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1. Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Deschildre C, Mauduit C, Berger G, Mejean-Lebreton F, Bouvier R, Droz JP, Fénichel P, Benahmed M: Expression of galectin-3 in gonads and gonadal sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors. Oncol Rep; 2006 Aug;16(2):335-40
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  • [Title] Expression of galectin-3 in gonads and gonadal sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors.
  • Galectin-3, a beta-galactoside-binding lectin, has been implicated in many human malignancies, but has seldom been studied in human gonads and gonadal tumors.
  • The aim of our study was to investigate galectin-3 mRNA and protein expression in normal ovaries and testes as well as in a variety of 51 gonadal sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors, and two testicular seminomatous and non-seminomatous cell lines, using either real-time PCR or immunohistochemistry.
  • In human ovaries, galectin-3 is absent from granulosa cells, as well as from granulosa cell and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, and is not a useful marker in distinguishing granulosa cell from Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
  • In testicular tumorigenesis, galectin-3 has a dual function according to the histological type of tumors and their hormone dependency.
  • In malignant testicular Sertoli cell tumors, the expression of galectin-3 is down-regulated while, in benign Leydig cell tumors, this expression is maintained, indicating the possible implication of this gene in the development of more aggressive testicular sex cord stromal tumors.
  • In contrast to sex cord stromal tumors, galectin-3 expression is up-regulated in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • By real-time PCR, we demonstrated a significant elevation of the galectin-3 mRNA level in non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors and cell line as compared to normal testes and seminomas (p=0.0432 and p=0.0247, respectively), indicating the possible role of this gene in the non-seminomatous differentiation of germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Sertoli Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovary / chemistry. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, Androgen / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sertoli Cells / chemistry. Testis / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16820912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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2. Gwin K, Mariño-Enríquez A, Martel M, Reyes-Múgica M: Sclerosing stromal tumor: an important differential diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms in childhood and adolescence. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2009 Sep-Oct;12(5):366-70
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  • [Title] Sclerosing stromal tumor: an important differential diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms in childhood and adolescence.
  • Sclerosing stromal tumors are an uncommon type of benign ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • Although the usual age of presentation is in the 2nd and 3rd decades, sclerosing stromal tumor can occur in adolescence or premenarchal girls.
  • Imaging studies frequently reveal solid or complex cystic adnexal masses with marked vascularity raising concern for germ cell tumors and, especially in the absence of elevated tumor markers, surface epithelial neoplasms.
  • The differential diagnosis of a benign sclerosing stromal tumor is seldom entertained.
  • We stress the importance of being familiar with sclerosing stromal tumors when evaluating ovarian neoplasms in children and adolescents in order to contribute to the appropriate clinical management preventing extensive and unnecessary surgery, and preserving fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19071970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Islam S, Yamout SZ, Gosche JR: Management and outcomes of ovarian masses in children and adolescents. Am Surg; 2008 Nov;74(11):1062-5
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  • [Title] Management and outcomes of ovarian masses in children and adolescents.
  • Ovarian masses in the pediatric age group are rare, and malignancies are even less common.
  • We retrospectively reviewed the cases of ovarian masses in children in our institution over a 10-year period.
  • Demographic and tumor-specific data were reviewed and analyzed, and a Student's unpaired t test was used where appropriate.
  • A total of 49 children and adolescents with ovarian masses were found.
  • Eight masses were malignant (16%) with malignant teratoma, dysgerminoma, and germ cell tumors found.
  • Seventy-four per cent of the benign tumors were teratomas.
  • Most ovarian masses in childhood are benign.
  • Consideration for laparoscopic procedures should be given for the benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19062661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Oltmann SC, Garcia N, Barber R, Huang R, Hicks B, Fischer A: Can we preoperatively risk stratify ovarian masses for malignancy? J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Jan;45(1):130-4
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  • [Title] Can we preoperatively risk stratify ovarian masses for malignancy?
  • PURPOSE: Given a 10% malignancy rate in pediatric ovarian masses, what preoperative factors are helpful in distinguishing those at higher risk to risk stratify accordingly?
  • METHODS: After institutional review board approval (IRB#022008-095), a 15(1/2)-year retrospective review of operative ovarian cases was performed.
  • RESULTS: A total of 424 patients were identified, with a mean age 12.5 years (range, 1 day to 19 years), without an age disparity between benign (12.54 years, 89%) and malignant (11.8 years, 11%) cases.
  • Imaging of benign neoplasms had a mean size of 8 cm (range, 0.9-36 cm) compared with malignancies at 17.3 cm (6.2-50 cm, P < .001).
  • An ovarian mass size of 8 cm or longer on preoperative imaging had an OR of 19.0 for malignancy (95% CI, 4.42-81.69).
  • The malignancies (n = 46) included germ cell (50%, n = 23), stromal (28%, n = 13), epithelial (17%, n = 8), and other (4%, n = 2).
  • Tumor markers obtained in 71% of malignancies were elevated in only 54%, whereas 6.5% of those sent in benign cases were similarly elevated.
  • CONCLUSION: This reported series of pediatric ovarian masses demonstrates that preoperative indicators that best predict an ovarian malignancy are a complaint of a mass or precocious puberty, a mass exceeding 8 cm or a mass with solid imaging characteristics.
  • Tumor markers, positive or negative, were not conclusive in all cases but useful for postoperative surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Diseases / diagnosis. Ovarian Diseases / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Preoperative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / diagnosis. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Child. Child, Preschool. Confidence Intervals. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms / blood. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms / surgery. Ovary / pathology. Ovary / surgery. Prognosis. Puberty, Precocious / diagnosis. Risk Assessment

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20105592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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5. Harms D, Zahn S, Göbel U, Schneider DT: Pathology and molecular biology of teratomas in childhood and adolescence. Klin Padiatr; 2006 Nov-Dec;218(6):296-302
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  • The biologic behaviour of teratomas depends on various interdependent clinical and epidemiologic variables such as the age at diagnosis, sex, tumor site, histology which all correlate to different cytogenetic and molecular biologic aberrations.
  • Thus, testicular teratomas of infancy are generally benign.
  • In contrast, postpubertal testicular teratomas can present as clinically malignant tumors and may show complex cytogenetic aberrations such as the isochromosome 12p, which is pathognomonic of malignant germ cell tumors.
  • Notably, teratomas of both age groups show an at least partial erasure of the genomic imprinting, correlating with their origin from primordial germ cells.
  • The Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry includes 541 teratoma specimens, and among these, the most frequent tumor sites (in descending order) are: the sacrococcygeal region (33.8 %), the ovaries (31.2 %) and the testes (10.5 %).
  • The WHO classification of germ cell tumors distinguishes mature and immature teratomas as well as teratomas with malignant transformation.
  • The frequency of additional microscopic foci of malignant yolk sac tumor correlates with the grade of immaturity.
  • In sacrococcygeal teratomas, the yolk sac tumor microfoci may give rise to a malignant relapse after incomplete resection.
  • Here, molecular genetic analysis has demonstrated the origin of the somatic malignancy from a malignant transformation within the germ cell tumor with retention of the cytogenetic changes characteristic of malignant germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms. Registries. Teratoma. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Deletion. Cytogenetic Analysis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / epidemiology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Heterozygote. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Ovary / pathology. Puberty. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17080330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Salemi M, Calogero AE, Vicari E, Migliore E, Zaccarello G, Cosentino A, Amore M, Tricoli D, Castiglione R, Bosco P, Rappazzo G: A high percentage of skin melanoma cells expresses SPANX proteins. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Apr;31(2):182-6
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  • The expression of SPANX (sperm protein associated with the nucleus in the X chromosome) gene family has been reported in many tumors, such as melanoma, myeloma, glioblastoma, breast carcinoma, ovarian cancer, testicular germ cell tumors, and hematological malignancies.
  • The expression of SPANX proteins was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in normal skin (n = 12), melanomas (n = 21), and benign nevi (n = 10), using a polyclonal antibody raised in our laboratory.
  • Benign nevi had an intermediate number of cells expressing SPANX proteins (25% +/- 8.5%), which resulted significantly higher than normal skin cells and significantly lower than skin melanoma cells.
  • In melanoma cells, the labeling was mostly nuclear, sometimes incomplete or limited to the perinuclear wall, even if cytoplasmic staining was also seen in SPANX-positive tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Antibodies. Antibody Specificity. Biopsy. Epitopes / immunology. Epitopes / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Multigene Family / physiology. Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus / metabolism. Nevus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19318807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Epitopes; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SPANXA1 protein, human
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7. Tangjitgamol S, Hanprasertpong J, Manusirivithaya S, Wootipoom V, Thavaramara T, Buhachat R: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: clinico-pathological presentation and survival outcomes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2010;89(2):182-9
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  • [Title] Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: clinico-pathological presentation and survival outcomes.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinico-pathological features, treatment, survival, and prognostic factors of patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • POPULATION: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumor patients treated between January 1996 and December 2007.
  • Patients with malignant tumors arising from benign cystic teratoma were excluded.
  • Only preoperative tumor marker elevation was a significant poor prognostic factor for PFS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors have a good prognosis with conservative surgical treatment.
  • Elevated preoperative serum tumor markers are a poor prognostic factor for PFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Young Adult. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19961281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0412
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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8. Mannisto S, Butzow R, Salonen J, Leminen A, Heikinheimo O, Heikinheimo M: Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6, and their potential downstream effectors in ovarian germ cell tumors. Tumour Biol; 2005 Sep-Oct;26(5):265-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6, and their potential downstream effectors in ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors (GCTs) are histologically heterogeneous neoplasms originating from activated germ cells, the oocyte stem cells.
  • These rare tumors often contain many different tissues mixed together, and malignant components are occasionally hidden within benign tissues thus complicating the diagnosis.
  • The reasons for the variable differentiation of germ cells are still largely unknown.
  • HNF-4, BMP-2 and Ihh) are essential for normal yolk sac development, we studied their expression in 19 ovarian GCTs.
  • The malignant endoderm in yolk sac tumors expressed all factors of endodermal development included in the study.
  • The results suggest that GATA-4 and GATA-6 detected in the ovarian GCTs have retained their normal function.
  • The fact that GATA-6 and HNF-4 are expressed exclusively in endodermal tissues indicates that these transcription factors play a role in the differentiation of germ cells towards the endodermal phenotype.
  • Analysis of the nuclear transcription factors in tumor tissue could serve as a new informative diagnostic tool for ovarian GCTs.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / physiopathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Child. Female. GATA4 Transcription Factor. GATA6 Transcription Factor. Gene Expression Profiling. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4. Humans. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Phosphoproteins / biosynthesis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16110260.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 protein, human; 0 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Transcription Factors
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9. Xian W, Miron A, Roh M, Semmel DR, Yassin Y, Garber J, Oliva E, Goodman A, Mehra K, Berkowitz RS, Crum CP, Quade BJ: The Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS): a model for the initiation of p53 signatures in the distal Fallopian tube. J Pathol; 2010 Jan;220(1):17-23
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  • A candidate early precursor to pelvic serous cancer, the 'p53 signature', is commonly found in the benign mucosa of the distal Fallopian tube and harbours p53 mutations and evidence of DNA damage.
  • We examined tubes from women with pre-existing (germ-line) mutations in p53 [Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS)] for evidence of this precursor.
  • The fact that the LFS is not associated with ovarian cancers is consistent with the concept that loss of p53 function must be accompanied by at least one more genotoxic event (including BRCA1/2 functional inactivation) to produce the malignant phenotype.

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  • (PMID = 19834951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA124688; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA124688-02S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R21CA124688-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA10500
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS184416; NLM/ PMC2841524
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10. Tomas D, Lenicek T, Tuckar N, Puljiz Z, Ledinsky M, Kruslin B: Primary ovarian leiomyoma associated with endometriotic cyst presenting with symptoms of acute appendicitis: a case report. Diagn Pathol; 2009;4:25
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  • [Title] Primary ovarian leiomyoma associated with endometriotic cyst presenting with symptoms of acute appendicitis: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian leiomyoma is a rare benign tumor that accounts for 0.5 to 1% of all benign ovarian tumors.
  • It probably arises from smooth muscle cells in the ovarian hilar blood vessels but there are other possible origins including cells in the ovarian ligament, smooth muscle cells or multipotential cells in the ovarian stroma, undifferentiated germ cells, or cortical smooth muscle metaplasia.
  • Additionally, smooth muscle metaplasia of endometriotic stroma, smooth muscle present in mature cystic teratomas, and smooth muscle in the walls of mucinous cystic tumor may explain their occurrence in the ovary in some cases.
  • Upon laparotomy, there was a solid, oval left-sided ovarian tumor located behind the uterus.
  • The tumor was sent to the pathology department.
  • A diagnosis of primary ovarian leiomyoma associated with an endometriotic cyst was established.
  • CONCLUSION: The origin of ovarian leiomyoma is still unresolved.
  • In our case, the tumor probably arose from smooth muscle cells derived from myofibroblasts that originate from metaplastic ovarian stromal cells present in the rim of the endometriotic cyst.
  • Despite its rarity, ovarian leiomyoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian spindle cell tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19642987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2724421
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11. Ben Temime R, Chachial A, Attial L, Ghodbanel I, Makhloufl T, Koubaal A, Kourda N, Ben Jilani S, Dammak T, El May A, Rahal K: 46 XY pure gonadal dysgenesis with gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma. Tunis Med; 2008 Jul;86(7):710-3
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  • The tumor that usually develops in Swyer syndrome is gonadoblastoma.
  • Although gonadoblastoma is considered benign, the risk of malignant germ cell tumor development is high.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is to stress on the risk of occurrence of malignant germ cell tumors on these dysgenesic gonads.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Gonadal Dysgenesis / genetics. Gonadoblastoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery


12. McCarthy JD, Erickson KM, Smith YR, Quint EH: Premenarchal ovarian torsion and elevated CA-125. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2010 Feb;23(1):e47-50
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  • [Title] Premenarchal ovarian torsion and elevated CA-125.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumors are the most common gynecologic malignancy occurring in childhood, with germ cell tumors being most frequent.
  • This contrasts with adults where epithelial tumors account for most ovarian neoplasms.
  • Tumor markers are an integral part of the work-up and may guide management.
  • Other tumor markers were normal.
  • Laparoscopy revealed an enlarged, adherent ovary.
  • A minilaparotomy revealed an ovary filled with necrotic material.
  • This necrotic material was excised and the ovary was spared.
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates for the first time the association of an elevated CA-125 and ovarian torsion in a pediatric patient.
  • This benign finding allowed attempting a conservative ovary-sparing approach during the surgery even in the presence of a highly elevated CA-125.
  • However, in general, for children CA-125 is of limited utility, as it will not affect the indication for surgical exploration of persistent masses and elevations in CA-125 may discourage ovarian conservation.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 19589703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD059353-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / L50 HD059353-01
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS130831; NLM/ PMC2818042
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13. Pavlakis K, Messini I, Vrekoussis T, Yiannou P, Panoskaltsis T, Voulgaris Z: Intraoperative assessment of epithelial and non-epithelial ovarian tumors: a 7-year review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(6):657-60
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  • [Title] Intraoperative assessment of epithelial and non-epithelial ovarian tumors: a 7-year review.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of frozen section diagnosis of ovarian tumors and to discuss discrepant diagnostic cases.
  • METHODS: 932 ovarian tumors were submitted for frozen section examination.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity of frozen section diagnosis for benign, borderline and malignant epithelial tumors was 98.82%, 98.97% and 87.66% and the specificity 98.01%, 97.06% and 100%, respectively.
  • All non teratomatous sex cord/stromal and germ cell tumors were correctly diagnosed while a diagnostic discrepancy was observed in teratomatous tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Frozen section diagnosis is a reliable method for the surgical management of an ovarian mass.
  • Nevertheless, care should be taken for large tumors measuring > 20 cm in diameter, particularly when the intraoperative diagnosis reveals an epithelial borderline tumor or a teratomatous tumor with an extensive neural component.
  • [MeSH-major] Frozen Sections. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20099498.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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14. Oliveira RM, Verreschi IT, Lipay MV, Eça LP, Guedes AD, Bianco B: Y chromosome in Turner syndrome: review of the literature. Sao Paulo Med J; 2009 Nov;127(6):373-8
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  • The other cases present mosaicism, with a 45,X cell line accompanied by one or more other cell lines with a complete or structurally abnormal X or Y chromosome.
  • The presence of Y-chromosome material in patients with dysgenetic gonads increases the risk of gonadal tumors, especially gonadoblastoma.
  • The greatest concern is the high risk of developing gonadoblastoma or other tumors and virilization during puberty if chromosome Y-specific sequences are present.
  • Even though gonadoblastoma is a benign tumor, it can undergo transformation into invasive dysgerminoma in 60% of the cases, and also into other, malignant forms of germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Y / genetics. Gonadoblastoma / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Turner Syndrome / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20512293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-9460
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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15. Bal J, Gabryś MS, Jałocha I: [The role of selected molecular pathways in the pathogenesis of ovarian teratomas]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online); 2009 May 20;63:242-9
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  • [Title] [The role of selected molecular pathways in the pathogenesis of ovarian teratomas].
  • From the research point of view--ovarian teratomas, especially mature ones, are an interesting group of germ-cell tumors of the ovary.
  • The WHO classification, which is not simple but includes all tumors that arise from germ cells, emphasizes the complexity of this group.
  • Mature ovarian teratomas are benign germ-cell tumors, but in rare cases, especially when they contain solid elements, peritoneal implants may be present which can stimulate malignant processes.
  • Dermoid cysts, a subtype of ovarian teratomas, arise from totipotential germ cells and may therefore contain elements of all three germ layers, although ectodermal structures usually predominate.
  • Radical surgical treatment is not necessity for this type of tumor because conservative surgery usually brings full recovery.However, they make perfect material for gaining interesting information regarding oocyte maturation and such critical cellular functions as proliferation, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis.There are still no unequivocal conclusions related to the role of mutation in genes which influence the mechanisms involved in control of the cell cycle and which may play important roles in the development of ovarian teratomas.
  • In this review the roles of the Patched/Hedgehog and PI3K/Akt pathways and cyclin D protein in the neoplastic transformations of the germ cells are described.

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  • (PMID = 19502685.001).
  • [ISSN] 1732-2693
  • [Journal-full-title] Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej (Online)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online)
  • [Language] POL
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCNC protein, human; 0 / Cyclin C; 0 / Cyclins; EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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16. Ueda M, Toji E, Noda S: Germ line and somatic mutations of BRAF V599E in ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Jul-Aug;17(4):794-7
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  • [Title] Germ line and somatic mutations of BRAF V599E in ovarian carcinoma.
  • It has been shown that ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma evolves out of a stepwise progression from benign serous cystadenoma to serous borderline tumor (SBT) to micropapillary serous carcinoma (MPSC), and that BRAF activation is a very early somatic event in the tumorigenesis.
  • We postulated that BRAF could be a SBT susceptibility gene, and investigated both germ line and somatic mutations of BRAF V599E in 104 ovarian cancer patients.
  • BRAF V599E mutation in histologic samples was found in 5 (24%) of 21 SBTs, 1 (33%) of 3 MPSCs, 1 (17%) of 6 endometrioid carcinomas, but not detected in 42 conventional serous carcinomas, 12 mucinous borderline tumors, 10 mucinous, and 10 clear-cell carcinomas.
  • We also found no BRAF V599E mutation in 101 normal healthy women and 10 well-established ovarian cancer cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Serous / genetics. Mutation. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17309670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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17. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Title] Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.
  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • Tumors were mostly unilateral, cystic, or solid/cystic and ranged in size from 5 to 26 cm (mean 16.2).
  • In 8 cases, NSCNEC was associated with other epithelial neoplasms, including mucinous neoplasms of low malignant potential, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, mixed endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma, and a high-grade carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • In 2 cases, the tumor was associated with a mature cystic teratoma; one of them also containing an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • A single case was associated with a benign ovarian cyst.
  • The latter case had a dermoid cyst in the contralateral ovary.
  • NSCNEC represented anywhere from 10% to 90% of the ovarian tumor.
  • All tumors had a brisk mitotic activity.
  • According to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system, 4 cases were stage I tumors, 3 cases were stage III tumors, and 4 cases were stage IV tumors.
  • Four of 5 patients who died of disease had either stage III or IV tumors and 3 of 5 patients who are alive without evidence of disease have stage I tumors.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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18. Kaur H, Bagga R, Saha SC, Gainder S, Srinivasan R, Adhya AK, Dhaliwal LK: Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary presenting with pleural effusion and ascites. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Feb;14(1):78-81
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  • [Title] Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary presenting with pleural effusion and ascites.
  • Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is a rare tumor, and the majority (90%) are reported in the prepubertal or under-30-year age group, in contrast to the adult type, which is more common in the fifth decade.
  • Being solid tumors, they may be associated with ascites and pleural effusion (Meigs' syndrome), which resolve after surgical removal of the tumor.
  • Tumor markers for GCT are still investigational (inhibin) and of not much use in making a preoperative diagnosis, unlike in the case of germ cell tumors.
  • However, lymph node sampling is advocated for complete staging of these tumors, as a significant number of recurrences are reported in the retroperitoneum, as well as in incompletely staged patients.
  • In the present patient, because of the association of Meigs' syndrome, a preoperative diagnosis of benign tumors such as fibroma/thecoma was also considered.
  • We report this rare tumor with an aim of reviewing the diagnosis and management from the reported literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascites / etiology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Meigs Syndrome / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19225930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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19. Leiserowitz GS: Managing ovarian masses during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv; 2006 Jul;61(7):463-70
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  • [Title] Managing ovarian masses during pregnancy.
  • The etiologies of ovarian masses are reflective of the patient's age; and, therefore, benign entities such as functional ovarian cysts, benign cystic teratomas, and serous cystadenomas predominate.
  • In the unusual cases when cancer is present, they are typically germ cell and borderline ovarian tumors, and are commonly low stage and low grade.
  • Ultrasound is the primary modality used to detect ovarian masses and to assess the risk of malignancy.
  • Morphologic criteria more accurately identify benign cysts compared with malignant tumors.
  • Tumor markers are used primarily to monitor disease status after treatment rather than establish the ovarian tumor diagnosis as a result of lack of specificity, because several markers can be elevated inherent to the pregnancy itself (eg, CA-125, beta-hCG).
  • Expectant management is recommended for most pregnant patients with asymptomatic, nonsuspicious cystic ovarian masses.
  • Surgical intervention during pregnancy is indicated for large and/or symptomatic tumors and those that appear highly suspicious for malignancy on imaging tests.
  • The extent of surgery depends on the intraoperative diagnosis of a benign versus a malignant tumor.
  • Conservative surgery is appropriate for benign masses and borderline ovarian tumors.
  • More aggressive surgery is indicated for ovarian malignancies, including surgical staging.
  • Although rarely necessary, chemotherapy has been used during pregnancy with minimal fetal toxicity in patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer in which the risk of maternal mortality outweighs the fetal consequences.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Cysts / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity


20. Gorosito M, Pancera B, Sarancone S, Nocito AL: Gonadoblastoma: an unusual ovarian tumor. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Aug;14(4):247-50
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  • [Title] Gonadoblastoma: an unusual ovarian tumor.
  • Gonadoblastomas are unusual benign neoplasias that frequently appear in the dysgenetic gonads of women with chromosome Y anomaly.
  • In all the cases, the histologic examination showed germ cell proliferation and sex cords derivatives frequently surrounding small round deposits containing amorphous hyaline material resembling Call-Exner bodies.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadoblastoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20637428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Young RH: Dusting off another shelf: further comments on classic gynecologic pathology books of yesteryear. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Jan;24(1):100-10
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  • Each of them emphasizes the time-honored problem of mimicry of malignancy by diverse benign lesions or even aspects of normal histology.
  • The other three books considered are all devoted largely or exclusively to the ovary: Ovarian Tumors by Hans Selye, Ovarian Neoplasms, Morphology, and Classification by Karel Motlik, and Special Tumors of Ovary and Testis and Related Extragonadal Lesions by Gunnar Teilum.
  • A number of aspects of the histopathology of ovarian tumors that have been emphasized in recent years are noted in Selye's book. Dr.
  • Motlik's book presents a very high quality consideration of the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors.
  • Teilum's book contains a masterful account of the histopathology of germ cell tumors emphasizing a neoplasm with which his name will always be associated, the yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor).

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  • (PMID = 15626924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Kline RC, Bazzett-Matabele LB: Adnexal masses and malignancies of importance to the colorectal surgeon. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2010 Jun;23(2):63-71
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  • In this article, the authors review both benign and malignant ovarian masses, as the colorectal surgeon who encounters an adnexal mass at the time of surgery should be aware of the steps necessary for surgical staging and optimal tumor resection.Ovarian tumors-most of which are benign-are divided into three major categories, in order of frequency: epithelial, germ cell, and sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Nonneoplastic conditions of the ovary that may present as adnexal masses include the following, according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification: pregnancy luteoma, hyperplasia of ovarian stroma, hyperthecosis, massive edema, solitary follicle cysts and corpus luteal cysts, multiple follicle cysts, and endometriosis.Epithelial ovarian tumors arise from the surface epithelium and can be benign or malignant.
  • Histologic types are serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, or Brenner.
  • Germ cell tumors are more likely to appear in females under 20 years, accounting for 70% of ovarian tumors in this age group.
  • Teratomas are the most common germ cell tumors.
  • Malignancies, in addition to malignant teratomas, include dysgerminomas, endodermal sinus tumors, and embryonal carcinomas.
  • The more common sex cord-stromal tumors include granulosa stromal cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, and gynandroblastomas.Surgical staging and optimal tumor resection are also addressed, with a focus on epithelial malignancies, as they are the most relevant to colorectal surgeons.

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  • (PMID = 21629623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2967325
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adnexal masses / ovarian cancer / ovarian cysts
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23. Hoffman JG, Strickland JL, Yin J: Virilizing ovarian dermoid cyst with leydig cells. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Jun;22(3):e39-40
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  • [Title] Virilizing ovarian dermoid cyst with leydig cells.
  • Overall, ovarian tumors causing virilization are exceedingly rare and mostly occur in post-menopausal women.
  • In fact, there are no reported cases of virilization from a testosterone-producing ovarian dermoid in the adolescent female age group.
  • The most frequent germ cell tumor derived from the ovaries is the benign cystic teratoma (dermoid) which accounts for 25% of all ovarian neoplasms.
  • Usually the tumors are asymptomatic, but they occasionally can cause severe pain if there is torsion or if sebaceous material perforates the cyst wall, leading to reactive peritonitis.
  • CASE: A 12-year-old female was found to have a large 3 5 x 19 x 12 cm ovarian mature cystic teratoma arising from her right ovary.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign cystic teratomas can produce active hormones, albeit rarely.
  • This is a finding important to consider when ovarian cystectomy is performed for removal of a benign cystic teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoid Cyst / pathology. Dermoid Cyst / secretion. Leydig Cells / secretion. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secretion. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19539195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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24. Las Heras F, Pritzker KP, Colgan TJ: Chordoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: a case report. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(6):467-71
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  • [Title] Chordoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: a case report.
  • Mature cystic teratoma of the ovary (MCTO) is the most common type of ovarian teratoma and also the most frequent tumor originating from germ cells.
  • It is usually diagnosed in early adulthood and, by definition, is composed of well-differentiated tissues, which originate from all three germ cell layers.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy arising in these otherwise benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Chordoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Chromosomes, Human, X. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Keratins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Mosaicism. Mucin-1 / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17418959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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25. Ylisaukko-oja SK, Cybulski C, Lehtonen R, Kiuru M, Matyjasik J, Szymañska A, Szymañska-Pasternak J, Dyrskjot L, Butzow R, Orntoft TF, Launonen V, Lubiñski J, Aaltonen LA: Germline fumarate hydratase mutations in patients with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma. Eur J Hum Genet; 2006 Jul;14(7):880-3
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  • [Title] Germline fumarate hydratase mutations in patients with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma.
  • Germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene were recently shown to predispose to the dominantly inherited syndrome, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC).
  • HLRCC is characterized by benign leiomyomas of the skin and the uterus, renal cell carcinoma, and uterine leiomyosarcoma.
  • The aim of this study was to identify new families with FH mutations, and to further examine the tumor spectrum associated with FH mutations.
  • FH germline mutations were screened from 89 patients with RCC, skin leiomyomas or ovarian tumors.
  • Subsequently, 13 ovarian and 48 bladder carcinomas were analyzed for somatic FH mutations.
  • Two patients diagnosed with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma (two out of 33, 6%) were found to be FH germline mutation carriers.
  • These results suggest that benign ovarian tumors may be associated with HLRCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Mucinous / genetics. Fumarate Hydratase / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / genetics. Female. Genes, Dominant. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Leiomyoma / genetics. Male. Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16639410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-4813
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of human genetics : EJHG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 4.2.1.2 / Fumarate Hydratase
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26. Rim SY, Kim SM, Choi HS: Struma ovarii showing clinical characteristics of ovarian malignancy. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Nov-Dec;15(6):1156-9
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  • [Title] Struma ovarii showing clinical characteristics of ovarian malignancy.
  • Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm, composed entirely or predominantly of thyroid tissue and generally a benign germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • We experienced a rare case of a postmenopausal woman with benign struma ovarii associated with massive ascites, a complex pelvic mass.
  • The clinical impression was ovarian malignancy.
  • Surgical excision of the ovarian mass induced immediate resolution of the ascites and a normalization of the serum CA125 level.
  • No recurrence of the ascites or of the tumor has been observed during the 10-month follow-up.
  • Struma ovarii can mimic ovarian malignancy clinically, particularly if complex and associated with ascites and an elevated CA125 level.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16343201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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27. Ghander C, Lussato D, Conte Devolx B, Mundler O, Taïeb D: Incidental diagnosis of struma ovarii after thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer: functional imaging studies and follow-up. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Aug;102(2):378-80
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  • BACKGROUND: Struma ovarii is a rare ovarian germ-cell tumor containing thyroid tissue.
  • After (131)I administration for thyroid remnant ablation, whole-body scan showed a thyroid bed uptake and a right pelvic uptake corresponding to an ovarian cyst on ultrasonography.
  • Histopathological analysis revealed a benign struma ovarii.
  • The distinction with ovarian metastasis is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery


28. Güney M, Oral B, Demir F, Ozsoy M, Kapucuoğlu N: Mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from the gastrointestinal epithelium in benign cystic teratoma of the ovary--case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(3):304-6
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  • [Title] Mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from the gastrointestinal epithelium in benign cystic teratoma of the ovary--case report.
  • Benign cystic teratoma of the ovary (BCTO) is the most common ovarian germ cell tumor occurring predominantly in early adulthood.
  • Most benign cystic teratomas with malignant transformations are squamous cell carcinomas with just 6.8% being adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16800267.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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29. Dalloul M, Sherer DM, Gorelick C, Serur E, Zinn H, Sanmugarajah J, Zigalo A, Abulafia O: Transient bilateral ovarian enlargement associated with large retroperitoneal lymphoma. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Feb;29(2):236-8
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  • [Title] Transient bilateral ovarian enlargement associated with large retroperitoneal lymphoma.
  • Bilateral ovarian enlargement may reflect benign or malignant processes of the ovary.
  • Benign causes of ovarian enlargement include luteomas, tumors such as mature cystic teratomas, fibrothecomas, cystadenomas and rare conditions including capillary hemangioma and massive edema of the ovaries.
  • Ovarian malignancies include epithelial, stromal and germ-cell tumors.
  • Primary malignancies that may exhibit metastases to the ovaries include gastrointestinal, breast and soft tissue tumors such as lymphoma.
  • We present an unusual case in which a patient presenting with weakness and mild lower abdominal and pelvic pain was noted at sonography to have bilaterally enlarged ovaries with features similar to those of massive ovarian edema as described previously, which has been associated with venous and lymphatic obstruction.
  • Subsequent computerized tomography (CT) imaging depicted a large retroperitoneal tumor, CT-guided biopsy of which revealed diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
  • The patient responded well to chemotherapy with significant shrinkage of the tumor, and reappearance of normal findings on ovarian sonography.
  • This case demonstrates that bilaterally enlarged ovaries may be the first clinical evidence of a large retroperitoneal tumor and that in such cases CT imaging may be warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17252529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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30. Schultz KA, Sencer SF, Messinger Y, Neglia JP, Steiner ME: Pediatric ovarian tumors: a review of 67 cases. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Feb;44(2):167-73
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  • [Title] Pediatric ovarian tumors: a review of 67 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumors are uncommon but important childhood neoplasms.
  • RESULTS: Thirty patients had benign tumors.
  • Thirty-seven patients had malignant tumors: 11 immature teratomas, seven malignant mixed germ cell tumors, seven juvenile granulosa cell tumors, five dysgerminomas, two endodermal sinus tumors, two serous papillary cystadenocarcinomas, one small cell carcinoma, one anaplastic sex-cord tumor, and one undifferentiated sarcoma.
  • Torsion was seen more often in patients with benign tumors (23 vs. 8%); two patients had both torsion and acute appendicitis.
  • The neoplasm was an incidental finding in 12 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fifty-five percent of the 67 ovarian tumors presenting to our centers were malignant.
  • Almost all neoplasms presented as unilateral masses and rarely were metastatic at diagnosis.
  • Ovarian tumors must be considered in the differential diagnosis of young girls with abdominal pain, mass, or other non-specific symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Aberrations. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 15490488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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31. Swamy GG, Satyanarayana N: Clinicopathological analysis of ovarian tumors--a study on five years samples. Nepal Med Coll J; 2010 Dec;12(4):221-3
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological analysis of ovarian tumors--a study on five years samples.
  • Ovarian neoplasms have become increasingly important not only because of the large variety of neoplastic entities but more because they have gradually increased the mortality rate due to female genital cancers.
  • A total of 120 cases of ovarian tumors were studied at the Department of Pathology, Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences, Amalapuram, India, during the period of March 2005 to March 2010, to find out frequency of different histological patterns of ovarian tumors at Konaseema Region.
  • Among 120 cases, majority 86 (71.6%) were benign, but alarming number 30 (25.0%) were malignant, remaining 4 cases were borderline.
  • The commonest histological pattern observed in the study was epithelial tumors (61.6%).
  • The commonest benign tumor was serous cyst adenoma, while; the commonest malignant tumors were granulosa cell tumor and endometrial carcinoma.
  • Epithelial tumors were commonest variety of ovarian tumors followed by germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Epithelium / surgery. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21744762.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nepal Med Coll J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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32. Stanwell P, Russell P, Carter J, Pather S, Heintze S, Mountford C: Evaluation of ovarian tumors by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at three Tesla. Invest Radiol; 2008 Oct;43(10):745-51
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  • [Title] Evaluation of ovarian tumors by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at three Tesla.
  • AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of acquiring in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of ovarian lesions at a magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla (T).
  • The goal was to provide potentially diagnostic biochemical information that may aid in the characterization of ovarian neoplasms detected during clinical magnetic resonance imaging scanning.
  • Magnetic resonance spectral findings were correlated with the detailed pathology reports obtained after resection of each tumor.
  • RESULTS: Pathology revealed 7 patients with malignant surface epithelial-stromal tumors, 3 patients with germ cell tumors, 3 patients with benign serous cystadenomas, and 1 patient with a non-neoplastic endometrioma.
  • Resonances attributable to choline-containing compounds and Cr were recorded in all malignant tumors and some of the benign tumors.
  • When detected, a choline/Cr integral ratio of greater than 3 was found to indicate that a tumor was malignant in nature, whereas a choline/Cr integral ratio less than 1.5 was found to indicate that a tumor was benign in nature.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Spectroscopy of ovarian masses can be recorded at 3.0 T with acceptable spectral quality and good signal-to-noise ratio.
  • Further experience with a larger and more biologically variable range of tumors needs to be undertaken to determine the final clinical utility of this technique, but initial results from this small cohort are promising.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / instrumentation. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18791417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0210
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Song JY, Chen KY, Kim SY, Kim MR, Ryu KS, Cha JH, Kang CS, MacLaughlin DT, Kim JH: The expression of Müllerian inhibiting substance/anti-Müllerian hormone type II receptor protein and mRNA in benign, borderline and malignant ovarian neoplasia. Int J Oncol; 2009 Jun;34(6):1583-91
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  • [Title] The expression of Müllerian inhibiting substance/anti-Müllerian hormone type II receptor protein and mRNA in benign, borderline and malignant ovarian neoplasia.
  • This study investigated the expression patterns of Müllerian inhibiting substance/anti-Müllerian hormone type II receptor (MIS/AMHRII) and mRNA in various types of ovarian neoplasia and evaluated the clinical significance of MIS/AMH as a biological response modifier for MIS/AMHR-positive tumors.
  • There was no significant difference in expression intensity between MIS/AMHRII protein and mRNA on all ovarian samples whether benign or malignant.
  • MIS/AMHRII protein and mRNA were weakly expressed on 45.45% of benign ovarian tumors.
  • In borderline tumors, expression rates of MIS/AMHRII protein and mRNA were 77.78% with score 1.22 and 55.56% with score 1, respectively.
  • In malignant ovarian tumors, expression rates of MIS/AMHRII protein and mRNA were 70% with score 1.23 and 75% with score 1.43, respectively.
  • Among malignant ovarian tumors, sex cord stromal tumors showed the highest expression rate and the strongest intensity of MIS/AMHRII protein and mRNA followed by germ cell tumor and epithelial ovarian tumor.
  • Non-epithelial malignant tumors showed stronger expression than that of epithelial tumors (P<0.05, P<0.001, respectively).
  • In serous borderline malignant and malignant tumors, MIS/AMHRII protein and mRNA expression was 63.64 and 81.82% with expression intensity of 1.27 and 1.46, respectively, which were not statistically different from non-epithelial malignant tumors.
  • MIS/AMHRII and MIS/AMHRII mRNA demonstrate significantly variable expression among different ovarian tumor types.
  • Non-epithelial cell tumors show higher expression than those of epithelial cell tumors.
  • The highest expression rate and intensity were observed on sex cord stromal tumors.
  • These data support that MIS/AMH may be used as a biological modifier or therapeutic modulator in MIS/AMHRII-expressed ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Mullerian Hormone / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Peptide / genetics. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization. Ovary / metabolism. Ovary / pathology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / genetics. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / metabolism. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19424576.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Peptide; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / anti-Mullerian hormone receptor; 80497-65-0 / Anti-Mullerian Hormone
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34. Rabban JT, Crawford B, Chen LM, Powell CB, Zaloudek CJ: Transitional cell metaplasia of fallopian tube fimbriae: a potential mimic of early tubal carcinoma in risk reduction salpingo-oophorectomies from women With BRCA mutations. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Jan;33(1):111-9
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  • [Title] Transitional cell metaplasia of fallopian tube fimbriae: a potential mimic of early tubal carcinoma in risk reduction salpingo-oophorectomies from women With BRCA mutations.
  • Germline mutations in the hereditary breast/ovary carcinoma genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 confer increased lifetime risk for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinoma.
  • Transitional cell metaplasia is a benign epithelial alteration that is a common finding in the serosa of the tube but is underrecognized in the tubal fimbriae, where it may mimic tubal intraepithelial carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to define the incidence, morphology, immunophenotype, and distribution of transitional cell metaplasia of the fimbriae in RRSO specimens from 96 women with BRCA germline mutations and to compare these features to those of tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in this cohort.
  • RRSO specimens from an additional 30 women at increased risk for ovarian cancer based on strong family history were also studied, along with RRSO from 1 patient with Lynch syndrome, and 1 patient with PTEN mutation.
  • Transitional cell metaplasia of the fimbriae was present in 26% of all RRSO specimens.
  • Median tumor size was 2.7 mm (range: 1 to 11 mm).
  • The key criteria distinguishing transitional cell metaplasia from tubal intraepithelial carcinoma were uniform cell size and shape, normal nucleus:cytoplasm ratios, lack of nuclear atypia, presence of nuclear grooves, lack of mitoses, and absence of p53 expression or increased staining for MIB-1.
  • No particular clinical variables (BRCA 1 vs. BRCA 2 mutation, parity, personal history of breast cancer, prior abdomino-pelvic surgery, or intraoperative findings) or benign pathologic alterations in the RRSO specimens were associated with the presence of transitional cell metaplasia of the fimbriae.
  • This study demonstrates that transitional cell metaplasia of the fimbriae is a common benign finding in RRSO specimens that should not be confused with the much less common finding of tubal intraepithelial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Fallopian Tubes / pathology. Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genes, BRCA1. Genes, BRCA2. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Ovariectomy. Risk Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


35. Schmidt D, Kommoss F: [Teratoma of the ovary. Clinical and pathological differences between mature and immature teratomas]. Pathologe; 2007 May;28(3):203-8
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  • [Title] [Teratoma of the ovary. Clinical and pathological differences between mature and immature teratomas].
  • Teratomas are the most frequent germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • Mature teratomas are benign tumors, which are most often composed of derivatives of two or three germ cell layers.
  • Only in rare cases is the transition into a malignant tumor observed (most often squamous cell carcinoma).
  • In contrast, immature teratomas are malignant ovarian tumors.
  • Histologically, this tumor component can be identified as neurotubules or rosettes.
  • In childhood cases, foci of yolk sac tumor (YST) must be looked for, since this determines the prognosis.
  • Gliomatosis peritonei is most likely derived from metaplasia of subperitoneal stem cells; it does not represent a metastatic disease of the ovarian teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17396268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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36. Esheba GE, Pate LL, Longacre TA: Oncofetal protein glypican-3 distinguishes yolk sac tumor from clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):600-7
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  • [Title] Oncofetal protein glypican-3 distinguishes yolk sac tumor from clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.
  • Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary is the surface epithelial neoplasm most often confused with primitive germ cell tumors, particularly yolk sac tumor (YST) and dysgerminoma.
  • Recent studies suggest that glypican-3 (GPC3), an oncofetal protein expressed in fetal liver and malignant tumors of hepatocytic lineage, is also expressed in germ cell tumors, particularly YST.
  • To investigate whether GPC3 is useful in distinguishing YST from ovarian CCC, we studied the expression of GPC3 in a large series of ovarian neoplasms and compared it to the expression profiles of CK7 and alpha-fetoprotein.
  • Tissue microarrays containing over 400 benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms, including 34 CCCs were stained with monoclonal GPC3 (clone 1G12, Biomosaics, Burlington, VT).
  • These arrays contained a wide assortment of ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms and sex cord stromal neoplasms, as well as germ cell tumors.
  • All but one YST (97%), including those associated with mixed germ cell tumor were positive for GPC3, whereas all teratomas and embryonal carcinomas were negative.
  • The syncytiotrophoblastic cells in the germ cell tumors and placental villi included in the arrays were also positive for GPC3.
  • Most CCCs (83%) were completely negative for GPC3, as were 99% serous, 94% endometrioid, and 100% mucinous tumors.
  • All other tissues, including normal ovary were negative for GPC3.
  • GPC3 seems to be a promising diagnostic marker for differentiating YST from ovarian CCC (P < 0.0001).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / chemistry. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / chemistry. Glypicans / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18277882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GPC3 protein, human; 0 / Glypicans; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 0 / oncofetal antigens
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37. Alotaibi MO, Navarro OM: Imaging of ovarian teratomas in children: a 9-year review. Can Assoc Radiol J; 2010 Feb;61(1):23-8
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  • [Title] Imaging of ovarian teratomas in children: a 9-year review.
  • OBJECTIVE: Germ cell tumours are the most common ovarian neoplasms in childhood and, of these, teratomas, whether mature or immature, are the most frequently found.
  • Mature teratoma is a benign tumour, whereas the immature type, although also benign, has a more aggressive course, with a propensity to recurrence.
  • The objective of this study was to review imaging features of ovarian teratomas in children and to assess differentiating imaging features between the mature and immature types of ovarian teratoma.
  • METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients who presented to our institution during a 9-year period (September 1999 to August 2008) with ovarian teratoma as confirmed on histology.
  • RESULTS: Forty-one patients with pathologically proven ovarian teratoma were found.
  • Thirty patients (73.2%) were found to have mature ovarian teratoma, and 11 (26.8%) had immature teratoma.
  • A component of endodermal sinus tumour was found in one of the immature teratomas.
  • The mature ovarian teratomas demonstrated a predominantly cystic appearance in 22 (73.3%) and a mixed solid and cystic appearance in 8 (26.6%); there were no cases with a pure solid appearance.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The predominance of a cystic component and a pure solid component in ovarian teratoma are significant differentiating factors between the mature type and the more aggressive immature type of teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / radiography. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / ultrasonography. Female. Humans

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19931379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0846-5371
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Association of Radiologists journal = Journal l'Association canadienne des radiologistes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Assoc Radiol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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38. Venizelos ID, Tatsiou ZA, Roussos D, Karagiannis V: A case of sebaceous carcinoma arising within a benign ovarian cystic teratoma. Onkologie; 2009 Jun;32(6):353-5
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  • [Title] A case of sebaceous carcinoma arising within a benign ovarian cystic teratoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Mature cystic teratoma, also known as dermoid cyst, is the most common germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Malignant change in a component of a mature ovarian teratoma is rare, occurring in less than 2% of cases, with squamous cell carcinoma corresponding to 80% of such neoplasms.
  • Abdominal and pelvic ultrasound as well as computed tomography demonstrated a heterogenic tumor of the right ovary.
  • Histological examination of the tumor showed features of a well-differentiated sebaceous carcinoma arising within a mature cystic teratoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is an extremely rare ovarian malignancy of which the clinical behavior and optimal management are not well established.
  • Differential diagnosis with other malignant neoplasms arising in mature cystic teratomas is exceedingly important for treatment and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Ovarian Cysts / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19521124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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39. Ulbright TM: Germ cell tumors of the gonads: a selective review emphasizing problems in differential diagnosis, newly appreciated, and controversial issues. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18 Suppl 2:S61-79
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumors of the gonads: a selective review emphasizing problems in differential diagnosis, newly appreciated, and controversial issues.
  • Gonadal germ cell tumors continue to be the cause of diverse, diagnostically challenging issues for the pathologist, and their correct resolution often has major important therapeutic and prognostic implications.
  • They are academically interesting because of the biological diversity exhibited in the two gonads and variation in frequency of certain neoplasms.
  • The most dramatic examples of the latter are the frequency of dermoid cyst in the ovary compared to the testis and the reverse pertaining to embryonal carcinoma.
  • Within the teratoma group, there is strong evidence that ovarian and prepubertal testicular teratomas are derived from benign germ cells, a pathogenesis that likely applies also to the rare dermoid cysts and uncommon epidermoid cysts of the testis.
  • In contrast, postpubertal testicular teratomas derive from malignant germ cells, specifically representing differentiation within a preexistent nonteratomatous cancer.
  • As expected, given the foregoing, teratomas in boys are clinically benign, whereas in postpubertal males they are malignant, independent of their degree of immaturity.
  • On the other hand, immaturity is an important finding in ovarian teratomas, irrespective of age, although its significance in children has recently been challenged.
  • It is usually recognized on the basis of embryonic-appearing neuroepithelium, which shows mitotic activity and apoptosis in contrast to differentiated neuroepithelial tissues, which may occur in mature ovarian teratomas.
  • Further differences between the teratomatous tumors in the two gonads are the relative frequency of monodermal teratomas in the ovary in contrast to the testis, where only one subset, carcinoids, is seen with any frequency.
  • When uncommon somatic-type malignancies (usually squamous cell carcinoma) occur in mature cystic teratomas of the ovary, this is a de novo form of malignant transformation; similar tumors in the testis, a very rare event, represent overgrowth of teratomatous elements that originated from malignant, nonteratomatous germ cell tumors and, therefore, had previously undergone malignant transformation.
  • Germinomas may have several unusual features in each gonad; these include microcystic arrangements that suggest yolk sac tumor, tubular patterns that mimic Sertoli cell tumor, apparent increased cytological atypia that causes concern for embryonal carcinoma, and prominent syncytiotrophoblast giant cells that suggest choriocarcinoma.
  • A newly recognized aspect of this tumor is the propensity for some to be relatively monomorphic, making them apt to be mistaken for usual seminoma or embryonal carcinoma, although the characteristic polymorphic appearance in some foci, absence of intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type, and immunohistochemical stains should prevent this error.
  • The recently described marker, OCT3/4, a nuclear transcription factor, is especially helpful in the differential of germinoma and embryonal carcinoma with other neoplasms.
  • Yolk sac tumor continues to be confused occasionally with clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.
  • Glandular ('endometrioid-like') yolk sac tumors mimic endometrioid carcinomas; predominant or pure hepatoid yolk sac tumors cause concern for metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma or, in the ovary, primary hepatoid carcinoma, and solid patterns, especially in limited samplings, may be misinterpreted as germinoma.
  • The usually younger age of patients with yolk sac tumors helps with the differential considerations with the nongerm cell tumors, as do other clinical and microscopic features and selected immunohistochemical stains.
  • Choriocarcinoma is rare in both gonads, and those in the ovary must be distinguished from metastatic tumors of placental origin.
  • Syncytiotrophoblast cells alone, admixed with other forms of germ cell tumor, still are confused with choriocarcinoma, but this phenomenon, which is much more frequent than choriocarcinoma, lacks the plexiform arrangement of different trophoblast cell types that typifies the latter.
  • Mixed germ cell tumors (which may show almost any combination of components) are common in the testis but rare in the ovary.
  • A separately categorized, rare form of mixed germ cell tumor seen in both gonads is the polyembryoma.
  • It is perhaps the most photogenic of all gonadal germ cell tumors and is also intriguing because of its distinctive, organized arrangement of yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma elements and recapitulation of very early embryonic development, even to the extent of having in its fundamental unit, the embryoid body, a miniature yolk sac, and amniotic cavity.
  • These tumors, which are constituted by innumerable embryoid bodies, almost always contain teratomatous glands in minor amounts, and one way of viewing the polyembryoma is to consider it the most immature form of teratoma.
  • Embryoid bodies are also common as a minor component of many mixed germ cell tumors, particularly in the testis, and the diffuse embryoma is another variant that has a particular arrangement of yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma elements.
  • Regression of gonadal germ cell tumors is a phenomenon restricted to the testis, for unknown reasons.
  • These so-called 'burnt-out' germ cell tumors can be recognized by a distinctive constellation of findings, including sometimes minor foci of residual recognizable germ cell neoplasia, a well-defined zone of scarring (often having residual ghost tubules), associated lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, intratubular calcification and, in about 50%, of in situ germ cell neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15761467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Organic Cation Transport Proteins; 0 / solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 3; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 132
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40. Sturgeon CM, Duffy MJ, Stenman UH, Lilja H, Brünner N, Chan DW, Babaian R, Bast RC Jr, Dowell B, Esteva FJ, Haglund C, Harbeck N, Hayes DF, Holten-Andersen M, Klee GG, Lamerz R, Looijenga LH, Molina R, Nielsen HJ, Rittenhouse H, Semjonow A, Shih IeM, Sibley P, Sölétormos G, Stephan C, Sokoll L, Hoffman BR, Diamandis EP, National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry laboratory medicine practice guidelines for use of tumor markers in testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancers. Clin Chem; 2008 Dec;54(12):e11-79
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  • [Title] National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry laboratory medicine practice guidelines for use of tumor markers in testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: Updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for the use of tumor markers in the clinic have been developed.
  • METHODS: Published reports relevant to use of tumor markers for 5 cancer sites--testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian--were critically reviewed.
  • RESULTS: For testicular cancer, alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase are recommended for diagnosis/case finding, staging, prognosis determination, recurrence detection, and therapy monitoring. alpha-Fetoprotein is also recommended for differential diagnosis of nonseminomatous and seminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • Free PSA measurement data are useful for distinguishing malignant from benign prostatic disease when total PSA is <10 microg/L.
  • CA125 is recommended (with transvaginal ultrasound) for early detection of ovarian cancer in women at high risk for this disease.
  • CA125 is also recommended for differential diagnosis of suspicious pelvic masses in postmenopausal women, as well as for detection of recurrence, monitoring of therapy, and determination of prognosis in women with ovarian cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of these recommendations should encourage optimal use of tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Clinical Laboratory Techniques. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis


41. Wolff AL, Ladd AP, Kumar M, Gunderman RB, Stevens J: Pseudo-Meigs syndrome secondary to ovarian germ cell tumor. J Pediatr Surg; 2005 Apr;40(4):737-9
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  • [Title] Pseudo-Meigs syndrome secondary to ovarian germ cell tumor.
  • Surgical resection of the mass found a stage Ic malignant mixed germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • The pleural effusion and ascites were benign and resolved spontaneously after complete resection of the tumor, which is characteristic of a pseudo-Meigs syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / complications. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15852294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Umekawa T, Tabata T, Tanida K, Yoshimura K, Sagawa N: Growing teratoma syndrome as an unusual cause of gliomatosis peritonei: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Dec;99(3):761-3
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  • BACKGROUND: Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is defined as enlarging peritoneal implants that occur during or after chemotherapy for malignant germ cell tumors, but are histologically mature teratomas without any malignant components.
  • GTS is a synonym for "chemotherapeutic retroconversion", i.e., conversion from a metastatic immature teratoma to a mature tumor by chemotherapy.
  • Gliomatosis peritonei (GP) is a rare condition associated with ovarian teratomas of any grade, in which benign glial implants develop on the peritoneal surface.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Present case supported by review of the literatures suggests that GTS can be a part of GP, because both GTS and GP are associated with benign peritoneal glial implants regardless of grade of malignancy of their original tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroglia / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16125758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. De Backer A, Madern GC, Oosterhuis JW, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, Hazebroek FW: Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Apr;46(4):459-64
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  • [Title] Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian germ cell tumors are rare in childhood.
  • The aim of this study is to review clinical presentation, management, and outcome in a two-center series of girls with ovarian germ cell tumor.
  • PROCEDURE: The records of 66 patients (median age 9 years) with histologically proven ovarian germ cell tumor (either benign or malignant), treated over a 44-year-span, were reviewed.
  • The tumors were right-sided in 35, left-sided in 28, and bilateral in 3.
  • Sixteen patients had an emergency operation for tumor torsion.
  • Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was the most frequently performed procedure (n = 46), and ovarian-sparing tumorectomy was performed in 9 patients (one bilaterally).
  • Histologically, teratomas were found most frequently (mature: 45, immature: 9), followed by mixed tumors (n = 7), yolk sac tumors (n = 3), dysgerminoma (n = 2), gonadoblastoma (n = 2), and embryonal carcinoma (n = 1).
  • Surgical removal of the tumor with or without the ovary and/or adnex was the sole treatment in 55 patients, chemotherapy was administered in 10 and radiotherapy + chemotherapy in one.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With a recurrence rate of 4.5% and a mortality rate of 3%, this series confirms the excellent prognosis for girls with ovarian germ cell tumor (GCT).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16206211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Jha R, Karki S: Histological pattern of ovarian tumors and their age distribution. Nepal Med Coll J; 2008 Jun;10(2):81-5
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  • [Title] Histological pattern of ovarian tumors and their age distribution.
  • A female's risk at birth of having ovarian tumor sometime in her life is 6-7%.
  • Relative frequency of ovarian tumor is different for western and Asian countries.
  • Two third of ovarian tumors occur in women of reproductive age group.
  • This study was done in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital with aim to find out frequency of different histological types of ovarian tumors and their age distribution and thus provide an institutional experience from Nepal also.
  • One hundred and sixty one ovarian tumors, reported from April 2004 to March 2006 were included in the study.
  • One hundred and thirty five of these tumors (83.9%) were benign and 16.1% (26/161) were malignant.
  • Surface epithelial tumors were most common (52.2%) followed by germ cell tumors (42.2%).
  • Mature cystic teratoma was commonest benign tumor (48.2%).
  • Serous adenocarcinoma was commonest malignant tumor (46.2%).
  • For all age groups, benign tumors were more common than malignant ones.
  • Most ovarian tumors (47.2%) were seen between 21 -40 years where as most malignant tumors (73.1%) were seen above 40 years.
  • In 1st two decades, germ cell tumors were more common than other tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18828427.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nepal Med Coll J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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45. Tinelli A, Vergara D, Martignago R, Leo G, Pisanò M, Malvasi A: An outlook on ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors: focus on genomic and proteomic findings. Curr Genomics; 2009 Jun;10(4):240-9
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  • [Title] An outlook on ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors: focus on genomic and proteomic findings.
  • Among the gynaecological malignancies, ovarian cancer is one of the neoplastic forms with the poorest prognosis and with the bad overall and disease-free survival rates than other gynaecological cancers.
  • Ovarian tumors can be classified on the basis of the cells of origin in epithelial, stromal and germ cell tumors.
  • Epithelial ovarian tumors display great histological heterogeneity and can be further subdivided into benign, intermediate or borderline, and invasive tumors.
  • Several studies on ovarian tumors, have focused on the identification of both diagnostic and prognostic markers for applications in clinical practice.
  • High-throughput technologies have accelerated the process of biomolecular study and genomic discovery; unfortunately, validity of these should be still demonstrated by extensive researches on sensibility and sensitivity of ovarian cancer novel biomarkers, determining whether gene profiling and proteomics could help differentiate between patients with metastatic ovarian cancer and primary ovarian carcinomas, and their potential impact on management.
  • In this review, the current state of knowledge about the genoproteomic and potential clinical value of gene expression profiling in ovarian cancer and ovarian borderline tumors is discussed, focusing on three main areas: distinguishing normal ovarian tissue from ovarian cancers and borderline tumors, identifying different genotypes of ovarian tissue and identifying proteins linked to cancer or tumor development.
  • By these targets, authors focus on the use of novel molecules, developed on the proteomics and genomics researches, as potential protein biomarkers in the management of ovarian cancer or borderline tumor, overlooking on current state of the art and on future perspectives of researches.

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  • (PMID = 19949545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] Current genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2709935
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ovarian cancer / borderline ovarian tumors / genomics / markers / oncogenes. / proteomics
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46. Wolff EF, Hughes M, Merino MJ, Reynolds JC, Davis JL, Cochran CS, Celi FS: Expression of benign and malignant thyroid tissue in ovarian teratomas and the importance of multimodal management as illustrated by a BRAF-positive follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):981-7
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  • [Title] Expression of benign and malignant thyroid tissue in ovarian teratomas and the importance of multimodal management as illustrated by a BRAF-positive follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common type of ovarian germ cell tumor is the teratoma.
  • Thyroid tissue, both benign and malignant, may be a component of an ovarian teratoma.
  • Here we review this topic and illustrate major features by presenting multimodal management of a patient with BRAF-positive disseminated follicular thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma.
  • SUMMARY: Malignant thyroid tissue is often difficult to distinguish from benign thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas.
  • Preoperatively, an elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) level, laboratory or clinical evidence of hyperthyroidism, or ultrasonography appearance of "struma pearl" should prompt referral to oncologist for surgical management of a possibly malignant ovarian teratoma.
  • Postoperatively, tumor tissue should be referred to pathologists experienced with differentiating benign from malignant struma ovarii.
  • We cared for woman with disseminated thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma whose history illustrates the complexity of managing ovarian teratomas with malignant thyroid tissue.
  • At age 33 she had an intraoperative rupture of an ovarian cyst, thought to be struma ovarii.
  • The tumor was found to be BRAF mutation positive (K601E).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive multimodal management appears to be the most promising approach for malignant thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas.


47. Vaysse C, Delsol M, Carfagna L, Bouali O, Combelles S, Lemasson F, Le Mandat A, Castex MP, Pasquet M, Moscovici J, Guitard J, Pienkowski C, Rubie H, Galinier P, Vaysse P: Ovarian germ cell tumors in children. Management, survival and ovarian prognosis. A report of 75 cases. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Jul;45(7):1484-90
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  • [Title] Ovarian germ cell tumors in children. Management, survival and ovarian prognosis. A report of 75 cases.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to evaluate survival and ovarian prognosis in patients treated for ovarian germ cell tumor (OGCT) and to propose a decision-making protocol.
  • Tumor characteristics were assessed by tumor markers, imaging, and pathology.
  • Tumors were benign in 58 cases and malignant in 17 cases.
  • The average of the largest diameter of benign OGCT was significantly lower than that of malignant OGCT (76.5 +/- 49 mm versus 169 +/- 54 mm, P < .0001).
  • Ovarian-sparing tumorectomy was carried out in 27 benign OGCT; 23 (85%) preserved ovaries were follicular.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our series, both benign and malignant OGCTs have a good prognosis.
  • A 75-mm cutoff size is proposed as an important criterion to preoperatively differentiate between benign and malignant tumors.
  • In benign OGCT, ovarian-sparing tumorectomy leads to preserve ovaries in approximately 85% of cases, and in malignant OGCT, high survival rate has been obtained.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. France. Humans. Infant. Ovariectomy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20638529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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48. Liberis V, Tsikouras P, Sivridis E, Dadidou M, Koutlaki N, Galazios G: Irregular dental structures in a benign ovarian cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst): case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol; 2008;35(2):151-2
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  • [Title] Irregular dental structures in a benign ovarian cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst): case report.
  • Mature cystic teratomas, often referred to as dermoid cysts, are the most common germ cell tumors of the ovary in women of reproductive age.
  • We present a case of a dermoid cyst ovarian tumor in a 24-your-old patient with a tooth lying on each wall.
  • The mass was laparoscopically removed by ovarian cystectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / pathology. Dermoid Cyst / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Tooth

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  • (PMID = 18581775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-6663
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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49. Singalavanija S, Limpongsanurak W: Cutaneous mastocytosis in Thai children. J Med Assoc Thai; 2008 Oct;91 Suppl 3:S143-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Mastocytosis is a disorder of mast cells proliferation within various organs, most commonly in the skin.
  • Most of the children were healthy, except the one who had germ cell ovarian tumor Skin biopsies were performed in all cases and revealed mast cells infiltrate in the dermis.
  • Oral mast cell stabilizers were given in 6 patients (12%) and topical corticosteroids in 15 patients (30%).
  • CONCLUSION: Cutaneous mastocytosis is a benign disease in children without systemic involvement.

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  • (PMID = 19253510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Histamine Antagonists; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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50. Poulos C, Cheng L, Zhang S, Gersell DJ, Ulbright TM: Analysis of ovarian teratomas for isochromosome 12p: evidence supporting a dual histogenetic pathway for teratomatous elements. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jun;19(6):766-71
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  • [Title] Analysis of ovarian teratomas for isochromosome 12p: evidence supporting a dual histogenetic pathway for teratomatous elements.
  • Teratomas are the most common germ cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary and include several types with a range of clinical behavior.
  • As in testicular teratomas, they may be benign, malignant or a component of a mixed GCT.
  • In the testis, data support separate pathogeneses for prepubertal and postpubertal teratomas, with derivation of the former from a nontransformed germ cell and the latter from differentiation of a nonteratomatous, malignant GCT.
  • The absence of cytogenetic abnormalities (including isochromosome 12p (i(12p)) in mature ovarian teratomas suggests that they may be analogous to prepubertal testicular teratomas, but there are no data regarding genetic changes in the teratomatous components of ovarian mixed GCTs.
  • We therefore studied the teratomatous components of six mixed GCTs of the ovary using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for i(12p).
  • Six mixed GCTs of the ovary occurred in patients 4-33 years of age; all had teratomatous and yolk sac tumor components and three also contained foci of embryonal carcinoma.
  • By comparison, five pure, mature ovarian teratomas and three pure, immature ovarian teratomas showed no evidence of either i(12p) or other forms of 12p amplification.
  • These findings support that teratoma in mixed ovarian GCTs has a different pathogenesis compared to pure teratoma of the ovary.
  • Furthermore, the findings of i(12p) in both the teratomatous and nonteratomatous components of ovarian mixed GCTs supports that the teratoma derives from other components, similar to the situation in the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12. Gene Amplification. Isochromosomes / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Teratoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16547466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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