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6. Imachi H, Murao K, Kontani K, Yokomise H, Miyai Y, Yamamoto Y, Kushida Y, Haba R, Ishida T: Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: a cause of acute pancreatitis. Endocrine; 2009 Oct;36(2):194-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: a cause of acute pancreatitis.
  • After the episode of acute pancreatitis subsided, laboratory investigation revealed increased serum calcium (12.0 mg/dl), decreased serum phosphorus (2.7 mg/dl), and increased serum parathyroid hormone (intact) levels (131 pg/ml).
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck did not reveal any mass lesions in the parathyroid gland.
  • However, (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy revealed that there was one functioning parathyroid gland in the upper mediastinum.
  • Combined (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy and CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism in the mediastinum.
  • Microscopic examination revealed the presence of a parathyroid adenoma (1.3 x 0.4 cm(2)) adjacent to the atrophic parathyroid gland in right thymus gland.
  • We report the case of a patient diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism due to an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • An ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma may manifest as an episode of acute pancreatitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Choristoma. Mediastinal Diseases / complications. Pancreatitis / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Male

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  • (PMID = 19598003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Khan MK, Taous A, Sultana SZ, Sharif A, Hossain MM, Mostafa G, Hussain MA, Azim MA, Siddique MA: Neck swelling with renal stone. Mymensingh Med J; 2010 Oct;19(4):622-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Number of parathyroid glands and their ectopic locations in individuals are the problem of its management.
  • Parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia may be a part of Multiple Endocrine neoplasia type II.
  • After search, hypercalcaemia, bilateral renal stone, raised parathormone level and enlarged one parathyroid gland in lower pole of left thyroid lobe was identified.
  • Clinically it was diagnosed as parathyroid adenoma which was proved histologically after surgical excision.
  • Many controversies still exist regarding the treatment policy of parathyroid adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 20956910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-4742
  • [Journal-full-title] Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mymensingh Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
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8. Salvatore G, Chiappetta G, Nikiforov YE, Decaussin-Petrucci M, Fusco A, Carney JA, Santoro M: Molecular profile of hyalinizing trabecular tumours of the thyroid: high prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements and absence of B-raf and N-ras point mutations. Eur J Cancer; 2005 Mar;41(5):816-21
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  • [Title] Molecular profile of hyalinizing trabecular tumours of the thyroid: high prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements and absence of B-raf and N-ras point mutations.
  • Hyalinizing trabecular tumour (HTT) of the thyroid is a neoplasm of follicular derivation that shares several morphological similarities with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • In this study, we investigated the prevalence of B-raf point mutations, RET/PTC rearrangements and N-ras point mutations in a large HTT series (28 samples).
  • Twenty benign thyroid lesions and 10 PTC served as control cases.
  • Thus, in clinical practice, the detection of B-raf mutations in a thyroid follicular tumour may prove to be a valuable tool, supplementing histological examination, and allowing a differential diagnosis between PTC and HTT.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Gene Rearrangement / genetics. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret

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  • (PMID = 15763659.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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9. Gómez Marqués G, Obrador Mulet A, Vilar Gimeno A, Pascual Felip MJ, Alarcón Zurita A, Molina Guasch M, Uriol Rivera M, Munar Vila MA, Losada González P: Treatment with cinacalcet of secondary hyperparathyroidism after renal transplantation. Transplant Proc; 2009 Jul-Aug;41(6):2139-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Calcimimetics inhibit parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion by modulating the calcium-sensing receptor in the parathyroid gland.

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  • (PMID = 19715856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Naphthalenes; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
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10. Brandi ML: Parathyroid gland: Hyperparathyroidism in MEN1 syndrome: time to operate? Nat Rev Endocrinol; 2010 Nov;6(11):604-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid gland: Hyperparathyroidism in MEN1 syndrome: time to operate?
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Diseases / diagnosis. Bone Diseases / etiology. Female. Humans. Kidney Diseases / diagnosis. Kidney Diseases / etiology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20962866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] News
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Marcheix B, Brouchet L, Berjaud J, Dahan M: Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: A sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2006 Nov;30(5):808-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: A sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland.
  • She underwent first a subtotal resection of the parathyroid glands associated with subtotal thyroidectomy in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism and multi nodular thyroid.
  • Pathologic findings were consistent with hyperplasia and demonstrated a fifth parathyroid gland in the thyroid.
  • Two years later, the patient presented recurrent hyperparathyroidism associated with terminal renal insufficiency, fusion of Sesta Mibi scintigraphy and CT scan demonstrated a sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland in the aorto pulmonary window.
  • Pathologic findings demonstrated a parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Mediastinal Diseases / complications. Parathyroid Glands
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Aged. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroidectomy. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 16979898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Masatsugu T, Yamashita H, Noguchi S, Nishii R, Watanabe S, Uchino S, Kuroki S, Tanaka M: Significant clinical differences in primary hyperparathyroidism between patients with and those without concomitant thyroid disease. Surg Today; 2005;35(5):351-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the differences in diagnosis and treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) in patients with and those without concomitant thyroid disease.
  • METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with pHPT underwent parathyroid localization and thyroid examination by ultrasonography (US) and sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI).
  • The clinical and biochemical findings, parathyroid localization, and operations performed were compared in 49 patients without thyroid disease and 61 patients with thyroid disease.
  • The pathologic parathyroid gland was identified significantly more often in patients without concomitant thyroid disease than in those with concomitant thyroid disease both by US and MIBI (P < 0.05).
  • Thyroid disease concomitant with pHPT influenced parathyroid localization as well as the indication for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Thyroid Diseases / complications

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  • (PMID = 15864415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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13. Terawaki H, Nakano H, Takeguchi F, Hasegawa T, Nakayama M, Okazaki M, Hosoya T: Regression of parathyroid gland swelling by treatment with cinacalcet. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2009 Feb;24(2):690-1; author reply 691-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Regression of parathyroid gland swelling by treatment with cinacalcet.
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / metabolism. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Renal Dialysis / adverse effects

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  • [CommentOn] Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008 Jan;23(1):328-35 [17717030.001]
  • (PMID = 18987257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2385
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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4. Su DH, Liao KM, Chang YC, Tsai KS: Secondary hyperparathyroidism as a palpable intrathyroid parathyroid gland in a patient with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia. J Bone Miner Metab; 2006;24(2):114-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Secondary hyperparathyroidism as a palpable intrathyroid parathyroid gland in a patient with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia.
  • An intrathyroid parathyroid gland was confirmed through partial thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy.
  • Renal phosphate wasting decreased strongly, and serum parathyroid hormone was in the normal range after the operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / diagnosis. Osteomalacia / complications. Parathyroid Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hypophosphatemia / pathology. Kidney Tubules / pathology. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphates / chemistry. Phosphates / therapeutic use. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16502117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-8779
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphates
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15. Hostutler RA, DiBartola SP, Chew DJ, Nagode LA, Schenck PA, Rajala-Schultz PJ, Drost WT: Comparison of the effects of daily and intermittent-dose calcitriol on serum parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium concentrations in normal cats and cats with chronic renal failure. J Vet Intern Med; 2006 Nov-Dec;20(6):1307-13
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  • [Title] Comparison of the effects of daily and intermittent-dose calcitriol on serum parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium concentrations in normal cats and cats with chronic renal failure.
  • Early treatment of patients with chronic renal failure with calcitriol may be indicated because once established, parathyroid gland hyperplasia does not readily resolve with therapy.
  • HYPOTHESIS: Daily and intermittent dosing of calcitriol will decrease plasma parathyroid hormone concentration in normal cats and cats with chronic renal failure without causing ionized hypercalcemia.
  • Before each phase, calcitriol, parathyroid hormone, and ionized calcium concentrations were measured.
  • On the last day of both phases, calcitriol, parathyroid hormone, and ionized calcium concentrations were measured 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours after calcitriol administration.
  • RESULTS: Overall, serum parathyroid hormone concentrations were significantly higher in cats with chronic renal failure than in normal cats (P = .022), but serum parathyroid hormone concentrations for both normal cats and cats with chronic renal failure were not significantly different before and after 14 days of treatment with calcitriol, regardless of whether calcitriol was administered daily or intermittently.
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: At the dosages used, calcitriol treatment did not result in significant differences in serum parathyroid hormone concentrations before and after treatment in both normal cats and cats with chronic renal failure.

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  • (PMID = 17186842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Agonists; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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16. Yang YX: Proton pump inhibitor therapy and osteoporosis. Curr Drug Saf; 2008 Sep;3(3):204-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Specifically, inhibition of the osteoclastic proton pumps may reduce bone resorption, while profound acid suppression could potentially hamper intestinal calcium absorption, and secondary hypergastrinemia may enhance bone resorption through the induction of parathyroid gland hyperplasia.

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  • (PMID = 18691003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1574-8863
  • [Journal-full-title] Current drug safety
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Drug Saf
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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17. Tanaka M, Ito K, Matsushita K, Matsushita K, Tominaga Y, Matsuoka S, Ueki T, Goto N, Sato T, Katayama A, Haba T, Uchida K: [Usefulness of power Doppler ultrasonography for the diagnosis of autoinfarction of parathyroid gland in secondary hyperparathyroidism]. Clin Calcium; 2005 Sep;15 Suppl 1:46-9; discussion 49-50
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of power Doppler ultrasonography for the diagnosis of autoinfarction of parathyroid gland in secondary hyperparathyroidism].
  • Spontaneous remission due to parathyroid infarction of secondary hyperparathyroidism is rare compared with that of primary hyperparathyroidism, probably because several glands are enlarged in secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Lately, neck ultrasound examination has become a more beneficial and specific method for the diagnosis of enlarged parathyroid glands in contrast to classic diagnostic techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scintigraphy.
  • However, the diagnosis of parathyroid infarction reported in previous studies was often based on CT, MRI and scintigraphy findings and there are few studies that reported such diagnosis by urgent power Doppler ultrasonography of the neck.
  • Here we present a hemodialysis patient with autoinfarction of the left parathyroid gland diagnosed by urgent power Doppler ultrasonography of the neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / ultrasonography. Infarction / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Glands / blood supply. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Calcium. 2006 Feb;16(2):149-52
  • (PMID = 16272629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Navarro-González JF, Mora-Fernández C, García-Pérez J: Clinical implications of disordered magnesium homeostasis in chronic renal failure and dialysis. Semin Dial; 2009 Jan-Feb;22(1):37-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Potential harmful effects of elevated Mg include altered nerve conduction velocity, increased pruritus, and alterations to osseous metabolism and parathyroid gland function (mineralization defects, contribution to osteomalacic renal osteodystrophy, and adynamic bone disease).


19. Kawata T, Imanishi Y, Kobayashi K, Onoda N, Takemoto Y, Tahara H, Okuno S, Ishimura E, Miki T, Ishikawa T, Inaba M, Nishizawa Y: Direct in vitro evidence of extracellular Ca2+-induced amino-terminal truncation of human parathyroid hormone (1-84) by human parathyroid cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Oct;90(10):5774-8
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  • [Title] Direct in vitro evidence of extracellular Ca2+-induced amino-terminal truncation of human parathyroid hormone (1-84) by human parathyroid cells.
  • CONTEXT: Although serum calcium (Ca2+) concentration regulates the generation of amino-terminally (N-terminally) truncated forms of human PTH (hPTH) degraded from (1-84)hPTH, no studies have yet reported whether the parathyroid gland itself is responsible for this process.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the site of N-terminal truncation and its roles in PTH metabolism in parathyroid cells in vitro.
  • METHODS: The effect of extracellular Ca2+ concentration was examined on N-terminal truncation in primary cultured parathyroid cells.
  • The parathyroid glands were obtained from the patients with primary and uremia-associated secondary hyperparathyroidisms who underwent therapeutic parathyroidectomies.
  • Suppression of PTH secretion by increasing the extracellular Ca2+ concentration was more evident with the Bio-PTH assay than with the I-PTH assay for both cultured parathyroid cells prepared from parathyroid adenomas and uremia-associated secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the N-terminal truncation is regulated by extracellular Ca2+ concentration and works to suppress the generation of (1-84)hPTH in parathyroid cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / pharmacology. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16046589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Peptide Fragments; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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20. Moe SM, Cunningham J, Bommer J, Adler S, Rosansky SJ, Urena-Torres P, Albizem MB, Guo MD, Zani VJ, Goodman WG, Sprague SM: Long-term treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism with the calcimimetic cinacalcet HCl. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2005 Oct;20(10):2186-93
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  • BACKGROUND: Patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism often require therapy that provides long-term control of parathyroid hormone concentrations without increasing calcium and phosphorus concentrations.
  • Cinacalcet modulates the calcium-sensing receptor on the parathyroid gland to reduce secretion of parathyroid hormone and lower serum calcium, phosphorus and calcium-phosphorus product in haemodialysis patients.
  • METHODS: Dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism [parathyroid hormone (PTH) level > or =300 pg/ml] who were enrolled in one of four phase 2 placebo-controlled studies were eligible to enroll in an open-label extension study in which all patients received cinacalcet.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Calcium / blood. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphorus / blood. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / drug effects. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16030053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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21. Taniyama Y, Suzuki T, Mikami Y, Moriya T, Satomi S, Sasano H: Systemic distribution of somatostatin receptor subtypes in human: an immunohistochemical study. Endocr J; 2005 Oct;52(5):605-11
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  • Among human tissues in which the presence of sstr has not been previously reported, the parotid gland demonstrated immunoreactivity for sstr2B and sstr5, bronchial gland for sstr1, 2B, 3, 4, 5, parathyroid gland for sstr1, 3, 4, and duodenum for all subtypes immunoreactivity.
  • In stomach, all subtypes of receptor were detected in various cell types of the mucosa, but none in ECL cells of fundic gland.

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  • (PMID = 16284440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 0 / somatostatin receptor subtype-4; 0 / somatostatin receptor type 1
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22. Pu RT, Yang J, Wasserman PG, Bhuiya T, Griffith KA, Michael CW: Does Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm predict malignancy more than follicular lesion/neoplasm on thyroid fine-needle aspiration? Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 May;34(5):330-4
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  • [Title] Does Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm predict malignancy more than follicular lesion/neoplasm on thyroid fine-needle aspiration?
  • The diagnosis of an adequately sampled thyroid FNA is generally grouped into three categories: benign, malignant, and indeterminate.
  • The latter group usually includes follicular neoplasm, follicular lesion, and sometimes a more specific diagnosis such as Hurthle cell neoplasm or follicular lesion/neoplasm with Hurthle cell change.
  • Whether a FNA diagnosis of Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm (HLN) denotes a worse clinical outcome than follicular lesion/neoplasm (FLN) remains controversial.
  • A cohort of 303 thyroid FNA cases with follow-up thyroidectomy in our institutes was identified, with the follow-up excision diagnosis compared to the FNA diagnosis in order to address this issue.
  • Of this cohort, 87 cases had an FNA diagnosis of HLN while 216 cases had a diagnosis of FLN.
  • Upon excision, the FNA diagnosis of HLN group had 14 cases of goiter/nodular hyperplasia (16%), 46 cases of adenoma (12 follicular adenoma (14%) and 34 cases of Hurthle cell adenoma (39%)), and 27 cases of carcinoma (31%, 12 papillary carcinoma and 15 Hurthle cell carcinoma).
  • The FLN group had 74 cases of goiter/nodular hyperplasia (34.3%), 8 cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis (3.7%), 73 cases of follicular adenoma (33.8%), one case of granular cell tumor, and 60 cases of carcinoma (27.8%, 46 papillary carcinoma, 12 follicular carcinoma, and 1 Hurthle cell carcinoma and 1 parathyroid carcinoma) upon excision.
  • There is no significant difference in predicting cancer between the two cytology diagnosis groups (HLN versus FLN, 31% versus 27.8%, P = 0.5771).
  • When sorting all the cases by the surgical diagnosis, while comparable for age at diagnosis, the cancer group having the higher proportion of male patients than the non-cancer group (28.7% versus 16.7%, P = 0.0259).
  • Our results suggest that an FNA diagnosis of HLN does not predict more malignancy than FLN.
  • Males and older patients with a HLN FNA diagnosis carry a higher risk of Hurthle cell carcinoma upon thyroidectomy.

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  • (PMID = 16604553.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Ivins S, Lammerts van Beuren K, Roberts C, James C, Lindsay E, Baldini A, Ataliotis P, Scambler PJ: Microarray analysis detects differentially expressed genes in the pharyngeal region of mice lacking Tbx1. Dev Biol; 2005 Sep 15;285(2):554-69
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  • Real-time quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization validated diminished expression of Pax9 and Gcm2, genes known to be required for normal thymus and parathyroid gland morphogenesis, whereas Pax1, Hoxa3, Eya1, and Foxn1, which are similarly required, were not down-regulated.

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  • (PMID = 16109395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-1606
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Pax9 protein, mouse; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 0 / Tbx1 protein, mouse
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24. Arey BJ, Seethala R, Ma Z, Fura A, Morin J, Swartz J, Vyas V, Yang W, Dickson JK Jr, Feyen JH: A novel calcium-sensing receptor antagonist transiently stimulates parathyroid hormone secretion in vivo. Endocrinology; 2005 Apr;146(4):2015-22
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  • [Title] A novel calcium-sensing receptor antagonist transiently stimulates parathyroid hormone secretion in vivo.
  • The expression of the CaR suggests a critical role in cellular regulation by calcium in various organs, including parathyroid gland, bone, and kidney.
  • [MeSH-major] Naphthalenes / pharmacology. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 15637285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / N-(2-hydroxy-3-(2-cyano-3-chlorophenoxy)propyl)-1,1-dimethyl-2-(2-nephthyl)ethylamine; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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25. Guillem P, Vlaeminck-Guillem V, Dracon M, Noel C, Cussac JF, Huglo D, Proye C: [Are preoperative examinations useful in the management of patients with renal hyperparathyroidism?]. Ann Chir; 2006 Jan;131(1):27-33
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  • AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the efficiency of preoperative parathyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy in the management of renal hyperparathyroidism.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The charts of the last consecutive 200 patients who underwent surgery for renal hyperparathyroidism from 1998 to 2003 were retrospectively reviewed to collect data concerning parathyroid gland function, results of preoperative ultrasonography and scintigraphy, as well as modalities and results of surgical exploration.
  • CONCLUSION: Parathyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy are of poor interest in the management of renal hyperparathyroidism.

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  • (PMID = 16375845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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26. Huh SH, Ornitz DM: Beta-catenin deficiency causes DiGeorge syndrome-like phenotypes through regulation of Tbx1. Development; 2010 Apr;137(7):1137-47
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  • Here, we show that canonical Wnt-beta-catenin signaling negatively regulates Tbx1 expression and that mesenchymal inactivation of beta-catenin (Ctnnb1) in mice caused abnormalities within the DGS phenotypic spectrum, including great vessel malformations, hypoplastic pulmonary and aortic arch arteries, cardiac malformations, micrognathia, thymus hypoplasia and mislocalization of the parathyroid gland.

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  • (PMID = 20215350.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-9129
  • [Journal-full-title] Development (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Development
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD049808; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD049808
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fgf8 protein, mouse; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 0 / TBX1 protein, human; 0 / Tbx1 protein, mouse; 0 / Twist Transcription Factor; 0 / Twist2 protein, mouse; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 148997-75-5 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 8
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2835329
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27. Gold JS, Donovan PI, Udelsman R: Partial median sternotomy: an attractive approach to mediastinal parathyroid disease. World J Surg; 2006 Jul;30(7):1234-9
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  • [Title] Partial median sternotomy: an attractive approach to mediastinal parathyroid disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid exploration through a standard cervical approach is adequate for the resection of most mediastinal parathyroid glands.
  • A subset of mediastinal parathyroid glands causing hyperparathyroidism, however, cannot be removed in this manner.
  • Six of these seven patients had failed a previous parathyroid exploration (86%), including one patient who had a previous complete sternotomy.
  • In five patients a mediastinal parathyroid gland was removed (71%), and in one patient a parathyroid adenoma in the carotid sheath was eventually found, and the location of the hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland in one patient was never determined although the patient was cured.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rarely, mediastinal parathyroid glands cannot be resected through a cervical approach.

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  • (PMID = 16794907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Vulpio C, Bossola M, De Gaetano A, Maresca G, Panocchia N, Spada P, Tazza L, Luciani G, Castagneto M: [Ultrasound parameter-based response to treatment with new drugs for secondary hyperparathyroidism: a retrospective analysis in a single dialysis center]. G Ital Nefrol; 2010 Sep-Oct;27(5):527-35
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  • In hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) ultrasonography of the parathyroid glands allows to assess the glandular growth and to define the limits of medical treatment.
  • The present retrospective study evaluated the relationship between parathyroid gland hyperplasia and the effectiveness of new drugs.
  • These patients underwent parathyroid ultrasonography and sequential therapy with intravenous calcitriol (first step), paracalcitol (second step), and paracalcitol + cinacalcet (third step).
  • The therapeutic response was correlated with ultrasound parameters (number of parathyroid glands, maximum longitudinal diameter, structural score, and vascular score).
  • ROC curve analysis showed that maximum longitudinal diameter (< 9 mm), number of parathyroid glands (< -1), structural score (< 2), and vascular score (< 2) predicted response to any treatment.
  • Thus parathyroid gland ultrasonography predicts the therapeutic response also to the new drugs.

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  • (PMID = 20922685.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-5590
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di nefrologia : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Nefrol
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ergocalciferols; 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 6702D36OG5 / paricalcitol; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
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29. Temmim L, Sinowatz F, Hussein WI, Al-Sanea O, El-Khodary H: Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma: a case report with clinical and histological findings. Diagn Pathol; 2008;3:46
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  • [Title] Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma: a case report with clinical and histological findings.
  • The chance of an intrathyroidal occurrence of a parathyroid gland is about 1-3%.
  • Among the causes of hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid cases occur in less than 1% of patients.
  • Here we present the case of a 63 year old Saudi female suffering from an intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The suspicion coming from the clinical investigations that the removed tumor tissue may be a parathyroid carcinoma could be confirmed by histology.
  • Although parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma have disparate natural history, it can be difficult to differentiate between the two entities.
  • Clinical presentation, operative findings may raise suspicion, but may not be conclusive especially if there is no evidence of invasion or metastasis, especially if the gland was intrathyroidal.

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  • (PMID = 19032735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627811
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30. Dusková J: Known pitfalls of the thyroid neoplasm diagnostics in the view of the new (2004) WHO Classification. Cesk Patol; 2006 Jan;42(1):24-8
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  • [Title] Known pitfalls of the thyroid neoplasm diagnostics in the view of the new (2004) WHO Classification.
  • The new (2004) WHO Classification of Tumours of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Gland exhibits both formal and contentual changes compared to the previous one from the year 1988.
  • This is true especially for the borderline neoplasm in the FVPTC category and even more for its oncocytic variant.
  • There appeared shift in the criteria for the diagnosis of oncocytic variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • The post aspiration capsular damage consideration in relation to the diagnosis of the minimally invasive follicular carcinoma is one practical profit thereof.

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  • (PMID = 16506598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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31. Babademez MA, Tuncay KS, Zaim M, Acar B, Karaşen RM: Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid gland anomalies. J Craniofac Surg; 2010 Nov;21(6):1807-9
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  • [Title] Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid gland anomalies.
  • There are several thyroid gland developmental anomalies such as presence of a pyramidal lobe, absence of the lateral lobes, absence of the isthmus or incomplete isthmus, and significantly asymmetric lateral lobes.
  • In this report, we present a case with Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid gland anomalies that consist of thyroglossal duct remnant and absence of the isthmus.
  • Furthermore, an anomaly in the parathyroid gland location and morphologic anomaly as a cystic parathyroid gland were seen in our case.
  • [MeSH-major] Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / abnormalities. Thyroglossal Cyst / pathology. Thyroid Gland / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 21119426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Shimane T, Mori T, Ono T, Egawa S, Furuta A, Ikeda K, Kamakazu K, Kobayashi S, Sanbe T, Suzaki H: [Three cases of adenocarcinoma of the head and neck maintaining QOL by administration of docetaxel]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Dec;37(13):2897-900
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  • Each case had submandibular gland carcinoma, parotid gland carcinoma, or parathyroid gland carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 21160265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
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33. Priya G, Jyotsna VP, Gupta N, Chumber S, Bal CS, Karak AK, Seth A, Ammini AC: Clinical and laboratory profile of primary hyperparathyroidism in India. Postgrad Med J; 2008 Jan;84(987):34-9
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  • Clinical and biochemical details, including serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25OHD levels, were recorded.
  • An abbreviated skeletal survey and preoperative localisation with ultrasound/CT scan of the neck and tetrofosmin/technetium-99m hexakis(2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) parathyroid scan was performed.
  • Serum alkaline phosphatase, PTH and gland weight were higher, whereas serum 25OHD was lower, in patients with skeletal disease.
  • Parathyroid gland weight was found to correlate with serum calcium and PTH.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Child. Female. Humans. India. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Parathyroid Glands / anatomy & histology


34. Rubello D, Nanni C, Merante Boschin I, Toniato A, Piotto A, Rampin L, Mariani G, Al-Nahhas A, Pelizzo MR: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure with patent V blue dye in 153 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC): is it an accurate staging method? J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Dec;25(4):483-6
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  • All patients had a preoperative cytological diagnosis of PTC, and none had clinical or ultrasonographic (US) evidence of nodal involvement.
  • Subsequently, total thyroidectomy, central compartment (CC) node dissection, and median inferior jugulocarotid node dissection of laterocervical compartment, ipsilateral to the primary tumour, were performed.
  • In 4 cases, a normal parathyroid gland and in 3 cases fibro-adipous tissue were blue-stained and mistakenly removed as SLN (7 false positive results).
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy / methods. Coloring Agents. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 17310837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents
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35. Cannata-Andía JB, Rodriguez-García M, Román-García P, Tuñón-le Poultel D, López-Hernández F, Rodríguez-Puyol D: New therapies: calcimimetics, phosphate binders and vitamin D receptor activators. Pediatr Nephrol; 2010 Apr;25(4):609-16
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  • Calcimimetics increase the sensitivity of the parathyroid gland to calcium through spatial configurational changes of the calcium-sensing receptor.
  • New vitamin D receptor activators, such as paricalcitol, are as effective at suppressing parathyroid hormone (PTH) as the traditional vitamin D receptor activators used for the past two decades, but they have a better and safer profile, showing fewer calcaemic and phosphoraemic effects while preserving the desirable effects of the vitamin D receptor activators on the cardiovascular system, hypertension, inflammation and fibrosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Chelating Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Ergocalciferols / therapeutic use. Humans. Kidney Failure, Chronic / drug therapy. Kidney Failure, Chronic / metabolism. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Glands. Polyamines / therapeutic use. Protein Binding. Sevelamer

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  • (PMID = 20151157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-198X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Chelating Agents; 0 / Ergocalciferols; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Phosphates; 0 / Polyamines; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 6702D36OG5 / paricalcitol; 9YCX42I8IU / Sevelamer; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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36. Tokumoto M, Taniguchi M: [The mechanisms of parathyroid hyperplasia and its regression]. Clin Calcium; 2007 May;17(5):665-76
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  • [Title] [The mechanisms of parathyroid hyperplasia and its regression].
  • Parathyroid gland (PTG) is a unique endocrine organ in which the quiescent glandular cells begin to proliferate in the progressive course of renal failure, leading to secondary hypereparathyroidism (SHPT).
  • SHPT is characterized by continuous over-secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hyperplasia, and the major contributing factors are a deficiency of active vitamin D, hypocalcemia and phosphate retention.
  • Many experimental and human studies have revealed that the down-regulations of vitamin D receptor (VDR), calcium (Ca) -sensing receptor (CaSR), and retinoid X receptor (RXR) in parathyroid hyperplasia of SHPT, especially nodular hyperplasia, which is a severe form of hyperplasia.
  • These also contribute to progression of parathyroid hyperplasia.
  • Recently, mechanisms by which active vitamin D and Ca regulate parathyroid hyperplasia via their receptors have been clarified.
  • In this paper, we review mechanisms for progression of parathyroid hyperplasia and the possibility for regression of parathyroid hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17470994.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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37. Lew JI, Rivera M, Irvin GL 3rd, Solorzano CC: Operative failure in the era of focused parathyroidectomy: a contemporary series of 845 patients. Arch Surg; 2010 Jul;145(7):628-33
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  • HYPOTHESIS: Focused parathyroidectomy guided by intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring (IPM) may lead to higher failure rates because of missed multiglandular disease.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parathyroid hormone dynamics and perioperative data were analyzed for factors affecting outcome.
  • Operative failure was defined as hypercalcemia with elevated parathyroid hormone levels within 6 months after parathyroidectomy.
  • The major cause of operative failure was the surgeon's inability to find the abnormal parathyroid gland (16 of 21 patients [76.2%]).
  • CONCLUSION: Inability of the surgeon to find the abnormal parathyroid gland-not missed multiglandular disease-is the main cause of operative failure in focused parathyroidectomy guided by IPM.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20644124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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38. Tonelli F, Marcucci T, Fratini G, Tommasi MS, Falchetti A, Brandi ML: Is total parathyroidectomy the treatment of choice for hyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1? Ann Surg; 2007 Dec;246(6):1075-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is total parathyroidectomy the treatment of choice for hyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1?
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present report is to describe the results obtained with total parathyroidectomy (TPTX) guided by rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) evaluation, followed by immediate parathyroid autograft with fresh tissue.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Surgery for hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is performed with various surgical approaches.
  • Forty-five patients underwent TPTX as the first surgical procedure, whereas for 6 patients, a parathyroid operation was the second surgical procedure.
  • PTH intraoperative values less than 10 pg/mL, at the end of the surgery, were indicative for reimplantation of a few fragments ( approximately 7) of fresh parathyroid tissue in the brachioradial muscle of the forearm.
  • Parathyroid autograft was performed in all patients, except 3 in whom the fourth parathyroid gland was not found.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroidectomy / methods


39. Spasovski G: New aspects of treatment of renal bone disease in dialysis patients. Prilozi; 2007 Jul;28(1):205-13
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  • The second option for stimulation of parathyroid gland activity and bone turnover is the lowering of the dialysate calcium concentration.

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  • (PMID = 17932468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0351-3254
  • [Journal-full-title] Prilozi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prilozi
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphates; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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40. Shalhoub V, Shatzen E, Henley C, Boedigheimer M, McNinch J, Manoukian R, Damore M, Fitzpatrick D, Haas K, Twomey B, Kiaei P, Ward S, Lacey DL, Martin D: Calcification inhibitors and Wnt signaling proteins are implicated in bovine artery smooth muscle cell calcification in the presence of phosphate and vitamin D sterols. Calcif Tissue Int; 2006 Dec;79(6):431-42
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  • However, calcimimetics, by binding to the parathyroid gland calcium-sensing receptors, reduce serum parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus, and the calcium-phosphorus product.

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  • (PMID = 17171500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-967X
  • [Journal-full-title] Calcified tissue international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Calcif. Tissue Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aniline Compounds; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Ergocalciferols; 0 / Glycerophosphates; 0 / N-(2-chlorophenylpropyl)-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethylamine; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; 6702D36OG5 / paricalcitol; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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41. de Francisco AL, Piñera C: Parathyroid gland: cinacalcet-can it control hypercalcemia? Nat Rev Endocrinol; 2010 Jan;6(1):15-7
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  • [Title] Parathyroid gland: cinacalcet-can it control hypercalcemia?

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  • (PMID = 20010966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] News
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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42. Owens BB: A review of primary hyperparathyroidism. J Infus Nurs; 2009 Mar-Apr;32(2):87-92
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  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is the inappropriate secretion of parathyroid hormone and is the most common cause of hypercalcemia.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism can be treated with medication and long-term monitoring; however, surgical removal of the affected parathyroid gland is the definitive treatment.
  • Rarely occurring, parathyroid crisis must be treated promptly to prevent deleterious effects to the patient.
  • The patient experiencing parathyroid crisis benefits from the infusion nurse's knowledge of drug and fluid therapies and expertise in peripheral access.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19289922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-0667
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of infusion nursing : the official publication of the Infusion Nurses Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Infus Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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43. Oh SY, Kim S, Eskandar Y, Kim DW, Krynyckyi BR, Machac J, Inabnet WB 3rd, Kim CK: Appearance of intrathymic parathyroid adenomas on pinhole sestamibi parathyroid imaging. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Jun;31(6):325-7
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  • [Title] Appearance of intrathymic parathyroid adenomas on pinhole sestamibi parathyroid imaging.
  • OBJECTIVES: Ectopic inferior parathyroid adenomas (PAs) are frequently located in the anterior mediastinum, quite often in the thymus gland.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed sestamibi pinhole parathyroid imaging performed on 163 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and final diagnoses established by surgery, histology, intraoperative PTH monitoring, and clinical follow up.
  • Of the 93 foci in group A, there were 80 normally situated inferior PA, 6 descended superior PA, 3 intrathyroidal PA, one hyperplastic parathyroid gland, one thyroid adenoma, one unidentified, and one intrathymic PA.
  • CONCLUSION: Focal increased activity completely separated from the lower pole of thyroid (regardless of the distance of separation) on sestamibi pinhole images indicates a high probability of intrathymic parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thymus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 16714889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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44. Zhang CX, Weber BV, Thammavong J, Grover TA, Wells DS: Identification of carboxyl-terminal peptide fragments of parathyroid hormone in human plasma at low-picomolar levels by mass spectrometry. Anal Chem; 2006 Mar 1;78(5):1636-43
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  • [Title] Identification of carboxyl-terminal peptide fragments of parathyroid hormone in human plasma at low-picomolar levels by mass spectrometry.
  • For decades, researchers have tried to identify the primary structures of circulating carboxyl-terminal parathyroid hormone (C-PTH) peptide fragments that may be present at only picomolar levels in human plasma.
  • This newly developed analytical capability should greatly enhance the understanding of PTH metabolism and parathyroid gland function.
  • [MeSH-major] Mass Spectrometry / methods. Parathyroid Hormone / analysis. Peptide Fragments / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16503617.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-2700
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Peptide Fragments
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45. Tanaka M, Itoh K, Matsushita K, Matsushita K, Fujii H, Fukagawa M: Normalization of reversed bio-intact-PTH(1-84)/intact-PTH ratio after parathyroidectomy in a patient with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Clin Nephrol; 2005 Jul;64(1):69-72
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  • Since 2003, he was found to have high plasma intact-PTH concentrations and two swollen parathyroid glands in the neck.
  • Recently, a few patients with parathyroid carcinoma have been found to have higher (1-84)-PTH concentrations than intact-PTH concentrations with abnormally high (1-84)-PTH/intact-PTH ratio.
  • We speculate that the resected parathyroid gland in our patient might have produced a new molecular form of PTH that was less well detected by the conventional intact-PTH assay.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 16047648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0430
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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46. Canaff L, Zhou X, Mosesova I, Cole DE, Hendy GN: Glial cells missing-2 (GCM2) transactivates the calcium-sensing receptor gene: effect of a dominant-negative GCM2 mutant associated with autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism. Hum Mutat; 2009 Jan;30(1):85-92
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  • Glial cells missing-2 (GCM2) is a transcription factor expressed in the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-secreting cells of the parathyroid gland and is essential for their development.
  • Here, we show that both promoters (P1 and P2) of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene, a differentiation marker for the parathyroid gland, are transactivated by wild-type GCM2.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18712808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-1004
  • [Journal-full-title] Human mutation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Mutat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CASR protein, human; 0 / GCM2 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 0 / Transcription Factors
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47. Goo T, Akiba Y, Kaunitz JD: Mechanisms of intragastric pH sensing. Curr Gastroenterol Rep; 2010 Dec;12(6):465-70
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  • The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), first described in the parathyroid gland but expressed on gastric G cells, is a logical candidate for the gastric acid sensor.

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  • (PMID = 20938760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-312X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current gastroenterology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Gastroenterol Rep
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK054221; United States / PHS HHS / / R01 543221
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Gastrins; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2974196
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48. Târcoveanu E, Niculescu D, Cotea E, Moldovanu R, Vasilescu A, Crumpei F, Zbranca E, Zugun F, Rusu V, Ferariu D: [Parathyroid glands involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2009 Apr-Jun;113(2):482-96
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  • [Title] [Parathyroid glands involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia].
  • Parathyroid gland involvement is usually noted in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) type I and type II.
  • Parathyroid glands tumor associated with endocrine pancreatic tumor, as well as pituitary tumors is the typical pattern of MEN I.
  • The parathyroid gland is the most frequent abnormality in MEN I.
  • CASES REPORTS: We presented five cases with MEN I and parathyroid glands involvement.
  • In three cases with young ages (28-33 years old) and familial setting, the MEN I syndrome was "complete" (parathyroid adenoma, gastrinoma or insulinoma and pituitary adenoma--prolactinoma or GH-secreting tumors), and, in the other two cases, with 57 and 68 years old respectively, the MEN I syndrome was "incomplete" with parathyroid glands and pituitary gland involvement.
  • The cases with gastrinomas were operated in emergency for complication of peptic ulcer (perforation associated with peritonitis and gastro-intestinal bleeding); then the pancreatic tumors were diagnosed and left pancreatectomy with spleen preservation and respectively, tumor resection have been performed.
  • Unfortunately one patients died due to severe endocrine disorder.
  • The imagistic and laboratory test diagnosed a tumor situated into the pancreatic body, and an parathyroid adenoma.
  • The resection of pancreatic tumor associated with resection of the parathyroid adenoma, in the same time, were performed.
  • The other two cases with "incomplete" MEN were older then the first patients, and were diagnosed with hyperparathyrodism and pituitary gland tumor.
  • The resection of parathyroid gland adenoma has been performed in both cases, with uneventful postoperative course.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The parathyroid glands involvement in MEN is common.
  • There are two kinds of MEN associated with parathyroid gland involvement: the "complete" form, especially in young patients, with diffuse involvement of the parathyroid glands, and the subtotal parathyroidy is the best choice, and the "incomplete" form, especially in elderly, with the involvement of a single parathyroid gland; in this way, the resection of the adenoma associated with biopsy from the other parathyroid gland is the best approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Gastrinoma / surgery. Insulinoma / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Pancreatectomy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21495355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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49. Saidak Z, Mentaverri R, Brown EM: The role of the calcium-sensing receptor in the development and progression of cancer. Endocr Rev; 2009 Apr;30(2):178-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Apart from its primary role in Ca(2+)(o) homeostasis, the CaR may be involved in phenomena that allow for the development of many types of benign or malignant tumors, from parathyroid adenomas to breast, prostate, and colon cancers.
  • In contrast, colon and parathyroid cancers often present with reduced or absent CaR expression, and activation of this receptor decreases cell proliferation, suggesting a role for the CaR as a tumor suppressor gene.
  • Thus, the CaR may play an important role in the development of many types of neoplasia.
  • Herein, we review the role of the CaR in various benign and malignant tumors in further detail, describing its contribution to parathyroid tumors, breast, prostate, and colon cancers, and we evaluate how pharmacological manipulations of this receptor may be of interest for the treatment of certain cancers in the future.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation. Disease Progression. Humans. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Metastasis. Parathyroid Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19237714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7189
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing
  • [Number-of-references] 235
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50. Haffner D, Fischer DC: Bone cell biology and pediatric renal osteodystrophy. Minerva Pediatr; 2010 Jun;62(3):273-84
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  • Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) show a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms intimately related to the disturbed mineral and bone metabolism and summarized as CKD-mineral-bone disorder (CKD-MBD).
  • In other words, the complex interplay between kidney, skeleton, parathyroid gland, the intestine and the cardiovasculature is severely disturbed in CKD.

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  • (PMID = 20467380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4946
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva pediatrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphates; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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56. Schaan BD, Huber J, Leite JC, Kiss A: Cardiac surgery unmasks latent hypoparathyroidism in a child with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jul;19(7):943-6
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  • The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a developmental field defect of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches characterized by a spectrum of thymic and parathyroid gland abnormalities and conotruncal cardiac defects.
  • Latent hypoparathyroidism, defined as normocalcaemia at rest but reduced ability to secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) in response to pharmacologically evoked hypocalcaemia, is found in 30-50% of people with this syndrome.
  • The clinical picture led us to the diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22. Hypoparathyroidism / diagnosis. Tetralogy of Fallot / genetics. Tetralogy of Fallot / surgery


57. Kakuta T, Fukagawa M, Kitaoka M, Koiwa F, Onoda N, Tominaga Y, Akizawa T, Kurokawa K, Japanese Society for Parathyroid Intervention: Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for advanced renal hyperparathyroidism in Japan: 2004 survey by the Japanese Society for Parathyroid Intervention. NDT Plus; 2008 Aug;1(Suppl 3):iii21-iii25
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  • [Title] Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for advanced renal hyperparathyroidism in Japan: 2004 survey by the Japanese Society for Parathyroid Intervention.
  • Background. Marked hyperplasia of the parathyroid gland (PTG) is a characteristic feature of severe hyperparathyroidism in patients under chronic haemodialysis treatment.
  • The Japanese Society for Parathyroid Intervention surveyed its membership in 2004 to revise the guidelines for the use of PEIT.

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  • (PMID = 25983968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0784
  • [Journal-full-title] NDT plus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NDT Plus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4421128
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; haemodialysis / nodular hyperplasia / parathyroidectomy (PTx) / percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) / secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT)
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58. Sankarasubbaiyan S, Abraham G, Soundararajan P, Chandrasekaran V, Padma G: Parathyroid hormone and biochemical profile in chronic kidney disease patients in South India. Hemodial Int; 2005 Jan;9(1):63-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid hormone and biochemical profile in chronic kidney disease patients in South India.
  • Intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 124.6 +/- 174.9 pg/mL and less than twice normal in 69.5% of patients.
  • Etiology remains uncertain but differences in dietary intake, tropical climate, vitamin D activation, vitamin D receptor polymorphism, parathyroid gland sensitivity, and PTH target organ sensitivity may account for the difference in pattern in bone disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Peritoneal Dialysis. Renal Osteodystrophy / blood

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  • (PMID = 16191055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1492-7535
  • [Journal-full-title] Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hemodial Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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59. Fakhran S, Branstetter BF 4th, Pryma DA: Parathyroid imaging. Neuroimaging Clin N Am; 2008 Aug;18(3):537-49, ix
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  • [Title] Parathyroid imaging.
  • The most common indication for parathyroid imaging is hyperparathyroidism, which is caused by a solitary parathyroid adenoma in most patients.
  • The primary function of parathyroid imaging is localization of the abnormal parathyroid gland, enabling the surgeon to pursue a minimally invasive resection.
  • In cases of suspected parathyroid carcinoma, preoperative CT or MR imaging is recommended for surgical planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18656034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroimaging clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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60. Butte JM, Montero PH, Solar A, Torres J, Olmos PR, Goñi I, Quintana JC, Martínez J, Llanos O: Cervical metastases of glucagonoma in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(12):1137-43
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  • [Title] Cervical metastases of glucagonoma in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: report of a case.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is a syndrome characterized by tumors of the parathyroid glands, pancreatic islet cells, duodenum, and pituitary gland.
  • Thus, we performed a distal pancreatectomy with bilateral cervical dissection and parathyroid gland resection.
  • The resected parathyroid glands had normal structure, suggesting parathyroid hyperplasia.
  • A pancreatoduodenectomy was performed and histopathological examination revealed nine nonfunctioning endocrine tumors in the pancreas, one tumor in the duodenal wall, and metastases in two peripancreatic lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Glucagonoma / pathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cholecystectomy. Duodenal Neoplasms / pathology. Duodenal Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neck. Pancreatectomy. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Splenectomy


61. Shiizaki K, Hayakawa N, Imazeki I, Hatamura I, Okada T, Negi S, Sakaguchi T, Shigematsu T, Akizawa T: Binding of highly concentrated maxacalcitol to the nuclear vitamin D receptors of parathyroid cells. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2007 Apr;22(4):1078-86
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  • [Title] Binding of highly concentrated maxacalcitol to the nuclear vitamin D receptors of parathyroid cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Injection of maxacalcitol (OCT) directly into the parathyroid gland (PTG) is a clinically safe and effective treatment for advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism (A-SHPT) resistant to conventional medical treatment.
  • In the present study, the degree of nuclear localization of directly injected OCT in parathyroid cells (PTC) was investigated by microautoradiography (mARG) in a model of A-SHPT.
  • The bilateral PTG were surgically exposed and only the left gland were directly injected with 3H-OCT (DI-3H-OCT).
  • RESULTS: Peak radioactivity levels in the directly injected and intact PTG occured immediately and 1 h, respectively, after DI-3H-OCT, and the difference was about 50-fold higher in the treated gland.
  • The of mARG showed a marked concentration of silver grains in the nuclei of PTC in the gland treated with DI-3H-OCT and that concentration was significantly suppressed by IV-1,25D3.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Direct injection of OCT into the PTG enables the administration of the highly concentrated drug for specific binding to nuclear vitamin D binding sites, including VDR of PTC, which markedly suppresses the parathyroid hormone, improves the response to calcium and vitamin D and induces apoptosis in PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / metabolism. Calcitriol / analogs & derivatives. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / physiology. Calcium / pharmacology. Disease Models, Animal. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Injections. Male. Parathyroid Hormone / physiology. Protein Binding. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Uremia / metabolism. Vitamin D / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17234669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 103909-75-7 / maxacalcitol; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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62. Orita H, Hatamura I, Saji F, Shibata M, Shiizaki K, Sakaguchi T, Negi S, Akizawa T: [Enhanced expression of EGFR, TGF-alpha, EGF in hyperplastic parathyroid glands in established stage of renal failure in rats]. Clin Calcium; 2005 Sep;15 Suppl 1:60-63; discussion 63
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  • [Title] [Enhanced expression of EGFR, TGF-alpha, EGF in hyperplastic parathyroid glands in established stage of renal failure in rats].
  • It was reported that the parathyroid gland hyperplasia correlated with enhanced co-expression of TGF-alpha and its receptor EGFR at early stages of renal failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Renal Insufficiency / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Hyperplasia / etiology. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / pharmacology. Male. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphorus, Dietary / administration & dosage. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Time Factors. Transforming Growth Factor alpha / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Calcium.2006 Feb;16(2):149-52
  • (PMID = 16411340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphorus, Dietary; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor alpha; 0 / protein kinase modulator; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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63. Lignitz S, Musholt TJ, Kreft A, Engel R, Brzezinska R, Pohlenz J: Intrathyroidal thymic tissue surrounding an intrathyroidal parathyroid gland, the cause of a solitary thyroid nodule in a 6-year-old boy. Thyroid; 2008 Oct;18(10):1125-30
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  • [Title] Intrathyroidal thymic tissue surrounding an intrathyroidal parathyroid gland, the cause of a solitary thyroid nodule in a 6-year-old boy.
  • Ectopic intrathyroidal thymic tissue is a rare occurrence; parathyroid glands sometimes occur in an intrathyroidal location, but this is uncommon.
  • A hemithyroidectomy was performed, and histological investigation revealed that the nodule consisted of ectopic intrathyroidal thymus tissue surrounding a well-defined parathyroidal gland.
  • This condition is an exceedingly rare cause of a thyroid nodule, but intrathyroidal thymic tissue should probably be included in the differential diagnosis of solitary thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Glands. Thymus Gland. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18844477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Tokumoto M, Taniguchi M, Matsuo D, Tsuruya K, Hirakata H, Iida M: [Cell proliferation of parathyroid gland in patients with progressive secondary hyperparathyroidism: Vitamin D receptor, calcium sensing receptor, and cell cycle regulation factor]. Clin Calcium; 2005 Sep;15 Suppl 1:206-16
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  • [Title] [Cell proliferation of parathyroid gland in patients with progressive secondary hyperparathyroidism: Vitamin D receptor, calcium sensing receptor, and cell cycle regulation factor].
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Disease Progression. Humans. Hyperplasia. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Vitamin D / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16279026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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65. Kitazawa S, Kondo T, Kitazawa R: Application trials of in situ hybridization at the electron microscopic level. Neuropathology; 2005 Sep;25(3):274-9
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  • Moreover, with oligo-DNA probes specific for alternative spliced forms of parathyroid hormone-related protein mRNA, we demonstrated such forms in a hyperplastic parathyroid gland attributed to renal failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / genetics. In Situ Hybridization / methods. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / genetics. RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Alternative Splicing. Animals. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line. Chondrocytes / cytology. Chondrocytes / ultrastructure. Fetus. Humans. Hyperplasia / genetics. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / ultrastructure. RNA Probes

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  • (PMID = 16193847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMP3 protein, human; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / RNA Probes; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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66. Ing SW, Pelliteri PK: Diagnostic fine-needle aspiration biopsy of an intrathyroidal parathyroid gland and subsequent eucalcemia in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocr Pract; 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):80-6
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  • [Title] Diagnostic fine-needle aspiration biopsy of an intrathyroidal parathyroid gland and subsequent eucalcemia in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present the clinical course of a patient with persistent primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) whose intrathyroidal parathyroid gland was diagnosed by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).
  • METHODS: We describe the clinical course and laboratory, radiographic, and microscopic findings of a patient with persistent PHPT due to an intrathyroidal cystic parathyroid gland and review the relevant literature.
  • RESULTS: A 74-year-old man with PHPT (presenting serum calcium concentration, 16.2 mg/dL; intact parathyroid hormone [PTH] concentration, 341 pg/mL) had surgical excision of the right superior, right inferior, and left inferior parathyroid glands, but the left superior parathyroid gland remained unidentified.
  • Microscopic examination revealed parathyroid hyperplasia.
  • Reoperation with attention to the left neck failed to locate another parathyroid gland.
  • Results from FNAB of the solid component were consistent with parathyroid cells, and cystic fluid PTH concentration was greater than 1800 pg/mL.
  • CONCLUSION: Autoinfarction of the parathyroid gland and aspiration of cystic fluid may explain resolution of hypercalcemia.
  • Although PHPT due to functioning parathyroid cysts is rare, and PHPT due to cystic parathyroid hyperplasia has been described, this is the first case report of a patient with persistent PHPT due to a functional parathyroid cyst whose diagnosis by FNAB was followed by eucalcemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / blood. Choristoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Thyroid Diseases / complications. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18238745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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67. Tsuruoka S, Kaneda T, Maeda A, Ioka T, Fujimura A: Dosing time-dependent variation of bone resorption by cyclosporin A in rats' femurs. Eur J Pharmacol; 2007 Jun 14;564(1-3):226-31
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  • Body weight, creatinine clearance, serum parathyroid hormone, the trough level of cyclosporin A in whole blood and urinary excretion of Ca and P were not changed by the drug at every any dosing time.
  • Increase of urine deoxypyridinoline excretion, a marker of osteoclast activity, by the drug was highest at 2 HALO and lowest at 14 HALO, however parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin concentrations after cyclosporin A treatment did not vary with dosing time.
  • Sensitivity of osteoclasts by the drug was the major mechanisms of the phenomenon, while differences in pharmacokinetics, the parathyroid gland, osteoblasts and renal handling of Ca and P did not contribute to the phenomenon.
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorptiometry, Photon. Amino Acids / urine. Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Bone Density / drug effects. Calcium / blood. Calcium / urine. Creatinine / urine. Drug Administration Schedule. Femur / drug effects. Femur / metabolism. Male. Osteoblasts / drug effects. Osteoblasts / metabolism. Osteocalcin / blood. Osteocalcin / drug effects. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphates / blood. Phosphates / urine. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 17362919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2999
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphates; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; 90032-33-0 / deoxypyridinoline; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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68. Ozcan UA, Oktay I: Assessment of parathyroid glands in hemodialysis patients by using color Doppler sonography. Eur Radiol; 2009 Nov;19(11):2750-5
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  • [Title] Assessment of parathyroid glands in hemodialysis patients by using color Doppler sonography.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the role of color and spectral Doppler ultrasound (CDU) in the evaluation of enlarged parathyroid glands in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Fourteen hemodialysis patients with elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels were evaluated prospectively with CDU.
  • The volume of each observed parathyroid gland and the spectral CDU data (velocities, resistance and pulsatility indices, systolic to diastolic ratio, and flow volume output (FVO)) were noted.
  • Two patients were excluded, and 27 enlarged parathyroid glands were observed in 12 patients.
  • The mean total volume of enlarged parathyroid glands per patient was 1.95 cm(3) (0.06-5.5 cm(3)).
  • Arterial supply was demonstrated in 78% (21/27) of enlarged parathyroid glands.
  • In secondary hyperparathyroidism, total volume of the visualized enlarged parathyroid glands and the total of FVOs per patient are positively correlated with iPTH levels which may help clinical management and follow-up of end-stage renal disease patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands / diagnostic imaging. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Renal Dialysis / adverse effects. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Calcium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Kinetics. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism. Phosphates / metabolism. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacology. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19471937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphates; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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69. Torres PU: Cinacalcet HCl: a novel treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr; 2006 Jul;16(3):253-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) develops as a result of impaired calcium homeostasis when the failing kidneys disturb the complicated interactions between parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D.
  • Twelve years ago, the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) of the parathyroid gland was first cloned and identified as the principal regulator of PTH secretion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / metabolism. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Humans. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Kidney Transplantation. Parathyroid Glands / chemistry. Parathyroid Hormone / adverse effects. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Phosphates / metabolism. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / physiology. Renal Dialysis. Vitamin D / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16825031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8503
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ren Nutr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphates; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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70. Raymond CB, Wazny LD: Sodium thiosulfate, bisphosphonates, and cinacalcet for treatment of calciphylaxis. Am J Health Syst Pharm; 2008 Aug 1;65(15):1419-29
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  • Cinacalcet, a calcimimetic agent that increases the sensitivity of the calcium-sensing receptor on the parathyroid gland to calcium, is believed to decrease serum parathyroid hormone levels and stabilize calcium and phosphate concentrations.

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2010 Jan 1;67(1):8
  • (PMID = 18653812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-2900
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Health Syst Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Thiosulfates; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; HX1032V43M / sodium thiosulfate
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71. Sebag F, Palazzo FF, Harding J, Sierra M, Ippolito G, Henry JF: Endoscopic lateral approach thyroid lobectomy: safe evolution from endoscopic parathyroidectomy. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):802-5
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  • Of the 38 patients, the superior parathyroid gland was identified in 36 and the inferior parathyroid gland in 33.

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  • (PMID = 16680595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Goto S, Komaba H, Fukagawa M: Pathophysiology of parathyroid hyperplasia in chronic kidney disease: preclinical and clinical basis for parathyroid intervention. NDT Plus; 2008 Aug;1(Suppl 3):iii2-iii8
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  • [Title] Pathophysiology of parathyroid hyperplasia in chronic kidney disease: preclinical and clinical basis for parathyroid intervention.
  • Secondary hyperparathyroidism is characterised by excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hyperplasia, resulting in both skeletal and extraskeletal consequences.
  • Recent basic and clinical studies have brought considerable advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of parathyroid hyperplasia and have also provided practical therapeutic approaches, especially with regard to indications for parathyroid intervention.
  • Patients with nodular hyperplasia should undergo parathyroid intervention including percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT).
  • Selective PEIT of the parathyroid gland is an effective approach in which the enlarged parathyroid gland with nodular hyperplasia is 'selectively' destroyed by ethanol injection, and other glands with diffuse hyperplasia are then managed by medical therapy.
  • With a more focused attention to applying parathyroid intervention, we can expect significant improvement in the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism in dialysis patients.

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  • (PMID = 25983967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0784
  • [Journal-full-title] NDT plus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NDT Plus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4421132
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; chronic kidney disease / fibroblast growth factor 23 / parathyroid hyperplasia / parathyroid intervention / secondary hyperparathyroidism
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73. Yeh CT, Lin YP, Yang WC, Yang AH, Lai MY, Lin CC: Rapid recurrence of hyperparathyroidism from both nodularly hyperplastic autograft at forearm and residual tissues at neck after parathyroidectomy in a hemodialysis patient with calciphylaxis. Am J Med Sci; 2006 May;331(5):284-7
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  • Residual parathyroid gland in the retrothyroid region was found later.
  • Rapidly recurrent HPT originating from both the residual parathyroid tissues and the enlarged autograft within such short time after parathyroidectomy is rare in the literature.
  • The multinodular hyperplasia pattern of the parathyroid gland may be a major factor for such rapid recurrence.
  • In addition to good control of calcium and phosphate, regular follow-up of parathyroid hormone level and imaging studies of not only autografted gland at the forearm but also possibly residual parathyroid tissues at the neck are important for monitoring recurrence in maintenance hemodialysis patients after parathyroidectomy with forearm autograft, especially in those with pathologic type of nodular hyperplasia and calciphylaxis.
  • [MeSH-major] Calciphylaxis / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / diagnosis. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Calcium / blood. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Female. Forearm / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Neck / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphates / blood. Recurrence. Renal Dialysis. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 16702801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9629
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphates; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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74. Chen CM, Chu P, Huang GS, Wang SJ, Wu SS: Spontaneous rupture of the patellar and contralateral quadriceps tendons associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism in a patient receiving long-term dialysis. J Formos Med Assoc; 2006 Nov;105(11):941-5
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  • We describe a 30-year-old man with uremia who underwent subtotal parathyroidectomy because of secondary hyperparathyroidism with very high serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level (1940.4 pg/mL).
  • Early surgical repair, control of secondary hyperparathyroidism, early use of vitamin D analogs, and total parathyroidectomy with or without autotransplantation of part of the parathyroid gland, can treat and prevent tendon rupture or re-rupture with satisfactory results.

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  • (PMID = 17098696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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75. Koenig K, Kleerekoper M: How common are functional incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland? Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;2(6):316-7
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  • [Title] How common are functional incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland?

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  • (PMID = 16932308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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76. Li Z, Liu CP, Shi L, Huang T: [Operation for differentiated thyroid cancer: a experience of 546 cases]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Mar 1;46(5):375-7
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  • The incidence rate of single lateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injury was 1.1% (6 cases), parathyroid gland partly injury was 0.4% (2 cases), superior laryngeal nerve injury was 0.7% (4 cases), bleeding was 0.6% (3 cases) and esophagus injury after operation was 0.2% (1 case).
  • It is necessary to excise cervical lymph node when the tumor's diameter exceeds 1 cm.

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  • (PMID = 18785536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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77. Graham A, Okabe M, Quinlan R: The role of the endoderm in the development and evolution of the pharyngeal arches. J Anat; 2005 Nov;207(5):479-87
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  • In particular, we focus on the emergence of the parathyroid gland, which we have recently shown to be the result of the internalization of the gills.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Humans. Mouth / embryology. Parathyroid Glands / embryology. Pharynx / embryology

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  • (PMID = 16313389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8782
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of anatomy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Anat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 35
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1571564
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78. Akimoto T, Saito O, Muto S, Hasegawa T, Nokubi M, Numata A, Ando Y, Sohara Y, Saito K, Kusano E: A case of thoracic hemorrhage due to ectopic parathyroid hyperplasia with chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis; 2005 Jun;45(6):e109-14
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  • [Title] A case of thoracic hemorrhage due to ectopic parathyroid hyperplasia with chronic renal failure.
  • We report a case of secondary hyperparathyroidism in a 53-year-old man who had thoracic hemorrhage originating from an ectopic thymic parathyroid gland tumor.
  • He was on long-term hemodialysis treatment and had persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by 3 swollen parathyroid glands around the thyroid gland and a mediastinal ectopic parathyroid gland tumor.
  • Parathyroidectomy and removal of the mediastinal tumor were planned.
  • Thoracoscopy confirmed the presence of a mediastinal tumor lesion that was bleeding into the thoracic cavity.
  • The tumor was resected using thoracoscopic surgery, and ectopic thymic parathyroid gland hyperplasia associated with hemorrhage was pathologically diagnosed.
  • A postoperative diagnostic chest computed tomographic scan and technetium 99m 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile scintigraphy showed successful removal of the ectopic parathyroid gland tumor.
  • We consider that hemorrhage from the ectopic parathyroid gland tumor resulted in thoracic bleeding.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of secondary hyperparathyroidism with thoracic hemorrhage originating from an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Choristoma / complications. Hemorrhage / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / etiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Lymphatic Diseases / etiology. Mediastinal Diseases / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15957122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6838
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Kidney Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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79. Walker Harris V, Jan De Beur S: Postoperative hypoparathyroidism: medical and surgical therapeutic options. Thyroid; 2009 Sep;19(9):967-73
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  • BACKGROUND: Hypoparathyroidism occurs when the parathyroid glands, through lack of secretion of or resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH), are unable to maintain calcium homeostasis.
  • Drawbacks to conventional therapy, including narrow therapeutic window and propensity for hypercalciuria and hypercalcemia, have prompted investigation into alternatives, namely PTH replacement and parathyroid gland autotransplantation.
  • CONCLUSION: Long-term supplementation with vitamin D or its analogues and oral calcium is the mainstay of management of postoperative hypoparathyroidism; however, PTH replacement strategies with either PTH or parathyroid gland autotransplantation are emerging as alternative strategies to avoid the complications of conventional therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / therapeutic use. Hypoparathyroidism / drug therapy. Parathyroid Hormone / therapeutic use. Postoperative Complications / therapy. Vitamin D / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hypocalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / transplantation. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 19731978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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80. Sugino K, Ito K, Nagahama M, Kitagawa W, Shibuya H, Ohkuwa K, Yano Y, Ito K: Minimally invasive surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism with or without intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring. Endocr J; 2010;57(11):953-8
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  • [Title] Minimally invasive surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism with or without intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring.
  • We analyzed the utility of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) monitoring in minimally invasive surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • A group who underwent surgery without IOPTH monitoring (Group 1; n=87), and a group who underwent surgery with IOPTH monitoring (Group 2; n=80), in which IOPTH was measured at 5, 10, 15 minutes after excision of the abnormal parathyroid gland.
  • An enlarged parathyroid gland that was consistent with the results of a preoperative imaging study was found in 84 patients (96.6%).
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20823623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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81. Low TH, Clark J, Gao K, Eris J, Shannon K, O'Brien C: Outcome of parathyroidectomy for patients with renal disease and hyperparathyroidism: predictors for recurrent hyperparathyroidism. ANZ J Surg; 2009 May;79(5):378-82
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  • Among them, 5-20% require further re-exploration and excision of parathyroid tissue because of recurrent disease.
  • On re-exploration, persistent hyperplastic parathyroid tissue was located at the site of partially excised parathyroid gland (64%), autotransplanted parathyroid tissue (9%), anterior mediastinum (18%) and intrathyroidal parathyroid (9%).

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  • (PMID = 19566521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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82. Hagforsen E, Michaëlsson K, Lundgren E, Olofsson H, Petersson A, Lagumdzija A, Hedstrand H, Michaëlsson G: Women with palmoplantar pustulosis have disturbed calcium homeostasis and a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders: a case-control study. Acta Derm Venereol; 2005;85(3):225-32
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  • Nearly 50% of palmoplantar pustulosis sera produce immunofluorescence of the palmar papillary endothelium from healthy subjects, but also of the endothelium of normal parathyroid gland.
  • With a case-control design the levels of calcium and parathyroid hormone in serum were measured in 60 women with palmoplantar pustulosis and 154 randomly selected population-based control women.
  • Mean age-adjusted serum calcium was increased in the patients compared with the controls (2.43 vs 2.36 mmol/l; p<0.0001), whereas the parathyroid hormone concentration was suppressed (23.2 vs 31.1 ng/l; p<0.0001).
  • The plasma levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein were normal in patients but there was a strong expression of this protein in the acrosyringium both in palmoplantar pustulosis and control skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / blood. Diabetes Mellitus. Mental Disorders / complications. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / metabolism. Psoriasis / metabolism


83. Colloton M, Shatzen E, Miller G, Stehman-Breen C, Wada M, Lacey D, Martin D: Cinacalcet HCl attenuates parathyroid hyperplasia in a rat model of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Kidney Int; 2005 Feb;67(2):467-76
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  • [Title] Cinacalcet HCl attenuates parathyroid hyperplasia in a rat model of secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a physiologic response to kidney failure characterized by elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and parathyroid gland enlargement.
  • Calcimimetic agents acting through allosteric modification of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) can attenuate parathyroid hyperplasia in rats with secondary HPT.
  • The present study explores the effects of the calcimimetic cinacalcet HCl on parathyroid hyperplasia, apoptosis, and PTH secretion in a rat model of secondary HPT.
  • After dosing, hyperplasia was determined using parathyroid weight and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Administration of cinacalcet HCl (5 or 10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased parathyroid weight compared with vehicle-treated 5/6 nephrectomized rats.
  • CONCLUSION: The results confirm previous work demonstrating that calcimimetic agents attenuate the progression of parathyroid hyperplasia in subtotally nephrectomized rats, extending earlier observations to now include cinacalcet HCl.
  • These results support a role for the CaR in regulating parathyroid cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Calcium / blood. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Hyperplasia. Male. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 15673294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0085-2538
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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84. Oztürk M, Ustek D, Akbas F, Kösem M, Abaci N, Alagöl F, Oztürk G, Kotan C: The presence of erythropoietin receptor in parathyroid cells. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Dec;30(11):RC35-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The presence of erythropoietin receptor in parathyroid cells.
  • CONTEXT: Effects of erythropoietin on parathyroid cell function has not been studied before.
  • OBJECTIVE: We aimed to demonstrate whether erythropoietin receptor present in parathyroid cells.
  • DESIGN: The specimens of normal parathyroid gland, parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia were retrieved from our pathology archives.
  • Its density was higher in normal parathyroid, followed by parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: Erythropoietin receptor is present in normal parathyroid, parathyroid adenoma, and hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Erythropoietin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18250608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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85. Mizobuchi M, Ritter CS, Krits I, Slatopolsky E, Sicard G, Brown AJ: Calcium-sensing receptor expression is regulated by glial cells missing-2 in human parathyroid cells. J Bone Miner Res; 2009 Jul;24(7):1173-9
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  • [Title] Calcium-sensing receptor expression is regulated by glial cells missing-2 in human parathyroid cells.
  • Glial cells missing-2 (Gcm2) is the key regulating transcription factor for parathyroid gland development.
  • The continued expression of high levels of Gcm2 in mature parathyroid glands suggests that it is required for maintenance of parathyroid cell differentiation.
  • The role of Gcm2 in parathyroid cell physiology, however, has not been fully studied.
  • In this study, we examined the effects of Gcm2 silencing on cultured human parathyroid cells.
  • Collagenase-dispersed human parathyroid cells from patients with chronic kidney disease were placed in monolayer cultures and infected with lentivirus expressing shRNA for human Gcm2.
  • These results indicate that one function of Gcm2 is to maintain high levels of CaR expression in parathyroid cells.

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  • (PMID = 19257819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK020579; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P60 DK020579; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / 5P30DK07933; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-20579
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GCM2 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 1.14.- / Steroid Hydroxylases; EC 1.14.- / vitamin D 1-alpha hydroxylase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2697623
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86. Ichii M, Ishimura E, Okuno S, Chou H, Kato Y, Tsuboniwa N, Nagasue K, Maekawa K, Yamakawa T, Inaba M, Nishizawa Y: Decreases in parathyroid gland volume after cinacalcet treatment in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephron Clin Pract; 2010;115(3):c195-202
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  • [Title] Decreases in parathyroid gland volume after cinacalcet treatment in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: Cinacalcet, an allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor, effectively reduces serum parathyroid hormone (PTH).
  • It was examined whether a regression of parathyroid glands in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism was induced by cinacalcet treatment.
  • METHODS: Ultrasonography of the parathyroid glands was performed to examine the changes in the parathyroid gland volumes after cinacalcet treatment in 58 patients.
  • The total volumes of the parathyroid glands were significantly decreased 6 months after cinacalcet treatment (942 +/- 747 vs. 708 +/- 550 mm(3), p < 0.0005).
  • There was a significant positive correlation between the parathyroid gland volumes at the start of cinacalcet treatment and the volume reduction in parathyroid glands (r = 0.716, p < 0.0001).
  • Of the 58 patients, the total parathyroid gland volume was decreased in 42 patients and increased in 16 although the doses of cinacalcet, phosphate binders or vitamin D were not significantly different.
  • CONCLUSION: Cinacalcet treatment in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism significantly reduced the total parathyroid gland volume in a short 6-month period.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / etiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / drug therapy. Kidney Failure, Chronic / pathology. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Renal Dialysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20413997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-2110
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephron. Clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephron Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
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87. Dugonjić S, Ajdinović B, Cerović S, Janković Z: Validity of dual tracer 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 99mTc-pertechnetate subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy in patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2009 Dec;66(12):949-53
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  • [Title] Validity of dual tracer 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 99mTc-pertechnetate subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy in patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is an endocrine disease with the third highest incidence of all endocrine disorders after diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism. pHPT is typically caused by a solitary parathyroid adenoma, less frequently by multiple parathyroid gland disease (MGD) and rarely by parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to estimate sensitivity of dual tracer 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 99mTc-pertechnetate subtraction scintigraphy in detection of abnormal parathyroid glands in patients with pHPT and sHPT confirmed by histopathology.
  • METHODS: In 46 patients, (77 abnormal parathyroid glands), 30 with pHPT and 16 with sHPT parathyroid scintigraphy was done preoperatively.
  • All the patients had histopathological confirmation of diagnosis.
  • Abnormal parathyroid glands weighted from 0.1 to 7 g.
  • In the patients with sHPT scintigraphy detected 30 of 47 abnormal parathyroid glands (sensitivity 64%).
  • An overall sensitivity of scintigraphy per gland, for pHPT and sHPT in detecting 58 of 77 abnormal parathyroid glands was 75%.
  • CONCLUSION: An abnormal scintigraphic result per patient was found in 44 patients (sensitivity 96%) and 58 of 77 abnormal parathyroid glands were detected (sensitivity 750/0).
  • A high sensitivity of dual tracer subtraction 99mTc-tetrofosmin/99mTc-pertechnetate parathyroid scintigraphy in detecting abnormal parathyroid glands in primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism was achieved.

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  • (PMID = 20095513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8450
  • [Journal-full-title] Vojnosanitetski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vojnosanit Pregl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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88. Nishida H, Ishibashi M, Hiromatsu Y, Kaida H, Baba K, Miyake I, Ikedo H, Kato S, Fukami K, Iida S, Okuda S: Comparison of histological findings and parathyroid scintigraphy in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroid glands. Endocr J; 2005 Apr;52(2):223-8
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  • [Title] Comparison of histological findings and parathyroid scintigraphy in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroid glands.
  • To determine the usefulness of parathyroid scintigraphy in histological estimation for secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT) using Tc-99m sestamibi or Tc-99m tetrofosmin.
  • Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) and Tc-99m tetrofosmin (Tetro) parathyroid imaging following double-phase study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound were performed on 14 patients with 2HPT.
  • The uptake of two tracers in parathyroid areas was compared with the histopathologic findings.
  • Forty-nine parathyroid glands were surgically explored and histologically proven to be hyperplastic.
  • MIBI and Tetro parathyroid imagings detected 34 and 35 parathyroid glands, respectively.
  • Tc-99m MIBI or Tc-99m Tetro parathyroid scintigraphy therefore may be used clinically to distinguish N-type from D-type parathyroid gland hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 15863952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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89. Tanaka M, Itoh K, Matsushita K, Matsushita K, Fukagawa M: Combination therapy of intravenous maxacalcitol and percutaneous ethanol injection therapy lowers serum parathyroid hormone level and calcium x phosphorus product in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephron Clin Pract; 2006;102(1):c1-7
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  • [Title] Combination therapy of intravenous maxacalcitol and percutaneous ethanol injection therapy lowers serum parathyroid hormone level and calcium x phosphorus product in secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • METHODS: The study population comprised 10 hemodialysis patients (6 males and 4 females, mean age; 51.5 +/- 13.5 years, mean HD period 13.7 +/- 3.5 years), with high intact-PTH level (>400 pg/ml) and 1 or 2 enlarged parathyroid glands detected by power Doppler ultrasonography.
  • The effect of combination therapy was monitored by measuring intact-PTH, serum Ca and P, bone metabolic markers, parathyroid gland volume and bone mineral density, prior to and at 6 and 12 months after PEIT.
  • RESULTS: Successful control of intact-PTH, bone metabolic markers and parathyroid gland volume was achieved using the combination therapy.
  • This combination therapy results in suppression of PTH secretion, regression of parathyroid hyperplasia and the control of CaxP product, which may prevent calcific uremic arteriolopathy in dialysis patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Bone Density. Calcium / blood. Comorbidity. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Injections, Intralesional. Injections, Intravenous. Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphorus / blood

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 1,25-DIHYDROXYCHOLECALCIFEROL .
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  • [Copyright] 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16166800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-2110
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephron. Clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephron Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 103909-75-7 / maxacalcitol; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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90. Périé S, Fessi H, Tassart M, Younsi N, Poli I, St Guily JL, Talbot JN: Usefulness of combination of high-resolution ultrasonography and dual-phase dual-isotope iodine 123/technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scintigraphy for the preoperative localization of hyperplastic parathyroid glands in renal hyperparathyroidism. Am J Kidney Dis; 2005 Feb;45(2):344-52
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  • [Title] Usefulness of combination of high-resolution ultrasonography and dual-phase dual-isotope iodine 123/technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scintigraphy for the preoperative localization of hyperplastic parathyroid glands in renal hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND: The usefulness of both dual-phase dual-isotope iodine 123 ( 123 I)/technetium Tc 99m ( 99m Tc) sestamibi scintigraphy and ultrasonography for the detection of hyperplastic parathyroid glands secondary to renal hyperparathyroidism is rarely addressed; most studies focus on primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Results of both examinations, independently scored, were correlated with surgical and histopathologic findings for each hyperplastic parathyroid gland localization.
  • RESULTS: All parathyroid glands except 1 were found during primary surgery consisting of a subtotal parathyroidectomy (success rate, 99%).
  • The missed gland was removed successfully 1 month later.
  • Mean weight of totally removed parathyroid glands was 633 mg.
  • Ultrasonography detected 75% of hyperplastic parathyroid glands; dual-phase 123 I/ 99m Tc sestamibi scintigraphy, 66%; and a combination of both, 88%.
  • Most missed glands at scintigraphy corresponded to superior glands, whereas false-negative results at ultrasonography correlated with low gland weight.
  • CONCLUSION: Combined ultrasonography and 123 I/ 99m Tc sestamibi scintigraphy should be considered for routine use to localize hyperplastic parathyroid glands in patients with renal hyperparathyroidism undergoing surgery.
  • In our experience, this proved very helpful in achieving a high surgical success rate in patients with renal hyperparathyroidism, especially when the surgeon visualizes the parathyroid glands at ultrasonography.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism / ultrasonography. Iodine Radioisotopes. Kidney Failure, Chronic / radionuclide imaging. Kidney Failure, Chronic / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 15685513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6838
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Kidney Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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91. Tanaka M, Tominaga Y, Itoh K, Matsushita K, Matsushita K, Matsuoka S, Ueki T, Goto N, Sato T, Katayama A, Haba T, Uchida K: Autoinfarction of the parathyroid gland diagnosed by power Doppler ultrasonography in a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2006 Apr;21(4):1092-5
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  • [Title] Autoinfarction of the parathyroid gland diagnosed by power Doppler ultrasonography in a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / ultrasonography. Infarction / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Glands / blood supply. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • (PMID = 16364993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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92. Erbil Y, Barbaros U, Salmaslioglu A, Tunaci M, Ozbey N, Bozbora A, Ozmarmagan S: Value of parathyroid hormone assay for preoperative sonographically guided parathyroid aspirates for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. J Clin Ultrasound; 2006 Nov-Dec;34(9):425-9
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  • [Title] Value of parathyroid hormone assay for preoperative sonographically guided parathyroid aspirates for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • PURPOSE: The key to successful parathyroid surgery is accurate preoperative tumor localization.
  • This study investigates the use of ultrasound (US)-guided parathyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) as a confirmatory diagnostic method in patients with hyperparathyroidism undergoing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • METHODS: Patients were selected for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy based on the finding of a single parathyroid adenoma identified with US and/or sestamibi scans and confirmation of the suspected parathyroid lesion via FNA and parathyroid hormone (PTH) assay.
  • The value of aspirate obtained from the thyroid gland intraoperatively served as the negative control.
  • US detected masses suggestive of parathyroid lesion in all 27 patients, and 31 US-guided FNAs were performed.
  • Aspirates from lesions subsequently confirmed as having developed from the parathyroid gland had a mean PTH level of 4,677 +/- 123 pg/ml (range, 3,600-5,000 pg/ml), which was significantly higher than thyroid aspirates, which yielded a mean PTH level of 48 +/- 7 pg/ml (range, 5-57 pg/ml).
  • The sensitivity of US and sestamibi scans in the detection of abnormal parathyroid glands was 88% and 77%, respectively.
  • The sensitivity of US-guided FNA in confirming the parathyroid origin of a lesion was 100%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Hyperparathyroidism / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Ultrasound. 2007 May;35(4):229. Salmasliğlu, Artur [corrected to Salmaslioglu, Artur]
  • (PMID = 17078029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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93. Spasovski G, Masin-Spasovska J, Gjurchinov D: Successful treatment of severe secondary hyperparathyroidsm (Brown tumor) by kidney transplantation and pulses of oral calcitriol. Clin Transplant; 2009 Jun-Jul;23(3):426-30
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of severe secondary hyperparathyroidsm (Brown tumor) by kidney transplantation and pulses of oral calcitriol.
  • Brown tumor is an extreme form of severe hyperparathyroid bone disease in end-stage renal disease patients.
  • The evolution of the tumor after renal transplantation and under conservative treatment is still unclear.
  • Herein, we report a 22-yr-old girl with parathyroid glandular hyperplasia because of an inadequate compliance and control of the mineral metabolism and subsequently developed Brown tumor of the ribs.
  • A gradual improvement in bone and parathyroid gland status was observed within three yr following successful kidney transplantation and treatment with pulses of oral calcitriol.


94. Reimer SB, Pelosi A, Frank JD, Steficek BA, Kiupel M, Hauptman JG: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2005 Jul 1;227(1):101-4, 86
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  • [Title] Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I in a cat.
  • After extensive assessment at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Michigan State University, the clinical signs were attributed to an aldosterone-secreting tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Subsequently, an insulin-secreting tumor of the pancreas as well as a functional parathyroid gland adenoma were diagnosed.
  • The syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia is well described in humans, and the heritability of the condition has been confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animals. Cats. Diagnosis, Differential. Male. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / veterinary. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / veterinary. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16013543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Venkatraman L, Kalangutkar A, Russell CF: Primary hyperparathyroidism and metastatic carcinoma within parathyroid gland. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Sep;60(9):1058-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism and metastatic carcinoma within parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / secondary. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Lung Neoplasms. Parathyroid Neoplasms / secondary


96. Hirai T, Nakashima A, Takasugi N, Yorioka N: Response of secondary hyperparathyroidism to cinacalcet depends on parathyroid size. Nephron Clin Pract; 2010;114(3):c187-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Response of secondary hyperparathyroidism to cinacalcet depends on parathyroid size.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Several reports have indicated that the measurement of parathyroid gland size assists the management of patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • This study examined whether parathyroid gland enlargement influenced the response of secondary hyperparathyroidism to cinacalcet.
  • Based on the parathyroid gland size measured by ultrasonography, the patients were divided into group S (gland <500 mm(3)) and group L (gland >or=500 mm(3)).
  • Serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone (intact PTH), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen were measured over time.
  • Thus, the presence of parathyroid enlargement (nodular hyperplasia) may delay the response of secondary hyperparathyroidism to cinacalcet.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / ultrasonography. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19955824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-2110
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephron. Clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephron Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
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97. Kirkby-Bott J, El-Khatib Z, Soudan B, Caiazzo R, Arnalsteen L, Carnaille B: 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency causes parathyroid incidentalomas. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):919-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency causes parathyroid incidentalomas.
  • Asymmetric gland hypertrophy may also lead to unnecessary parathyroid gland resection by mistaking these glands for parathyroid incidentalomas.
  • We tested the hypothesis that D3 deficiency causes parathyroid gland hypertrophy.
  • During thyroidectomy, the parathyroid glands were searched for and measured.
  • Using an ellipsoid volume calculator, the gland volume was calculated.
  • RESULTS: Normal parathyroid volume is 25.1 mm(3).
  • Parathyroid gland size correlated with D3 levels, p < 0.001.
  • There is a greater asymmetry in gland volume in those patients with the lowest levels of D3 (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r = -0.51).
  • There was a significant difference in individual gland volume between D3 levels >30 ng/ml and those <30 ng/ml.
  • However, there was no difference in mean gland volume between these groups.
  • CONCLUSION: There is a significant difference in both individual gland volume and variation in parathyroid gland volume according to D3 levels.
  • Patients with a D3 level <30 ng/ml have a more asymmetrical hyperplasia corresponding with parathyroid incidentalomas.
  • D3 levels should be measured pre-operatively in all patients undergoing total thyroidectomy to avoid unnecessary parathyroid resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroidectomy / methods. Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives. Vitamin D Deficiency / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Postoperative Care / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Prospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Statistics, Nonparametric. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20717694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 64719-49-9 / 25-hydroxyvitamin D
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98. Moradiellos Díez FJ, Salas Villar I, Salas Antón C: [Mediastinal parathyroid gland or adenopathy with endocrine cancer infiltration?]. Arch Bronconeumol; 2007 May;43(5):295-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Mediastinal parathyroid gland or adenopathy with endocrine cancer infiltration?].
  • [Transliterated title] 'Paratiroides mediastínica o adenopatía infiltrada por neoplasia endocrina?
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / diagnosis. Mediastinal Diseases / diagnosis. Parathyroid Glands
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17519143.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2896
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de bronconeumología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Bronconeumol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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99. Gal-Moscovici A, Sprague SM: Role of vitamin D deficiency in chronic kidney disease. J Bone Miner Res; 2007 Dec;22 Suppl 2:V91-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The decrease in calcitriol also results in promoting further hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid gland hyperplasia, because calcitriol normally inhibits the production of prepro-PTH and parathyroid cell proliferation.

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  • (PMID = 18290730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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100. Zhao X, Pei ZM, He YK: [Extracellular Ca2+ signaling: first messenger in animals and plants]. Yi Chuan; 2007 Mar;29(3):269-75
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  • In animals, the Ca2+ sensor is the well-characterized extracellular-Ca2+- sensing receptor (CaR), a G- protein -coupled receptor originally isolated from the parathyroid gland.

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  • (PMID = 17369145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-9772
  • [Journal-full-title] Yi chuan = Hereditas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yi Chuan
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channels; 0 / Ions; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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