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1. Gutenberg A, Wegner C, Pilgram-Pastor SM, Gunawan B, Rohde V, Giese A: Paraganglioma of the filum terminale: review and report of the first case analyzed by CGH. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Jul-Aug;29(4):227-32
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  • [Title] Paraganglioma of the filum terminale: review and report of the first case analyzed by CGH.
  • OBJECTIVE: As a rare tumor paraganglioma of the filum terminale is of diagnostic challenge.
  • A thorough review of all published cases most often reveals a benign course if complete surgically resection is achieved.
  • We report on the first molecular cytogenetic analyses performed on filum termiale paragangliomas.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with and without Gd-DTPA revealed a 12 mm sized, intradural oval mass at the level of L3 with slightly increased T2-signal and a rim of low signal on T2-weighted sequences.
  • The tumor enhanced remarkably after Gd-DTPA.
  • Durotomy revealed a well-delineated, firm and highly vascularized reddish tumor.
  • The proximal terminal filum entered the tumor at the proximal pole and exited its distal pole.
  • Coagulation and dissection of the terminal filum allowed in toto removal of the tumor.
  • The tumor was analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization, providing a normal DNA profile without any chromosomal copy number changes.
  • CONCLUSION: The origin of paragangliomas of the CNS and especially of the filum terminale is still unclear.
  • If no complete surgical resection can be achieved, molecular cytogenetic analysis is of additional value to prognostification of paragangliomas of the filum terminale.
  • [MeSH-major] Cauda Equina. Paraganglioma / genetics. Paraganglioma / pathology. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20569673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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2. Joynt KE, Moslehi JJ, Baughman KL: Paragangliomas: etiology, presentation, and management. Cardiol Rev; 2009 Jul-Aug;17(4):159-64
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  • [Title] Paragangliomas: etiology, presentation, and management.
  • Paragangliomas are catecholamine-secreting tumors arising from the chromaffin cells of the sympathetic ganglia, and are known as extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas.
  • These tumors commonly present with episodic hypertension, tachycardia, headache, and diaphoresis, and can be either benign or malignant.
  • Diagnosis is made by serum and urine analysis for catecholamines and metanephrines, and confirmed with imaging studies including computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, or 123-I metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging.
  • Although the majority of paragangliomas are sporadic, a growing percentage of cases are found to be part of a familial genetic syndrome.
  • Genetic testing should be offered to patients diagnosed with paraganglioma, particularly in patients who are young, have multiple tumors, or have a family history of malignancy.
  • Management of paraganglioma is predicated on surgical resection, and careful perioperative management with alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockade is imperative for optimal outcomes.
  • The majority of these tumors are benign, but for patients with malignant disease, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy may provide modest benefit.
  • Long-term follow-up is essential, as paragangliomas can recur many years after initial diagnosis.
  • Ongoing research into the genetic underpinnings of this tumor may allow for more targeted molecular therapies in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19525677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4683
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiology in review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiol Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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3. Morita T, Tamura S, Yokoyama Y, Onishi T, Kuratani Y, Mizuta H, Onishi S: Endoscopic resection of a duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma. Dig Dis Sci; 2007 Jun;52(6):1400-4
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  • [Title] Endoscopic resection of a duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma.
  • A gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) is an extremely rare neurogenic tumor nearly located in the second portion of the duodenum and has been regarded as benign.
  • An endoscopic ultrasonography showed a round, well-demarcated, inhomogeneous, submucosal tumor in the 3rd-4th layer.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenal Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Duodenal Neoplasms / surgery. Paraganglioma / diagnostic imaging. Paraganglioma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17415650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Skrivan J, Zvĕrina E, Kluh J, Chovanec M, Pádr R: Our experience with surgical treatment of tympanojugular pragangliomas. Prague Med Rep; 2010;111(1):25-34
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  • Tympanojugular paragangliomas are benign and slow growing lesions of the lateral skull base.
  • Treatment modalities include preoperative embolization of feeding vessels and tumour itself, surgical removal and irradiation.
  • In our group, 16 patients with large tympanojugular paragangliomas have been operated in the period of 10 years.
  • Surgical radicality has been achieved in 62.5%, in the rest of patients the tumour remnants were either irradiated with a Leksell gamma knife, or left without treatment in a wait-end-rescan approach.
  • According to the benign character of the tumour, radicality is not always the highest goal, since a radical removal may be compromised by a high postoperative morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Neoplasms / surgery. Glomus Jugulare Tumor / surgery. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20359435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1214-6994
  • [Journal-full-title] Prague medical report
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prague Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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6. Papaspyrou K, Rossmann H, Fottner C, Weber MM, Mann W, Lackner KJ, Helling K: Malignant paraganglioma caused by a novel germline mutation of the succinate dehydrogenase D-gene--a case report. Head Neck; 2008 Jul;30(7):964-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant paraganglioma caused by a novel germline mutation of the succinate dehydrogenase D-gene--a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Paragangliomas of the head and neck are rare, mostly benign tumors.
  • Approximately 10% to 15% of paragangliomas are caused by mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes B, C, or D.
  • These are often multifocal as part of paraganglioma syndromes and hormone secreting, and malignant particularly associated with mutations in SDHB.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: A 29-year-old man was seen with recurrent paraganglioma.
  • The patient's father reportedly suffered from bilateral carotid body tumors.
  • There was no increased hormone production by the tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A novel mutation in the SDHD gene associated with malignant paraganglioma is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Germ-Line Mutation. Paraganglioma / genetics. Paraganglioma / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / genetics. Skull Base Neoplasms / pathology. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Pedigree. Positron-Emission Tomography. Risk Assessment. Treatment Refusal

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  • (PMID = 18213727.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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7. Nosé V, Volante M, Papotti M: Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: an update. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(1):1-8
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: an update.
  • Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT) is a rare thyroid tumor of follicular cell origin with a trabecular pattern of growth and marked intratrabecular hyalinization.
  • This tumor is known to share morphological and architectural similarities with paraganglioma and medullary thyroid carcinoma, as well as the nuclear features and RET/PTC1 translocations of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • These tumors are not associated with RAS or BRAF mutations.
  • Of great interest is the characteristic strong peripheral cytoplasmic and membranous staining of the tumor cells with MIB1 immunostain, not seen in any other thyroid neoplasm.
  • Although cases of malignant HTT have been recorded, HTT should be considered a benign neoplasm or, at most, a neoplasm of extremely low malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calcitonin / analysis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Chromogranin A / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Paraganglioma / pathology. Sex Characteristics

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  • (PMID = 17960500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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8. Ardeleanu C, Dănăilă L, Arsene D: Paraganglioma of the cerebellopontine angle. Case presentation and pathological considerations. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(3):171-4
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  • [Title] Paraganglioma of the cerebellopontine angle. Case presentation and pathological considerations.
  • Paragangliomas (glomus tumors) arise from the extra-adrenal neuroendocrine system.
  • They are benign but locally aggressive tumors, causing bone destruction and compression related symptoms.
  • We present a case of paraganglioma of the cerebellopontine angle.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology. Paraganglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16444300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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9. Ahn KS, Han HS, Yoon YS, Cho JY, Khalikulov K: Laparoscopic transduodenal ampullectomy for benign ampullary tumors. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2010 Feb;20(1):59-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic transduodenal ampullectomy for benign ampullary tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: Transduodenal ampullectomy (TDA) can be performed for benign and premalignant tumors of the ampulla of Vater (AOV) as an alternative to pancreaticoduodenectomy.
  • In this report 2 cases of benign ampullary tumor that were treated by totally laparoscopic TDA.
  • On postoperative day 6, she showed elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, aspirate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, without any other laboratory test abnormality.
  • Abdominal CT, endoscopy, and endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a 2.5-cm-sized tumor located at the duodenal papilla with possible extension to the ampullary sphincter.
  • Endoscopic biopsy revealed gangliocytic paraganglioma.
  • Postoperative histologic examinations revealed tubular adenoma with low-grade dysplasia in 1 patient and gangliocystic paraganglioma in the other.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These 2 cases demonstrate that laparoscopic TDA is a feasible operative procedure in selective patients with a benign or premalignant tumor at the AOV.

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  • (PMID = 19792863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9034
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100519
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10. Mannelli M, Simi L, Ercolino T, Gaglianò MS, Becherini L, Vinci S, Sestini R, Gensini F, Pinzani P, Mascalchi M, Guerrini L, Pratesi C, Nesi G, Torti F, Cipollini F, Bernini GP, Genuardi M: SDH mutations in patients affected by paraganglioma syndromes: a personal experience. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:183-9
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  • [Title] SDH mutations in patients affected by paraganglioma syndromes: a personal experience.
  • Mutations in genes encoding mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) are frequently involved in the development of neural crest-derived (NCD) tumors, such as pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) or paragangliomas (PGLs).
  • Affected patients showed high clinical variability, ranging from monolateral to bilateral glomus tumors, variably associated or not with PGLs or PHEOs.
  • A new missense G106D mutation, involving a highly conserved amino acid, was found in two sisters affected by bilateral glomus tumors.
  • A novel IVS2-1G>T variant was found at intron 2 of SDHD gene in one patient affected by a glomus tumor.
  • All the tumors associated with SDHD mutations were benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Germ-Line Mutation. Paraganglioma / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17102085.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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11. Kaliszewski K, Bednarz W, Łukieńczuk T, Rzeszutko M, Boryń M, Olewiński R, Dawiskiba T, Spodzieja J, Dawiskiba J: Retroperitoneal tumours--analysis of own clinical material--a six-year retrospective study. Hepatogastroenterology; 2010 Jan-Feb;57(97):47-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retroperitoneal tumours--analysis of own clinical material--a six-year retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Primary retroperitoneal tumours and retroperitoneal organs' tumours represent a variety of lesions that require different treatments and have various prognoses.
  • The aim of this study was to present the author's observations of the histological tumors types occurrence and their surgical treatment.
  • METHODOLOGY: One hundred twenty-three cases of retroperitoneal tumours were studied retrospectively in a 6-year period.
  • All cases were subjected to laparotomy with an aim to resect the tumour completely.
  • RESULTS: In the present study we observed primary retroperitoneal tumours like malignant neuroblastoma, paraganglioma, primitive neuroectodermal tumour, cavernous haemangioma and mucinous cystadenoma.
  • Among retroperitoneal organs' tumours pancreatic lesions present the majority of them.
  • There were 6 cases of neuroendocrine pancreatic tumours.
  • In adrenal glands we observed benign and malignant lesions like pheochromocytoma and fibrosarcoma.
  • All primary retroperitoneal tumours, except two cases of retroperitoneal fibrosis, were an bloc removed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary retroperitoneal tumours in contrast to retroperitoneal organs' tumours occur very rare.
  • The clinical manifestations of all retroperitoneal tumours are not specific, so it causes a lot of difficulties in early diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 20422870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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12. Cohen SM, Burkey BB, Netterville JL: Surgical management of parapharyngeal space masses. Head Neck; 2005 Aug;27(8):669-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Age, sex, diagnosis, surgical approach, complications, and outcome were collected.
  • RESULTS: One hundred sixty-six PPS masses were identified: 21 (12.7%) were malignant, 145 (87.3%) were benign, 76 (45.8%) were vascular, and 69 (41.6 %) involved the skull base.
  • Removing the styloid and its musculature and level II lymphadenectomies enhanced exposure for vascular and skull base tumors.
  • Thirty transcervical-transmastoid dissections (20.4%) facilitated removal of vascular skull base tumors.
  • Expected neurologic sequelae resulted from cranial nerve involvement by tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Careful patient assessment and surgical techniques allow the oncologically safe removal of benign, vascular, and skull base PPS tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / pathology. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / surgery. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / pathology. Paraganglioma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skull Base Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15880689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Druce MR, Kaltsas GA, Fraenkel M, Gross DJ, Grossman AB: Novel and evolving therapies in the treatment of malignant phaeochromocytoma: experience with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001). Horm Metab Res; 2009 Sep;41(9):697-702
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  • Phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare neuroendocrine tumours (NETS).
  • They may be benign or malignant but the pathological distinction is mainly made when metastases are present.
  • Available treatments in the form of surgery, chemotherapy, and radionuclide therapy may improve symptoms and biochemical markers, but the results for the control of tumour bulk are less favourable.
  • This short review outlines the main molecular and histological features of malignant phaeochromocytoma and the difficulties in differentiating between benign and malignant disease.
  • We have used RAD001 in four patients with progressive malignant paraganglioma/phaeochromocytoma in addition to other therapies (with institutional approval for compassionate use), and evaluated the effects of this treatment.

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  • (PMID = 19424940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 9HW64Q8G6G / Everolimus; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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14. Bockhorn M, Sheu SY, Frilling A, Molmenti E, Schmid KW, Broelsch CE: Paraganglioma-like medullary thyroid carcinoma: a rare entity. Thyroid; 2005 Dec;15(12):1363-7
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  • [Title] Paraganglioma-like medullary thyroid carcinoma: a rare entity.
  • OBJECTIVE: The wide variety of rare histologic variants of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) may make the differential diagnosis difficult.
  • Pathologic examination of the resected specimen will not always be able to confirm the diagnosis, leaving the surgeon with an uncertainty as to what type of resection is best for the patient.
  • The following report describes the case of a 58-year-old man with the rare diagnosis of paraganglioma-like MTC.
  • A 1-cm tumor was detected in the right lobe of the thyroid.
  • Based on the clinical diagnosis of MTC, we performed a total thyroidectomy with lymphadenectomy of the central and right lateral compartments.
  • The patient's blood and tumor tissue were examined for mutations in the RET-protooncogene.
  • RESULTS: H&E staining of both frozen and permanent sections was unable to differentiate benign from malignant tissue.
  • Typical morphologic characteristics for MTC were completely absent.
  • Only the additional finding of positivity for synaptophysin and numerous SC cells visible in-between neoplastic cells made the diagnosis of paraganglioma-like MTC possible.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There are subgroups of MTC that present clinically similar to classic MTC, but in which missing typical morphologic characteristics make histopathology diagnosis difficult.
  • In these cases, diagnosis, operative decisions, and follow-up strategies should be based on preoperative biochemical markers, imaging findings, and clinical parameters in accordance to the guidelines for classic MTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Paraganglioma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


15. Cotesta D, Petramala L, Serra V, Pergolini M, Crescenzi E, Zinnamosca L, De Toma G, Ciardi A, Carbone I, Massa R, Filetti S, Letizia C: Clinical experience with pheochromocytoma in a single centre over 16 years. High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev; 2009 Dec;16(4):183-93
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  • BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumours of neuroectodermal origin.
  • AIM: To analyse the presentation, diagnosis and localization, pathology, molecular genetic aspects, surgical management and long-term outcome of a large series of patients with pheochromocytoma referred to a single centre.
  • In the group with the hereditary form, the mean age at diagnosis was significantly lower than the mean age of the group with the sporadic form (38 vs 48 years; p < 0.001).
  • Pheochromocytoma was benign in 86 patients (93%) [mean size was 4.3 cm] and the malignant form was found in five patients (7%) [mean size was 10 cm].

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  • (PMID = 23334910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-9879
  • [Journal-full-title] High blood pressure & cardiovascular prevention : the official journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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16. Tomita T, Ogawa K, Tagawa T, Fujii M, Nameki H: [Surgical management of parapharyngeal space tumors]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2006 Feb;109(2):88-95
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  • [Title] [Surgical management of parapharyngeal space tumors].
  • Despite its rarity, information on the diagnosis of parapharyngeal space tumors such as through imaging and aspiration biopsy cytology, is slowly accumulating.
  • We report the results of a retrospective review of 27 patients with primary parapharyngeal space tumors-25 with benign disease and 2 with malignant lesions-treated surgically.
  • Surgical approach, postoperative complications, sequelae, and operative indications of parapharyngeal space tumors were examined in 28 operations on the 27 patients.
  • Tumors found in the prestyloid region in CT or MRI are treated as salivary gland or malignant tumors.
  • Those found in the poststyloid region are treated as shwannoma or paraganglioma.
  • The transcervical approach is often used in patients with shwannoma, while a variety of approaches are selected for patients with salivary gland tumors.
  • Complications occur in 50% of patients, however, bias based on pathological diagnosis has not been examined to the degree needed.
  • Sequela in the patients with shwannoma, however, is 81.8%, compared to 9.1% in patients with salivary gland tumors.
  • Prestyloid parapharyngeal space tumors seem to be "automatically" indicated for surgery, because the surgical risk is lower than the risk of inaction.
  • In poststyloid parapharyngeal space tumors, however, it appears necessary to judge indication for surgery more carefully while considering the social background, age, and occupation of prospective surgical candidates.

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  • (PMID = 16529015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Amar L, Baudin E, Burnichon N, Peyrard S, Silvera S, Bertherat J, Bertagna X, Schlumberger M, Jeunemaitre X, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Plouin PF: Succinate dehydrogenase B gene mutations predict survival in patients with malignant pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Oct;92(10):3822-8
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  • [Title] Succinate dehydrogenase B gene mutations predict survival in patients with malignant pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas.
  • CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas may be malignant either at presentation or during recurrence, but the clinical course of malignant tumors is unpredictable.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to analyze survival according to clinical characteristics at diagnosis of malignancy and the presence or absence of SDHB mutations.
  • SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 54 patients with malignant tumors were included.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was the specific survival after the diagnosis of the first metastasis.
  • RESULTS: Germline mutations were identified in SDHB (n = 23, including 21 patients with apparent sporadic tumors) and VHL (n = 1) genes, and two patients had neurofibromatosis 1.
  • Patients were followed up from the diagnosis of primary tumor and from the diagnosis of the first metastasis to the present or to death with medians of 79 [interquartile range (IQR) 24; 190] and 39 [IQR 14; 94] months, respectively.
  • The 5-yr probability of survival after the diagnosis of the first metastasis was 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.39-0.69).
  • Patients with SDHB mutations were younger, more frequently had extra-adrenal tumors, and had a shorter metanephrine excretion doubling time.
  • CONCLUSION: SDHB mutations, frequent in patients with malignant pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas, are associated with shorter survival.
  • Therefore, SDHB genetic testing may be of prognostic value for such patients, even those with an apparent sporadic and/or benign presentation at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Iron-Sulfur Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17652212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iron-Sulfur Proteins; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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18. Hermsen MA, Sevilla MA, Llorente JL, Weiss MM, Grimbergen A, Allonca E, Garcia-Inclán C, Balbín M, Suárez C: Relevance of germline mutation screening in both familial and sporadic head and neck paraganglioma for early diagnosis and clinical management. Cell Oncol; 2010 Jan 1;32(4):275-83
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  • [Title] Relevance of germline mutation screening in both familial and sporadic head and neck paraganglioma for early diagnosis and clinical management.
  • BACKGROUND: Head and neck paraganglioma (PGL) are benign tumors that can cause important direct or surgery induced morbidity.
  • Results were correlated to clinical characteristics including gender, age, tumor localization and multifocality.
  • The surgical approach was evaluated in terms of tumor origin, sequelae and subsequent evolution.
  • Sporadic cases with germline mutation are frequent and underline the importance of mutational screening of all PGL patients, allowing the identification of relatives at risk and the early diagnosis of the disease, reducing or avoiding morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Mutational Analysis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20208144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-8606
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular oncology : the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4619289
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19. Bradshaw JW, Jansen JC: Management of vagal paraganglioma: is operative resection really the best option? Surgery; 2005 Feb;137(2):225-8
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  • [Title] Management of vagal paraganglioma: is operative resection really the best option?
  • BACKGROUND: Vagal paragangliomas cannot be resected without sacrifice of the vagal nerve.
  • The risk of bilateral vocal cord palsy has been reason to postpone treatment of this benign and slow growing neoplasm in hereditary cases.
  • METHODS: An institute-based review of 48 patients with vagal paragangliomas over the past 30 years was performed.
  • RESULTS: Forty-eight patients with 58 vagal paragangliomas were studied.
  • All but 4 patients had multiple paragangliomas and should be considered hereditary cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive treatment of vagal paragangliomas leads to unnecessary early loss of vagal nerve function.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Paraganglioma / surgery. Vagus Nerve Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15674205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Mazza D, Taffon C, Scarpato P, Barchetti F, Agrillo A: Atypical localization and atypical magnetic resonance imaging findings of a paraganglioma at the mouth mucosa. J Craniofac Surg; 2010 Mar;21(2):400-2
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  • [Title] Atypical localization and atypical magnetic resonance imaging findings of a paraganglioma at the mouth mucosa.
  • We present a case of a paraganglioma located at the cheek.
  • The benign nature of the lesion was certainly suggested by the patient's anamnesis, ecotomography, and needle biopsy; nevertheless, before the excision, the surgeon requested magnetic resonance imaging with contrast stain only to better evaluate the relationship between the lesion and the surrounding structures and not to have a precise diagnosis.Under magnetic resonance examination by using T1, T2, and T1 before and after contrast sequences, it showed an aspect different from the conventionally described features for this kind of lesion.
  • After excision, the mass showed a yellowish color and a liquid content.
  • Histologic examination described it as having the features of a glomus tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cheek / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Glomus Tumor / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 20186079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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21. Taïeb D, Sebag F, Barlier A, Tessonnier L, Palazzo FF, Morange I, Niccoli-Sire P, Fakhry N, De Micco C, Cammilleri S, Enjalbert A, Henry JF, Mundler O: 18F-FDG avidity of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: a new molecular imaging signature? J Nucl Med; 2009 May;50(5):711-7
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG avidity of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: a new molecular imaging signature?
  • Our objective was to evaluate (18)F-FDG PET uptake in patients with nonmetastatic and metastatic chromaffin-derived tumors.
  • METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive unrelated patients with chromaffin tumors, including 9 patients with genetically determined disease, were studied.
  • A combination of preoperative imaging work-up, surgical findings, and pathologic analyses was used to classify the patients into 2 groups: those with nonmetastatic disease (presumed benign, n = 18) and those with metastatic tumors (n = 10). (18)F-FDG PET was performed in all cases.
  • Visual and quantitative analyses were individually graded for each tumor.
  • Somatic mutations of the succinate dehydrogenase subunits B and D and Von-Hippel Lindau genes were also evaluated in 6 benign sporadic tumor samples.
  • The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) ranged from 1.9 to 42 (mean +/- SD, 8.2 +/- 9.7; median, 4.6) in nonmetastatic tumors and 2.3 to 29.3 (mean +/- SD, 9.7 +/- 8.4; median, 7.4) in metastatic tumors.
  • No statistical difference was observed between the groups (P = 0.44), but succinate dehydrogenase-related tumors were notable in being the most (18)F-FDG-avid tumors (SUVmax, 42, 29.3, 21, 17, and 5.3).
  • Succinate dehydrogenase and Von-Hippel Lindau-related tumors had a significantly higher SUVmax than did neurofibromatosis type 1 and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A syndrome-related tumors (P = 0.02). (18)F-FDG PET was superior to (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine in all metastatic patients but one.
  • However, succinate dehydrogenase mutations (germline and somatic) and functional dedifferentiation do not adequately explain (18)F-FDG uptake since most tumors were highly avid for (18)F-FDG.
  • CONCLUSION: (18)F-FDG PET positivity is almost a constant feature of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.
  • It may be considered a molecular signature of such tumors, although which aspect of the plethora of molecular changes associated with dedifferentiation, germline genetic defects, or the adaptive response to hypoxia is responsible for this characteristic requires further elucidation.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Molecular Probe Techniques. Paraganglioma / metabolism. Paraganglioma / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 19372492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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22. Elder EE, Elder G, Larsson C: Pheochromocytoma and functional paraganglioma syndrome: no longer the 10% tumor. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Mar 1;89(3):193-201
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma and functional paraganglioma syndrome: no longer the 10% tumor.
  • Pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas are catecholamine-producing tumors of the sympathetic nervous system, while head and neck paragangliomas are non-secreting tumors of parasympathetic origin.
  • Recent developments in clinical and molecular research on these tumor forms have significantly clarified their genetic backgrounds and challenged the view of "pheochromocytoma as the 10% rule tumor."
  • Firstly, a larger proportion of these tumors are today discovered in normotensive patients during imaging carried out for other reasons than suspicion of pheochromocytoma.
  • Secondly, although the differential diagnosis between malignant and benign tumors remains a challenge, the risk of malignancy well exceeds the classical 10% in patients with extra-adrenal disease, and/or carriers of germ-line SDHB mutations.
  • Finally, up to a third of patients carry a germ-line mutation in a gene predisposing to pheochromocytoma and/or paraganglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Testing. Germ-Line Mutation. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Humans. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15719371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / SDHD protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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23. Hoey ET, Mankad K, Puppala S, Gopalan D, Sivananthan MU: MRI and CT appearances of cardiac tumours in adults. Clin Radiol; 2009 Dec;64(12):1214-30
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  • [Title] MRI and CT appearances of cardiac tumours in adults.
  • Primary cardiac tumours are rare, and metastases to the heart are much more frequent.
  • Myxoma is the commonest benign primary tumour and sarcomas account for the majority of malignant lesions.
  • Imaging plays a central role in their evaluation, and familiarity with characteristic features is essential to generate a meaningful differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Electrocardiography. Female. Fibroma / diagnosis. Heart Diseases / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Humans. Lipoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Myxoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue / diagnosis. Papilloma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Thrombosis / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19913133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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24. Faria J, Valente V, Lima P, Silva JA, Polónia J: Paraganglioma--a case of secondary hypertension. Rev Port Cardiol; 2010 Oct;29(10):1583-9
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  • [Title] Paraganglioma--a case of secondary hypertension.
  • Paragangliomas (extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas) are rare tumors originating in the autonomic nervous system, whose clinical manifestations are the result of excessive production of catecholamines.
  • The classic triad of palpitations, headache, and diaphoresis associated with hypertension (HT), elevated serum and urine catecholamine levels, and visualization of the mass on imaging tests, enables diagnosis of these tumors, which are mostly benign, and if diagnosed and treated early, are a potentially treatable cause of secondary hypertension.
  • We present the case of a 28-year-old woman, a former smoker, sedentary, with a family history of HT, diabetes and coronary heart disease, and a personal history of episodic headaches, diaphoresis and syncope.
  • She had elevated plasma catecholamine levels and a hypervascular retroperitoneal mass was visualized on CT and MRI, anterior to the inferior vena cava, measuring about 8 x 5.5 x 4.5 cm, with calcifications and areas of necrosis, confirmed by 123(I-MIBG) scintigraphy and PET scan.
  • The mass was excised by laparotomy and the diagnosis of paraganglioma was confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypertension / etiology. Paraganglioma / complications. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 21265497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0870-2551
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de cardiologia : orgão oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology : an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Cardiol
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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25. Sankot J, Svarcová I: [Periampullary gangliocytic paraganglioma]. Rozhl Chir; 2008 Jan;87(1):38-41
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  • [Title] [Periampullary gangliocytic paraganglioma].
  • [Transliterated title] Periampulární gangliocytický paragangliom.
  • We present the case of very rare periampullary gangliocytic paraganglioma in which we preferred proximal duodenopancreatectomy to local resection of the ampula of Vater because of not clear preoperative pathohistology and biologic behavior of the tumor.
  • Although the definitive examination of the specimen proved its benign character we consider our procedure reasonable.
  • [MeSH-major] Ampulla of Vater. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms. Paraganglioma

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  • (PMID = 18432075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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26. Rodriguez FJ, Aubry MC, Tazelaar HD, Slezak J, Carney JA: Pulmonary chondroma: a tumor associated with Carney triad and different from pulmonary hamartoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Dec;31(12):1844-53
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  • [Title] Pulmonary chondroma: a tumor associated with Carney triad and different from pulmonary hamartoma.
  • The Carney triad is the clinical association of gastric stromal sarcomas, pulmonary cartilaginous tumors, and extra-adrenal paragangliomas.
  • The pulmonary tumors are its second commonest component and have been misinterpreted clinically and pathologically as metastases from the gastric tumors and pulmonary cartilaginous hamartomas, respectively.
  • Forty-two patients with pulmonary cartilaginous tumors as a component of Carney triad were identified.
  • A subgroup of 41 tumors from the latter was compared with those in a group of pulmonary cartilaginous hamartomas.
  • Their pulmonary neoplasm(s) were usually asymptomatic, often multiple, well circumscribed, medium-sized (mean diameter=2.8 cm), and composed almost exclusively of cartilage and bone surrounded by a fibrous pseudocapsule.
  • None of the tumors metastasized or was fatal.
  • The pulmonary neoplasms in the Carney triad are well-differentiated benign cartilaginous tumors that are best designated as chondromas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18043038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Suárez-Fente V, Llorente-Pendás JL, Gómez-Martínez J, García-González LA, López-Alvarez F, Suárez-Nieto C: [Primary tumours of the parapharyngeal space. Our experience in 51 patients]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2009 Jan-Feb;60(1):19-24
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  • [Title] [Primary tumours of the parapharyngeal space. Our experience in 51 patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumores primarios del espacio parafaríngeo. Nuestra experiencia en 51 pacientes.
  • INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Tumours of the parapharyngeal space are rare, representing only 0.5 % of head and neck oncology.
  • The aim of this study is to present our experience with the diagnosis and therapies for these tumours.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: This study is a retrospective review of 51 patients diagnosed as having tumours of the parapharyngeal space and treated surgically between 1984 and 2006.
  • Tumours originating in the deep lobe of parotid gland were excluded.
  • RESULTS: Seventy percent of the parapharyngeal space neoplasms were benign and thirty percent malignant.
  • Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common neoplasm (37 %), followed by miscellaneous benign tumours (34 %), paraganglioma (21 %), and neurogenic tumours (8 %).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most parapharyngeal space tumours can be removed surgically with a low rate of complications and recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 19268125.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6519
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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28. Isolan GR, Rowe R, Al-Mefty O: Microanatomy and surgical approaches to the infratemporal fossa: an anaglyphic three-dimensional stereoscopic printing study. Skull Base; 2007 Sep;17(5):285-302
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  • CONCLUSIONS: The ITF is a complex region on the skull base that is affected by benign and malignant tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18330427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5010
  • [Journal-full-title] Skull base : official journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skull Base
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2095118
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Infratemporal fossa / approaches / mandibular nerve / paraganglioma / surgical anatomy
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29. Kemeny AA: Contemporary management of jugular paragangliomas (glomus tumours): microsurgery and radiosurgery. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 May;151(5):419-21
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  • [Title] Contemporary management of jugular paragangliomas (glomus tumours): microsurgery and radiosurgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Jugulare Tumor / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • [CommentOn] Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009 May;151(5):423-6 [19296050.001]
  • (PMID = 19296051.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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30. Capolunghi B, Bertolini G, Grillo della Berta L, Tinelli N, Cascio F, Bertoletti F: Laryngeal paraganglioma: an endoscopic diode-laser-assisted surgical approach: a case report. B-ENT; 2005;1(2):97-100
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  • [Title] Laryngeal paraganglioma: an endoscopic diode-laser-assisted surgical approach: a case report.
  • Laryngeal paraganglioma is a rare vascular neuroendocrine benign tumour.
  • Computed tomography scans and angiography are also useful in making the diagnosis of paraganglioma before surgical intervention.
  • A case of a large supraglottic paraganglioma is described.
  • Complete excision of the tumour was achieved using microlaryngoscopical-laser surgical resection.
  • The effectiveness of this conservative endoscopic surgical procedure compared to the external approaches is discussed and it can be concluded that the endoscopic diode-laser resection of even extended laryngeal paraganglioma provides a good operative field and is a safe and effective technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Laser Therapy / methods. Paraganglioma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16044742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1781-782X
  • [Journal-full-title] B-ENT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] B-ENT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
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31. Srivastava A, Sinha T, Karan SC, Sandhu AS, Sethi GS, Talwar R, Narang V: Dispelling inhibition for laparoscopic surgery in younger children with Cushing's syndrome. Case report and literature review. Urol Int; 2006;76(3):283-4
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  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is now the gold standard for the treatment of small, benign adrenal tumors in adults.
  • A 6-year-old girl was diagnosed with CS due to a juxtaadrenal tumor.
  • The histopathology was reported as paraganglioma which is a very rare cause of CS.
  • LA is seldom done in younger children with CS owing to extreme obesity, abundant perinephric fat and a high incidence of pre- and postoperative complications.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16601396.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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32. Guinand N, Guyot JP, Kos I: [Jugular and tympanic paragangliomas]. Rev Med Suisse; 2008 Oct 1;4(173):2094-7
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  • [Title] [Jugular and tympanic paragangliomas].
  • Jugular and tympanic paragangliomas are the most frequent tumors of the middle ear.
  • Tumors are most often benign.
  • The functional outcome is critical in extensive tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ear Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18959077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-9379
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale suisse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Suisse
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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33. Polikarpova SB, Lyubimova NV, Smirnova EA, Britvin TA, Ogereliev AS, Davidov MI: Serum angiogenic factors in patients with neuroendocrine tumors of abdominal organs. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2009 Oct;148(4):634-7
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  • [Title] Serum angiogenic factors in patients with neuroendocrine tumors of abdominal organs.
  • The initial (before treatment) levels of VEGF, endostatin, and tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-beta) were measured in the sera of 20 patients with malignant and benign neuroendocrine tumors of the abdominal organs and 25 healthy controls.
  • The initial levels of VEGF, endostatin, and TNF-beta in the total group of patients with neuroendocrine tumors of abdominal organs did not differ from the control.
  • A significant difference was detected between the mean serum concentrations of endostatin in patients with benign and malignant neuroendocrine tumors: 64.1+/-14.7 and 107.8+/-14.1 ng/ml, respectively (p=0.043).
  • A direct correlation between endostatin, TNF-beta concentrations and maximum size of the primary tumor was detected in patients with malignant neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Direct correlations between the initial levels of VEGF and endostatin and an inverse correlation between VEGF and TNF-beta concentrations were detected in patients with benign neuroendocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms. Endostatins / blood. Lymphotoxin-alpha / blood. Neuroendocrine Tumors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood

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  • (PMID = 20396759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-8221
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endostatins; 0 / Lymphotoxin-alpha; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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34. Huang KH, Chung SD, Chen SC, Chueh SC, Pu YS, Lai MK, Lin WC: Clinical and pathological data of 10 malignant pheochromocytomas: long-term follow up in a single institute. Int J Urol; 2007 Mar;14(3):181-5
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  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was confirmed at surgery.
  • Extra-adrenal tumors occurred in four patients including paraganglioma tumors in three cases and bladder tumor in one case.
  • Histological characteristics were not helpful for diagnosis of malignancy and for prediction of prognosis.
  • All patients achieved long-term survival except for two who died of metastasis 1.5 years and 2 years after diagnosis.
  • The possibility of malignancy should be kept in mind even though the initial pathology is benign.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17430251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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35. Yao L, Schiavi F, Cascon A, Qin Y, Inglada-Pérez L, King EE, Toledo RA, Ercolino T, Rapizzi E, Ricketts CJ, Mori L, Giacchè M, Mendola A, Taschin E, Boaretto F, Loli P, Iacobone M, Rossi GP, Biondi B, Lima-Junior JV, Kater CE, Bex M, Vikkula M, Grossman AB, Gruber SB, Barontini M, Persu A, Castellano M, Toledo SP, Maher ER, Mannelli M, Opocher G, Robledo M, Dahia PL: Spectrum and prevalence of FP/TMEM127 gene mutations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. JAMA; 2010 Dec 15;304(23):2611-9
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  • [Title] Spectrum and prevalence of FP/TMEM127 gene mutations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.
  • CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are genetically heterogeneous neural crest-derived neoplasms.
  • We recently identified germline mutations of the novel transmembrane-encoding gene FP/TMEM127 in familial and sporadic pheochromocytomas consistent with a tumor suppressor effect.
  • OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence and spectrum of FP/TMEM127 mutations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas and to test the effect of mutations in vitro.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We sequenced the FP/TMEM127 gene in 990 individuals with pheochromocytomas and/or paragangliomas, including 898 previously unreported cases without mutations in other susceptibility genes from 8 independent worldwide referral centers between January 2009 and June 2010.
  • All mutation carriers had adrenal tumors, including 7 bilateral (P = 2.7 × 10(-4)) and/or with familial disease (5 of 20 samples; P = .005).
  • The most common presentation was that of a single benign adrenal tumor in patients older than 40 years.
  • Expression of 5 novel FP/TMEM127 mutations in cell lines revealed diffuse localization of the mutant proteins in contrast with the discrete multiorganelle distribution of wild-type TMEM127.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Germline mutations of FP/TMEM127 were associated with pheochromocytoma but not paraganglioma and occurred in an age group frequently excluded from genetic screening algorithms.

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  • (PMID = 21156949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 P30 CA465920; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01AG19316; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P30 AG013319; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA54174; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / TMEM127 protein, human
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36. Saito J, Hirata N, Furuzono M, Nakaji S, Inase M, Nagano H, Iwata M, Tochitani S, Fukatsu K, Fujii H, Ishii E, Kataoka J, Mikata R, Masuya Y, Ito H, Ohmori J, Wakasugi S, Ebara M, Hoshi K: [A case of duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma with lymph node metastasis]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Apr;107(4):639-48
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  • [Title] [A case of duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma with lymph node metastasis].
  • A series of examinations showed a submucosal tumor with bleeding at the papilla of Vater and a swollen # 17b lymph node, both of which indicated a hypervascular tumor.
  • The pathological findings of the enucleated tumor specimens revealed gangliocytic paraganglioma with metastasis to the # 17b lymph node.
  • Although the majority of gangliocytic paragangliomas are benign, 7% of reported cases have lymph node metastases, as shown in the present case.
  • These findings are important in treating patients with gangliocytic paraganglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphatic Metastasis. Paraganglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20379099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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37. Suárez C, Rodrigo JP, Ferlito A, Cabanillas R, Shaha AR, Rinaldo A: Tumours of familial origin in the head and neck. Oral Oncol; 2006 Nov;42(10):965-78
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  • [Title] Tumours of familial origin in the head and neck.
  • Individuals with inherited cancer syndromes are at significant risk of developing both benign and malignant tumours as a result of a germline mutation in a specific tumour suppressor gene.
  • Tumours of familial origin are a rare event in the head and neck but despite this, they deserve a growing interest.
  • Familial paragangliomas are most of the time limited to the paraganglionar system, but also may be part of different syndromic associations.
  • Since early detection of paragangliomas reduces the incidence of morbidity and mortality, genotypic analysis in the search of SDHB, SDHC and SDHD mutations in families of affected patients plays a front-line diagnostic role, leading to more efficient patient management.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasias type 1 are characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of at least two of the three main related endocrine tumours: parathyroid, enteropancreatic and anterior pituitary.
  • These tumours arise from inactivating germline mutations in the MEN-1 gene.
  • No clear correlation of MEN-1 genotype with genotype has emerged to date, and MEN-1 mutation testing in tumours is not used clinically because it have not implications for tumour staging.
  • Neurofibromatosis 2 is caused by inactivating mutations of the NF2 gene, and is characterized by the development of nervous system tumours (mainly bilateral vestibular schwannomas), ocular abnormalities, and skin tumours.
  • The molecular genetic basis of nasopharyngeal carcinomas remains unknown, but there is evidence for the linkage of these tumours to chromosome 3p.
  • Finally, the high rate of p16 mutations in squamous cell carcinomas and the association of p16 with familial melanoma propose p16 as an ideal candidate gene predisposing to familial squamous cell carcinomas.
  • The elucidation of the cellular processes affected by dysfunction in familial tumours of the head and neck may serve to identify potential targets for future therapeutic interventions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / genetics. Neurofibromatoses / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16857415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 121
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38. Chapman DB, Lippert D, Geer CP, Edwards HD, Russell GB, Rees CJ, Browne JD: Clinical, histopathologic, and radiographic indicators of malignancy in head and neck paragangliomas. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Oct;143(4):531-7
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  • [Title] Clinical, histopathologic, and radiographic indicators of malignancy in head and neck paragangliomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to review our series of head and neck paragangliomas to identify factors that may help in predicting malignancy.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects with head and neck paragangliomas at our institution from 1976 to current were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Of the 84 subjects, there were seven malignant paragangliomas (8%).
  • Age was found to be significantly different between the benign and malignant subgroups, with an average age of 54 ± 16 and 40 ± 12 years, respectively (P = 0.02).
  • Pain was a presenting complaint in five patients with benign disease (6%), and five of the seven malignant patients (71%) presented with pain, showing a significant association between pain and disease type (P < 0.0001).
  • The odds ratio for a patient with pain having a malignant tumor was 36 (95% CI: 5.5-234).
  • Enlarging neck mass was noted in all cases of malignant disease, but only in 31 percent of cases of benign disease (P < 0.0001).
  • In a secondary analysis of carotid body tumors alone, enlarging neck mass was not found to be significant between benign and malignant disease (P = 0.14).
  • However, pain continued to be significantly different, with 67 percent of malignant lesions demonstrating pain, compared with only 11 percent of benign lesions (P = 0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aortic Bodies / pathology. Carotid Body Tumor / diagnosis. Carotid Body Tumor / pathology. Carotid Body Tumor / radiography. Female. Glomus Jugulare Tumor / diagnosis. Glomus Jugulare Tumor / pathology. Glomus Jugulare Tumor / radiography. Glomus Tympanicum Tumor / diagnosis. Glomus Tympanicum Tumor / pathology. Glomus Tympanicum Tumor / radiography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20869564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6817
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Timmers HJ, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Mannelli M, Pacak K: Clinical aspects of SDHx-related pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Jun;16(2):391-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical aspects of SDHx-related pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • Paragangliomas (PGLs) derive from either sympathetic chromaffin tissue in adrenal and extra-adrenal abdominal or thoracic locations, or from parasympathetic tissue of the head and neck.
  • SDHB mutations mainly predispose to extra-adrenal, and to a lesser extent, adrenal PGLs, with a high malignant potential, but also head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGL).
  • SDHD mutations are typically associated with multifocal HNPGL and usually benign adrenal and extra-adrenal PGLs.
  • The identification of SDHx mutations in patients with PGL is warranted for a tailor-made approach to the biochemical diagnosis, imaging, treatment, follow-up, and family screening.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19190077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD008735-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
  • [Number-of-references] 54
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS750209; NLM/ PMC4711350
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40. Fuentes C, Menéndez E, Pineda J, Martínez De Esteban JP, Anda E, Goñi MJ, Bausch B, Neumann HP: The malignant potential of a succinate dehydrogenase subunit B germline mutation. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Apr;29(4):350-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Familial catecholamine secreting tumors have been associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, Von Hippel-Lindau disease and neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • In the last years, mutations of genes encoding subunits B, C and D of the succinate dehydrogenase have been discovered as other causes of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.
  • We diagnosed a malignant retroperitoneal paraganglioma in a 64-yr-old man with bone metastasis in 2001.
  • Two years later a retroperitoneal benign paraganglioma was found and resected in his 32-yr-old daughter.
  • Thus we diagnosed in this family a paraganglioma syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Germ-Line Mutation. Iron-Sulfur Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Protein Subunits / genetics. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16699302.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iron-Sulfur Proteins; 0 / Protein Subunits; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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41. Geli J, Kiss N, Karimi M, Lee JJ, Bäckdahl M, Ekström TJ, Larsson C: Global and regional CpG methylation in pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas: association to malignant behavior. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 May 1;14(9):2551-9
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  • [Title] Global and regional CpG methylation in pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas: association to malignant behavior.
  • PURPOSE: This study aims to quantitatively assess promoter and global methylation changes in pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas and its relation to tumor phenotypes.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A panel of 53 primary tumors (42 benign, 11 malignant) was analyzed by quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing.
  • Based on methylation levels in the tumor suppressor genes, p16(INK4A), CDH1, DCR2, RARB, RASSF1A, NORE1A, TP73, APC, DAPK1, p14(ARF), and PTEN, a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was defined as concerted hypermethylation in three or more genes.
  • RESULTS: Five primary tumors (9.4%) exhibited a CIMP phenotype, four of which were malignant paragangliomas.
  • Global hypomethylation of LINE-1 elements was observed in tumors compared with normal adrenal samples (P < 0.02).
  • CONCLUSION: We here describe the identification of CIMP in abdominal paragangliomas and a strong association of this phenotype with malignant behavior, as well as young age at presentation.
  • The findings raise a prospective for potential benefits of epigenetically acting drugs for a subgroup of young abdominal paraganglioma patients with adverse prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. CpG Islands / genetics. DNA Methylation. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements / genetics. Male. Middle Aged


42. Chrisoulidou A, Kaltsas G, Ilias I, Grossman AB: The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):569-85
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  • [Title] The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • Malignant phaeochromocytomas are rare tumours accounting for ~10% of all phaeochromocytomas; the prevalence of malignancy among paragangliomas is higher, especially those associated with succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene mutations.
  • Although a subset of these tumours has metastatic disease at initial presentation, a significant number develops metastases during follow-up after excision of an apparently benign tumour.
  • Clinical, biochemical and histological features cannot reliably distinguish malignant from benign tumours.
  • Several imaging modalities have been utilised for the diagnosis and staging of these tumours.
  • Functional imaging using radiolabelled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and more recently, (18)F-fluorodopamine and (18)F-fluorodopa positron emission tomography offer substantial sensitivity and specificity to correctly detect metastatic phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma and helps identify patients suitable for treatment with radiopharmaceuticals.
  • The 5-year mortality rate of patients with malignant phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas greater than 50% indicates that there is considerable room for the improvement of currently available therapies.
  • The main therapeutic target is tumour reduction and control of symptoms of excessive catecholamine secretion.
  • Ongoing microarray studies may provide novel intracellular pathways of importance for proliferation/cell cycle control, and lead to the development of novel pharmacological agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromaffin Cells / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Endocrine Surgical Procedures. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / trends

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  • (PMID = 17914089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 159
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43. Papaspyrou K, Mann WJ, Amedee RG: Management of head and neck paragangliomas: review of 120 patients. Head Neck; 2009 Mar;31(3):381-7
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  • [Title] Management of head and neck paragangliomas: review of 120 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Head and neck paragangliomas (PGL) are rare, mostly benign tumors.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective review of 120 patients with 146 head and neck PGL, including 46 carotid body tumors (CBT), 13 vagal tumors, 55 jugulotympanic tumors (JTT), 25 tympanic tumors (TT) and 7 tumors in other locations are included.
  • CONCLUSION: According to our experience, the treatment of PGL must be individualized, taking into account the patient's age, medical condition, tumor site and size, multiple occurrences, and preexisting cranial nerve deficits.
  • Tumor control is high whether treatment is by surgery or radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Paraganglioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carotid Artery, Internal. Child. Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Deafness / etiology. Deafness / prevention & control. Embolization, Therapeutic. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18972432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Boedeker CC, Ridder GJ, Schipper J: Paragangliomas of the head and neck: diagnosis and treatment. Fam Cancer; 2005;4(1):55-9
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  • [Title] Paragangliomas of the head and neck: diagnosis and treatment.
  • Paragangliomas of the head and neck (HNP) represent rare tumors of neural crest origin.
  • They are highly vascular neoplasms that are benign in the majority of cases.
  • The site of origin defines the name given those tumors.
  • In the head and neck, they most commonly occur at the carotid bifurcation, where they are referred to as carotid body tumors (CBT).
  • Other common sites of origin are the jugular bulb (jugular paraganglioma; JP), the tympanic plexus on the promontory (tympanic paraganglioma;.
  • TP) and the vagal nerve (vagal paraganglioma; VP).
  • Patients with cervical paragangliomas frequently present with a painless, slowly enlarging mass in the lateral neck.
  • Evaluation by an imaging modality is necessary to establish the diagnosis.
  • Debate exists in the literature regarding the different treatment modalities for paragangliomas which include surgery, radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery.
  • The diagnostic work up and the different treatment options for patients with head and neck paragangliomas will be presented and discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15883711.001).
  • [ISSN] 1389-9600
  • [Journal-full-title] Familial cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fam. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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45. Liess BD, Horst JA, Zitsch RP 3rd: Sphenoid sinus paraganglioma: first reported case. Am J Otolaryngol; 2007 Sep-Oct;28(5):347-9
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  • [Title] Sphenoid sinus paraganglioma: first reported case.
  • Paragangliomas are uncommon tumors that present in the head and neck.
  • Rarely, this benign tumor may occur in the nose and paranasal sinus.
  • We report a case of paraganglioma involving the sphenoid sinus, discuss histologic characteristics, and review this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sphenoid Sinus
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Otolaryngol. 2009 Jan-Feb;30(1):70; author reply 71 [19027520.001]
  • (PMID = 17826539.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Rimbot A, Mounayer C, Loureiro C, Queiroz C, Kadziolka K, Spelle L, Piotin M, Bozorg-Grayeli A, Moret J: [Preoperative mixed embolization of a paraganglioma using Onyx]. J Neuroradiol; 2007 Dec;34(5):334-9
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  • [Title] [Preoperative mixed embolization of a paraganglioma using Onyx].
  • [Transliterated title] Embolisation préopératoire par abord mixte d'un paragangliome à l'aide d'Onyx.
  • Paragangliomas, or glomus tumors, are highly vascular benign tumors of the head and neck.
  • Preoperative embolization can reduce morbidity, and several techniques have been described using arterial injection of particles or of cyanoacrylate directly into the tumor.
  • This case report is of a patient treated by surgery using a new technique-preoperative embolization involving both the arteries and veins, and injection of Onyx, resulting in complete devascularization of the tumor's arteriovenous network.
  • [MeSH-major] Dimethyl Sulfoxide / administration & dosage. Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma / therapy. Polyvinyls / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17988740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0150-9861
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroradiology. Journal de neuroradiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Onyx copolymer; 0 / Polyvinyls; YOW8V9698H / Dimethyl Sulfoxide
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47. Tinkham MR: Care of the patient undergoing surgical excision of a carotid body chemodectoma. AORN J; 2010 Jan;91(1):117-28; quiz 129-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In rare cases, the carotid body may develop a tumor known as a chemodectoma or paraganglioma.
  • These tumors can vary in size and, typically, they are benign.
  • Although carotid body tumors usually are painless and slow growing, they may cause a compression syndrome that results in symptoms such as dysphagia.
  • The treatment of choice for many carotid body tumors is surgical removal, but there are risks involved with resecting these tumors because of their close location to the carotid vessels and cranial nerves.
  • The use of newer imaging modalities to allow earlier detection of carotid body tumors and careful surgical technique can decrease the complications associated with this challenging surgical procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / nursing. Carotid Body Tumor / surgery. Intraoperative Care. Operating Room Nursing / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carotid Body / anatomy & histology. Carotid Body / physiology. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nursing Assessment. Patient Care Planning. Patient Education as Topic. Postoperative Care / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Preoperative Care / nursing. Rare Diseases

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [ErratumIn] AORN J. 2010 Apr;91(4):430
  • (PMID = 20102809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-2092
  • [Journal-full-title] AORN journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AORN J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Yadav R, Das AK, Kumar R: Malignant non-functional paraganglioma of the bladder presenting with azotemia. Int Urol Nephrol; 2007;39(2):449-51
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  • [Title] Malignant non-functional paraganglioma of the bladder presenting with azotemia.
  • Paragangliomas of the urinary bladder are rare tumors representing less than 1% of bladder tumors and are usually benign.
  • Malignant paragangliomas are uncommon and are defined by their clinical behavior rather than the histologic features.
  • We describe a patient with recurrent nonfunctioning paraganglioma of bladder presenting with hematuria and obstructive uropathy due to involvement of ureteroileal anastomoses.
  • Histology confirmed the presence of nests of tumor cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm.
  • Immunohistochemically the tumor cells were strongly positive for chromogranin A.
  • [MeSH-major] Azotemia / etiology. Paraganglioma / complications. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17203357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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49. Grossrubatscher E, Dalino P, Vignati F, Gambacorta M, Pugliese R, Boniardi M, Rossetti O, Marocchi A, Bertuzzi M, Loli P: The role of chromogranin A in the management of patients with phaeochromocytoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Sep;65(3):287-93
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  • OBJECTIVE: Chromogranin A (CgA) is the most accurate general marker of neuroendocrine tumours.
  • Supranormal CgA concentrations have been recorded in patients with tumours of neuroectodermal origin such as phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • Combining the results of CgA and urinary catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine), the sensitivity for diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma was 100%.
  • Urinary catecholamines, metabolites (metanephrine and normetanephrine) and CgA levels in patients with malignant phaeochromocytoma did not differ significantly from those of patients with benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chromogranin A / blood. Pheochromocytoma / blood

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  • (PMID = 16918946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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50. Alghamdi AA, Sheth T, Manowski Z, Djoleto OF, Bhatnagar G: Utility of cardiac CT and MRI for the diagnosis and preoperative assessment of cardiac paraganglioma. J Card Surg; 2009 Nov-Dec;24(6):700-1
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  • [Title] Utility of cardiac CT and MRI for the diagnosis and preoperative assessment of cardiac paraganglioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Cardiac paragangliomas are rare cardiac tumors that are usually benign.
  • METHODS: We report a case of 39-year-old male who, during the work up of acute coronary syndrome with coronary angiography, cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was found to have cardiac paraganglioma.
  • RESULTS: The tumor was intrapericardial, arising at the level of proximal left anterior descending artery.
  • The tumor was completely resected and the postoperative course was uneventful.
  • CONCLUSION: Cardiac CT and MRI are valuable in characterizing and preoperative planning of primary cardiac paragangliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Neoplasms / diagnosis. Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Coronary Syndrome / diagnosis. Adult. Atrial Appendage / pathology. Atrial Appendage / surgery. Coronary Angiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Heart Ventricles / pathology. Heart Ventricles / surgery. Humans. Male. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19682163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-8191
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cardiac surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Card Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Antonello M, Piazza M, Menegolo M, Opocher G, Deriu GP, Grego F: Role of the genetic study in the management of carotid body tumor in paraganglioma syndrome. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg; 2008 Nov;36(5):517-9
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  • [Title] Role of the genetic study in the management of carotid body tumor in paraganglioma syndrome.
  • Diagnosis of carotid body tumor (CBT) was made in a 36 years old woman.
  • The pre-operative examination included genetic analysis of the succinate dehydrogenase that showed a mutation in his subunit D responsible of multiple paraganglioma at slow growth.
  • Subsequently a thoraco-abdominal CT and indium(111) octreotide body scan were performed and another paraganglioma was detected in the anterior mediastinum.
  • CBT was surgically removed; differently the thoracic lesion due to his benign genetic profile was not treated.
  • During a 3-years follow-up the thoracic paraganglioma as expected, didn't increase.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Mediastinal Neoplasms / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18692411.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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52. Perri M, Erba P, Volterrani D, Lazzeri E, Boni G, Grosso M, Mariani G: Octreo-SPECT/CT imaging for accurate detection and localization of suspected neuroendocrine tumors. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2008 Dec;52(4):323-33
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  • [Title] Octreo-SPECT/CT imaging for accurate detection and localization of suspected neuroendocrine tumors.
  • AIM: The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the add value provided by [(111)In]DTPA-octreotide single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (Octreo-SPECT/CT) with respect to [(111)In]DTPA-octreotide SPECT (Octreo-SPECT) in terms of diagnostic accuracy and localization of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).
  • SPECT and fused SPECT/CT images were interpreted separately and a lesion-by-lesion analysis was performed with regard to classification (probability of NET graded on a 5-point scale) and localization of each abnormal focal tracer uptake.
  • A subgroup analysis, distinguishing between abdominal and thoracic lesions, and a patient-by-patient analysis for likelihood of NET in each patient was also performed.
  • RESULTS: A final diagnosis of NET was achieved in 43 out of 81 patients and a total of 169 areas (138 NET and 31 benign/physiological) with focal tracer uptake were included in the final lesion-by-lesion analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / radiography. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Pentetic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen / pathology. Abdomen / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Paraganglioma / pathology. Paraganglioma / radiography. Paraganglioma / radionuclide imaging. ROC Curve. Radiography, Abdominal. Radiography, Thoracic. Recurrence. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thorax / pathology. Thorax / radionuclide imaging. Time Factors. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18480741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 142694-57-3 / SDZ 215-811; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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53. Xia SY, Li R, Song SB, Liang FQ: [Diagnosis and surgical therapy of primary retroperitoneal neurogenic tumors]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Jun 9;89(22):1567-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical therapy of primary retroperitoneal neurogenic tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnosis and surgical therapy for retroperitoneal neurogenic tumors (PRNTs).
  • METHODS: The clinical records of 79 surgically treated patients with retroperitoneal neurogenic tumor were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Pathological analysis identified 19 patients with neurofibroma, 8 with neurilemmoma, 4 with paraganglioma, 21 with neurofibrosarcoma, 14 with malignant neurilemmoma, 6 with malignant paraganglioma, 5 with neuroectodermal tumor and 2 with neuroblastoma.
  • The mortality rate of PRNT operation is was 1.3%, 3-year recurrence rate of benign tumor 0%, 5-year recurrence rate of benign tumor 12.9%, reoperation rate 100%, 5-year survival rate 100%.
  • 3 years recurrence rate of malignancy tumor 41.6%, reoperation rate 90%, 5 years recurrence rate of malignancy tumor 79.1% and 5 years survival rate is 62.5%.
  • CONCLUSION: BUS, CT and MRI are decisive for localization diagnosis.
  • Pre-operative preparation of intestinal tract and blood, maintaining the intactness of involved nerve are important for tumor resection.
  • To prevent tumor recurrence, the key surgical techniques are to minimize tumor residues and .
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroectodermal Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroectodermal Tumors / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19953887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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54. Breysem L, Kersemans P, Vanbeckevoort D, Ectors N, Smet MH: Nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas in an 8-year-old girl. JBR-BTR; 2007 Nov-Dec;90(6):528-31
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  • [Title] Nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas in an 8-year-old girl.
  • We report a case of a nonfunctioning neuroendocrine pancreatic tumor in the pediatric age group.
  • After surgical resection, the diagnosis of a hormonally inactive benign neuroendocrine tumor is histologically diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18376771.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-7430
  • [Journal-full-title] JBR-BTR : organe de la Société royale belge de radiologie (SRBR) = orgaan van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Radiologie (KBVR)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JBR-BTR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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55. Schittenhelm J, Ebner FH, Harter P, Bornemann A: Symptomatic intraspinal oncocytic adrenocortical adenoma. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(1):73-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Benign epithelial tumors are rarely found at this site.
  • The excised tumor was composed of nests of large polygonal cells with eosinophilic partial granular cytoplasm.
  • The tumor showed diffuse positivity for melan-A, synaptophysin, and alpha-inhibin.
  • Ultrastructural examination showed abundant mitochondria, suggesting an oncocytic tumor.
  • The diagnosis of an oncocytic adrenal cortical adenoma was made.
  • These extraadrenal tumors are thought to arise from heterotopic adrenocortical tissue in the spinal cavity.
  • Oncocytic tumors are rare neoplasms and they comprise non-functioning variants of adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • To date, only five such intraspinal tumors have been observed.
  • Immunohistochemistry excluded oncocytic paraganglioma, oncocytic meningioma, renal cell carcinoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, and granular cell tumor.
  • A view of the literature of these rare but probably underdiagnosed intraspinal tumors is given.

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  • (PMID = 19039533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Lips C, Lentjes E, Höppener J, Luijt Rv, Moll F: Familial paragangliomas. Hered Cancer Clin Pract; 2006;4(4):169-76
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  • [Title] Familial paragangliomas.
  • Paragangliomas are rare tumours of the autonomic nervous system and occur in sporadic and hereditary forms.
  • They are usually benign and have a low mortality.
  • Genetic predisposition can occur within the familial tumour syndromes multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), or be due to mutations in genes specific to the development of paraganglioma only.
  • Compared to sporadic forms, familial paragangliomas tend to present at a younger age and at multiple sites.
  • Tumours should be diagnosed and resected as early as possible, as it has been shown that morbidity is related to tumour size.
  • This article gives an overview of the current literature on the origin of the different forms of paragangliomas, DNA diagnosis, as well as biochemical and radiological screening guidelines.

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  • (PMID = 20223020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-4287
  • [Journal-full-title] Hereditary cancer in clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hered Cancer Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2837305
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57. Hasse-Lazar K, Krajewska J, Paliczka-Cieślik E, Jurecka-Lubieniecka B, Michalik B, Handkiewicz-Junak D, Roskosz J, Jarzab B: [131I-MIBG therapy in the treatment of pheochromocytoma in children--own experiences]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 May-Jun;59(3):235-40
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  • In one patient 131I-MIBG was administrated after ineffective surgical treatment and chemotherapy of a benign retroperitoneal tumor, whereas in two other patients 131I-MIBG therapy was carried out because of malignant pheochromocytoma dissemination.
  • In a child with retroperitoneal paraganglioma decrease of tumor size and its fibrosis after 131I-MIBG therapy allowed radical surgery and complete recovery.


58. Lott S, Lopez-Beltran A, Maclennan GT, Montironi R, Cheng L: Soft tissue tumors of the urinary bladder, Part I: myofibroblastic proliferations, benign neoplasms, and tumors of uncertain malignant potential. Hum Pathol; 2007 Jun;38(6):807-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Soft tissue tumors of the urinary bladder, Part I: myofibroblastic proliferations, benign neoplasms, and tumors of uncertain malignant potential.
  • Most bladder tumors arise from the urothelium.
  • These include both benign and malignant spindle cell lesions.
  • The first half of this 2-part review will describe benign myofibroblastic proliferations including inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and postoperative spindle cell nodule; benign neoplasms including leiomyoma, hemangioma, neurofibroma, and schwannoma; and tumors of uncertain malignant potential including paraganglioma, granular cell tumor, and perivascular epithelioid cell tumor.
  • This review also describes current theories as to the pathogenesis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and postoperative spindle cell nodule and details the current molecular markers identifying several of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17509394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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59. Sarma DP, Teruya B, Wang B: Paraganglioma-like dermal melanocytic tumor: a case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):48
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  • [Title] Paraganglioma-like dermal melanocytic tumor: a case report.
  • Paraganglioma-like dermal melanocytic tumor is a rare subtype of benign dermal melanocytic tumors.
  • Its histopathologic features resemble those of paraganglioma, but the immunostaining characteristics are those of melanocytic lesions.We report a case of a 60-year-old male with a paraganglioma-like dermal melanocytic tumor of his left cheek and briefly review the English literature.

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  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 May;54(5 Suppl):S220-3 [16631945.001]
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  • (PMID = 18638402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2488318
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60. Saruya S, Nagamine H, Komiya T, Ito S, Iino Y, Kodera K, Imamura T: [Immunohistochemical and clinical features of patients with benign middle ear tumors]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2007 May;110(5):403-9
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  • [Title] [Immunohistochemical and clinical features of patients with benign middle ear tumors].
  • The middle ear is a rare site for benign tumors.
  • We report six patients with benign middle ear tumors surgicaly removed: three with carcinoid, one with adenoma, and two with paraganglioma.
  • These tumors showed similar histological features in trabecular and glandular architecture, so further immunohistochemical study was needed to make a definitive histopathological diagnosis.
  • When we analyzed clinical features of patients diagnosed immunohistochemically, the differentiation of two patients with paraganglioma from the remaining four with adenomatous tumors such as adenoma and carcinoid was relatively easy from otomicroscopic findings and enhancement in temporal bone MRI.
  • It was however difficult to differentiate patients with adenomatous tumors from each other because they induced similar clinical symptoms and showed similar findings in images.
  • For a definitive diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct exploratory tympanotomy or removal of the tumors to obtain enough specimen for histological and immunohistochemical studies.
  • Tumors induced no bone destruction or complications.
  • We recommend staged operations for total removal of tumors and for good postoperative hearing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Ear Neoplasms / pathology. Ear, Middle. Paraganglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17564130.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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61. Huang J, Lemire BD: Mutations in the C. elegans succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulfur subunit promote superoxide generation and premature aging. J Mol Biol; 2009 Apr 3;387(3):559-69
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  • Mutations in the human SDHB, SDHC and SDHD genes are responsible for the development of paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma, tumors of the head and neck or the adrenal medulla, respectively.
  • Mutant phenotypes ranged from relatively benign to lethal and were characterized by hypersensitivity to oxidative stress, a shortened life span, impaired respiration and overproduction of superoxide.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylcysteine / metabolism. Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Animals, Genetically Modified. Antioxidants / metabolism. Ascorbic Acid / metabolism. Cell Respiration / physiology. DNA Mutational Analysis. Herbicides / metabolism. Humans. Life Expectancy. Models, Molecular. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation. Oxidative Stress. Paraquat / metabolism. Phenotype. Protein Conformation. Protein Subunits / chemistry. Protein Subunits / genetics. Protein Subunits / metabolism. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Sequence Alignment

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  • (PMID = 19233206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-8638
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 0 / Herbicides; 0 / Protein Subunits; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 11062-77-4 / Superoxides; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; PLG39H7695 / Paraquat; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid; WYQ7N0BPYC / Acetylcysteine
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62. Chung SM, Kim HS, Jung J, Lee HK, Lee WS: Clinical presentation and management of jugular foramen paraganglioma. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol; 2009 Mar;2(1):28-32
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  • [Title] Clinical presentation and management of jugular foramen paraganglioma.
  • OBJECTIVES: Jugular foramen paraganglioma is a locally invasive, benign tumor, which grow slowly and causes various symptoms such as pulsatile tinnitus and low cranial nerve palsy.
  • Complete surgical resection is regarded as the ideal management of these tumors.
  • The goal of this study is to identify the clinical characteristics and most effective surgical approach for jugular foramen paraganglioma.
  • METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 9 jugular foramen paraganglioma patients who underwent surgical resection between 1986 and 2005 was performed.
  • Seven patients were classified as Fisch Type C tumor and remaining 2 as Fisch Type D tumor on radiologic examination.
  • All tumors were detected in advanced stage due to slow growing nature and lack of symptom.
  • Angiography with embolization is crucial for successful tumor removal without massive bleeding.
  • Infratemporal fossa approach can be considered as a safe, satisfactory approach for removal of jugular foramen paragangliomas.
  • In tumors with intracranial extension, combined approach is recommended in that it provides better surgical view and can maintain the compliance of the patients.

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  • [Cites] J Neurosurg. 1994 Jun;80(6):1026-38 [8189258.001]
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  • (PMID = 19434288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1976-8710
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2671826
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Combined approach / Infratemporal approach / Intracranial extension / Jugular foramen paraganglioma
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63. Amar L, Peyrard S, Rossignol P, Zinzindohoue F, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Plouin PF: Changes in urinary total metanephrine excretion in recurrent and malignant pheochromocytomas and secreting paragangliomas. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:383-91
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  • [Title] Changes in urinary total metanephrine excretion in recurrent and malignant pheochromocytomas and secreting paragangliomas.
  • We quantified urinary excretion of total metanephrines (metanephrine plus normetanephrine) (UETM) in 261 patients with pheochromocytoma (PH) or secreting paraganglioma, before primary tumor resection.
  • We then determined UETM 2 weeks after primary tumor resection and once per year thereafter.
  • The tumor was considered benign in 242 patients and malignant in 19 patients.
  • Patients with malignant tumors had higher UETM and tumor diameters, lower plasma epinephrine concentrations, and were more likely to have secreting paragangliomas than patients with benign tumors.
  • In the 215 patients with a single-benign primary tumor, preoperative UETM and tumor diameter were significantly correlated.
  • Thirty-six patients subsequently developed recurrences or new tumors, which were malignant in 18 cases.
  • All recurrent or new tumors could be detected before the onset of symptoms, on the basis of an increase in metanephrine concentration.
  • We followed one patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease and a new tumor for 50 months before reoperation and found that UETM and tumor diameter were significantly correlated.
  • In patients with malignant tumors, the logarithm of UETM was significantly correlated with time, suggesting an exponential increase in tumor activity and, presumably, tumor burden.
  • Urinary metanephrine excretion is a marker of tumor activity and a surrogate of tumor burden in patients with pheochromocytoma or secreting paraganglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Metanephrine / urine. Paraganglioma / urine. Pheochromocytoma / urine

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  • (PMID = 17102107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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64. Parini U, Nardi M Jr, Loffredo A, Fabozzi M, Roveroni M: Laparoscopic resection of duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma. A case report. Chir Ital; 2007 Jul-Aug;59(4):551-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma. A case report.
  • Paraganglioma is an exceedingly rare tumour of the duodenum that arises in close proximity to the ampulla of Vater.
  • To date a total of 133 cases of duodenal paraganglioma have been reported in the literature; of these, 27 (20%) were histologically gangliocytic paragangliomas.
  • This neoplasm generally behaves in a benign fashion, although instances of recurrence and/or lymph node metastasis have been described.
  • The treatment consists in endoscopic polypectomy or surgical resection in relation to the histological features and the macroscopic extent of the neoplasm.
  • We present a case of a benign duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma treated by a laparo-endoscopic approach.
  • We report a case of gangliocytic paraganglioma in a 75-year-old woman admitted to the General Surgery Division of Aosta Regional Hospital (Aosta-Italy), complaining of melaena and anaemia.
  • Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy followed by enteroscopy with a video-capsula, revealed a pedunculated neoplasm in the second portion of the duodenum, with ulceration of the overlying mucosa.
  • Multiple biopsies were performed during the endoscopic examination and showed the cellular pattern of benign paraganglioma.
  • After stabilisation of the patient's clinical status, we performed a resection of the neoplasm via a laparoscopic transduodenal approach and a concomitant intraoperative duodenoscopy.
  • The histological features showed a gangliocytic paraganglioma without a malignant cell pattern.
  • The size of the neoplasm was 4 cm.
  • The patient is currently in good health without any tumour recurrence.
  • Transduodenal laparoscopic resection with intraoperative duodenoscopy is a valuable treatment for benign gangliocytic paraganglioma of the duodenum which is unresectable by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.
  • This approach affords the advantages of the minimally invasive technique and fulfils the surgical tenets of the open transduodenal approach, if en bloc resection of the neoplasm with the adjacent duodenal wall is performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenal Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Paraganglioma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17966779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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65. Schiavi F, Boedeker CC, Bausch B, Peçzkowska M, Gomez CF, Strassburg T, Pawlu C, Buchta M, Salzmann M, Hoffmann MM, Berlis A, Brink I, Cybulla M, Muresan M, Walter MA, Forrer F, Välimäki M, Kawecki A, Szutkowski Z, Schipper J, Walz MK, Pigny P, Bauters C, Willet-Brozick JE, Baysal BE, Januszewicz A, Eng C, Opocher G, Neumann HP, European-American Paraganglioma Study Group: Predictors and prevalence of paraganglioma syndrome associated with mutations of the SDHC gene. JAMA; 2005 Oct 26;294(16):2057-63
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  • [Title] Predictors and prevalence of paraganglioma syndrome associated with mutations of the SDHC gene.
  • CONTEXT: Paraganglioma syndrome includes inherited head and neck paragangliomas (HNPs) and adrenal or extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas and are classified according to the susceptibility genes SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD.
  • Location, number of tumors, malignancy, and age were different: more carotid body tumors were found in SDHC (13/22 [59%]) than in sporadic HNPs (29/90 [32%], P = .03), as well as fewer instances of multiple tumors in SDHC (2/22) than in SDHD (24/42; P<.001), 0 malignant tumors in SDHC vs 6/15 in SDHB (P = .002), and younger age at diagnosis in SDHC than in sporadic HNPs (45 vs 52 years; P = .03).
  • Head and neck paragangliomas associated with SDHC mutations are virtually exclusively benign and seldom multifocal.

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  • [CommentIn] JAMA. 2006 Feb 8;295(6):625; author reply 625 [16467230.001]
  • [ErratumIn] JAMA. 2006 Feb 8;295(6):628
  • (PMID = 16249420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01HD39058-04; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01HD39058-04S1
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iron-Sulfur Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Protein Subunits; 0 / SDHC protein, human; 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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66. Soto G S, Valdés E F, Krämer Sch A, Mariné M L, Bergoeing R M, Mertens M R, Solar G A, Walton D A, Vergara G J: [Carotid body tumors: report of ten cases]. Rev Med Chil; 2007 Nov;135(11):1414-20
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  • [Title] [Carotid body tumors: report of ten cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor del cuerpo carotídeo: A propósito de 10 casos tratados.
  • BACKGROUND: Carotid body tumors arise from a cellular conglomerate located at the carotid bifurcation.
  • AIM: To report a series of 10 patients treated of carotid body tumors and review national experience.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1984 and 2006, we operated 8 women and 2 men, aged 19 to 75 years, with this type of tumor.
  • In all cases, diagnosis was confirmed with angiographic imaging and histopathology.
  • Ten tumors were surgically removed with no complications.
  • Eighty percent of tumors were in stage II according to Shamblin classification.
  • Only 31 carotid body tumors have been reported in Chilean medical literature during a 43 year period.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Paragangliomas of the carotid body can be diagnosed in clinical grounds, requiring vascular imaging.
  • These infrequent lesions are generally benign, early surgical removal by surgeons with vascular expertise avoids neurological and or vascular complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor. Paraganglioma

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  • (PMID = 18259652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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67. Guo N, Liu H, Peng Z: A mesenteric paraganglioma. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 Dec;16(12):1650-1
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  • [Title] A mesenteric paraganglioma.
  • Mesenteric paraganglioma is a solitary primary paraganglioma that occurs in the mesentery.
  • It is a rare and unusual tumor, especially in non-typical sites such as the inferior mesenteric artery.
  • Tumor markers were within the normal range.
  • An intra-operative frozen section biopsy showed a benign cystic tumor.
  • Histopathological examination indicated that it was a paraganglioma of the mesentery.
  • [MeSH-major] Mesentery / pathology. Paraganglioma / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19767210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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68. Thines L, Lejeune JP, Ruchoux MM, Assaker R: Management of delayed intracranial and intraspinal metastases of intradural spinal paragangliomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Jan;148(1):63-6; discussion 66
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  • [Title] Management of delayed intracranial and intraspinal metastases of intradural spinal paragangliomas.
  • The preferential site of extra-adrenal paragangliomas is the head and neck region.
  • However intradural spinal paragangliomas are commonly described and are considered as benign entities.
  • We report the case of a paraganglioma of the cauda equina followed after complete surgical removal by intracranial and intraspinal cerebrospinal fluid metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Lumbar Vertebrae. Paraganglioma / secondary. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Thoracic Vertebrae

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  • (PMID = 16283104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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69. Mahadevaiah A, Parikh B, Kumaraswamy K: Surgical management of glomus tympanicum tumor. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Mar;59(1):5-8
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  • [Title] Surgical management of glomus tympanicum tumor.
  • Glomus tympanicum tumor (also known as paraganglioma or chemodectoma) is the most benign tumor of temporal bone.
  • During 1995 to 2005, 18 cases of glomus tympanicum were managed at Basavanagudi ENT Care Centre Bangalore.
  • We review retrospectively the diagnosis and surgical management of these cases.
  • Advances in the imaging and refinements in traditional surgery have made correct diagnosis and complete excision of these tumors possible in most of the cases.

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  • [Cites] Laryngoscope. 1989 Sep;99(9):875-84 [2549310.001]
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  • (PMID = 23120373.001).
  • [ISSN] 2231-3796
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3451734
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Glomus tympanicum / open cavity mastoidectomy / post-auricular transcanal tympanotomy (PATT)
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70. de Herder WW, Kwekkeboom DJ, Valkema R, Feelders RA, van Aken MO, Lamberts SW, van der Lely AJ, Krenning EP: Neuroendocrine tumors and somatostatin: imaging techniques. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005;28(11 Suppl International):132-6
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumors and somatostatin: imaging techniques.
  • Tumors and metastases bearing the somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 (SSTR2) or SSTR5 can be visualized in vivo after injection of radiolabeled octapeptide somatostatin analogs like 111In-pentetreotide.
  • The sensitivity of 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy for the detection of carcinoid tumors is 86-95%.
  • The sensitivity of 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy for the detection of gastrinomas, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-secreting tumors, and glucagonomas as well as clinically non-functioning lesions is 75-100%.
  • 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy generally has a lower detection rate for benign pheochromocytomas than 123I-MIBG scintigraphy, but it can have a complementary role for the staging of malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • It can also be used for the detection of extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.
  • 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy has been successful for the localization of extra-pituitary ACTH-secreting tumors and their metastases, and especially for occult tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Somatostatin
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Indium Radioisotopes. Paraganglioma / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Pituitary Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16625862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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71. Kemp CD, Russell RT, Sharp KW: Resection of benign duodenal neoplasms. Am Surg; 2007 Nov;73(11):1086-91
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  • [Title] Resection of benign duodenal neoplasms.
  • Primary small bowel neoplasms (PSBN) are uncommon, accounting for less than 15 per cent of all gastrointestinal tumors.
  • Benign duodenal neoplasms (BDN) are rare, comprising only 10 to 20 per cent of all PSBN.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Duodenoscopy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Humans. Lipoma / diagnosis. Lipoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18092639.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Farr MR, Martin TP, Walsh AR, Irving RM: A case of paraganglioma of the hypoglossal nerve. J Laryngol Otol; 2010 May;124(5):e3
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  • [Title] A case of paraganglioma of the hypoglossal nerve.
  • INTRODUCTION: Paragangliomas are rare tumours arising from the paraganglia of the autonomic nervous system.
  • CASE REPORT: We present a case of a paraganglioma arising from the hypoglossal nerve and producing an unusual clinical picture at presentation.
  • DISCUSSION: We supply radiological evidence of a paraganglioma originating from the hypoglossal nerve, and thus extend the evidence base for this rare site of origin.
  • This presentation is not characteristic of paragangliomas in general, which usually have an indolent growth pattern and often demonstrate benign symptoms for a number of years prior to diagnosis.
  • The location of a hypoglossal paraganglioma differs significantly from more common paragangliomas described in the neck and skull base, and this should inform the surgical approach undertaken.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20403225.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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73. Turley AJ, Hunter S, Stewart MJ: A cardiac paraganglioma presenting with atypical chest pain. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2005 Aug;28(2):352-4
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  • [Title] A cardiac paraganglioma presenting with atypical chest pain.
  • Primary cardiac tumours are rare.
  • The majority are benign and 75% are atrial myxomas.
  • One of the more unusual benign tumours affecting the heart is a cardiac paraganglioma.
  • All investigations, haematological, biochemical, neuroendocrine tumour markers and urinary cathecholamine levels, were within normal limits.
  • Macroscopically the tumour involved the whole of the atrial septum, roof of the left atrium and extended to surround the superior vena cava, excluding total resection.
  • The feeding vessels were ligated in the hope of infarcting the remainder of the tumour.
  • To our knowledge this is the first reported case where vascular ligation has been used to control a cardiac paraganglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Chest Pain / etiology. Heart Neoplasms / complications. Paraganglioma / complications

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  • (PMID = 15990328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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74. Dhall D, Al-Ahmadie H, Olgac S: Nested variant of urothelial carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Nov;131(11):1725-7
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  • Nested variant of urothelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm that is histologically characterized by large numbers of small, closely packed, haphazardly arranged, poorly defined, confluent irregular nests of bland-appearing urothelial cells infiltrating the lamina propria and the muscularis propria.
  • Due to the cells' deceptively bland appearance, the tumors are sometimes misdiagnosed as benign lesions, leading in some cases to a significant delay in establishing the correct diagnosis and thus contributing to this neoplasm's advanced stage.
  • Nested variant of urothelial carcinoma must be differentiated from the benign proliferative lesions of urothelium, such as von Brunn nests, cystitis cystica, cystitis glandularis, nephrogenic adenoma, inverted papilloma, and paraganglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Urothelium / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Keratin-7 / metabolism. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17979494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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75. Sangster G, Do D, Previgliano C, Li B, LaFrance D, Heldmann M: Primary retroperitoneal paraganglioma simulating a pancreatic mass: a case report and review of the literature. HPB Surg; 2010;2010:645728
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  • [Title] Primary retroperitoneal paraganglioma simulating a pancreatic mass: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Paragangliomas are extra-adrenal tumors of the autonomic nervous system and may be found within the skull base, neck, chest, and abdomen.
  • When presenting within the abdominal cavity, they may arise as a primary retroperitoneal neoplasm and can mimic vascular malformations or other conditions related to specific retroperitoneal organs such as the pancreas, kidneys, or adrenals.
  • Retroperitoneal paragangliomas are mostly benign with good prognosis; however, they can present with abdominal pain, palpable mass, or hypertensive episodes.
  • This case report describes a patient who initially underwent work up for a suspected pancreatic head mass which was discovered to be a retroperitoneal paraganglioma by frozen section.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Frozen Sections. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Positron-Emission Tomography. Rare Diseases. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] J Surg Oncol. 2000 Aug;74(4):286-90 [10962462.001]
  • [Cites] Radiographics. 2003 Jan-Feb;23(1):29-43 [12533638.001]
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  • (PMID = 21188160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8462
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB surgery : a world journal of hepatic, pancreatic and biliary surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3004405
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76. Magro G, Torrisi A, Ippolito O, Torrisi A, Bisceglia M: [Unusual non-neoplastic lesions in the "surgical pathology" of the thyroid]. Pathologica; 2006 Apr;98(2):119-38
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  • The conditions included are: normal intrathyroidal vestigial tissues/structures (i.e. rests of the ultimobranchial body and thyroglossal duct) and their relevant pathological derivatives (ultimobranchial body cyst, intrathyroidal lymphoepithelial cyst, thyroglossal duct cyst); mature intrathyroidal heterologous tissues/organs of either metaplastic or heterotopic origin (adipose tissue, striated skeletal muscle, cartilage, parathyroid glands, thymus, salivary gland tissue) and their relevant pseudotumoural lesions; varieties of metaplastic and non-metaplastic morphologic changes of the thyroid follicular epithelium (oncocytic, clear cell/signet ring cell, darkly pigmented cell, mucinous (myxoid), squamous, spindle cell); amyloid goiter; some reactive and/or degenerative cytologic and nuclear atypicalities (nuclear pseudoclearing and cell pleomorphism) as well as some hyperplastic or peculiar growth patterns (capsular pseudoinvasion; vascular invasion; papillary carcinoma-like and paraganglioma-like patterns) of benign conditions mimicking neoplasia; and finally. some pseudotumoural lesions of the stroma (pseudoangiosarcomatous vascular proliferation, and post-fine-needle aspiration spindle cell nodule).
  • The pathogenetic mechanism, the morphologic interpretation, and the differential diagnosis of each of the above-listed conditions are discussed and pertinent illustrations for many of them are also provided.

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  • (PMID = 16929786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins; 0 / Pigments, Biological
  • [Number-of-references] 153
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77. Garbrecht N, Anlauf M, Schmitt A, Henopp T, Sipos B, Raffel A, Eisenberger CF, Knoefel WT, Pavel M, Fottner C, Musholt TJ, Rinke A, Arnold R, Berndt U, Plöckinger U, Wiedenmann B, Moch H, Heitz PU, Komminoth P, Perren A, Klöppel G: Somatostatin-producing neuroendocrine tumors of the duodenum and pancreas: incidence, types, biological behavior, association with inherited syndromes, and functional activity. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Mar;15(1):229-41
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  • [Title] Somatostatin-producing neuroendocrine tumors of the duodenum and pancreas: incidence, types, biological behavior, association with inherited syndromes, and functional activity.
  • Somatostatin-producing neuroendocrine tumors (SOM-NETs) of the duodenum and pancreas appear to be heterogeneous.
  • They were classified as sporadic (n=31) or neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-associated duodenal NETs (n=3), gangliocytic paragangliomas (GCPGs; n=6), or poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (pdNECs; n=2).
  • MEN1-associated SOM-NETs and GCPGs follow a benign course, while somatostatin-producing pdNECs are aggressive neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenal Neoplasms / pathology. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Somatostatin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / metabolism. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology. Paraganglioma / metabolism. Paraganglioma / pathology. Prognosis. Somatostatinoma / metabolism. Somatostatinoma / pathology. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 18310290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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78. Lamblin A, Pigny P, Tex G, Rouaix-Emery N, Porchet N, Leteurtre E, Huglo D, Mondragon-Sanchez A, Pattou F, Cardot-Bauters C, Wemeau JL, Proye C: [Paragangliomas: clinical and secretory profile. Result of 39 cases]. Ann Chir; 2005 Mar;130(3):157-61
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  • [Title] [Paragangliomas: clinical and secretory profile. Result of 39 cases].
  • THIS RETROSPECTIVE STUDY AIMS: To define a clinical and secretory profile of paragangliomas extra-adrenal chromaffin tumors.
  • METHODS: From 1971 throughout 2002, 39 paragangliomas have been observed in 38 patients (22 male, 16 female, average age 41,2 years).
  • Among 29 (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scans (MIBG) reviewed, 20 tumors took up the radiopharmaceutical.
  • Histologically, 20 were malignant and 17 were seemingly benign.
  • All exclusive dopamine secreting paragangliomas were malignant.
  • Six patients relapsed two of which for a tumor initially classified as benign.
  • Nine patients had a family history of chromaffin tumor(s).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Catecholamines / secretion. Paraganglioma / pathology. Paraganglioma / secretion

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  • (PMID = 15784218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Catecholamines; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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79. Young WF Jr: Paragangliomas: clinical overview. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:21-9
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  • [Title] Paragangliomas: clinical overview.
  • Paragangliomas are rare tumors that arise from extra-adrenal paraganglia.
  • The effective diagnosis and management of the paraganglioma patient involves the close collaboration of endocrinologists, endocrine surgeons, anesthesiologists, geneticists, laboratory specialists, radiologists, oncologists, and pathologists.
  • Paragangliomas are diagnosed in the following clinical settings: signs and symptoms related to catecholamine hypersecretion, mass effect symptoms (e.g., with head and neck paragangliomas), incidental finding on imaging, or family screening for hereditary paraganglioma.
  • Paragangliomas that hypersecrete catecholamines may cause signs and symptoms identical to those in patients with hyperfunctioning adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • When a catecholamine-secreting tumor is suspected in a patient because of paroxysmal symptoms, biochemical documentation of catecholamine and fractionated metanephrine hypersecretion should precede any form of imaging study.
  • Catecholamine-secreting paragangliomas are found where chromaffin tissue is located (e.g., along the para-aortic sympathetic chain, or within the organs of Zuckerkandl at the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery, the wall of the urinary bladder, and the sympathetic chain in the neck or mediastinum).
  • As many as 50% of paragangliomas are hereditary and may be associated with familial paraganglioma, neurofibromatosis Type 1, von Hippel-Lindau disease, the Carney triad, and, rarely, with multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 2.
  • Genetic testing should be considered in all patients with paraganglioma.
  • The treatment of choice for paraganglioma is surgical resection; most tumors are benign and can be excised totally.
  • Following surgical cure, annual biochemical testing assesses for metastatic disease, tumor recurrence or delayed appearance of multiple primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Paraganglioma / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17102068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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80. Sousa V, Carvalho L: [Glomic tumor: presentation of an infrequent case]. Rev Port Pneumol; 2006 May-Jun;12(3):269-74
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  • [Title] [Glomic tumor: presentation of an infrequent case].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor glómico do pulmão: Apresentação de um caso pouco frequente.
  • Glomic tumours are perivascular tumours whose cells resemble modified smooth muscular cells of the glomic body.
  • Glomic tumours are generally benign.
  • They should be classified as glomic tumor, glomangioma and glomangiomioma according to the relative abundance of glomic cells and of the vascular and muscular components.
  • Pulmonary metastasis of malignant glomic tumours have been described.
  • The differential diagnosis of glomic tumours of the lung includes the carcinoid, hemangioperycitoma, smooth muscle tumours (epithelioid leyomioma) and the paraganglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16967176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0873-2159
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de pneumologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Pneumol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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81. Aupperle H, März I, Ellenberger C, Buschatz S, Reischauer A, Schoon HA: Primary and secondary heart tumours in dogs and cats. J Comp Pathol; 2007 Jan;136(1):18-26
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  • [Title] Primary and secondary heart tumours in dogs and cats.
  • During a 2-year period, 83 dogs suffering from primary cardiac (n=11), extracardiac benign (n=6) or malignant (n=66) tumours and 30 cats with primary cardiac (n=1) or extracardiac (n=29) malignant tumours were examined.
  • Echocardiography revealed four cases of primary cardiac neoplasms in dogs, but secondary heart tumours were not detected.
  • After necropsy, tissue samples from the heart and tumours were examined histologically and immunohistochemically.
  • In cats, one case of primary haemangiosarcoma of the pericardium and five cases of secondary cardiac tumours (two malignant lymphomas, three carcinomas) occurred.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / pathology. Dog Diseases / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / veterinary. Hemangiosarcoma / veterinary. Lymphoma, B-Cell / veterinary. Neurofibrosarcoma / veterinary. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Dogs. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17270204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9975
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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82. Pham TH, Moir C, Thompson GB, Zarroug AE, Hamner CE, Farley D, van Heerden J, Lteif AN, Young WF Jr: Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in children: a review of medical and surgical management at a tertiary care center. Pediatrics; 2006 Sep;118(3):1109-17
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in children: a review of medical and surgical management at a tertiary care center.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review our institutional experience managing pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas in children.
  • METHODS: A retrospective chart review of the Mayo Clinic database from 1975 to 2005 identified 30 patients < 18 years of age with histologically confirmed pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma.
  • RESULTS: There were 12 patients with pheochromocytomas and 18 with paragangliomas.
  • Nine patients (30%) had a genetic mutation or documented family history of pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma.
  • Fourteen patients (47%) had malignant disease, whereas 16 (53%) had benign disease.
  • Logistic analysis showed that statistically significant risk factors for malignancy were (1) paraganglioma, (2) apparently sporadic, as opposed to familial, pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, and (3) tumor size of > 6 cm.
  • All patients with benign disease appeared cured after resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma was high in children (47%), particularly those with apparently sporadic disease, paraganglioma, and tumor diameters of > 6 cm.
  • Patients with a known genetic mutation or familial pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma were more likely to achieve resection with negative microscopic margins and had improved disease-specific mortality rates.
  • Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Paraganglioma / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis


83. Dossett LA, Rudzinski ER, Blevins LS, Chambers EP Jr: Malignant pheochromocytoma of the organ of Zuckerkandl requiring aortic and vena caval reconstruction. Endocr Pract; 2007 Sep;13(5):493-7
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  • METHODS: We present a case report that includes clinical, laboratory, and radiographic data as well as photographs, results from pathology, and a brief review of the literature.
  • Imaging characteristics of the left adrenal mass were consistent with a benign adenoma, but CT also demonstrated a hypervascular para-aortic mass.
  • 123I-metaiodo-benzylguanidine scanning with fusion CT imaging demonstrated increased radiopharmaceutical uptake within the para-aortic mass consistent with a paraganglioma in the organ of Zuckerkandl.
  • Final pathologic and operative findings confirmed a malignant pheochromocytoma of the organ of Zuckerkandl with invasion into the wall of the inferior vena cava and tumor thrombus extending into the lumen.

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  • (PMID = 17872352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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84. Aschenbach R, Basche S, Vogl TJ, Klisch J: Diffusion-weighted imaging and ADC mapping of head-and-neck paragangliomas: initial experience. Klin Neuroradiol; 2009 Aug;19(3):215-9
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  • [Title] Diffusion-weighted imaging and ADC mapping of head-and-neck paragangliomas: initial experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Paragangliomas are rare, hypervascularized benign tumors.
  • In some cases a clear differentiation of paragangliomas and other entities is impossible.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The authors evaluated ten patients with skull base lesions (paraganglioma n = 7, meningioma n = 1, giant cell tumor n = 1, and neurinoma n = 1) in addition to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and calculation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC).
  • RESULTS: Mean ADC values +/- standard deviation of the paragangliomas were 1.304 +/- 0.257 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and differed from ADC values of the other jugular fossa tumors with 0.743 +/- 0.108 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and measurement derived from the cerebellum with 0.802 +/- 0.075 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s.
  • CONCLUSION: Due to the difference of ADC values, the authors propose that DWI and ADC mapping could be a promising tool in the diagnostic work-up of paragangliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Skull Base Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19705076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-6706
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Neuroradiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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86. Brankovic B, Radisavljevic M, Radojkovic M, Stanojevic G, Stojanovic M, Nagorni A, Radojkovic D, Jeremic L, Nestorovic M, Karamarkovic A: Nonfunctional retroperitoneal paraganglioma presenting as acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hepatogastroenterology; 2010 Mar-Apr;57(98):288-91
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  • [Title] Nonfunctional retroperitoneal paraganglioma presenting as acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
  • Paragangliomas are very rare tumors arising from extraadrenal chromaffin cells.
  • Clinical presentation of benign retroperitoneal nonfunctional paraganglioma is unspecific.
  • Symptoms may occur when tumor attains a remarkable size or when complications arise.
  • This article reports a case of nonfunctional retroperitoneal paraganglioma as a cause of acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage which represents the unusual urgent clinical manifestation of these tumors.
  • The presented case emphasizes the necessity to include extraadrenal paraganglioma in the differential diagnosis in all patients with retroperitoneal mass found even in the presence of at first appearance non-related emergency condition like acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20583429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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87. Trombetta M, Silverman J, Colonias A, Lee V, Mohanty A, Parda D: Paraganglioma: a potentially challenging tumor. Oncology (Williston Park); 2008 Mar;22(3):341-3, 347, 350; discussion 350-2
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  • [Title] Paraganglioma: a potentially challenging tumor.
  • Paragangliomas are usually low-grade neoplasms with a benign natural history.
  • While the treatment of paraganglioma has historically been controversial, surgery and radiotherapy have become standardized as therapies of choice for primary therapy.
  • More recently, stereotactic radiosurgery has been used effectively against this rare tumor.
  • The development of metastatic disease in patients with paraganglioma is an unusual and challenging event.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18494358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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88. Sandmann M, Fähndrich M, Lorenzen J, Heike M: [Gangliocytic paraganglioma--a rare cause of an upper gastrointestinal bleeding]. Z Gastroenterol; 2010 Nov;48(11):1297-300
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  • [Title] [Gangliocytic paraganglioma--a rare cause of an upper gastrointestinal bleeding].
  • [Transliterated title] Gangliozytisches Paragangliom--eine seltene Ursache für eine obere gastrointestinale Blutung.
  • INTRODUCTION: Gangliocytic paraganglioma is a rare tumour, occurring nearly exclusively in the descending part of the duodenum.
  • It is regarded as a mostly benign tumour but of unknown malignant potential, which rarely metastasises to local lymph nodes or distantly.
  • Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed an ulcerous periampullary tumour in the duodenum with a diameter of approximately 5 cm.
  • Endoscopic ultrasonography showed no evidence of tumour infiltration of the tunica muscularis and of locoregional lymph node metastasis.
  • Therefore, complete endoscopic resection of the tumour was achieved after ligating the tumour base by an endoloop using a dual channel endoscope.
  • In a second step, the tumour base was resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and revealed no residual tumour.
  • The histological evaluation showed a gangliocytic paranganglioma consisting of three specific cell types: epithelioid cells arranged in typical carcinoid-like patterns, spindle cells wrapped around nests of epithelioid cells and ganglion cells.
  • All cell types expressed neuron-specific enolase (NSE) as a neuroendocrine marker.
  • Synaptophysine was expressed mainly by the epithelioid and ganglion cells while the protein S 100 was expressed mainly by the spindle cells, which surround the epithelioid cell nests as a sustentacular network.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenal Neoplasms / complications. Duodenal Neoplasms / pathology. Duodenum / pathology. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / pathology. Paraganglioma / complications. Paraganglioma / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 21043008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-7803
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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89. Imani F, Agopian VG, Auerbach MS, Walter MA, Imani F, Benz MR, Dumont RA, Lai CK, Czernin JG, Yeh MW: 18F-FDOPA PET and PET/CT accurately localize pheochromocytomas. J Nucl Med; 2009 Apr;50(4):513-9
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  • Successful treatment of pheochromocytoma requires accurate diagnosis and localization of tumors.
  • Herein, we investigated the accuracy of PET using 3,4-dihydroxy-6-(18)F-fluoro-phenylalanine ((18)F-FDOPA), an amino acid transporter substrate, as an independent marker for detection of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • Correlation between SUVmax of tumors and biochemical markers was evaluated.
  • SUVmax of the benign and malignant tumors was compared.
  • Histology confirmed pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma in 11 cases (8 adrenal, including 2 malignant tumors, and 3 extraadrenal, including 1 malignant tumor).
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was established by follow-up in 2 additional patients (1 adrenal and 1 unknown location) and ruled out in 6 patients.
  • Spearman nonparametric analysis did not show statistically significant correlation between SUVmax of the tumors and biochemical markers.
  • The Mann-Whitney nonparametric test did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference between the SUVmax of (18)F-FDOPA in malignant and benign tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: (18)F-FDOPA PET and PET/CT are highly sensitive and specific tools that can provide additional independent information for diagnosis and localization of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Dihydroxyphenylalanine / analogs & derivatives. Image Enhancement / methods. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Subtraction Technique. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19289420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 2C598205QX / fluorodopa F 18; 63-84-3 / Dihydroxyphenylalanine
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90. Landi A, Tarantino R, Marotta N, Rocco P, Antonelli M, Salvati M, Delfini R: Paraganglioma of the filum terminale: case report. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:95
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  • [Title] Paraganglioma of the filum terminale: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Paragangliomas affecting the filum terminale are extremely rare, benign tumors.
  • The literature yielded thirty-two cases of paraganglioma in this site.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 49 year-old-man, whose presenting symptoms were low back pain and left leg weakness, was diagnosed as having a paraganglioma of the filum terminale.
  • [MeSH-major] Cauda Equina / pathology. Paraganglioma / pathology. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Cites] Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1995 Feb 1;20(3):367-72 [7732475.001]
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  • (PMID = 20003361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2797510
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91. Klein RD, Jin L, Rumilla K, Young WF Jr, Lloyd RV: Germline SDHB mutations are common in patients with apparently sporadic sympathetic paragangliomas. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2008 Jun;17(2):94-100
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  • [Title] Germline SDHB mutations are common in patients with apparently sporadic sympathetic paragangliomas.
  • Germline mutations in the genes encoding the B (SDHB) and D (SDHD) subunits of the heterotetrameric protein succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial complex II) are important causes of inherited and apparently sporadic paragangliomas.
  • In an effort to further investigate the role of these genes in malignant sympathetic paragangliomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas, we screened a series of tumors for mutations in SDHB and SDHD.
  • Mutation testing was performed on DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors and associated normal tissues by polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing of the coding regions and intron-exon junctions of the SDHB and SDHD genes.
  • Among 16 malignant paragangliomas with proven metastases, 6 (38%) had mutations in SDHB (2 nonsense, 1 splice site, 1 insertion causing a frameshift, and 2 presumably deleterious missense mutations).
  • Probable deleterious SDHB variants were also detected in 5 (45%) of 11 paragangliomas without known metastatic disease (1 splice site, 1 deletion causing a frameshift, and 3 missense changes).
  • An excess of SDHB mutations in paragangliomas versus pheochromocytomas was found, with no difference in the frequency of mutations in malignant versus benign paragangliomas.
  • The disparate mutational spectra in malignant paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas may reflect differences in underlying tumor biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Germ-Line Mutation. Iron-Sulfur Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Sympathetic Nervous System / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adult. Child. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18382370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4066
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic molecular pathology : the American journal of surgical pathology, part B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Iron-Sulfur Proteins; 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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92. Gabhane SK, Gangane NM, Sinha RT: Pentalogy of Fallot and cardiac paraganglioma: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:9392
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  • [Title] Pentalogy of Fallot and cardiac paraganglioma: a case report.
  • Primary cardiac tumors are rare.
  • Of these the majorities are benign and about 75% are atrial myxomas.
  • One of the rarest tumors affecting the heart is a cardiac paraganglioma.
  • We report an unusual case of a left ventricular paraganglioma discovered during autopsy in a 22-year female patient, a case of sudden death.
  • Chronic hypoxia due to congenital cyanotic heart disease is supposed to be the cause of development of paraganglioma in heart in these patients.

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  • (PMID = 20066070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2804734
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93. Kozakiewicz J, Teodorowicz E, Motyka M, Szczechowski K: [A neck chemodectoma--survey of literature and description of one case of malignant chemodectoma]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2005;59(4):623-6
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  • Neck tumors are one of the most difficult diagnostic and therapeutic problems of the contemporary otolaryngology.
  • Therapeutic success mainly depends on early and exact diagnosis.
  • The goal of the study is to pay attention to the necessity of careful diagnosis and introducing computer tomography (CT) as a standard of neck tumors treatment procedure in order not to miss exceptionally rarely neck chemodectoma and to plan treatment process properly.
  • Chemodectoma is a tumor coming from the parasympathetic part of the nervous system.
  • The authors present a case of neck chemodectoma with malignant character in a 37-years-old woman with 10-years history of suspicion of a benign cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal

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  • (PMID = 16273874.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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94. Nieto Palacios A, Martínez Alvarez R, del Barco Morillo E: [Other therapeutic alternatives: radiotherapy and chemotherapy]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2009 Feb;60 Suppl 1:130-6
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  • Paragangliomas are rare tumors and most are benign: less than 10% show criteria for malignancy.
  • The role of chemotherapy is restricted to malignant paragangliomas.
  • The present article reviews the indications and results of the non-surgical treatment of paragangliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Paraganglioma / drug therapy. Paraganglioma / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19245783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6519
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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95. Koroscil TM, McDonald S, Stutes S, Vila RJ: Use of fluorine-18-labelled deoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography to localize a paraganglioma in pregnancy. South Med J; 2010 Dec;103(12):1238-42
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  • [Title] Use of fluorine-18-labelled deoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography to localize a paraganglioma in pregnancy.
  • The patient underwent a laparotomy during the second trimester with successful removal of a benign paraganglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Paraganglioma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


96. Szyfter W, Wierzbicka M, Gawecki W: [Multiple and familial paragangliomas of the head and neck--review of literature and report of two cases]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2008;62(5):530-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Multiple and familial paragangliomas of the head and neck--review of literature and report of two cases].
  • Paragangliomas are rare, mostly benign tumors, orginating from the paraganglionic tissue associated with sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
  • In the head and neck they develop mainly in the carotid bifurcation (paraganglioma caroticum), but also in tympanic cavity (paraganglioma tympanicum), jugular bulb (paraganglioma jugulare), vagal nerve (paraganglioma vagale) and very seldom in the other areas.
  • These tumors are mostly sporadic (90%), but they can be also familial (10%).
  • In some patients, mainly in the familial form multiple paragangliomas can develop.
  • We describe two cases of paragangliomas--one familial and one multiple.
  • The genetic background and recommendations for diagnosis and therapy in such cases are discussed. mas of the head and neck, familial paragangliomas of the head and neck, succinate dehydrogenase
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19004251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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97. Berns S, Pearl G: Middle ear adenoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jul;130(7):1067-9
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  • Middle ear adenoma is a benign tumor of the middle ear that can have exocrine (mucinous) and/or neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Early authors described a separate tumor with predominantly neuroendocrine differentiation as a middle ear carcinoid tumor, but these are now known to be the same tumor.
  • We review the literature of this tumor, including the clinical presentation, gross pathology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis, and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Papilloma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16831038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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98. McGann C, Tazelaar H, Cho SR, Al-Saghir Y, Shean F, Young W, Schaff H: In vivo detection of encapsulated intracardiac paraganglioma by delayed gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson; 2005;7(2):371-5
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  • [Title] In vivo detection of encapsulated intracardiac paraganglioma by delayed gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Intracardiac paragangliomas are rare endocrine tumors that are usually benign and can be cured by surgical resection.
  • We present in vivo detection of fibrotic encapsulation in a cardiac paraganglioma using delayed enhancement (DE) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI), later confirmed on pathology.
  • Tumor necrosis was also easily identified.
  • DE appears useful in the assessment of intracardiac tumor invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Contrast Media. Gadolinium DTPA. Heart Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine / methods. Paraganglioma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15881516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6647
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cardiovascular magnetic resonance : official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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99. Shahab R, Heliwell T, Jones AS: How we do it: a series of 114 primary pharyngeal space neoplasms. Clin Otolaryngol; 2005 Aug;30(4):364-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary parapharyngeal space tumours are exceedingly rare.
  • We present a series of 114 parapharyngeal space tumours, the second largest in the literature.
  • The most frequent benign tumours were pleomorphic adenoma (34) and paraganglioma (33); the commonest malignancies were of salivary gland origin (12).
  • The 5- and 10-year survival for benign tumours was 100%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / surgery. Paraganglioma / surgery. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16209682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-4478
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical otolaryngology : official journal of ENT-UK ; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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100. Sevilla MA, Hermsen MA, Weiss MM, Grimbergen A, Balbín M, Llorente JL, Rodrigo JP, Suárez C: Chromosomal changes in sporadic and familial head and neck paragangliomas. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 May;140(5):724-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chromosomal changes in sporadic and familial head and neck paragangliomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Paragangliomas (PGLs) of the head and neck are benign neoplasms derived from the autonomic nervous system.
  • The aim of this study was to compare somatic DNA copy number changes in tumors of familial and sporadic origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19393419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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