNS glioma in pediatric patients - medulloblastoma, as well as familial cancer syndromes that include gliomas as part of the syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 22112477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-8592
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biomark
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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27. Franzone P, Berretta L, Barra S: Review of the role of radiotherapy in craniopharyngiomas: how does patient age influence management decisions? J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;19 Suppl 1:395-7
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  • Craniopharyngioma is a brain tumor that can affect children and adults.
  • Although histologically benign, if untreated it can enlarge and lead to serious morbidity and even death, because of its close proximity to critical structures in the parasellar region, including the pituitary, hypothalamus, optic chiasm, carotid arteries and third ventricle.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / physiology. Craniopharyngioma / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16700316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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28. Fujisawa H, Yoshida Y, Niida Y, Hasegawa M, Yamashita J: Cyanotic breath-holding spell: a life-threatening complication after radical resection of a cervicomedullary ganglioglioma. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2005 Mar-Apr;41(2):93-7
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  • Cyanotic breath-holding spell is a benign and self-limiting disease of young children but occasionally associated with sudden, unexpected death.
  • Since magnetic resonance imaging showed a cervicomedullary tumor, she underwent a radical resection and histology showed the tumor to be a ganglioglioma.
  • This is the first report observing that such spells may occur as a complication of radical resection of a cervicomedullary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Apnea / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Cyanosis / etiology. Ganglioglioma / surgery. Postoperative Complications


29. Woerner BM, Warrington NM, Kung AL, Perry A, Rubin JB: Widespread CXCR4 activation in astrocytomas revealed by phospho-CXCR4-specific antibodies. Cancer Res; 2005 Dec 15;65(24):11392-9
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  • The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is expressed in many cancers where it may regulate tumor cell growth and migration.
  • In all grades of astrocytomas, CXCR4 was expressed in tumor cells and some endothelial cells, whereas CXCL12 was present in endothelial cells and infiltrating microglia.
  • We found that CXCR4 phosphorylated on serine 339 was present in tumor cells and vascular endothelial cells in all grades of astrocytoma.
  • These studies extend the potential roles of CXCR4 in cancer to include functions associated with benign (grade 1) tumors.
  • The ability to distinguish phosphorylated CXCR4 will be invaluable for the continued analysis of the role of CXCR4 in cancer and the development of CXCR4 antagonist therapy for patients suffering with primary tumors of the brain and other sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, CXCR4 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16357147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD01393
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Chemokines, CXC; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 452VLY9402 / Serine; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C
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30. Muzumdar D, Michaud J, Ventureyra EC: Anterior cranial base glioneuronal heterotopia. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Mar;22(3):227-33
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large, predominantly solid, minimally enhancing tumor in the anterior cranial fossa extending into the suprasellar region as well as into the right and left middle fossae.
  • The gross tumor was totally resected through bifrontal craniotomy.
  • Long-term prognosis is excellent in view of the benign nature and extraaxial origin of the lesion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Base. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16158328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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31. Cho WS, Kim SK, Park SH, Cho BK: Intracranial kaposiform hemangioendothelioma: proposal of a new malignant variant. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Feb;3(2):147-50
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  • Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a rare vascular tumor of infancy and early childhood that occurs mainly in soft tissue and the retroperitoneum.
  • The pathological characteristics of a KHE are fascicles of spindleshaped endothelial cells and slitlike vascular channels with irregular tumor margins.
  • In spite of benign features such as rare mitoses and a low MIB-1 labeling index, a KHE is categorized as an intermediate malignancy because of local invasiveness into adjacent lymph nodes or organs.
  • Resection is the treatment of choice for this type of tumor and adjuvant medical therapy is prepared for the tumor remnants and the associated Kasabach-Merritt syndrome.
  • The biological behavior of the tumor, including its pathological traits and clinical course, was malignant in nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Hemangioendothelioma / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology


32. Poliani PL, Sperli D, Valentini S, Armentano A, Bercich L, Bonetti MF, Corriero G, Brisigotti M, Quattrone A, Lanza PL: Spinal glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands and meningeal dissemination: histopathological and radiological study of a pediatric case. Neuropathology; 2009 Oct;29(5):574-8
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  • [Title] Spinal glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands and meningeal dissemination: histopathological and radiological study of a pediatric case.
  • Histologically the tumor was composed of round, small neurocytic-like cells arranged around eosinophilic neuropil cores and embedded in a diffuse fibrillar glial component forming prominent "rosetted" neuropil islands displaying strong immunoreactivity for neuronal markers.
  • Nevertheless, due to their exceptional rarity, the natural history of these lesions is not yet fully understood, but spinal GTNI seems to have an unfavorable clinical course despite their benign histopathological features, which must be taken into account for appropriate treatment and follow-up of the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19077041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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33. Vougioukas VI, Gläsker S, Hubbe U, Berlis A, Omran H, Neumann HP, Van Velthoven V: Surgical treatment of hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system in pediatric patients. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Sep;22(9):1149-53
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system in pediatric patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: Hemangioblastomas are histologically benign lesions that occur sporadically or as a manifestation of von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL).
  • The treatment strategy of these neoplasms is complicated by their unpredictable growth patterns and the often irreversible neurological deficits they may cause.
  • This study aims to outline the neurosurgical treatment options and to address the ongoing debate of surgical timing in pediatric patients with VHL.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirteen consecutive pediatric patients (mean age 15.1 years) who were surgically treated for intracranial (n=8) or spinal hemangioblastomas (n=5) were included in this study (range of clinical follow up 12-86 months).
  • During the observed follow-up periods, no tumor recurrences were observed.
  • CONCLUSION: Central nervous system (CNS) hemangioblastomas in pediatric patients can be surgically treated with low morbidity.
  • Molecular screening of every pediatric patient and family is mandatory to enable the detection of extraneurological tumors and the development of an efficient therapeutic strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain Stem / pathology. Brain Stem / surgery. Cerebellum / pathology. Cerebellum / surgery. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurologic Examination. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16369852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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34. Ruge JR, Liu J: Use of 5-aminolevulinic acid for visualization and resection of a benign pediatric brain tumor. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Nov;4(5):484-6
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  • [Title] Use of 5-aminolevulinic acid for visualization and resection of a benign pediatric brain tumor.
  • Intraoperatively, the residual tumor fluoresced, allowing for better visualization.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 19877785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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35. Lee J, Lee BL, Joo EY, Seo DW, Hong SB, Hong SC, Suh YL, Lee M: Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors in pediatric patients. Brain Dev; 2009 Oct;31(9):671-81
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  • [Title] Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors in pediatric patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs) are benign cortical tumors that are frequently associated with the medically intractable focal epilepsy.
  • The adopted surgical methods were uniform according to the tumor location and included intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG)-guided resection.
  • Therefore, complete removal of the CD with tumor itself is important for patient outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Epilepsy / surgery. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19058938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7131
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain & development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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36. Simon SL, Moonis G, Judkins AR, Scobie J, Burnett MG, Riina HA, Judy KD: Intracranial capillary hemangioma: case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol; 2005 Aug;64(2):154-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Capillary hemangiomas are benign vascular lesions that commonly present at birth or in early infancy on the face, scalp, back, or chest.
  • Only 4 biopsy-proven cases have been reported in the pediatric population previous to this case report.
  • The patient underwent a resection of her tumor, which was diagnosed as a capillary hemangioma by histopathologic examination.
  • The patient required 2 further resections after the lesion exhibited a rapid regrowth from residual tumor in the left transverse sinus.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Hemangioma, Capillary / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery


37. Ahmed I, Auguste KI, Vachhrajani S, Dirks PB, Drake JM, Rutka JT: Neurosurgical management of intracranial epidermoid tumors in children. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Aug;4(2):91-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECT: Epidermoid tumors are benign lesions representing 1% of all intracranial tumors.
  • There have been few pediatric series of intracranial epidermoid tumors reported previously.
  • The average age at surgery was 11.2 years (range 8-15 years), and the mean maximal tumor diameter was 2.1 cm.
  • Headache was the most common presenting symptom, and 1 tumor was found incidentally.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intracranial epidermoid tumors are rare in the pediatric population.
  • Total resection is desirable to minimize the risk of postoperative aseptic meningitis, hydrocephalus, and tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / diagnosis. Brain Diseases / surgery. Craniotomy. Epidermal Cyst / diagnosis. Epidermal Cyst / surgery. Neuronavigation

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  • (PMID = 19645539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Mehta N, Bhagwati S, Parulekar G: Meningiomas in children: A study of 18 cases. J Pediatr Neurosci; 2009 Jul;4(2):61-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Intracranial meningiomas are rare tumors in children accounting for 0.4-4.6% of all primary brain tumors in the age group of 0-18 years.
  • Total tumor excision was achieved in all cases.
  • Children with complete resection and a typical benign histology have a good prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 21887184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1817-1745
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric neurosciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3162790
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Meningioma / childhood meningioma / neurofibromatosis / pediatric neoplasms
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39. Mueller OM, van de Nes JA, Wieland R, Schoch B, Sure U: Surgical treatment of primary intracranial myxoma in a child following radiotherapy: case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Jun;26(6):829-34
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  • INTRODUCTION: Myxomas are benign tumors of the mesenchymal origin and account for about half of the benign cardiac tumors.
  • Treatment philosophy for this benign tumor entity is a completed resection of the lesion with regular follow-up MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Myxoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Brain / surgery. Child. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiography. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19946690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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40. Helton KJ, Edwards M, Steen RG, Merchant TE, Sapp MV, Boop FA, Langston J: Neuroimaging-detected late transient treatment-induced lesions in pediatric patients with brain tumors. J Neurosurg; 2005 Mar;102(2 Suppl):179-86
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  • [Title] Neuroimaging-detected late transient treatment-induced lesions in pediatric patients with brain tumors.
  • OBJECT: After the resection of brain tumors in pediatric patients, it can be difficult to differentiate recurrent tumor from treatment effects.
  • Although late-delayed reactions are thought to be permanent, in this study the authors sought to characterize transient brain lesions (TBLs) in the late-delayed period that completely resolved without imaging or neurological sequelae.
  • METHODS: In a retrospective review of an institutional neuroimaging brain tumor database, 11 patients were identified who met the imaging criteria (transient T2-weighted hyperintense enhancing lesions outside of the tumor bed, which occurred after radiation and/or chemotherapy) and had undergone three-dimensional dosimetry; their radiographic, clinical, and radiation-dosimetry results were analyzed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A benign form of treatment-induced brain injury in children, TBLs should be treated using short-interval follow up.
  • When these lesions are identified as a result of their characteristic imaging features, location, and temporal course, TBLs may be clearly distinguished from recurrent tumor or radiation necrosis and do not require biopsy.
  • Further studies are needed to determine whether patients with TBLs are at an increased risk of developing more severe treatment-related brain injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Brain / drug effects. Brain / radiation effects. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiotherapy / adverse effects


41. Ellert-Miklaszewska A, Grajkowska W, Gabrusiewicz K, Kaminska B, Konarska L: Distinctive pattern of cannabinoid receptor type II (CB2) expression in adult and pediatric brain tumors. Brain Res; 2007 Mar 16;1137(1):161-9
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  • [Title] Distinctive pattern of cannabinoid receptor type II (CB2) expression in adult and pediatric brain tumors.
  • The efficacy of cannabinoids against high-grade glioma in animal models, mediated by two specific receptors, CB1 and CB2, raised promises for targeted treatment of the most frequent and malignant primary brain tumors.
  • Unlike the abundantly expressed CB1, the CB2 receptor shows a restricted distribution in normal brain.
  • Although brain tumors constitute the second most common malignancy in children and the prevalence of histological types of brain tumors vary significantly between the adult and pediatric populations, cannabinoid receptor expression in pediatric tumors remains unknown.
  • In the present study, we compared the expression of the CB2 receptor in paraffin-embedded sections from primary brain tumors of adult and pediatric patients.
  • Most glioblastomas expressed very high levels of CB2 receptors and the expression correlated with tumor grade.
  • Interestingly, some benign pediatric astrocytic tumors, such as subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), which may occasionally cause mortality owing to progressive growth, also displayed high CB2 immunoreactivity.
  • In contrast, all examined cases of embryonal tumors (medulloblastoma and S-PNET), the most frequently diagnosed malignant brain tumors in childhood, showed no or trace CB2 immunoreactivity.
  • Our results suggest that the CB2 receptor expression depends primarily on the histopathological origin of the brain tumor cells and differentiation state, reflecting the tumor grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17239827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2
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42. Arora RS, Alston RD, Eden TO, Estlin EJ, Moran A, Birch JM: Age-incidence patterns of primary CNS tumors in children, adolescents, and adults in England. Neuro Oncol; 2009 Aug;11(4):403-13
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  • A total of 54,336 CNS tumors of malignant, benign, and uncertain behavior were registered across the whole of England from 1995 through 2003.
  • In this article, we describe the changing patterns in the epidemiology of primary CNS tumors in these three age groups with respect to sex, tumor behavior, and histology using the current WHO classification.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19033157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Hsu TR, Wong TT, Chang FC, Ho DM, Tang RB, Thien PF, Chang KP: Responsiveness of progressive optic pathway tumors to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in children. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Dec;24(12):1457-61
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  • BACKGROUND: Though the pathology of optic pathway tumor is mostly pilocytic astrocytoma, the benign tumor behaves like malignant tumor because total resection is not feasible.
  • We evaluate the responsiveness of optic pathway tumor to cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Brain MRI was performed every 3 months to evaluate the objective response to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18769928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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44. Park JE, Park MC, Yoon SH, Kim JH: Intradural extracerebral choristoma. Case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2008;44(4):318-23
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  • Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a 2.0-cm-sized, round-shaped mass in the frontal midline.
  • RESULTS: Surgical exploration revealed a yellowish tumor mass with whitish soft tissue material within the tumor, adherence to the surrounding blood vessels, and therefore subtotal removal was performed.
  • Follow-up at 18 months later showed that there was no evidence of tumor regrowth or neurological deficit, and the neurological development was normal.
  • CONCLUSION: The authors described a rare case of intracranial extracerebral neuroglial choristoma accompanied by both nasopharyngeal teratoma and cleft palate and suggested its benign nature from the low MIB-1 labeling index.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Neuroglia
  • [MeSH-minor] Cleft Palate / complications. Female. Humans. Infant. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / complications. Teratoma / complications

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  • [Copyright] 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18504419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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45. Qaddoumi I, Sultan I, Broniscer A: Pediatric low-grade gliomas and the need for new options for therapy: Why and how? Cancer Biol Ther; 2009 Jan;8(1):4-10
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  • [Title] Pediatric low-grade gliomas and the need for new options for therapy: Why and how?
  • Pediatric low-grade gliomas are the most common tumors of the central nervous system in children, accounting for almost 50% of all childhood brain tumors.
  • This is mostly due to a lack of understanding of tumor biology at the molecular level.
  • Pediatric low-grade gliomas are not benign, and most incompletely resected tumors will progress and negatively affect quality of life.
  • Such progress in pilocytic astrocytoma needs to be consolidated and expanded to other histologic varieties of pediatric low-grade gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 19164945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; None / None / / P30 CA021765-31; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-31; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 97
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS161402; NLM/ PMC2810626
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46. Beck Popovic M, Balmer A, Maeder P, Braganca T, Munier FL: Benign pineal cysts in children with bilateral retinoblastoma: a new variant of trilateral retinoblastoma? Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Jun;46(7):755-61
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  • [Title] Benign pineal cysts in children with bilateral retinoblastoma: a new variant of trilateral retinoblastoma?
  • PURPOSE: Patients with hereditary retinoblastoma (Rb) develop in 4%-8% a malignant midline tumor called trilateral Rb (TRb).
  • We report in this study on benign pineal cysts observed in patients investigated for TRb.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This report describes benign cystic lesions of the pineal gland in patients with hereditary Rb, suggesting a benign variant of TRb.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Cysts / etiology. Central Nervous System Cysts / pathology. Pineal Gland. Retinal Neoplasms / complications. Retinoblastoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pinealoma / etiology. Pinealoma / pathology. Prognosis. Switzerland / epidemiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16003734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Balaji R, Ramachandran K: Imaging of desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma: a spectroscopic viewpoint. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Apr;25(4):497-501
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  • PURPOSE: Desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas (DIG) are rare benign intracranial neoplasms of early childhood with involvement of superficial cerebral cortex and leptomeninges.
  • The purpose of the study was to determine the alterations in metabolite ratios occurring in the neoplasm and combine with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features to narrow down the diagnosis.
  • Single-voxel short TE (1)H MR spectroscopy was used to study the changes in metabolite ratios in the tumor.
  • RESULTS: Comparison of metabolite ratios between normal brain tissue and tumor-affected region showed lower N-acetyl aspartate to creatine (Cr; 1.58 vs.1.28), higher choline to Cr (0.82 vs.2.03), and no significant change in myo-inositol to Cr (0.42 vs.0.39).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis. Ganglioglioma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aspartic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Aspartic Acid / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Brain / physiopathology. Child. Choline / metabolism. Creatine / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Inositol / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Male

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  • (PMID = 19139903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; 4L6452S749 / Inositol; 997-55-7 / N-acetylaspartate; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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48. Ellis JA, Waziri A, Balmaceda C, Canoll P, Bruce JN, Sisti MB: Rapid recurrence and malignant transformation of pilocytic astrocytoma in adult patients. J Neurooncol; 2009 Dec;95(3):377-382
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  • Pilocytic astrocytoma is a slow-growing, circumscribed glioma that most frequently occurs within the pediatric population.
  • In general, surgical resection for pilocytic astrocytoma is thought to be curative with tumor recurrence or malignant transformation being relatively rare.
  • To evaluate the frequency of recurrence and malignant transformation of pilocytic astrocytoma in adults, we performed a retrospective analysis of all adult patients who underwent surgical resection for this tumor at our institution over a period of 10 years.
  • This study provides further evidence that the clinical course of a subset of adult patients with pilocytic astrocytoma will not be benign.
  • The potential for rapid tumor recurrence and malignant transformation necessitates careful post-operative follow-up for adult patients with this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19533024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Karamanakos PN, Jaaskelainen JE, Alafuzoff I, Pirinen E, Vanninen R, Silvennoinen S, Sankilampi U, Immonen A: Malignant giant cell tumor in the posterior fossa of a neonate. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Mar;5(3):277-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant giant cell tumor in the posterior fossa of a neonate.
  • Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of the bone are rare, usually benign but locally aggressive neoplasms that primarily occur in the epiphyses of long bones.
  • One month after the gross-total resection of the tumor found in the bone, the infant's condition rapidly deteriorated and she died.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging and postmortem examination revealed a tumor larger than it had been before the operation, with expansion toward the brain.
  • To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the youngest patient reported with a primary malignant GCT of the skull, and actually the first case in a pediatric patient.
  • In addition, the extremely high growth rate of the tumor in the postoperative period renders this case the most aggressive primary malignant GCT of the cranium described so far.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Posterior. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Infant, Premature, Diseases / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20192645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Campos WK, Linhares MN: Sporadic intramedullary spinal cord hemangioblastoma in a newborn. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2010;46(5):385-9
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  • They are highly vascular, benign tumors that occur either sporadically or in the presence of von Hippel-Lindau disease.
  • MRI of the spine revealed an intramedullary tumor extending from level T6 to T12.
  • RESULTS: The tumor was excised completely, using standard microsurgical techniques via a posterior approach.
  • CONCLUSION: A review of the literature revealed that this neoplasm is composed of 3 major cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and stromal cells.
  • Complete microsurgical removal is the treatment of choice for spinal cord HB because the tumor is benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21389752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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51. Noussios G, Chouridis P, Petropoulos I, Karagiannidis K, Kontzoglou G: Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the tongue in a 3-year-old boy: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:130
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  • INTRODUCTION: Alveolar soft tissue sarcoma of the tongue is a very rare and aggressive tumor which occurs in infancy with a relatively controversial histogenesis.
  • It may mimic benign vascular neoplasms and may metastasize to the lungs, brain or bones.
  • CONCLUSION: Alveolar soft tissue sarcoma of the tongue is a rare tumor which occurs in infancy and which is often misdiagnosed pre-operatively.
  • It should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of oral pediatric lesions.

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  • (PMID = 20459684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2873458
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52. Fulkerson DH, Luerssen TG, Hattab EM, Kim DL, Smith JL: Long-term follow-up of solitary intracerebral juvenile xanthogranuloma. Case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2008;44(6):480-5
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  • Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign, non-Langerhans-cell histiocytic infiltrate that typically presents as a solitary cutaneous lesion in childhood.
  • A solitary, intraparenchymal tumor without skin manifestations is a rare event, with only 3 prior cases reported in the literature.
  • Considering the rarity of this tumor, it is unclear whether patients need adjuvant therapy after excision of a solitary intraparenchymal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / diagnosis. Brain Diseases / surgery. Xanthogranuloma, Juvenile / diagnosis. Xanthogranuloma, Juvenile / surgery


53. A da Fonseca M, Thikkurissy S: Maxillary melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent; 2009 Sep;2(3):61-4
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  • [Title] Maxillary melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy.
  • The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare benign neoplasm of neural crest origin most commonly found in the anterior region of the maxilla.
  • The tumor almost always develops during the first year of life, although in some cases it can be present at birth.
  • Main sites for recurrences are the maxilla (57%) and the skull/brain (28.6%).
  • The diagnostic and clinico-pathological features as well as tumor management and importance of a timely diagnosis are reviewed.

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  • (PMID = 25206125.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-7052
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical pediatric dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Pediatr Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4086571
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy / maxilla / pediatric dentistry / pediatric oral pathology.
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54. Agaoglu FY, Ayan I, Dizdar Y, Kebudi R, Gorgun O, Darendeliler E: Ependymal tumors in childhood. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Sep;45(3):298-303
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  • [Title] Ependymal tumors in childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymal tumors are classified as ependymoma (benign or low grade) versus anaplastic ependymoma (malignant or high grade).
  • Ependymomas represent 5-10% of intracranial neoplasm in children.
  • In this study, demographic data and the treatment results of pediatric patients with ependymal tumors, treated in a single institute, is reported.
  • Total tumor resection was performed in 20 patients (50%), subtotal in 18 patients (45%), and biopsy only in 2 patients (5%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The majority of complete responders were patients who had total tumor removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Ependymoma

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15770637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Mehrotra N, Shamji MF, Vassilyadi M, Ventureyra EC: Intracranial tumors in first year of life: the CHEO experience. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Dec;25(12):1563-9
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  • INTRODUCTION: One seventh of pediatric brain tumors are diagnosed in the first year of life.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of brain tumor patients presenting to the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) through the last 34 years.
  • RESULTS: Eighteen cases of brain tumors in the first year of life were identified: 12 suptratentorial, eight with benign histology, and six infratentorial all with malignant histology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Brain tumors in the first year of life represent 4.8% of patients treated at CHEO.
  • Mode of presentation, utilization of adjuvant therapy, and survival depend on tumor location and histology, with worse prognosis for infratentorial lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / therapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / therapy. Meningioma / therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / therapy. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19551387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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56. Crabtree KL, Arnold PM: Spinal seeding of a pilocytic astrocytoma in an adult, initially diagnosed 18 years previously. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2010;46(1):66-70
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  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a slow-growing, well-circumscribed grade I glioma generally considered benign, with a low recurrence rate and an excellent prognosis following complete surgical resection.
  • PA is the most common central nervous system glioma in the pediatric population and is rare in adults.
  • To our knowledge, this is the longest time reported from initial tumor resection of leptomeningeal dissemination to the distal spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Seeding. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20516744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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57. Kenerson H, Dundon TA, Yeung RS: Effects of rapamycin in the Eker rat model of tuberous sclerosis complex. Pediatr Res; 2005 Jan;57(1):67-75
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  • Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) presents in the pediatric population with a constellation of benign tumors that affect the brain, heart, kidney, lung, and skin.
  • In both types of pathology, tumor response was accompanied by down-regulation of ribosomal S6 kinase activity, reduction in cell size, and induction of apoptosis.
  • We conclude that rapamycin-sensitive mTOR activity was critical to tumor progression in the Eker rat model, but rapamycin is unlikely to eradicate all disease as a result of the development of drug resistance.
  • Our data also suggest the role of a rapamycin-insensitive pathway during tumor initiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Disease Models, Animal. Disease Progression. Down-Regulation. Immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney / pathology. Mutation. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Protein Kinases / metabolism. Rats. Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases / metabolism. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases. Time Factors. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 15557109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA102662; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA61889
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / mTOR protein, rat; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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58. Soudack M, Guralnik L, Ben-Nun A, Berkowitz D, Postovsky S, Vlodavsky E, Engel A: Imaging features of posterior mediastinal chordoma in a child. Pediatr Radiol; 2007 May;37(5):492-7
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  • Evaluation by CT revealed a low-density posterior mediastinal mass initially diagnosed as benign tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Chordoma / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinum / diagnostic imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis

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  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
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59. O'Brien DF, Crooks D, Mallucci C, Javadpour M, Williams D, du Plessis D, Broome J, Foy P, Pizer B: Meningeal melanocytoma. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Jun;22(6):556-61
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  • BACKGROUND: Meningeal melanocytoma was first described over 30 years ago as a benign tumour derived from melanocytes.
  • Although classified as a benign tumour, this tumour shows a marked tendency towards reduced survival following subtotal resection and transformation over time in a limited number to malignant melanoma.
  • Its classification as a benign tumour should be revised, given the published 5-year survival data.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16491422.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
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60. Balatsouras DG, Kaberos A, Assimakopoulos D, Katotomichelakis M, Economou NC, Korres SG: Etiology of vertigo in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2007 Mar;71(3):487-94
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  • RESULTS: Viral infections, benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood and migraine were the most common causes of vertigo accounting for approximately 65% of our patients.
  • Otitis media, head trauma, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Meniere's disease and brain tumor were less common causes of vertigo.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Otitis Media / complications. Vertigo / etiology. Vertigo / physiopathology. Virus Diseases / complications


61. Kim MS, Muratore C, Snelling L, Mandelbaum DE, McEachern R, Mangray S, Faizan M, Quintos JB: Ischemic stroke and rhabdomyolysis in a 15-year-old girl with paraganglioma due to an SDHB exon 6 (Q214X) mutation. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jun;22(6):565-71
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  • RESULTS: Pathology showed a Zellballen pattern, negative tumor margins and benign para-aortic lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Ischemia / etiology. Germ-Line Mutation. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / genetics. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / genetics. Rhabdomyolysis / etiology. Stroke / etiology. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19694205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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62. Cho JM, Ahn JY, Kim SH, Lee KS, Chang JH: An endodermal cyst mimicking an intra-axial tumor in the medulla oblongata. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Jun;26(6):853-6
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  • [Title] An endodermal cyst mimicking an intra-axial tumor in the medulla oblongata.
  • INTRODUCTION: Endodermal cysts, also known as enterogenous, neurenteric, foregut, epithelial, bronchogenic, or respiratory cysts, are rare benign lesions lined by columnar epithelium of a presumed endodermal origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis. Medulla Oblongata

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  • [CommentIn] Childs Nerv Syst. 2011 Jun;27(6):861-2; author reply 863 [21503756.001]
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  • (PMID = 20217097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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