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1. Basu S, Houseni M, Alavi A: Significance of incidental fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the parotid glands and its impact on patient management. Nucl Med Commun; 2008 Apr;29(4):367-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Significance of incidental fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the parotid glands and its impact on patient management.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Minimal-to-low grade fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the parotid glands is regarded as a normal variant in a whole-body survey with FDG-PET.
  • Not frequently, however, a relatively intense or asymmetric FDG uptake is encountered in the parotid glands.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the causes and characteristics of this 'FDG accumulation of uncertain significance' in the parotid glands in patients without any known or suspected pathologies at the time of whole-body FDG-PET.
  • In addition, we also examined patients in whom there was no documented evidence of parotid pathology before FDG-PET scan and a suspicion of disease involvement was first raised in the reports in view of focal uptake in the FDG-PET images.
  • Only those cases with no earlier history of disease involvement of parotid gland or known parotid pathology before FDG-PET were selected for this analysis.
  • These patients were selected from a population of patients with a known malignancy elsewhere who underwent conventional whole-body FDG-PET or PET/CT for staging, disease viability assessment, or treatment monitoring purposes and had demonstrated varying patterns of FDG uptake (unilateral, bilateral, symmetric, or asymmetric) in the parotid glands.
  • FDG uptake in the parotid glands was reported to be of uncertain significance in the majority of these patients and further correlation was suggested in the PET reports.
  • The results of appropriate correlative investigations with MRI, low-dose nonenhanced attenuation CT images (based on PET/CT scans), and histopathology (in cases in which focal lesions were revealed by the anatomic imaging modalities and biopsy was performed) carried out subsequent to the FDG-PET scans were reviewed for a definitive conclusion with regard to the significance of the FDG uptake in the parotid glands in these patients.
  • The pattern and the intensity of the FDG uptake were correlated with the final diagnosis.
  • The final diagnosis based upon histopathology revealed primary parotid tumors (e.g., Warthin's tumor and pleomorphic adenoma, which presented as FDG-avid parotid incidentaloma) or metastatic disease involvement.
  • CONCLUSION: Both the pattern and intensity of FDG uptake have important implications for differential diagnosis in the salivary glands in whole-body FDG-PET.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Parotid Gland / metabolism. Parotid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Salivary Gland Diseases / metabolism. Salivary Gland Diseases / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18317302.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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2. Wang PZ, Yu Q, Shi HM, Luo JC: [Diagnostic value of CT perfusion for parotid gland tumors]. Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue; 2005 Dec;14(6):573-7
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic value of CT perfusion for parotid gland tumors].
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether CT perfusion was valuable in differentiating benign tumors from malignant ones in the parotid gland.
  • METHODS: Fifty-three parotid gland tumors, 35 benign and 18 malignant, in 51 patients were included in this study.
  • Wilcoxon sign sum test, a nonparameters test for paired data were used to determine the statistical differences of parameters between the benign and malignant tumors.
  • RESULTS: The mean values +/- standard variations of BF, BV, MTT and PS were 139.85+/-175.13, 17.16+/-15.67, 13.27+/-4.42, and 24.38+/-14.52 respectively in benign tumors, versus 231.69+/-205.29, 32.22+/-20.56, 11.40+/-3.95 and 38.28+/-19.00 respectively in malignant tumors.
  • Except for MTT, the differences of BF, BV and PS between benign and malignant tumors were statistically significant (P<0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the results of this study, the parameters of CT perfusion, BF, BV and PS, were valuable in differentiating benign and malignant tumors of the parotid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Parotid Gland / radiography. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16400481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1006-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] Shanghai kou qiang yi xue = Shanghai journal of stomatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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3. Schmidt LA, Olsen SH, McHugh JB: Cutaneous adnexal differentiation and stromal metaplasia in palate pleomorphic adenomas: a potential diagnostic pitfall that may be mistaken for malignancy. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1205-10
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  • Cutaneous adnexal differentiation is well-recognized in benign mixed tumors occurring in cutaneous sites.
  • The incidence of this histologic finding in salivary gland sites is not known.
  • We sought to describe the incidence of cutaneous adnexal differentiation in benign mixed tumors of the palate, lip, and parotid gland.
  • Benign mixed tumors of the palate (n=30), lip (n=13), and parotid gland (n=37) resected between 1980 and 2009 at a single academic medical institution were reviewed.
  • All hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections containing neoplasm were reviewed by all authors including one dermatopathologist (S.H.O.).
  • After confirming the diagnosis of benign mixed tumor, we evaluated for morphologic evidence of cutaneous adnexal differentiation and metaplastic epithelial and stromal changes.
  • Cutaneous adnexal differentiation was seen in 20% of palate and 39% of lip benign mixed tumors but in no parotid tumors.
  • Sebaceous differentiation was seen in only one palate tumor.
  • Varying amounts of stromal adipose were seen in 62, 37, and 22% of lip, palate, and parotid tumors.
  • Osseous metaplasia was seen in one tumor from each site.
  • When cutaneous adnexal differentiation occurs in salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas, it can present a diagnostic pitfall that must not be misinterpreted as carcinoma at biopsy, fine needle aspiration, or frozen section.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Lip Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Palatal Neoplasms / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20661019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Ono K, Inoue H, Masuda W, Morimoto Y, Tanaka T, Yokota M, Inenaga K: Relationship of chewing-stimulated whole saliva flow rate and salivary gland size. Arch Oral Biol; 2007 May;52(5):427-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Relationship of chewing-stimulated whole saliva flow rate and salivary gland size.
  • OBJECTIVE: We have recently reported that unstimulated whole saliva flow rates (UWSFR) correlate positively with salivary gland sizes and body profiles of weight and body mass indices.
  • In the present study, the correlations of chewing-stimulated whole saliva flow rates (CWSFR) with salivary gland sizes and the body profiles were investigated, and the results were compared with those of UWSFR.
  • The CWSFRs in all subjects correlated positively with parotid and/or submandibular gland sizes, weights and body mass indices, just as with UWSFR; however, the correlation coefficients with salivary gland sizes were smaller than those of UWSFR.
  • In contrast to the results of UWSFR, the correlation coefficients of the CWSFRs with parotid gland sizes in all subjects were larger than those with the sizes of the submandibular glands.
  • The CWSFRs in males correlated only with parotid gland sizes, and those in females did not correlate with any of the parameters.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Body Mass Index. Body Weight / physiology. Female. Humans. Male. Menstrual Cycle / physiology. Parotid Gland / anatomy & histology. Secretory Rate / physiology. Sex Factors. Submandibular Gland / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 17126285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9969
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of oral biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Oral Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Boccon-Gibod L, Boman F, Josset P, Landman-Parker J: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland in a child previously treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Jun 15;44(7):673-5
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  • [Title] Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland in a child previously treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have an increased risk for developing mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) of the parotid gland.
  • Low-grade MEC of the left parotid gland was diagnosed at the age of 7 years, only 1 year after completing treatment.
  • This case report is remarkable for the early diagnosis of second cancer, only 4 years after diagnosis of ALL, and its occurrence in parotid gland without previous head and neck irradiation.
  • It highlights the need for concern about second cancers of the parotid gland in children treated for ALL.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Parotid Neoplasms / etiology. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15515042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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6. Gupta G, Singh R, Shanmugasamy K, Kotasthane DS, Kotasthane VD: Basal cell adenocarcinoma in the tongue: an unusual presentation. Clin Med Insights Oncol; 2010 Nov 21;4:127-31
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  • BCAC generally occurs in the parotid gland and rarely involves the minor salivary glands.
  • Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed tumour composed of variable sized and shaped, nests and sheets of basaloid epithelial cells having hyperchromatic to vesicular nuclei.
  • The clinicopathological features and the cellular immunophenotype addressed the diagnosis towards BCAC of the tongue.
  • The goal of this report is to increase awareness of this rare disease and to review and discuss the differential diagnosis and important considerations in treatment.

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  • (PMID = 21151583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-5549
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Insights Oncol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999957
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; basal cell adenocarcinoma / minor salivary gland / tongue
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7. Kaeppler G, Buchgeister M, Reinert S: Influence of the rotation centre in panoramic radiography. Radiat Prot Dosimetry; 2008;128(2):239-44
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  • The curves of the rotation centre showed clear differences especially in the area of the parotid gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neck / radiation effects. Parotid Gland / radiation effects. Phantoms, Imaging. Pituitary Gland / radiation effects. Rotation

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  • (PMID = 17573368.001).
  • [ISSN] 0144-8420
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation protection dosimetry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Prot Dosimetry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Busch L, Sterin-Borda L, Borda E: Effects of castration on cannabinoid cb receptor expression and on the biological actions of cannabinoid in the parotid gland. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol; 2006 Mar;33(3):258-63
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  • [Title] Effects of castration on cannabinoid cb receptor expression and on the biological actions of cannabinoid in the parotid gland.
  • In the present study, we examined whether cannabinoid receptor expression and the effects of receptor stimulation vary as a function of gonadal status in a peripheral tissue, namely the male rat parotid gland.
  • 7. It can be concluded that CB(1) cannabinoid receptor expression is regulated by testosterone in male rat parotid gland and this has functional implications for cAMP accumulation and amylase release.
  • [MeSH-major] Cannabinoids / pharmacology. Orchiectomy. Parotid Gland / drug effects. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16487271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1870
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arachidonic Acids; 0 / Cannabinoids; 0 / Endocannabinoids; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Polyunsaturated Alkamides; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1; 158681-13-1 / rimonabant; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 94421-68-8 / anandamide; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 3.2.1.- / Amylases; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.3.9 / Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase; EC 4.6.1.1 / Adenylyl Cyclases
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9. Masuda M, Segawa Y, Joe AK, Hirakawa N, Komune S: A case of primary Hodgkin's lymphoma of the parotid gland. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2008 Sep;35(3):440-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of primary Hodgkin's lymphoma of the parotid gland.
  • We report an extremely rare case (sixth reported case) of primary Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) (mixed cellularity type) of the parotid gland.
  • A 14-year-old man was referred to our hospital for evaluation of a parotid mass.
  • Although the initial aspiration cytology was highly suggestive of HL, the confirmatory diagnosis obtained by open biopsy was non-specific lymphadenitis.
  • Because the mass continued to increase in size, we performed a total parotidectomy which led to the diagnosis of mixed cellularity HL.
  • This case suggests that the specimen taken during open biopsy may have been too small (about 1 cm3) to detect the presence of Reed-Sternberg giant cells, which is essential for the diagnosis of HL.
  • Therefore, although primary HL of the parotid gland is extremely rare, adequate tissue sampling of a clinically suspicious parotid mass will be required for the diagnosis of HL.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Parotid Gland / pathology. Parotid Gland / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17983719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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10. Vaudaux JD, Moulin AP, Olivier F, Guex-Crosier Y: Parotid gland fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2010 Apr;227(4):328-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parotid gland fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Eye Diseases / pathology. Parotid Gland / pathology. Sarcoidosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20408089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3999
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. Veder LL, Kerrebijn JD, Smedts FM, den Bakker MA: Diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology in Warthin tumors. Head Neck; 2010 Dec;32(12):1635-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for Warthin tumors of the parotid gland.
  • METHODS: All cytologic diagnoses of Warthin tumor between 1990 and 2007 were correlated with available histology.
  • RESULTS: In 310 cases, Warthin tumor was diagnosed by FNAC.
  • In 127 of these 133 cases (95.5%), the diagnosis Warthin tumor was confirmed by histology.
  • In 4 cases (3%), a benign lesion was diagnosed and 2 (1.5%) revealed a malignant lesion.
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for the diagnosis of Warthin tumor is high and the percentage of missed malignant tumors is very low.
  • Our results imply that a cytologic diagnosis of Warthin tumor may justify conservative treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenolymphoma / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis


12. Kopeć T, Szyfter W: [Deep lobe of parotid gland tumors]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2006;60(3):317-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Deep lobe of parotid gland tumors].
  • INTRODUCTION: Surgery of the parotid gland tumors can be difficult because of the presence of the facial nerve branches in the parotid tissue.
  • The aim of the surgical treatment is complete removal of the tumor without damaging the facial nerve.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the years of 2002-2004 208 patients with the parotid gland tumors were treated.
  • There were 177 benign and 31 malignant tumors.
  • 159 tumors were located in the superficial lobe of the parotid gland, 35 in the superficial and the deep lobe, and 14 only in the deep lobe.
  • A paralysis of the facial nerve was observed in two cases of the pleomorhic adenoma with a diameter over 6 cm, and in 9 cases of malignant tumors of the superficial and the deep lobe, where the main trunk or the branches of the facial nerve were integrated with the tumor mass.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment of the parotid gland tumors presented in our study demonstrates good results.
  • [MeSH-major] Frontal Lobe. Parotid Gland / surgery. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16989442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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13. Houweling AC, Philippens ME, Dijkema T, Roesink JM, Terhaard CH, Schilstra C, Ten Haken RK, Eisbruch A, Raaijmakers CP: A comparison of dose-response models for the parotid gland in a large group of head-and-neck cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Mar 15;76(4):1259-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A comparison of dose-response models for the parotid gland in a large group of head-and-neck cancer patients.
  • PURPOSE: The dose-response relationship of the parotid gland has been described most frequently using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model.
  • We evaluated in a large group of patients the value of six NTCP models that describe the parotid gland dose response 1 year after radiotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 347 patients with head-and-neck tumors were included in this prospective parotid gland dose-response study.
  • Dose-volume histograms for the parotid glands were derived from three-dimensional dose calculations using computed tomography scans.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The mean dose model was preferred for describing the dose-response relationship of the parotid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Models, Statistical. Parotid Gland / radiation effects. Radiation Injuries / complications. Saliva / secretion

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20005639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA59827
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Zhao Y, Zhang W, Zhao J, Li Z, He S: [Reconstruction of soft tissue defects in oral and maxillofacial regions after tumors surgery using cervical pedicle tissue flaps]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Oct;19(10):780-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary sites of the lesions were the tongue (59 cases), buccal mucosa (55 cases), lower gingiva (26 cases), floor of the mouth (25 cases), parotid gland (4 cases) and oropharynx (3 cases).

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  • (PMID = 16274122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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15. Zhang NS, Wei W, Sun JY: [Parotidectomy of deep-lobe tumors]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Oct;42(10):757-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: This retrospective review included 114 patients with benign parotid gland tumors hospitalized from 2001 to 2004, among which 13 patients with deep-lobe parotid tumors and 101 patients in the superficial lobe of parotid gland.
  • RESULTS: During median 3 years and 3 months following-up, no any cases with either tumor recurrence, permanent facial nerve injury, postparotidectomy depression, or Frey's syndrome was found in the 7 operated patients.
  • Additionally, the parotid function preservation and cosmetic appearance after operation also satisfy both the patients and surgeons.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Nerve / surgery. Parotid Gland / surgery. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18229587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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16. Fischer T, Paschen CF, Slowinski T, Alkhameri A, Berl JC, Klingebiel R, Thomas A: Differentiation of parotid gland tumors with contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Rofo; 2010 Feb;182(2):155-62
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  • [Title] Differentiation of parotid gland tumors with contrast-enhanced ultrasound.
  • PURPOSE: Pilot study to evaluate a new ultrasound (US) technique for differentiating parotid cystadenolymphoma (CL) from pleomorphic adenoma (PA).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: 27 patients presenting with a palpable lesion of the parotid gland were examined by B-mode US.
  • The contrast medium inflow curves from the tumor and parotid parenchyma were compared by using AUC analysis and compared with histology.
  • AUC analysis for the tumor area demonstrated a significant difference between the PA group (30.3 +/- 24.3 dB/area) and the CL group (77.4 +/- 45.6 dB/area, p < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenolymphoma / ultrasonography. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / ultrasonography. Image Enhancement. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Parotid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Contrast Media / pharmacokinetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Parotid Gland / pathology. Parotid Gland / surgery. Parotid Gland / ultrasonography. Phospholipids / pharmacokinetics. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sulfur Hexafluoride / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 19862655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9010
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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17. Malikov S, Thomassin JM, Magnan PE, Keshelava G, Bartoli M, Branchereau A: Open surgical reconstruction of the internal carotid artery aneurysm at the base of the skull. J Vasc Surg; 2010 Feb;51(2):323-9
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  • Principal elements of the technique were: partial resection of the parotid gland without rerouting of the facial nerve; luxation of mandibula; drilling of the bone.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20141956.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6809
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Leibowitz JM, Montone KT, Basu D: Warthin tumor presenting as a fungal abscess in an immunocompetent host: case report and review of the literature. Head Neck; 2010 Jan;32(1):133-6
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  • [Title] Warthin tumor presenting as a fungal abscess in an immunocompetent host: case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Fungal abscesses of the parotid gland are rare, and cases arising within parotid neoplasms have not been described previously.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: A 59-year-old man experienced multiple recurrences of a parotid fungal abscess requiring repeated drainage procedures.
  • Definitive excision ultimately demonstrated Candida glabrata infecting a Warthin tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case is the first report of a parotid neoplasm presenting as a fungal abscess.
  • It contributes to the scant literature on fungal abscesses of the parotid, which previously has only been described in debilitated hosts and without an associated neoplasm.
  • Warthin tumor may be an occult etiology for a parotid fungal abscess, and definitive diagnosis and therapy may require parotidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abscess / surgery. Adenolymphoma / surgery. Candida glabrata. Candidiasis / surgery. Immunocompetence. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19340859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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19. Ploquin N, Kay I, Rangel-Baltazar A, Lau H, Dunscombe P: A comparison of techniques for simulating set-up error and uncertainty in head and neck IMRT. Med Phys; 2006 Sep;33(9):3213-9
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  • Discrepancies of up to 20% in the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) between direct simulation and simple convolution were estimated for the relatively superficial parotid gland at a systematic set-up error of 6 mm standard deviation and a random uncertainty of 2 mm standard deviation.

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  • (PMID = 17022214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-2405
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Takayama O, Yokoyama J, Ito S: Therapeutic experience of recurrent myoepithelial carcinoma by superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy infused high-dose CDDP. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2006 Jun;33(2):235-8
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  • Myoepithelial carcinoma is one of several new entities added to the updated classification of salivary gland tumors by the WHO in 1991.
  • This tumor most frequently occurs in parotid gland.
  • This is the first report presenting the tumor in floor of the mouth.
  • We confirmed tumor free in FDG-PET in 2 months after the treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / therapy. Mouth Floor / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Myoepithelioma / therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16446069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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21. Ethunandan M, Vura G, Umar T, Anand R, Pratt CA, Macpherson DW, Wilson AW: Lipomatous lesions of the parotid gland. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2006 Nov;64(11):1583-6
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  • [Title] Lipomatous lesions of the parotid gland.
  • PURPOSE: Lipomatous lesions of the parotid gland are rare and seldom considered in the initial diagnosis of a parotid mass.
  • We report our experience in the management of patients with lipomatous lesions affecting the parotid gland.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all parotidectomies performed for neoplastic lesions in the maxillofacial unit between 1975 and 2003 and patients with lipomatous lesions involving the parotid gland were identified; 638 parotidectomies were performed in this period on 629 patients in which 660 neoplasms were identified.
  • RESULTS: Lipomatous lesions accounted for only 1.3% of parotid tumors and occurred more frequently in males, at a ratio of 3 to 1.
  • Computed tomography scan was the most frequent imaging modality undertaken, and in 3 patients a diagnosis of a lipoma was made preoperatively.
  • CONCLUSION: Lipomatous lesions accounted for only 1.3% of all parotid tumors.
  • There were no specific distinguishing clinical features in our patients, and an accurate preoperative diagnosis was made in 3 patients based on imaging investigations.
  • [MeSH-major] Lipoma / surgery. Parotid Gland / surgery. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17052582.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-2391
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Teymoortash A, Schrader C, Shimoda H, Kato S, Werner JA: Evidence of lymphangiogenesis in Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland. Oral Oncol; 2007 Jul;43(6):614-8
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  • [Title] Evidence of lymphangiogenesis in Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland.
  • The details of the pathogenesis of cystadenolymphoma (Warthin's tumor) of the parotid gland are still unclear.
  • Neovascularization is considered to be a pivotal factor for solid tumor progression and biological behavior of the tumor.
  • Using double-labeling immunohistochemistry for LYVE-1 and CD34 (specific markers for lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells, respectively) this study analyzes lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and blood vessel density (BVD) in 10 Warthin's tumors and 10 pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland as well as in 5 normal parotid glands and 5 normal parotid lymph nodes.
  • There was no significant difference in the intratumoral LVD and BVD among pleomorphic adenoma and normal parotid gland tissue.
  • In contrast, the intratumoral LVD and BVD were significantly higher in Warthin's tumor than pleomorphic adenoma, normal parotid gland and parotid lymph node (P<0.0001 versus P<0.004).
  • The increase in lymphatic vessels in Warthin's tumor suggests that epithelial tumor cells might promote lymphangiogenesis in this kind of lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenolymphoma / pathology. Lymphangiogenesis. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16996778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / LYVE1 protein, human; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins
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23. Li H, Wu GH, Chen FJ, Zhang Q, Wei MW, Chen WK: [Pathological character and treatment of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary gland]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Apr;41(4):281-3
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  • [Title] [Pathological character and treatment of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary gland].
  • METHODS: Retrospectively reviewed 14 cases' pathological and clinical materials of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary gland.
  • Eight cases origine from parotid gland, 2 cases from hard palate, 3 cases from submandibular gland and 1 case from nasal cavity.
  • RESULTS: Tumor arisen mostly from parotid gland and neck lymph node metastasis rate was 14.28% (2/14).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology


24. Newton JR, O'Donnell M, Samuel PR: A case of renal cell carcinoma metastasizing to the parotid gland. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Apr;136(4 Suppl):S65-7
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  • [Title] A case of renal cell carcinoma metastasizing to the parotid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17398347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6817
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Chen JY, Zeng DS, Yu D, Jin K: [The use of kidney-shaped pressure bandage to prevent postoperative salivary fistula]. Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue; 2010 Apr;19(2):144-6
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  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of pressure bandage with kidney-shaped cotton pad in parotidectomy and the relevant factors of parotid salivary fistula occurring after parotidectomy.
  • METHODS: One hundred and ninety-six patients with parotid benign tumor or tumor-like lesions were randomly divided into two groups, 100 cases in the kidney-shaped cotton pad group and 96 cases in the traditional management group.
  • The incidence of postoperative salivary in relation to surgical procedure, main parotid duct ligation, and parotid salivary fistula was analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The incidence of parotid salivary fistula in the kidney-shaped cotton pad group was 1%, and the incidence in the traditional management group was 13.54%.
  • The difference between the two groups was significant(P<0.01); Different surgical procedure, ligating the main parotid duct or not, had no effect on salivary fistula(P>0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Parotid Gland. Parotid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20485975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1006-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] Shanghai kou qiang yi xue = Shanghai journal of stomatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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26. Hadi U, Rameh C: Intraglandular toxoplasmosis of the parotid gland pre- or postoperative diagnosis? Am J Otolaryngol; 2007 May-Jun;28(3):201-4
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  • [Title] Intraglandular toxoplasmosis of the parotid gland pre- or postoperative diagnosis?
  • In this article, we present 2 cases of intraglandular parotid toxoplasmosis, one diagnosed postoperatively and the other preoperatively.
  • We also review the relevant literature concerning Toxoplasma infection of the parotid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Parotid Diseases / parasitology. Toxoplasmosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17499141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Protozoan; 0 / Coccidiostats; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 8025-81-8 / Spiramycin
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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27. Ashraf A, Shaikh AS, Kamal F, Sarfraz R, Bukhari MH: Diagnostic reliability of FNAC for salivary gland swellings: a comparative study. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):499-504
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  • [Title] Diagnostic reliability of FNAC for salivary gland swellings: a comparative study.
  • A prospective study was conducted to see the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for 100 salivary gland swellings in comparison with biopsy.
  • Parotid gland was involved in 68%, submandibular gland in 30%, and minor salivary glands in 2% patients.
  • Sublingual gland was not involved in any of our subjects.
  • Among neoplastic lesions, biopsy revealed 68 cases of benign neoplasia and 18 cases of malignant neoplasia.
  • Non-neoplastic lesions did not show any difference in diagnosis by both techniques.
  • FNAC misdiagnosed four malignant and one benign lesion.
  • Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of FNAC for benign neoplastic lesions were 98.52, 87.05, 94.36, and 96.55%, respectively, whereas for malignant neoplastic lesions they were 77.77, 98.78, 93.33, and 95.29%, respectively.
  • In conclusion, FNAC is found to be a highly sensitive and specific technique for diagnosis of most of salivary gland swellings, except for malignant neoplastic lesions where its sensitivity is intermediate.
  • We strongly recommend that FNAC should be adopted as an initial investigation for all salivary gland swellings.
  • [MeSH-major] Salivary Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Salivary Gland Diseases / pathology. Salivary Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19950398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Wiggenraad R, Mast M, van Santvoort J, Hoogendoorn M, Struikmans H: ConPas: a 3-D conformal parotid gland-sparing irradiation technique for bilateral neck treatment as an alternative to IMRT. Strahlenther Onkol; 2005 Oct;181(10):673-82
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  • [Title] ConPas: a 3-D conformal parotid gland-sparing irradiation technique for bilateral neck treatment as an alternative to IMRT.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is used in most reported techniques for bilateral neck irradiation that aim at parotid gland sparing.
  • A relatively simple conformal parotid-sparing technique (ConPas) was developed that uses no beam-intensity modulation.
  • The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate, in patients with larynx or hypopharynx carcinoma, that ConPas enables adequate coverage of the primary tumor and the bilateral neck nodes, while keeping the mean parotid dose (MPD) < 26 Gy.
  • A dose of 46 Gy was prescribed to the primary tumor and the bilateral neck nodes, planned either with the conventional technique or ConPas, followed by a boost up to 70 Gy with a simple two-field technique.
  • The target coverage of both techniques was compared using the V(95), the percentage of the planning target volume (PTV) of the primary tumor and nodal regions receiving at least 95% of the prescribed elective dose.
  • The MPDs and the normal-tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) of the parotid glands were compared using either technique including the boost up to 70 Gy.
  • RESULTS: The mean V(95) was 85.2% and 91.2% (p = 0.08), the mean MPD 38.7 Gy and 25.4 Gy (p < 0.001), and the mean NTCP for the parotid glands 0.87 and 0.22 (p < 0.001) for the conventional technique and ConPas, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: ConPas enables adequate target coverage and clinically relevant parotid sparing in bilateral neck irradiation without beam-intensity modulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Laryngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Parotid Gland / radiation effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16220407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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29. Strege RJ, Kovács G, Maune S, Holland D, Niehoff P, Eichmann T, Mehdorn HM: Feasibility of combined operation and perioperative intensity-modulated brachytherapy of advanced/recurrent malignancies involving the skull base. Strahlenther Onkol; 2005 Feb;181(2):97-107
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This series consisted of 18 consecutive cases: ten patients with paranasal sinus carcinomas, five with sarcomas, two with primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), and one with parotid gland carcinoma.
  • After, in most cases, subtotal surgical resection (R1-R2: carried out so that the patients' senses of sight were preserved), two to twelve (mean five) afterloading plastic tubes were placed into the tumor bed.
  • Median survival times were 33 months after diagnosis and 16 months after combined operation and IMBT.
  • CONCLUSION: Perioperative fractionated IMBT after extensive but vision-preserving tumor resection seems to be a safe and well-tolerated treatment of advanced/recurrent malignancies involving the skull base.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Brachytherapy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Skull Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Skull Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15702298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Fierek O, Laskawi R, Kunze E: [Solitary intraparotid neurofibroma of the facial nerve. Symptomatology, biology and management]. HNO; 2006 Oct;54(10):772-7
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  • Neurogenic neoplasms of the parotid gland are extremely uncommon.
  • We present the case of a solitary intraparotid neurofibroma of the N. facialis occurring in a 55-year-old female who noted a painless left-side enlargement in the region of the parotid gland over a period of 2 years.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-demarcated round mass within the left parotid.
  • At surgery, a tumor was found involving the main trunk of the facial nerve, histopathologically representing a neurofibroma.
  • Since solitary intraparotid neurofibromas are characterized by a very slow growth lacking the propensity for malignant transformation, the tumor was left to preserve facial nerve function.
  • Conservative treatment based on facial nerve preservation and leaving the tumor in situ is recommended, rather than radical tumor removal with resection of the segment of the N. facialis involved.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Facial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Neurofibroma / diagnosis. Parotid Gland / innervation
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Cell Division / physiology. Facial Nerve / pathology. Facial Nerve / surgery. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16479387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-6192
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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31. Noseri H, Erden T, Toros S, Habesoglu M, Egeli E, Aker F, Cetin S: Intraductal papilloma of the parotid gland in a child. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2007 Nov;264(11):1385-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraductal papilloma of the parotid gland in a child.
  • Intraductal papillomas are rare benign tumors, most commonly encountered in minor salivary glands and rarely in major salivary glands.
  • They are cystic, solitary neoplasm that arise from ductal epithelium and produce painless swelling.
  • We report a case of intraductal papilloma of the parotid gland in a child.
  • [MeSH-major] Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17598121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-4726
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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32. Bahar G, Dudkiewicz M, Feinmesser R, Joshua BZ, Braslavsky D, Popovtzer A, Galil D, Shpitzer T: Acute parotitis as a complication of fine-needle aspiration in Warthin's tumor. A unique finding of a 3-year experience with parotid tumor aspiration. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2006 Apr;134(4):646-9
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  • [Title] Acute parotitis as a complication of fine-needle aspiration in Warthin's tumor. A unique finding of a 3-year experience with parotid tumor aspiration.
  • OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate, cost-effective tool for the study of salivary gland lesions.
  • Although complications are extremely rare, salivary gland FNA can lead to hemorrhage, facial nerve injury, and cellulitis at the needle puncture site.
  • Some studies suggest that FNA can cause infarction or metaplastic transformation of benign Warthin's tumors.
  • We review our recent experience with FNA of the parotid gland, focusing on possible complications and pitfalls.
  • STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The medical records of all patients who underwent FNA of the parotid gland from 2000 to 2002 in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery of a major tertiary-care referral center were reviewed.
  • Cytological results were compared to the histological diagnosis and complications were recorded.
  • RESULTS: Of the 256 lesions aspirated, 99 patients (39%), were cytologically diagnosed as benign tumors, including 31 (12%) Warthin's tumors, of which 16/17 resected and confirmed histologically.
  • Five patients with Warthin's tumor had post-FNA parotitis and were treated accordingly.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of cystic spaces surrounded by oncocytic cells and a poor blood supply makes the tumor susceptible to infarction and inflammation.
  • Nevertheless, when Warthin's tumor is clinically suspected on the basis of its location (tail of the parotid gland), cystic texture, patient sex (male) and age, one should consider parotitis as a possible complication.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenolymphoma / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Parotitis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16564390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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33. Chhabra N, Chhabra S, Kapila SA: Use of hypertonic saline in the management of parotid fistulae and sialocele: a report of 2 cases. J Maxillofac Oral Surg; 2009 Mar;8(1):64-7
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  • [Title] Use of hypertonic saline in the management of parotid fistulae and sialocele: a report of 2 cases.
  • Parotid fistula is a well known complication of parotidectomy or penetrating injury of the parotid gland.
  • In cases of external fistulae, the principles of management aim at the return of normal parotid function in both acute and chronic parotid injury, but sometimes the alternative is to depress parotid secretions to allow natural healing process to seal the injury.The paper highlights the indications, techniques, advantages and disadvantages of using osmotic sclerosant for the management of parotid fistulae.
  • We used warm hypertonic saline injections within the glandular substance to cause rapid fibrosis of the gland in 2 patients of chronic parotid fistulae.This technique is a simple and effective method of dealing with salivary leak.

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  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Maxillofac Oral Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3454011
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hypertonic saline / Osmotic sclerosants / Salivary fistula / Sialocele
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34. Ward BK, Seethala RR, Barnes EL, Lai SY: Basal cell adenocarcinoma of a hard palate minor salivary gland: case report and review of the literature. Head Neck Oncol; 2009 Dec 23;1:41
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  • [Title] Basal cell adenocarcinoma of a hard palate minor salivary gland: case report and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: Basal cell adenocarcinoma of a minor salivary gland is extremely rare.
  • The goal of this report is to increase awareness of this rare disease and to review and discuss the differential diagnosis and important considerations in treatment.
  • METHODS: Case report of a basal cell adenocarcinoma of a hard palate minor salivary gland and review of the literature of basal cell adenocarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Basal cell adenocarcinomas are slow-growing tumours that most commonly involve the parotid gland and very rarely involve minor salivary glands.
  • Histological diagnosis is important to distinguish this tumour from adenoid cystic carcinoma given the significant difference in disease prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of these tumours must be made histologically.

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  • (PMID = 20030819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-3284
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Oncol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K08 DE018061
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2806868
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100629
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35. Kilic C, Kirici Y, Kocaoglu M: Double facial nerve trunk emerged from the stylomastoid foramen and petrotympanic fissure: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2010 Aug;25(8):1228-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The facial nerve trunk can be damaged during surgical procedures of the parotid gland tumours and submandibular region.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cadaver. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Parotid Gland / innervation

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  • (PMID = 20676338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2908796
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Facial Nerve Trunk / Variation
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36. Palmieri A, Carinci F, Martinelli M, Spinelli G, Lo Muzio L, Rubini C, Scapoli L: Absence of Simian virus 40, BK, and JC polyomavirus DNA in squamous cell carcinoma limited to the oral cavity. Head Neck; 2010 Mar;32(3):375-80
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  • The Simian virus 40 (SV40), which is a polyomavirus known for its oncogenic potential, was found as a contaminant of oral vaccines and has been related to human pleomorphic adenoma in the parotid gland.


37. Van Sickels JE: Management of parotid gland and duct injuries. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am; 2009 May;21(2):243-6
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  • [Title] Management of parotid gland and duct injuries.
  • Surgical repair of injuries to the parotid gland and its duct have been described in the literature for more than 100 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Parotid Gland / injuries. Salivary Ducts / injuries

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  • (PMID = 19348990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-1365
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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38. Erdogan F, Altas S, Altas E, Yoruk O, Ozmen SA: A rare location of Castleman's disease: parotid region. N Z Med J; 2008 Jul 25;121(1278):86-90
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  • [Title] A rare location of Castleman's disease: parotid region.
  • Castleman's disease in the parotid gland region is very rare.
  • A 15-year-old female with Castleman's disease in the parotid region is herein reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / pathology. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / surgery. Parotid Diseases / pathology. Parotid Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18670479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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39. Yu KJ, Lee HE, Ho HC, Lee JC, Chang JW, Hong HS, Yang CH: Carcinoma erysipelatoides from squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin. Int J Clin Pract; 2005 Sep;59(9):1104-6
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  • The characteristic histopathological finding is metastatic tumour cells inside the dermal lymphatic ducts.
  • It is frequently observed in patients with breast carcinoma as well as adenocarcinoma of pancreas, rectum, lung, ovary and parotid gland.

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  • (PMID = 16115190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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40. David O, Blaney S, Hearp M: Parotid gland fine-needle aspiration cytology: an approach to differential diagnosis. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Jan;35(1):47-56
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  • [Title] Parotid gland fine-needle aspiration cytology: an approach to differential diagnosis.
  • Parotid glands can undergo a wide range of pathologic changes that may be difficult to characterize by clinical features alone.
  • No single diagnostic modality is currently accepted unequivocally as the definitive approach to parotid gland enlargement or tumors.
  • (1) to define the clinical role of parotid FNA, such that pathologists performing and/or interpreting such specimens have a clearer understanding of the expectations of our surgical colleagues;.
  • (2) to clearly describe a protocol for the performance of parotid FNA biopsy, including a discussion of complications and pitfalls; and (3) to present the cytologic differential diagnoses of diverse clinicopathologic parotid gland processes that may present as generalized enlargement, cystic lesions, or discrete masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Parotid Diseases / pathology. Parotid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Protocols. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17173301.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Linecker A, Kermer C, Sulzbacher I, Angelberger P, Kletter K, Dudczak R, Ewers R, Becherer A: Uptake of (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FDG in primary head and neck cancer correlates with survival. Nuklearmedizin; 2008;47(2):80-5; quiz N12
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  • Tumour tracer uptake was determined by standardized uptake value (SUV) normalized to body weight and /non-tumor ratios (T/N). (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FLT uptake were compared with histopathologic and immunohistochemical results.
  • RESULTS: 19 patients had malignant tumours; one patient had a benign cystadenoma (so called Warthin's tumour) of the parotid gland.
  • One negative lesion turned out to be a malignant T1 stage squamous cell carcinoma in both PET scans, the Warthin's tumour was false positive with (18)F-FDG but showed only faint uptake with (18)F-FLT, resulting in a sensitivity of 95 % for both tracers.

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  • (PMID = 18392317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dideoxynucleosides; 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radioisotopes; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; PG53R0DWDQ / alovudine
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42. Salama AR, Ord RA: Clinical implications of the neck in salivary gland disease. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am; 2008 Aug;20(3):445-58
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  • [Title] Clinical implications of the neck in salivary gland disease.
  • Neck manifestations from salivary gland tissue are most commonly related to inflammation and obstruction of the glands.
  • However, various benign and malignant processes are also seen along a continuum of clinical presentation and behavior.
  • Benign tumor implants in the neck can be managed with conservative surgery, whereas aggressive surgical management, including neck dissection and adjuvant therapy, is generally advocated for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neck / surgery. Salivary Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Salivary Gland Diseases / surgery. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenolymphoma / diagnosis. Adenolymphoma / surgery. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / surgery. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinosarcoma / diagnosis. Carcinosarcoma / secondary. Carcinosarcoma / surgery. Choristoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / surgery. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neck Dissection. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery. Ranula / diagnosis. Ranula / surgery. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18603202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-1365
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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43. Anand AK, Jain J, Negi PS, Chaudhoory AR, Sinha SN, Choudhury PS, Kumar R, Munjal RK: Can dose reduction to one parotid gland prevent xerostomia?--A feasibility study for locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2006 Aug;18(6):497-504
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  • [Title] Can dose reduction to one parotid gland prevent xerostomia?--A feasibility study for locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy.
  • In this study, parotid function was assessed in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancers undergoing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with or without chemotherapy.
  • Parotid function was assessed with the help of a questionnaire and parotid scintigraphy, especially with regards to unilateral sparing of the parotid gland.
  • RESULTS: Subjective toxicity to the parotid glands was assessed with the help of a questionnaire at 0, 3 and 6 months and objective toxicity was assessed with parotid scintigraphy at 0 and 3 months.
  • The mean dose to the ipsilateral parotid gland ranged from 19.5 to 52.8 Gy (mean 33.14 Gy) and the mean dose to the contralateral gland was 11.1-46.6 Gy (mean 26.85 Gy).
  • At a median follow-up of 13 months, 9/19 patients had no symptoms of dryness of the mouth (grade I), 8/19 had mild dryness of the mouth (grade II) and only 2/19 had grade III xerostomia, although the parotid gland could only be spared on one side in most of the patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Minimising the radiation dose to one of the parotid glands with the help of IMRT in patients with advanced head and neck cancers can prevent xerostomia in most patients and parotid scintigraphy is a useful method of documenting xerostomia.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Parotid Gland / radiation effects. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / adverse effects. Xerostomia / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Feasibility Studies. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Radionuclide Imaging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Sensitivity and Specificity. Surveys and Questionnaires. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16909975.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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44. Jen YM, Shih R, Lin YS, Su WF, Ku CH, Chang CS, Shueng PW, Hwang JM, Liu DW, Chao HL, Lin HY, Chang LP, Shum WY, Lin CS: Parotid gland-sparing 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy results in less severe dry mouth in nasopharyngeal cancer patients: a dosimetric and clinical comparison with conventional radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol; 2005 May;75(2):204-9
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  • [Title] Parotid gland-sparing 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy results in less severe dry mouth in nasopharyngeal cancer patients: a dosimetric and clinical comparison with conventional radiotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study examined the efficacy of parotid gland sparing of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) compared with conventional radiotherapy for NPC patients.
  • RESULTS: In the 3DCRT group about 50% of the patients' parotid glands received less than 25 Gy.
  • Although 3DCRT delivered a higher dose to the tumor, it spared the parotid gland significantly better than the conventional treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Dosimetrically and clinically 3DCRT is better than conventional technique regarding parotid gland protection.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Parotid Gland / radiation effects. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Xerostomia / etiology. Xerostomia / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 15908027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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45. Yu H, Liu D, Li C, Huang X, Zhong W: [Clinical application of postauricular muscular fasciae-periosteal flap and modified unwrinkle incision in parotidectomy]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Oct;23(10):1167-9
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  • METHODS: From January 2006 to August 2008, 28 patients with benign lesions of parotid gland were treated.
  • There were 17 males and 11 females aged 19 to 79 years old (average 50 years old), including 20 cases of mixed tumor, 5 cases of adenolymphoma, 1 case of branchial cleft cyst, 1 case of eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma, and 1 case of myoepithelioma.
  • Tumor masses were all prominent, with the diameter of 2.4-3.8 cm and partial-tough texture.
  • Parotid gland and tumor mass were resected with postauricular incision hidden within the hairline, introcession defect (3.0 cm x 2.0 cm x 1.0 cm-3.5 cm x 2.5 cm x 1.5 cm) were repaired with simultaneously adopting postauricular muscular fasciae-periosteal flap (4.0 cm x 3.0 cm x 1.0 cm-5.0 cm x 4.0 cm x 1.5 cm) by turning the pedicle flap 180 degrees.
  • The incision was hidden within postauricular hairline and shape of parotid realm was good.
  • [MeSH-major] Fascia / transplantation. Parotid Gland / surgery. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery. Rhytidoplasty / methods

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  • (PMID = 19957830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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46. Lin CC, Tsai MH, Huang CC, Hua CH, Tseng HC, Huang ST: Parotid tumors: a 10-year experience. Am J Otolaryngol; 2008 Mar-Apr;29(2):94-100
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  • [Title] Parotid tumors: a 10-year experience.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical presentation, histopathology, and complications of parotid tumors, as well as the management of malignant parotid tumors.
  • Data including age, sex, clinical signs and symptoms, histologic findings, complications, malignant tumor stage, and prognosis were collected from medical charts.
  • RESULTS: Of the 271 patients who underwent parotidectomy, 229 (85%) had benign tumors, 33 (12%) had malignant tumors, and 9 had chronic inflammatory disease (3%).
  • The most common benign tumor was pleomorphic adenoma (51%), and the most common malignant tumor was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (3%).
  • The 5-year overall survival rate was 42%, and the disease-specific survival rate for malignant tumor was 72%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Standardized superficial and total parotidectomy are safe procedures for treating parotid tumors.
  • Management of malignant tumors depends on tumor stage and histologic grade.
  • Advanced tumor stage is a predictor of poor outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenolymphoma / mortality. Adenolymphoma / pathology. Adenolymphoma / therapy. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / mortality. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / therapy. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / mortality. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / therapy. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / therapy. Child. Facial Paralysis / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18314019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Isolan GR, Rowe R, Al-Mefty O: Microanatomy and surgical approaches to the infratemporal fossa: an anaglyphic three-dimensional stereoscopic printing study. Skull Base; 2007 Sep;17(5):285-302
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  • The maxillary artery is the terminal branch of the external carotid artery that originates at the neck of the mandible and runs into the parotid gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The ITF is a complex region on the skull base that is affected by benign and malignant tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18330427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5010
  • [Journal-full-title] Skull base : official journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skull Base
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2095118
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Infratemporal fossa / approaches / mandibular nerve / paraganglioma / surgical anatomy
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48. Tavora F, Rassaei N, Shilo K, Foss RD, Galvin JR, Travis WD, Franks TJ: Occult primary parotid gland acinic cell adenocarcinoma presenting with extensive lung metastasis. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Jun;131(6):970-3
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  • [Title] Occult primary parotid gland acinic cell adenocarcinoma presenting with extensive lung metastasis.
  • Acinic cell adenocarcinoma is a malignant salivary gland neoplasm with a relatively low rate of lymphangitic spread to regional lymph nodes.
  • We encountered an unusual example of acinic cell adenocarcinoma that initially presented in the lung, whereas the primary parotid carcinoma, despite extensive clinical evaluation, only became apparent 1 year after initial diagnosis.
  • The histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of the tumor in the parotid gland and lung were similar.
  • The tumor displayed an aggressive behavior resulting in death within 2 years of the initial presentation.
  • This presentation is unique, showing that peripheral lung tumors of salivary gland type are likely to be metastatic, and careful clinical evaluation is warranted in establishing their primary site of origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Palliative Care

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  • (PMID = 17550329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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49. Rong R, Zhang CY, Wang XY: Normal appearance of large field diffusion weighted imaging on 3.0T MRI. Chin Med Sci J; 2008 Sep;23(3):158-61
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  • METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers and thirty patients with benign prostate hyperplasia were included in this study.
  • RESULTS: Salivary gland, spleen, kidney, gallbladder, bladder, prostate, seminal vesicle, testis, intervertebral disk, liquid in articular cavity and lymph node showed high signal intensity on large field DWI, while lung, liver and bone showed hypo-signal intensity.
  • The mean ADC values of partial hyperintensity tissue were as followed: parotid gland (1.088 +/- 0.114) x 10(-3) mm2/S, submaxillary gland (1.309 +/- 0.189) x 10(-3) mm2/s, kidney (1.909 +/- 0.143) x 10(-3) mm2/s, seminal vesicle (1.669 +/- 0.168) x 10(-3) mm2/s, testis (1.028 +/- 0.075) x 10(-3) mm2/s, spleen (0.963 +/- 0.108) x 10(-3) mm2/s, bladder (2.898 +/- 0.267) x 10(-3) mm2/s, prostate (1.448 +/- 0.132) x 10(-3) mm2/s, intervertebral disks (1.360 +/- 0.140) x 10(-3) mm2/s.

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  • (PMID = 18853850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-9294
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsueh k'o hsueh tsa chih
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. Sci. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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50. Ortholan C, Chamorey E, Benezery K, Thariat J, Dassonville O, Poissonnet G, Bozec A, Follana P, Peyrade F, Sudaka A, Gerard JP, Bensadoun RJ: Modeling of salivary production recovery after radiotherapy using mixed models: determination of optimal dose constraint for IMRT planning and construction of convenient tools to predict salivary function. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Jan 1;73(1):178-86
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  • PURPOSE: The mathematical relationship between the dose to the parotid glands and salivary gland production needs to be elucidated.
  • The data of salivary production, time of follow-up, and dose to parotid gland were modeled using a mixed model.
  • Several models were developed to assess the best-fitting variable for the dose level to the parotid gland.
  • RESULTS: Models developed with the dose to the contralateral parotid fit the data slightly better than those with the dose to both parotids, suggesting that contralateral and ipsilateral parotid glands are not functionally equivalent even with the same dose level to the glands.
  • The best predictive dose-value variable for salivary flow recovery was the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that the recommendation of a dose constraint for intensity-modulated RT planning should be established at the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy rather than the mean dose.
  • For complete salivary production recovery after 24 months, the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy should be <33%.
  • Our results permitted us to establish two convenient tools to predict the saliva production recovery function according to the dose received by the contralateral parotid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal / adverse effects. Salivary Gland Diseases / prevention & control. Salivation / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 18565687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Banich J, Reyes CV, Bier-Laning C: Sebaceous lymphadenoma identified by fine needle aspiration biopsy: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2007 Mar-Apr;51(2):211-3
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  • BACKGROUND: Sebaceous lymphadenoma of the parotid gland is a rare benign neoplasm.
  • This is the first reported case of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) findings for sebaceous lymphadenoma of the parotid gland.
  • CASE: A 60-year-old male presented with painless, bilateral parotid swelling noted for 5 months.
  • Examination revealed bilaterally prominent parotid glands with diffuse firmness but no discrete masses.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral cystic parotid masses.
  • FNAB of the right parotid was obtained to assist with preoperative counseling.
  • It revealed lymphoid and salivary gland parenchymal cells.
  • The surgical specimen of the parotid mass confirmed the diagnosis of sebaceous lymphadenoma on the tissue section.
  • The contralateral parotid mass had not been excised at this writing.
  • CONCLUSION: This report is the first to describe the FNAB findings of the unusual benign parotid neoplasm sebaceous lymphadenoma.
  • Though the definitive diagnosis of any parotid mass requires tissue, generally obtained via parotidectomy, an FNAB diagnosis can be useful in counseling a patient prior to definitive biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenolymphoma / pathology. Parotid Gland / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Facial Nerve Injuries / etiology. Facial Nerve Injuries / physiopathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17425206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Lee TK, Rosen II, Gibbons JP, Fields RS, Hogstrom KR: Helical tomotherapy for parotid gland tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Mar 1;70(3):883-91
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  • [Title] Helical tomotherapy for parotid gland tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate helical tomotherapy (HT) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) as a postoperative treatment for parotid gland tumors.
  • Tumor control probabilities were higher for 3 of the 4 patients.
  • Helical tomotherapy is an effective alternative to SMLC IMRT for treatment of parotid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Parotid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / radiography. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / radiotherapy. Humans. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Tomography, Spiral Computed. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 18164857.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Grădinaru I, Ghiciuc CM, Popescu E, Nechifor C, Mândreci I, Nechifor M: Blood plasma and saliva levels of magnesium and other bivalent cations in patients with parotid gland tumors. Magnes Res; 2007 Dec;20(4):254-8
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  • [Title] Blood plasma and saliva levels of magnesium and other bivalent cations in patients with parotid gland tumors.
  • The plasma and saliva cations in parotid malignant tumors of stages II-III were studied in 31 patients before surgical therapy and in 27 control group volunteers.
  • Our results showed that salivary and plasma t-Mg concentrations were significantly higher in patients with parotid malignant tumors in comparison to control group (saliva: 0.25 +/- 0.04 mmol/L versus 0.14 +/- 0.03/L, p < 0.01; plasma: 1.05 +/- 0.06 mmol/L versus 0.86 +/- 0.05 mmol/L, p < 0.05).
  • The t-Ca plasma concentrations were lower for patients with parotid malignant tumors by 20-22% in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05).
  • Plasma and salivary t-Mg/t-Ca molar ratios are respectively 0.38 and 0.12 for control group, and respectively 0.61 and 0.31 for patients with parotid gland tumors.
  • The t-Zn plasma concentration for patients with parotid malignant tumors (0.017 +/- 0.010 mmol/L) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in comparison to control group (0.024 +/- 0.011 mmol/L).
  • Plasma t-Cu/t-Zn molar ratio is respectively 0.68 for control group and 1.12 for patients with parotid gland tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cations, Divalent / analysis. Cations, Divalent / blood. Magnesium / analysis. Magnesium / blood. Parotid Neoplasms / blood. Saliva / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18271496.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-1424
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnesium research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magnes Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cations, Divalent; 789U1901C5 / Copper; I38ZP9992A / Magnesium; J41CSQ7QDS / Zinc; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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54. Alvarez-Buylla Blanco M, Martínez Moran A, Vázquez Barro JC, Vidal JM: [Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the parotid gland: Revision of 8 cases]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):371-4
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  • [Title] [Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the parotid gland: Revision of 8 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Linfoma no Hodgkin primario de la glándula parótida: revisión de 8 casos.
  • The manifestation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma as a primary parotid tumour account for 5% of all tumours at this location.
  • We present 8 patients diagnosed and treated for parotid non-Hodgkin lymphoma in our hospital between 1996 and 2003.
  • The immunohistochemical study provided us with the definitive diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin. Parotid Neoplasms

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20346432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1988-3013
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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55. Zainal A, Razif MY, Makhashen M, Swaminathan M, Mazita A: Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma of the parotid gland. J Laryngol Otol; 2010 May;124(5):569-71
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  • [Title] Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma of the parotid gland.
  • OBJECTIVES: To highlight the first reported case of necrobiotic xanthogranuloma of the parotid gland.
  • RESULTS: A 48-year-old man presented with a right parotid mass.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of Warthin's tumour, for which the patient underwent a subtotal parotidectomy.
  • The final histopathological diagnosis was necrobiotic xanthogranuloma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma may clinically mimic commoner tumours such as Warthin's tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma / pathology. Parotid Diseases / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19825226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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56. Chen AM, Farwell DG, Luu Q, Chen LM, Vijayakumar S, Purdy JA: Misses and near-misses after postoperative radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: Comparison of IMRT and non-IMRT techniques in the CT-simulation era. Head Neck; 2010 Nov;32(11):1452-9
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  • Among the local-regional recurrences in the IMRT group, 9 were in-field recurrences occurring within the physician-designated clinical target volume (CTV), and 4 were marginal recurrences involving the contralateral neck adjacent to the spared parotid gland (3 patients) and the retropharyngeal/retrostyloid lymph node region (1 patient).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated

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  • (PMID = 20146333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Barrese JL, Lau S, Chen BT, Maghami E: Nonparotid parapharyngeal oncocytoma: a case report and literature review. Head Neck; 2010 Jun;32(6):800-5
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  • Oncocytoma is a rare, benign salivary neoplasm composed of mitochondria-rich cells called oncocytes.
  • Although oncocytoma usually occurs in the parotid glands, it has much less commonly been reported to occur in minor salivary gland tissues.
  • Although there have been a few reported cases of oncocytomas being found in the parapharyngeal space, most if not all cases seem to be extensions of deep lobe parotid tumors.
  • Excision of the mass, through a transcervical approach, demonstrated it to be an isolated oncocytoma of the parapharyngeal space, noncontiguous with the parotid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2010.
  • (PMID = 19787785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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58. Lahoz Zamarro MT, Galve Royo A, Galve Royo F: [Tumoral pathology of salivary glands. Our experience]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2009 Mar-Apr;60(2):120-5
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  • [Transliterated title] Afección tumoral de las glándulas salivales. Nuestra experiencia.
  • INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: We report a descriptive epidemiologic study of 63 patients with major and minor salivary gland tumours diagnosed at our centre over the last ten years.
  • RESULTS: Among the 38 males and 25 females, we found 39 with benign tumours and 24 with malignant tumours.
  • Most of these tumours (42; 67%) arose in the parotid gland, 12 (19%) in the submaxillary gland, 7 (11%) in the palate and 2 (3%) in external auditory canal.
  • The mean age was 54 years for benign tumours and 80 years for malignant ones.
  • The most common benign tumours found were pleomorphic adenomas (67%) whereas epidermoid carcinoma (54%) followed by lymphomas (25%) were the most frequent among malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Salivary Gland Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19401079.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6519
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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59. Choi JH, Jo H, Hong JH, Lee SI, Shin DM: Alteration of expression of Ca2+ signaling proteins and adaptation of Ca2+ signaling in SERCA2+/- mouse parotid acini. Yonsei Med J; 2008 Apr 30;49(2):311-21
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  • [Title] Alteration of expression of Ca2+ signaling proteins and adaptation of Ca2+ signaling in SERCA2+/- mouse parotid acini.
  • However, whether the changes in Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+ signaling proteins in parotid acinar cells are affected by a partial loss of SERCA2 are not known.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In SERCA2+/- mouse parotid gland acinar cells, Ca2+ signaling, expression levels of Ca2+ signaling proteins, and amylase secretion were investigated.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a partial loss of SERCA2 affects the expression and activity of Ca2+ signaling proteins in the parotid gland acini, however, overall Ca2+ signaling is unchanged.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium Signaling / physiology. Parotid Gland / metabolism. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18452270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors; 8Y164V895Y / Carbachol; EC 3.2.1.- / Amylases; EC 3.6.3.8 / Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2615323
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60. Lanlua P, Sricharoenvej S, Niyomchan A, Chico DE: Unique cellular structures in the parotid gland of an Old world fruit bat, Pteropus lylei (Lyle's flying fox). Ital J Anat Embryol; 2007 Jul-Sep;112(3):179-90
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  • [Title] Unique cellular structures in the parotid gland of an Old world fruit bat, Pteropus lylei (Lyle's flying fox).
  • The carpophagous diet of P. lylei presents an adaptive challenge for salivary glands to conserve sufficient nutrition for living.
  • Therefore, the parotid glands in both sexes were investigated by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.
  • No structural difference was observed in the parotid glands between sexes.
  • The morphological adaptation of the parotid gland observed in P. lylei enables this species to obtain sufficient nutrients from the preferred consumption of ripe fruit.
  • Structural variations in the parotid gland can indicate not only a correlation to diet and survival but also a close relationship of the Old World fruit bat to other kinds of bats.
  • [MeSH-major] Chiroptera / anatomy & histology. Digestion / physiology. Epithelial Cells / ultrastructure. Food Habits / physiology. Parotid Gland / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 18078239.001).
  • [ISSN] 1122-6714
  • [Journal-full-title] Italian journal of anatomy and embryology = Archivio italiano di anatomia ed embriologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ital J Anat Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Proteins
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61. Abdelkrim SB, Trabelsi A, Hammedi F, Omezzine M, Rammeh S, Abdelkader AB, Sriha B: Primary lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland in a North African woman. Rare Tumors; 2009;1(1):e16
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  • [Title] Primary lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland in a North African woman.
  • Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands is a rare neoplasm that is characterized by a non-neoplastic lymphocytic infiltration associated with an epithelial proliferation.
  • It involves mainly the parotid gland.
  • Racial and geographical factors contribute to the pathogenesis of this tumor.
  • We report a case of a 70-year old woman from a non-endemic area who presented with several months history of swelling in the parotid region.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed a parotid mass suggestive of a pleomorphic adenoma.
  • The diagnosis of lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland was performed on the surgical specimen.

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  • (PMID = 21139887.001).
  • [ISSN] 2036-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Rare tumors
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rare Tumors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994432
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; lymphoepithelial carcinoma / parotid / pathology.
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62. Colella G, Cannavale R, Vicidomini A, Itro A: Salivary gland biopsy: a comprehensive review of techniques and related complications. Rheumatology (Oxford); 2010 Nov;49(11):2117-21
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  • [Title] Salivary gland biopsy: a comprehensive review of techniques and related complications.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study proposes a revision of the literature on the current techniques employed in salivary gland biopsy.
  • The search terms were: 'biopsy AND parotid AND Sjögren'; 'biopsy AND sublingual salivary gland AND Sjögren'; 'biopsy AND minor salivary gland AND Sjögren'; 'biopsy AND labial salivary gland AND Sjögren' and 'biopsy AND salivary glands AND connective disorders'.
  • RESULTS: No study reporting submandibular salivary gland biopsy was found; 3 studies reported sublingual salivary gland biopsy; 1 study reported palate biopsy; 4 studies reported parotid gland biopsy and 21 studies reported minor salivary gland biopsy.
  • CONCLUSION: Biopsy of salivary glands must be performed as last investigation and only when the other items are not complete enough to satisfy the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Salivary Gland Diseases / pathology. Salivary Glands / pathology. Sjogren's Syndrome / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20660500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-0332
  • [Journal-full-title] Rheumatology (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rheumatology (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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63. Erkan AN, Yavuz H, Ozer C, Ozer F, Ozluoglu L: Quality of life after surgery for benign disease of the parotid gland. J Laryngol Otol; 2008 Apr;122(4):397-402
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  • [Title] Quality of life after surgery for benign disease of the parotid gland.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life after surgery for benign neoplastic disease of the parotid gland.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A quality of life questionnaire, which was created from the Hebrew version of the University of Washington Quality of Life prototype, was applied to 55 patients who underwent surgery for benign neoplastic parotid disease.
  • There was not any statistical correlation between all data and age, tumour type and education level.
  • CONCLUSION: The general status of patients who have undergone surgery for a benign parotid neoplasm can be assessed with a quality of life questionnaire.
  • [MeSH-major] Parotid Neoplasms / surgery. Quality of Life
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Educational Status. Facial Paralysis / etiology. Female. Health Status Indicators. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Salivary Gland Fistula / etiology. Sensation Disorders / etiology. Surveys and Questionnaires. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17537273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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64. Gordin EA, Daniero JJ, Krein H, Boon MS: Parotid gland trauma. Facial Plast Surg; 2010 Dec;26(6):504-10
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  • [Title] Parotid gland trauma.
  • Parotid trauma can lead to both short and long-term complications such as bleeding, infection, facial nerve injury, sialocele, and salivary fistula, resulting in pain and disfigurement.
  • Facial injuries inferior to a line extended from the tragus to the upper lip should raise concern for parotid injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Injuries / surgery. Parotid Gland / injuries. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods


65. Ozcan C, Apa DD, Aslan G, Gülhan S, Görür K: Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection within parotid gland Warthin tumor. J Craniofac Surg; 2008 Nov;19(6):1561-5
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  • [Title] Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection within parotid gland Warthin tumor.
  • Tuberculosis of the parotid gland is extremely unusual.
  • Tuberculosis comprises 2.5% to 10% of parotid gland lesions.
  • Two clinical forms of parotid gland tuberculosis infection exist.
  • The second is a chronic, slow-growing, painless, and firm parotid mass mimicking a neoplasm.
  • Most of these patients were diagnosed after parotid gland surgery and histopathologic evaluation.
  • Warthin tumor is a well-known benign neoplasm of the salivary glands.
  • It is the second most common tumor of the parotid gland.
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis within Warthin tumor is also unusual.
  • Five cases with parotid gland tuberculosis within Warthin tumor were reported in the literature.
  • In this report, we present a new patient with parotid gland tuberculosis within the Warthin tumor.
  • This type parotid gland pathology is an extremely rare entity, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the second documented case using polymerase chain reaction.
  • We also discussed the possible mechanisms of development of infection within Warthin tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenolymphoma / diagnosis. Parotid Diseases / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Oral / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Contrast Media. DNA, Bacterial / analysis. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Image Enhancement. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Mycobacterium tuberculosis / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tuberculoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19098552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / DNA, Bacterial
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66. González-García R, Nam-Cha SH, Muñoz-Guerra MF, Gamallo-Amat C: Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2006 Mar;11(2):E206-9
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  • [Title] Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Its most frequent location is the parotid gland.
  • Due to prognostic implications, differential diagnosis with basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mandatory.
  • We describe a case of basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland.
  • We also review the literature and discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16505803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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67. Uğuz MZ, Onal HK, Eroğlu OO, Etit D: [Sensitivity and specificity of fine needle aspiration biopsy in parotid masses]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2007;17(2):96-9
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  • [Title] [Sensitivity and specificity of fine needle aspiration biopsy in parotid masses].
  • [Transliterated title] Parotis kitlelerinde ince iğne aspirasyon biyopsisinin duyarlilik ve özgüllüğü
  • OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in patients with parotid masses.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 29 patients (15 males, 14 females; mean age 52 years; range 20 to 83 years) who underwent FNAB and parotidectomy for parotid masses.
  • RESULTS: The results of FNAB were reported as benign in 21 patients (72.4%), malignant in six patients (20.7%), and suspicious in two patients (6.9%).
  • Postoperative histopathologic diagnoses were reported as benign in 17 patients (58.6%) and malignant in 12 patients (41.4%).
  • The most common histopathological diagnosis was pleomorphic adenoma (n=7, 24.1%), followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n=4, 13.8%), and Warthin's tumor (n=3, 10.3%).
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative FNAB for parotid masses plays an important role in planning surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenolymphoma / diagnosis. Adenolymphoma / pathology. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17527061.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] tur
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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68. Olszewski J, Konopka W, Radek A, Zieliński K, Pietkiewicz P: [Middle ear schwannoma--case report]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2005;59(6):907-10
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  • Schwannoma is one of the common benign middle ear space tumors.
  • The tumors may present with facial nerve paresis or palsy, otologic symptoms and/or parotid mass middle ear schwannomas may originate from the nerves of the tympanic caviti or by extensions from outside the middle ear space.
  • The tumor was of facial nerve origin and was separated from middle ear.
  • The pathologic diagnosis was schwannoma.

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  • (PMID = 16521463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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69. Koch M, Bozzato A, Iro H, Zenk J: Combined endoscopic and transcutaneous approach for parotid gland sialolithiasis: indications, technique, and results. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Jan;142(1):98-103
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  • [Title] Combined endoscopic and transcutaneous approach for parotid gland sialolithiasis: indications, technique, and results.
  • OBJECTIVE: Despite all the advances of minimally invasive surgery, refractory stones remain in 10 to 20 percent of all cases of parotid gland sialolithiasis, and persistence of the symptoms makes removal of the gland inevitable.
  • In some of these cases, however, it may be possible to conserve the gland using a combination of endoscopic and transcutaneous procedures.
  • CONCLUSION: The combined operation offers a further option for gland-conserving treatment in cases with obstructive salivary gland disease, especially sialolithiasis.
  • The gland resection rate can thus be further reduced.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy. Parotid Gland / surgery. Salivary Gland Calculi / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20096231.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6817
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Emerick KS, Fabian RL, Deschler DG: Clinical presentation, management, and outcome of high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 May;136(5):783-7
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  • [Title] Clinical presentation, management, and outcome of high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical features of high-grade (HG) mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the parotid gland and assess clinical outcomes of one surgical management approach.
  • Pathology records were reviewed from 1977 to 1997, identifying patients with parotid HG MEC.
  • CONCLUSION: High-grade MEC of the parotid gland is an aggressive disease that frequently presents at advanced stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17478216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Kruse-Lösler B, Presser D, Metze D, Joos U: Surgical reconstruction after subtotal ear resection in malignant melanoma of the ear. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Feb;20(2):190-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Because of a metastasis-suspect lymph node in the parotid gland, surgery included asservation of the sentinel lymph node, neck dissection and parotidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Ear, External / pathology. Ear, External / surgery. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Parotid Gland / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 16441630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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72. Koch M, Zenk J, Iro H: Long-term results of morbidity after parotid gland surgery in benign disease. Laryngoscope; 2010 Apr;120(4):724-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term results of morbidity after parotid gland surgery in benign disease.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine the incidence of major and minor complications and their impact on patients' comfort after parotid surgery in benign disease.
  • These data suggest that less invasive operative techniques should be considered in case of a benign disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Paralysis / epidemiology. Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Parotid Diseases / surgery. Sweating, Gustatory / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20205175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Wang WH, Wang CY, Bian L, Xia B, Hu YY, Xu B: [Study about the clinical and pathological characteristics of salivary duct carcinoma]. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Apr;28(2):128-31
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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of salivary duct carcinoma (SOC) so as to provide basis for the diagnosis and therapy of SOC.
  • Meanwhile, eight tumor specimens were examined for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cytokeratin (CK), gross cystic disease fluid protein (CC DFP)-15, androgen receptor (AR) and oncogene C-erBb-2 protein expression via immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Of the eight patients with SOC, five tumors grew in the parotid gland, the majority of the patients had facial nerve paralysis, three had recurrence.
  • GCDFP-15, AR and C-erBb--2 may play an important role in pathological diagnosis for SOC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Carrier Proteins. Glycoproteins. Head and Neck Neoplasms. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Receptor, ErbB-2. Receptors, Androgen. Retrospective Studies. Salivary Gland Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20480651.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-1182
  • [Journal-full-title] Hua xi kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Huaxi kouqiang yixue zazhi = West China journal of stomatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; Carcinoma, squamous cell of head and neck
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74. Syebele K: Regression of both oral mucocele and parotid swellings, following antiretroviral therapy. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2010 Jan;74(1):89-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Regression of both oral mucocele and parotid swellings, following antiretroviral therapy.
  • HIV-salivary gland associated disease is a well accepted concept in the HIV-related literature.
  • Parotid swellings, especially in its cystic benign lymphoepithelial form, have been largely reported.
  • The mainstream treatment of most of parotid pathologies and oral mucoceles remains surgical approach.
  • Strong evidences do, however, exist about lymphopithelial lesions of parotid glands that have been successfully treated with antiretroviral drugs.
  • We present a case of intraoral mucocele, coexisting with bilateral parotid gland lymphoepithelial lesions, on a 2-year-old HIV-positive patient.
  • Both parotid gland swellings and the sublingual mucocele have completely regressed following antiretroviral therapy.
  • Conversely to benign lymphoepithelial lesions of parotid glands, the regression of oral mucocele on HIV-positive patient, following antiretroviral drugs therapy appears to be a rare phenomenon.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Mucocele. Parotid Diseases / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19879006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8464
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents; 0 / Antigens, CD4
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75. Petropoulos IK, Zuber JP, Guex-Crosier Y: Heerfordt syndrome with unilateral facial nerve palsy: a rare presentation of sarcoidosis. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2008 May;225(5):453-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Heerfordt syndrome is rare and is characterized by fever, uveitis, parotid gland enlargement, and facial nerve palsy.
  • Examination revealed mild anterior uveitis OU, mild vitritis OD, fundus whitish lesions OU, left otalgia, taste disorders, bilateral parotid gland enlargement, and left facial nerve palsy.
  • Work-up for infection or tumour was negative.
  • Chest computed tomography and transbronchial lymph node biopsy set the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Heerfordt syndrome is a rare manifestation of neurosarcoidosis and has to be included in the differential diagnosis of facial nerve palsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Facial Paralysis / diagnosis. Uveoparotid Fever / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Rare Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18454397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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76. Kikuchi Y, Hirota M, Iwai T, Aoki S, Chikumaru H, Kawabe R, Matsui Y: Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandible: a case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2007 Mar;103(3):e41-6
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  • Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a distinctive and aggressive neoplasm.
  • The most frequent site of origin is the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular gland.
  • In this report, we also discuss the specific diagnostic criteria and developmental theories of intraosseous salivary gland tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Mandibular Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Ducts / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17321438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Willenborg KM, Götz F, Klein R, Lenarz T, Stöver T: [Tuberculosis in the parotid gland in HIV infection]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2008 Jun;87(6):420-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Tuberculosis in the parotid gland in HIV infection].
  • [Transliterated title] Tuberkulose in der Glandula parotidea bei HIV-Infektion.
  • A 35-year-old man with HIV-infection presented with a progressive swelling of the left parotid gland lasting for 3 months.
  • Physical examination revealed a firm mass on the tail of the parotid gland.
  • Ultrasound examination of the left parotid showed a well-circumscribed round lesion.
  • MR imaging demonstrated a 2 cm lesion in the ventral subcutaneous part of the parotid gland.
  • Primary tuberculosis of the parotid gland in a patient with HIV-infection was diagnosed and anti-mycobacterial therapy was started.
  • In HIV-patients with unilateral swelling of the parotid gland, tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma and fine needle aspiration cytology should be performed to avoid unnecessary surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Parotid Diseases / diagnosis. Tuberculosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Parotid Gland / pathology. Parotid Gland / surgery. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18288625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents
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78. Hansen A, Dörner T: [Sjögren syndrome]. Internist (Berl); 2010 Oct;51(10):1267-79; quiz 1280
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  • Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of hitherto unknown origin.
  • Sicca symptoms and/or recurrent parotid gland swelling are often accompanied by fatigue.
  • [MeSH-major] Sjogren's Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Antinuclear / blood. Biological Products / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cross-Sectional Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Infant, Newborn. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / epidemiology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Male. Pregnancy. Prenatal Diagnosis. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 20821183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1289
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Biological Products; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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79. Chen WL, Yang ZH, Li JS, Huang ZQ, Wang JG, Zhang B: [Plastic surgical treatment of extensive hemangiomas in the oral and maxillofacial regions in children]. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Nov;21(6):461-3
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  • The location of hemangiomas included parotid gland (39.6%), lip (20.9%), buccal (20.1%), suborbital (9%), orbital (7.5%) and nasal region (3%).

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  • (PMID = 16463788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zheng xing wai ke za zhi = Zhonghua zhengxing waike zazhi = Chinese journal of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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80. Terashima K, Shioyama Y, Nakamura K, Ohga S, Nomoto S, Yamaguchi T, Toba T, Yoshitake T, Yabuuchi H, Nakashima T, Terashima H, Honda H: Long-term local control of recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma in the parotid gland with radiotherapy and intraarterial infusion chemotherapy. Radiat Med; 2006 May;24(4):287-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term local control of recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma in the parotid gland with radiotherapy and intraarterial infusion chemotherapy.
  • We report a case of postoperative recurrence of adenoid cystic carcinoma in the left parotid gland treated with radiotherapy and arterial infusion chemotherapy.
  • A 52-year-old woman had a history of surgical resection for an adenoid cystic carcinoma arising from the left parotid gland 25 years before.
  • Despite two reoperations for local recurrence after the initial surgery, she had a third local recurrence in the remnant of the left parotid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Parotid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16958403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0288-2043
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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81. Kuhnt T, Janich M, Götz U, Gerlach R, Chiricuta IC, Hänsgen G: [Presentation of a 3D conformal radiotherapy technique for head-and-neck tumors resulting in substantial protection of the parotid glands]. Strahlenther Onkol; 2006 Jun;182(6):325-30
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  • [Title] [Presentation of a 3D conformal radiotherapy technique for head-and-neck tumors resulting in substantial protection of the parotid glands].
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to improve the irradiation technique for the treatment of head-and-neck tumors and, in particular, to make use of the advantages found in modern 3D planning to protect the parotid glands.
  • The sum doses D(min), D(max) and D(mean) for PTV, boost volume, and ipsilateral and contralateral parotid gland were evaluated, and the time needed for calculation of the plans was also determined.
  • Significant differences were found regarding the three different techniques, e.g., for the ipsilateral parotid gland D(min) (T1 = 47.4, T2 = 50.6, and T3 = 38.4 Gy) as well as for the contralateral parotid gland D(min) (T1 = 42.1, T2 = 44.2, and T3 = 17.8 Gy) and D(mean) (T1 = 51.3, T2 = 52.8, and T3 = 32.6 Gy).
  • This was especially the case with regard to the contralateral parotid gland, when the dose distributions were calculated equally for PTV and boost volume.
  • In this study, the D(mean) dose of the contralateral parotid gland was lower than the TD(50) of 37 Gy (95% confidence interval 32-43 Gy) previously assumed by the authors.
  • Therefore, it can be concluded that in the present study a more intensive protection of this gland and a reduction in xerostomia were possibly obtained.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Parotid Diseases / prevention & control. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Radiation Protection / methods. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal / adverse effects. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods

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  • (PMID = 16703287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-099X
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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82. Suh SI, Seol HY, Kim TK, Lee NJ, Kim JH, Kim KA, Woo JS, Lee JH: Acinic cell carcinoma of the head and neck: radiologic-pathologic correlation. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2005 Jan-Feb;29(1):121-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: The lesions in the superficial lobe of the parotid gland were solid (n=7), cystic (n=1), and cystic mass with mural nodule (n=1) on CT.
  • A parapharyngeal lesion was cystic mass with mural nodule, and a submandibular and a palate tumor were cystic lesions on CT.
  • All solid masses in the parotid gland (n=7) included focal low-attenuating portions on CT, which were microcyst, hemorrhage, or necrosis on pathologic examination.
  • Internal hemorrhage on the MR images was seen in a parapharyngeal and a parotid lesion.
  • CONCLUSION: Although ACC appears to have nonspecific imaging findings, familiarity with some imaging features can be helpful for differential diagnosis of head and neck tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hemorrhage / pathology. Hemorrhage / radiography. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiography. Palatal Neoplasms / pathology. Palatal Neoplasms / radiography. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / radiography. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / radiography. Retrospective Studies. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15665697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Kumánovics A, Perkins SL, Gilbert H, Cessna MH, Augustine NH, Hill HR: Diffuse large B cell lymphoma in hyper-IgE syndrome due to STAT3 mutation. J Clin Immunol; 2010 Nov;30(6):886-93
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  • With the discovery of mutations in the STAT3 gene in the majority of autosomal dominant cases, it is now possible to make a molecular diagnosis of hyper-IgE syndrome.
  • Here, we report of a 48-year-old male with hyper-IgE syndrome who developed a primary parotid gland diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
  • Analysis for STAT3 mutations demonstrated that the causal mutation of hyper-IgE syndrome, R382Q, arose de novo in the patient and it was transmitted to three of his five children, all three of whom are clinically affected.

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  • (PMID = 20859667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor
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84. Gao N, Li Y, Li LJ, Wen YM: Clinical analysis of head and neck cancer cases in south-west China 1953 - 2002. J Int Med Res; 2009 Jan-Feb;37(1):189-97
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  • The parotid gland and palate were the most common locations for salivary gland tumours.

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  • (PMID = 19215690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of international medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Int. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. Casserly P, Kiely P, Fenton JE: Cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma masquerading as a carotid body tumour with a postoperative complication of first-bite syndrome. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2009 Oct;266(10):1659-62
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  • [Title] Cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma masquerading as a carotid body tumour with a postoperative complication of first-bite syndrome.
  • The patient had a postoperative complication of first-bite syndrome (FBS).Although rare, CSCS should be considered in the differential diagnosis for tumours at the carotid bifurcation.
  • Damage to the sympathetic innervation to the parotid gland can result in severe postoperative pain characterised by FBS and should be considered in all patients undergoing surgery involving the parapharyngeal space.
  • [MeSH-major] Autonomic Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis. Carotid Body Tumor / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Horner Syndrome / etiology. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carotid Artery, External / pathology. Carotid Artery, Internal / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Jugular Veins / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19130071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-4726
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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86. Ferreira PC, Amarante JM, Rodrigues JM, Pinho CJ, Cardoso MA, Reis JC: Parotid surgery: review of 107 tumors (1990-2002). Int Surg; 2005 Jul-Aug;90(3):160-6
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  • [Title] Parotid surgery: review of 107 tumors (1990-2002).
  • Tumors of the parotid gland are uncommon.
  • We reviewed the clinical and the surgical records of a series of 109 patients who were recommended for surgery because of parotid tumors by the Plastic and Reconstructive Service of São João Hospital, Portugal, between 1990 and 2002.
  • The following parameters were evaluated: age, sex, gland afflicted, symptoms, and duration of symptoms, diagnostic procedures, treatment methods, follow-up, and recurrences.
  • Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common tumor (63.5%).
  • [MeSH-major] Parotid Gland / surgery. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16466006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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87. Kropf N, Cordeiro CN, McCarthy CM, Hu QY, Cordeiro PG: The vertically oriented free myocutaneous gracilis flap in head and neck reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg; 2008 Dec;61(6):632-6
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  • Seven patients had a malignant skin tumor; 3 patients had a parotid gland tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19034078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3708
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Kawashima Y, Sumi T, Sugimoto T, Kishimoto S: First-bite syndrome: a review of 29 patients with parapharyngeal space tumor. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2008 Mar;35(1):109-13
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  • [Title] First-bite syndrome: a review of 29 patients with parapharyngeal space tumor.
  • METHODS: A total of 29 consecutive patients treated with a surgical resection for parapharyngeal space tumor between April 1999 and April 2005 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • CONCLUSION: The present findings strongly indicate that loss of sympathetic innervation to the parotid gland from the superior cervical ganglion causes first-bite syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Deglutition Disorders / physiopathology. Hyperalgesia / physiopathology. Parotid Gland / innervation. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Superior Cervical Ganglion / surgery


89. Zbären P, Stauffer E: Pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: histopathologic analysis of the capsular characteristics of 218 tumors. Head Neck; 2007 Aug;29(8):751-7
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  • [Title] Pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: histopathologic analysis of the capsular characteristics of 218 tumors.
  • METHODS: Retrospective (n = 154) and prospective (n = 64) histologic analysis of the capsular characteristics such as incompleteness, tumor penetration, pseudopodia, and satellite tumors of 218 pleomorphic adenomas.
  • If left in the surrounding salivary gland tissue at surgery, they can lead to recurrences of pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17252593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Braam PM, Roesink JM, Moerland MA, Raaijmakers CP, Schipper M, Terhaard CH: Long-term parotid gland function after radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Jul 1;62(3):659-64
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  • [Title] Long-term parotid gland function after radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: Irradiation of the parotid glands causes salivary dysfunction, resulting in reduced salivary flow.
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the long-term parotid gland function after irradiation for head-and-neck cancer.
  • Stimulated bilateral parotid salivary flow rates were measured before RT and 6 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and at least 3.5 years after RT completion.
  • A complication was defined as a stimulated parotid flow rate of <25% of the pre-RT flow rate.
  • RESULTS: The mean stimulated flow rate of the parotid glands before RT was 0.31 mL/min (standard deviation [SD], 0.21).
  • The mean dose to the parotid gland resulting in a 50% complication probability increased from 34 Gy at 6 weeks to 40 Gy at 6 months, 42 Gy at 12 months, and 46 Gy at 5 years after RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Parotid Gland / radiation effects. Salivation / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 15936542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Vázquez Mahía I, López-Cedrún Cembranos JL, Ferreras Granado J, Lorenzo Franco F: Temporomandibular juxtaarticular chondroma: case report. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2007 Mar;12(2):E171-4
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  • Chondromas are benign tumours composed of mature hyaline cartilage.
  • We present here the first case in the English language medical literature of juxtaarticular chondroma of the temporomandibular joint in the parotid region.
  • The patient, a 54 year old woman, presented a right preauricular tumour of 3.5 cm. which had been developing for 4 years.
  • The diagnostic possibilities of a parotid pleomorphic adenoma and of a cartilage tumour of the TMJ suggested a difficult preoperative differential diagnosis, which influenced our approach regarding therapy.
  • The tumour was excised, preserving the parotid gland.
  • This enabled us to confirm the histological diagnosis of chondroma, composed solely of chondroide tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Chondroma / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Temporomandibular Joint

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  • (PMID = 17322809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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92. Zheng C, Nikolov NP, Alevizos I, Cotrim AP, Liu S, McCullagh L, Chiorini JA, Illei GG, Baum BJ: Transient detection of E1-containing adenovirus in saliva after the delivery of a first-generation adenoviral vector to human parotid gland. J Gene Med; 2010 Jan;12(1):3-10
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  • [Title] Transient detection of E1-containing adenovirus in saliva after the delivery of a first-generation adenoviral vector to human parotid gland.
  • One week after the administration of AdhAQP1 to an enrolled, generally healthy patient, E1-containing adenovirus was detected in parotid saliva.
  • RESULTS: On day 7 after AdhAQP1 delivery, low levels of the Ad5 E1 gene were detected in parotid saliva (82 copies/microl).
  • The patient was asymptomatic and subsequent analysis of parotid saliva samples prior to day 7 and after day 7 until day 42 was negative for both virus and vector.
  • Detailed PCR analyses of DNA extracted from the day 7 parotid saliva sample suggested the absence of a recombination event, and no infectious virus was found.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The patient most likely had a latent Ad5 infection in the targeted parotid gland that was activated after gene transfer and was without clinical consequence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoviridae / genetics. Adenovirus E1 Proteins / genetics. Gene Transfer Techniques. Genetic Vectors / administration & dosage. Genetic Vectors / genetics. Parotid Gland / metabolism. Saliva / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19941317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-2254
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of gene medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gene Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 DE000336-27; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenovirus E1 Proteins; 0 / DNA, Viral; 146410-94-8 / Aquaporin 1
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93. Al-Khateeb TH, Ababneh KT: Salivary tumors in north Jordanians: a descriptive study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2007 May;103(5):e53-9
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  • STUDY DESIGN: The records of the Department of Pathology at Jordan University of Science and Technology were reviewed for patients who were treated for salivary gland tumors from 1991 to 2002.
  • The tumors were analyzed for age of patient, sex of patient, tumor site, and tumor type.
  • RESULTS: One hundred two true neoplasms (70% benign and 30% malignant) were found.
  • The most frequent benign and malignant neoplasms found were pleomorphic adenoma (54%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (13%), respectively.
  • The most common major and minor salivary gland sites were the parotid (51%) and palatal glands (20%), respectively.
  • Although most of major gland tumors were adenomas, carcinomas of the minor glands were only slightly less frequent than adenomas.
  • The most frequent malignant parotid tumors were adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • The most frequent minor salivary gland malignant tumors were palatal adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: North Jordanians with salivary gland tumors were found to have similar characteristics with patients of other countries with regard to tumor type, tumor site distribution, and age and sex of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / epidemiology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17368055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Price C, Schmidt MA, Adam EJ, Lacey H: Parotid gland enlargement in eating disorders: an insensitive sign? Eat Weight Disord; 2008 Dec;13(4):e79-83
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  • [Title] Parotid gland enlargement in eating disorders: an insensitive sign?
  • OBJECTIVE: To study, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the parotid glands of patients who self-induce vomiting and in particular to observe the effects of cessation of this behaviour.
  • The morphological features and composition of enlarged parotid glands in this group, compared with normal controls, were also examined.
  • METHOD: MRI scans of the parotid glands were performed on 5 controls and 5 subjects with a purging form of eating disorder, at cessation of vomiting and 6 to 9 weeks later.
  • RESULTS: Parotid volumes are accurately measured using MRI.
  • CONCLUSION: Absence of salivary gland enlargement does not exclude significant vomiting behaviour and clinicians should remain alert to the possibility of undisclosed vomiting.
  • [MeSH-major] Feeding and Eating Disorders / complications. Feeding and Eating Disorders / diagnosis. Parotid Gland / pathology. Vomiting / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anorexia Nervosa / complications. Anorexia Nervosa / diagnosis. Body Height. Body Mass Index. Body Weight. Bulimia Nervosa / complications. Bulimia Nervosa / diagnosis. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Hypertrophy / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19169067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-1262
  • [Journal-full-title] Eating and weight disorders : EWD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eat Weight Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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95. Safioleas M, Giannopoulos A, Manti Ch, Stamatakos M, Safioleas K, Stavrou E: Hydatid disease of the parotid gland: a rare case report. Parasitol Int; 2007 Sep;56(3):247-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hydatid disease of the parotid gland: a rare case report.
  • A 40-year-old female suffering from hydatid disease located in the parotid gland is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Echinococcosis. Parotid Diseases
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Albendazole / therapeutic use. Anthelmintics / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Parotid Gland / parasitology. Parotid Gland / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17400021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1383-5769
  • [Journal-full-title] Parasitology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Parasitol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthelmintics; F4216019LN / Albendazole
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96. Yanardag H: Parotid gland involvement in sarcoidosis. South Med J; 2005 Feb;98(2):258-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parotid gland involvement in sarcoidosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Parotid Diseases / complications. Parotid Gland / pathology. Sarcoidosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 15759966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-4348
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Chakraborty PP, Bhattacharjee R, Chatterjee K: Parotid gland cysticercosis. J Assoc Physicians India; 2007 Oct;55:717
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parotid gland cysticercosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Edema / pathology. Neurocysticercosis / pathology. Parotid Diseases / pathology. Parotid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18173024.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] F4216019LN / Albendazole
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98. Brandling-Bennett HA, Metry DW, Baselga E, Lucky AW, Adams DM, Cordisco MR, Frieden IJ: Infantile hemangiomas with unusually prolonged growth phase: a case series. Arch Dermatol; 2008 Dec;144(12):1632-7
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  • All of the IHs had a deep dermal to subcutaneous component, all had either segmental or indeterminate morphologic characteristics, and 39% involved the parotid gland.

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Dermatol. 2008 Dec;144(12):1650 [19075153.001]
  • (PMID = 19075148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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99. Orhan KS, Demirel T, Kocasoy-Orhan E, Yenigül K: Facial paralysis due to an occult parotid abscess. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2008 Mar-Apr;18(2):115-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Facial paralysis due to an occult parotid abscess.
  • Facial paralysis associated with benign diseases of the parotid gland is very rare.
  • It has been reported in approximately 16 cases of acute suppurative parotitis or parotid abscess.
  • We presented a 45-year-old woman who developed facial paralysis secondary to an occult parotid abscess.
  • The lesion was diagnosed as an occult parotid abscess.
  • [MeSH-major] Abscess / complications. Facial Paralysis / etiology. Parotid Diseases / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Bell Palsy / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Parotitis / complications. Parotitis / diagnosis. Parotitis / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18628648.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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100. Mandel L, Wolinsky B, Chalom EC: Treatment of refractory sarcoidal parotid gland swelling in a previously reported unresponsive case. J Am Dent Assoc; 2005 Sep;136(9):1282-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of refractory sarcoidal parotid gland swelling in a previously reported unresponsive case.
  • BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease that is seen occasionally in patients with characteristic bilateral parotid gland swelling.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors describe a previously published case report of a patient with sarcoidosis with parotid gland swellings who did not respond to standard therapy.
  • CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: It is important for dental practitioners to be familiar with manifestations of sarcoidosis, particularly its salivary gland aspects.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Parotid Diseases / drug therapy. Sarcoidosis / drug therapy. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16196234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Dental Association (1939)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Dent Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab
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