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1. Poli Neto OB, Candido Dos Reis FJ, Zambelli Ramalho LN, Nogueira AA, de Andrade JM: p63 expression in epithelial ovarian tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):152-5
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  • [Title] p63 expression in epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal disease and its underlying biology is poorly understood.
  • The p63 is a homologue gene of the tumor suppressor p53. p63 appears to be important for the development and differentiation of reproductive epithelium and interacts with p53 in human tumorigenesis.
  • This study presents the immunoexpression of the p63 in benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • We evaluated the p63 immunoexpression in 91 ovarian benign cystadenomas (29 mucinous and 62 serous) and in 29 ovarian malignant tumors (3 mucinous borderline, 3 serous borderline, 17 serous carcinomas, 2 endometrioid, 2 undifferentiated, 1 mucinous, and 1 clear-cell carcinoma) using a monoclonal antibody clone 4A4 (1:200), which recognizes all p63 variants.
  • We observed 85.7% of positivity in benign tumors, 50% in borderline tumors, and 8.7% in invasive ovarian cancer (P < .0001).
  • The benign serous cystadenomas were positive in 91.9% of cases and benign mucinous cystadenomas in 72.4% (P= .02).
  • These data suggests an important role of p63 in the control of ovarian epithelium behavior.
  • The p63 may be involved in the development of benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Cystadenoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. DNA-Binding Proteins. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tissue Culture Techniques. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16445626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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2. Tassi RA, Bignotti E, Rossi E, Falchetti M, Donzelli C, Calza S, Ravaggi A, Bandiera E, Pecorelli S, Santin AD: Overexpression of mammaglobin B in epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Jun;105(3):578-85
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  • [Title] Overexpression of mammaglobin B in epithelial ovarian carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Mammaglobin B is a uteroglobin gene family member recently found highly differentially expressed in serous papillary ovarian cancer by gene expression profiling.
  • In order to evaluate its potential as a novel ovarian cancer biomarker, in this study we quantified and compared Mammaglobin B expression in various histologic types of epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC).
  • METHODS: Mammaglobin B expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemistry in fresh-frozen biopsies and paraffin-embedded tissues derived from a total of 137 patients including 69 primary EOC with different histologies, 28 serous papillary omental metastasis, 8 borderline tumors, 26 benign cystadenomas and 14 normal ovaries.
  • RESULTS: High levels of Mammaglobin B gene expression were detected in 100% (68 out of 68) of the ovarian cancer biopsies tested by real-time PCR.
  • In contrast, normal human ovarian surface epithelium (HOSE) expressed negligible levels of Mammaglobin B mRNA (EOC versus HOSE, p<0.01).
  • Although Mammaglobin B gene expression levels were higher in endometrioid, mucinous and undifferentiated tumors when compared to serous papillary tumors, clear cell tumors and those with mixed histology, these differences were not statistically significant.
  • In agreement with real-time PCR results, EOC were found to express significantly higher levels of Mammaglobin B protein when compared to normal ovaries and benign cystadenomas (p<0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mammaglobin B gene is highly expressed in EOC and may represent a novel molecular marker for multiple histological types of ovarian cancer.
  • Additional studies to evaluate the clinical utility of Mammaglobin B as a diagnostic and/or therapeutic target in ovarian cancer are warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / immunology. Uteroglobin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammaglobin B. Middle Aged. Myelin Proteins. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proteolipids. Secretoglobins

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  • (PMID = 17343903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin B; 0 / Myelin Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteolipids; 0 / SCGB2A1 protein, human; 0 / Secretoglobins; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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3. Coronado Martín PJ, Fasero Laiz M, García Santos J, Ramírez Mena M, Vidart Aragón JA: [Overexpression and prognostic value of p53 and HER2/neu proteins in benign ovarian tissue and in ovarian cancer]. Med Clin (Barc); 2007 Jan 13;128(1):1-6
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  • [Title] [Overexpression and prognostic value of p53 and HER2/neu proteins in benign ovarian tissue and in ovarian cancer].
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic value of p53 and HER2/neu overexpression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: p53 and HER2/neu immunostaining were performed in 198 tissue samples, 124 EOC, 44 benign ovarian tumors and 30 normal ovaries.
  • RESULTS: Neither p53 nor HER2/neu overexpression was seen in the benign ovarian tumors.
  • HER2/neu immunostaining was observed in one normal ovary.
  • P53 overexpression was found in 25% EOC and was related with advanced stage, endometrioid, clear cell and undifferentiated types, grade G3, and sub-optimal surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Mucinous / genetics. Cystadenoma, Serous / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Teratoma / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Confidence Intervals. Endometriosis / genetics. Endometriosis / pathology. Endometriosis / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Genes, p53. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Diseases / genetics. Ovarian Diseases / pathology. Ovarian Diseases / surgery. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk. Survival Analysis. Time Factors


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4. Ulbright TM: Germ cell tumors of the gonads: a selective review emphasizing problems in differential diagnosis, newly appreciated, and controversial issues. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18 Suppl 2:S61-79
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumors of the gonads: a selective review emphasizing problems in differential diagnosis, newly appreciated, and controversial issues.
  • The most dramatic examples of the latter are the frequency of dermoid cyst in the ovary compared to the testis and the reverse pertaining to embryonal carcinoma.
  • Within the teratoma group, there is strong evidence that ovarian and prepubertal testicular teratomas are derived from benign germ cells, a pathogenesis that likely applies also to the rare dermoid cysts and uncommon epidermoid cysts of the testis.
  • As expected, given the foregoing, teratomas in boys are clinically benign, whereas in postpubertal males they are malignant, independent of their degree of immaturity.
  • On the other hand, immaturity is an important finding in ovarian teratomas, irrespective of age, although its significance in children has recently been challenged.
  • It is usually recognized on the basis of embryonic-appearing neuroepithelium, which shows mitotic activity and apoptosis in contrast to differentiated neuroepithelial tissues, which may occur in mature ovarian teratomas.
  • Fetal-type tissues alone are not sufficient for a diagnosis of immature teratoma.
  • Further differences between the teratomatous tumors in the two gonads are the relative frequency of monodermal teratomas in the ovary in contrast to the testis, where only one subset, carcinoids, is seen with any frequency.
  • When uncommon somatic-type malignancies (usually squamous cell carcinoma) occur in mature cystic teratomas of the ovary, this is a de novo form of malignant transformation; similar tumors in the testis, a very rare event, represent overgrowth of teratomatous elements that originated from malignant, nonteratomatous germ cell tumors and, therefore, had previously undergone malignant transformation.
  • Germinomas may have several unusual features in each gonad; these include microcystic arrangements that suggest yolk sac tumor, tubular patterns that mimic Sertoli cell tumor, apparent increased cytological atypia that causes concern for embryonal carcinoma, and prominent syncytiotrophoblast giant cells that suggest choriocarcinoma.
  • A newly recognized aspect of this tumor is the propensity for some to be relatively monomorphic, making them apt to be mistaken for usual seminoma or embryonal carcinoma, although the characteristic polymorphic appearance in some foci, absence of intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type, and immunohistochemical stains should prevent this error.
  • Cytoplasmic membrane immunoreactivity for placental alkaline phosphatase and CD117, with usual negativity for AE1/AE3 cytokeratins, is helpful in the diagnosis of germinoma.
  • Yolk sac tumor continues to be confused occasionally with clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.
  • Glandular ('endometrioid-like') yolk sac tumors mimic endometrioid carcinomas; predominant or pure hepatoid yolk sac tumors cause concern for metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma or, in the ovary, primary hepatoid carcinoma, and solid patterns, especially in limited samplings, may be misinterpreted as germinoma.
  • Choriocarcinoma is rare in both gonads, and those in the ovary must be distinguished from metastatic tumors of placental origin.
  • Syncytiotrophoblast cells alone, admixed with other forms of germ cell tumor, still are confused with choriocarcinoma, but this phenomenon, which is much more frequent than choriocarcinoma, lacks the plexiform arrangement of different trophoblast cell types that typifies the latter.
  • Mixed germ cell tumors (which may show almost any combination of components) are common in the testis but rare in the ovary.
  • A separately categorized, rare form of mixed germ cell tumor seen in both gonads is the polyembryoma.
  • It is perhaps the most photogenic of all gonadal germ cell tumors and is also intriguing because of its distinctive, organized arrangement of yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma elements and recapitulation of very early embryonic development, even to the extent of having in its fundamental unit, the embryoid body, a miniature yolk sac, and amniotic cavity.
  • Embryoid bodies are also common as a minor component of many mixed germ cell tumors, particularly in the testis, and the diffuse embryoma is another variant that has a particular arrangement of yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma elements.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD30 / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Germinoma / metabolism. Germinoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-7. Keratins / analysis. Male. Organic Cation Transport Proteins / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Teratoma / metabolism. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15761467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Organic Cation Transport Proteins; 0 / solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 3; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 132
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5. Vaysse C, Capdet J, Mery E, Querleu D: Paratubal endometrioid cystadenocarcinoma: case report and review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(4):443-5
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  • [Title] Paratubal endometrioid cystadenocarcinoma: case report and review.
  • Final pathology indicated a heterogeneous tumor with benign, borderline, and endometrioid carcinoma areas.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, no case of paratubal invasive endometrioid adenocarcinoma has previously been described.
  • This case has been managed according to the recommendations of ovarian cancer, which seems to be an acceptable option.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19761142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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6. Tringler B, Liu W, Corral L, Torkko KC, Enomoto T, Davidson S, Lucia MS, Heinz DE, Papkoff J, Shroyer KR: B7-H4 overexpression in ovarian tumors. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Jan;100(1):44-52
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  • [Title] B7-H4 overexpression in ovarian tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: Despite great advances in therapeutic management, the mortality rate for ovarian cancer has remained relatively stable over the past 50 years.
  • This study was designed to evaluate the expression of B7-H4 protein, recently identified as a potential molecular marker of breast and ovarian cancer by quantitative PCR analysis, in benign tumors, tumors of low malignant potential and malignant tumors of the ovary.
  • METHODS: Archival formalin-fixed tissue blocks from serous, mucinous, endometrioid and clear cell ovarian tumors were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for the distribution of B7-H4 expression, and staining intensity was measured by automated image analysis.
  • RESULTS: B7-H4 cytoplasmic and membranous expression was detected in all primary serous (n = 32), endometrioid (n = 12), and clear cell carcinomas (n = 15), and in all metastatic serous (n = 23) and endometrioid (n = 7) ovarian carcinomas.
  • The median staining intensity was also significantly greater in endometrioid carcinomas than in endometriosis (P = 0.005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The consistent overexpression of B7-H4 in serous, endometrioid and clear cell ovarian carcinomas and the relative absence of expression in most normal somatic tissues indicates that B7-H4 should be further investigated as a potential diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD80 / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / immunology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / immunology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / immunology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / immunology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. V-Set Domain-Containing T-Cell Activation Inhibitor 1

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  • (PMID = 16256178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD80; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / V-Set Domain-Containing T-Cell Activation Inhibitor 1; 0 / VTCN1 protein, human
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7. Sciallis AP, Aubry MC, Bell DA: Ciliated adenocarcinoma of the ovary with evidence of serous differentiation: report of a case. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Sep;28(5):447-52
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  • [Title] Ciliated adenocarcinoma of the ovary with evidence of serous differentiation: report of a case.
  • A patient with bilateral ovarian adenocarcinomas composed predominantly of ciliated cells incidentally found at autopsy is reported.
  • The tumor was confined to the ovaries without evidence of metastatic spread.
  • Although morphologically resembling an endometrioid-type neoplasm, immunohistochemical and molecular studies were more consistent with a serous phenotype, especially in light of its apparent origination from a serous adenofibroma.
  • We agree with previous observations suggesting that although the neoplasm seems morphologically worrisome, it may actually portend a more benign clinical course.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cilia / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19696614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Van Holsbeke C, Van Calster B, Guerriero S, Savelli L, Leone F, Fischerova D, Czekierdowski A, Fruscio R, Veldman J, Van de Putte G, Testa AC, Bourne T, Valentin L, Timmerman D: Imaging in gynaecology: How good are we in identifying endometriomas? Facts Views Vis Obgyn; 2009;1(1):7-17
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  • METHODS: All patients in the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA ) studies were included for analysis.
  • RESULTS: IOTA phase 1, 1b and 2 included 3511 patients of which 2560 were benign (73%) and 951 malignant (27%).
  • Among the 75 false positive cases, 66 were benign but 9 were malignant (5 borderline tumours, 1 rare primary invasive tumour and 3 endometrioid adenocarcinomas).
  • The presumed diagnosis suggested by the sonologist in case of a missed endometrioma was mostly functional cyst or cystadenoma.

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  • (PMID = 25478066.001).
  • [ISSN] 2032-0418
  • [Journal-full-title] Facts, views & vision in ObGyn
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Facts Views Vis Obgyn
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4251283
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ultrasonography / adnexal tumours / endometrioma / endometriosis / pattern recognition / subjective evaluation
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9. Pothacharoen P, Siriaunkgul S, Ong-Chai S, Supabandhu J, Kumja P, Wanaphirak C, Sugahara K, Hardingham T, Kongtawelert P: Raised serum chondroitin sulfate epitope level in ovarian epithelial cancer. J Biochem; 2006 Oct;140(4):517-24
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  • [Title] Raised serum chondroitin sulfate epitope level in ovarian epithelial cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of serum chondroitin sulfate epitope WF6 and hyaluronan (HA) levels as a biomarker for early detection of ovarian epithelial cancer and other gynecological disorders.
  • METHOD: Serum WF6 CS epitope and HA were measured in 91 patients with ovarian epithelial cancer, 39 patients with non-cancer gynecological disorders and 30 healthy women.
  • RESULTS: The serum concentration of CS (WF6) epitope was highly increased in epithelial types of ovarian cancer and at all stages of development (p < 0.005).
  • Serum HA in ovarian cancer patients was significantly higher than normal controls (p < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: These results reflect changes in ECM metabolism in progressive ovarian cancer, which cause an increase in serum CS epitopes and HA.
  • Therefore, serum CS epitopes may provide useful biomarkers for cancers and other disorders of the ovary.
  • Measurement of serum HA provided complementary information, which may be useful as a discriminator between benign ovarian disorders and malignant ovarian diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Chondroitin Sulfates / blood. Hyaluronic Acid / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / immunology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / immunology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / immunology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / immunology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cells, Cultured. Cross-Sectional Studies. Epitopes. Female. Humans. Hybridomas. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16936295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-924X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Epitopes; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid; 9007-28-7 / Chondroitin Sulfates
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10. Maines-Bandiera S, Woo MM, Borugian M, Molday LL, Hii T, Gilks B, Leung PC, Molday RS, Auersperg N: Oviductal glycoprotein (OVGP1, MUC9): a differentiation-based mucin present in serum of women with ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Jan;20(1):16-22
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  • [Title] Oviductal glycoprotein (OVGP1, MUC9): a differentiation-based mucin present in serum of women with ovarian cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: Epithelial ovarian carcinomas are highly lethal because most are detected at late stages.
  • A previous immunohistochemical analysis showed that oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1), a secretory product of the oviductal epithelium under estrogen dominance, is produced predominantly by borderline and low-grade malignant epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • In the present study, we investigated OVGP1 as a possible serum marker for the detection of ovarian cancer.
  • Using 7E10 and a polyclonal antibody, a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to assay OVGP1 levels in 135 normal sera, and sera from 21 benign tumors, 12 borderline tumors, and 87 ovarian cancers (18, grade 1-2 serous; 44, grade 3 serous; 10, mucinous; 10, clear cell; and 5, endometrioid).
  • RESULTS: Using a 95% confidence interval cutoff from the mean of normal postmenopausal sera, median OVGP1 levels were elevated in the sera from 75% of the women with borderline tumors and 80% of the women with mucinous, 60% with clear cell, 59% with grade 1 and 2 serous, 22% with grade 3 serous, and 0% with endometrioid carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increases in OVGP1 serum levels vary with ovarian tumor histotypes and stages.
  • Being differentiation based, OVGP1 seems to detect a different spectrum of ovarian epithelial cancers than other markers and thus should be a useful adjunct for more accurate detection, particularly of early serous ovarian cancers and mucinous carcinomas, which tend to lack increased CA125.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / blood. Glycoproteins / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. CA-125 Antigen / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Menopause / blood. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20130498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MT 5822
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / OVGP1 protein, human
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11. Drapkin R, von Horsten HH, Lin Y, Mok SC, Crum CP, Welch WR, Hecht JL: Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a secreted glycoprotein that is overexpressed by serous and endometrioid ovarian carcinomas. Cancer Res; 2005 Mar 15;65(6):2162-9
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  • [Title] Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a secreted glycoprotein that is overexpressed by serous and endometrioid ovarian carcinomas.
  • Among the genes most commonly identified in gene expression profiles of epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) is the gene for human epididymis protein 4 (HE4).
  • To ascertain its clinical utility, we did a comprehensive assessment of HE4 protein expression in benign and malignant ovarian and nonovarian tissues by immunohistochemistry.
  • Its expression in tumors was restricted to certain histologic subtype: 93% of serous and 100% of endometrioid EOCs expressed HE4, whereas only 50% and 0% of clear cell carcinomas and mucinous tumors, respectively, were positive.
  • Using reverse transcription-PCR, we identified ovarian cancer cell lines that endogenously overexpress HE4.
  • Therefore, HE4 is a secreted glycoprotein that is overexpressed by serous and endometrioid EOCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Epididymal Secretory Proteins / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Epithelium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Mullerian Ducts / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. beta-Defensins

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  • (PMID = 15781627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DEFB126 protein, human; 0 / Epididymal Secretory Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / beta-Defensins
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12. Santin AD, Diamandis EP, Bellone S, Soosaipillai A, Cane S, Palmieri M, Burnett A, Roman JJ, Pecorelli S: Human kallikrein 6: a new potential serum biomarker for uterine serous papillary cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 May 1;11(9):3320-5
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  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Human kallikrein 6 (hK6) gene expression levels were evaluated in 29 snap-frozen endometrial biopsies, including 13 USPC, 13 endometrioid carcinomas, and 3 normal endometrial cells by real-time PCR.
  • Secretion of hK6 protein by 14 tumor cultures, including 3 USPC, 3 endometrioid carcinoma, 5 ovarian serous papillary carcinoma, and 3 cervical cancers, was measured using a sensitive ELISA.
  • Finally, hK6 concentration in 79 serum and plasma samples from 22 healthy women, 20 women with benign diseases, 20 women with endometrioid carcinoma, and 17 USPC patients was studied.
  • RESULTS: hK6 gene expression levels were significantly higher in USPC when compared with endometrioid carcinoma (mean copy number by real-time PCR, 1,927 versus 239, USPC versus endometrioid carcinoma; P < 0.01).
  • In vitro hK6 secretion was detected in all primary USPC cell lines tested (mean, 11.5 microg/L) and the secretion levels were similar to those found in primary ovarian serous papillary carcinoma cultures (mean, 9.6 microg/L).
  • In contrast, no hK6 secretion was detectable in primary endometrioid carcinoma and cervical cancer cultures. hK6 serum and plasma concentrations (mean +/- SE) among normal healthy females (2.7 +/- 0.2 microg/L), patients with benign diseases (2.4 +/- 0.2 microg/L), and patients with endometrioid carcinoma (2.6 +/- 0.2 microg/L) were not significantly different.
  • In contrast, serum and plasma hK6 values in USPC patients (6.1 +/- 1.1) were significantly higher than those in the noncancer group (P = 0.006), benign group (P = 0.003), and endometrioid carcinoma patients (P = 0.005).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Kallikreins / blood. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / blood. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / genetics. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15867230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.21.- / KLK6 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins
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13. Gursan N, Sipal S, Calik M, Gundogdu C: P53, bcl-2, ki-67 li (labeling index) status in benign, proliferative, and malignant ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms. Eurasian J Med; 2009 Apr;41(1):10-4
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  • [Title] P53, bcl-2, ki-67 li (labeling index) status in benign, proliferative, and malignant ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVE: Approximately 50% of human malignancies present with mutations in p53, which is the most common tumor suppressor gene involved with human malignancies.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether simultaneous detection of p53, bcl-2 and Ki-67 using immunohistochemical staining can be used as a diagnostic factor in the assessment of human ovarian epithelial tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 75 epithelial ovarian tumors, 15 serous cystadenomas, 15 mucinous cystadenomas, 5 borderline serous cystadenomas, 5 borderline mucinous cystadenomas, 15 serous cystadenocarcinomas, 15 mucinous cystadenocarcinomas and 5 endometrioid carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: Anti-p53 reactivity was observed in 14 tumors, all of which were malignant tumors, and no reactivity was observed in borderline or benign tumors.
  • Overexpression of bcl-2 was observed in 12 benign neoplasms (40%), 5 of which were borderline (50%), but was not observed in any of the malignant tumors.
  • There was a statistically significantly higher level of Ki-67 LI positivity in the malignant tumors than in the benign and borderline tumors (p<0.005).
  • CONCLUSION: These data show significant differences in the expression of these markers in ovarian tumors and suggest a possible role for these tumor-associated genes as supplemental tools in diagnostic pathology.
  • Furthermore, our findings support the redesignation of low malignant potential tumors (current nomenclature) to benign ovarian carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 25610057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1308-8734
  • [Journal-full-title] The Eurasian journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eurasian J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4261648
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ki-67 / Ovarian cancer / bcl-2 / p53
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14. Simon I, Zhuo S, Corral L, Diamandis EP, Sarno MJ, Wolfert RL, Kim NW: B7-h4 is a novel membrane-bound protein and a candidate serum and tissue biomarker for ovarian cancer. Cancer Res; 2006 Feb 1;66(3):1570-5
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  • [Title] B7-h4 is a novel membrane-bound protein and a candidate serum and tissue biomarker for ovarian cancer.
  • Using cDNA database mining strategies and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we identified B7-H4 as a novel gene that is overexpressed in ovarian and breast cancer tissues when compared with normal tissues.
  • Immunohistochemistry experiments show plasma membrane staining in serous ovarian and breast cancer, confirming the tissue specificity and cell surface localization.
  • High levels of B7-H4 protein were detected in ovarian cancer tissue lysates when compared with normal tissues.
  • B7-H4 was present at low levels in all sera but showed an elevated level in serum samples from ovarian cancer patients when compared with healthy controls or women with benign gynecologic diseases.
  • The median B7-H4 concentration in endometrioid and serous histotypes was higher than in mucinous histotypes, consistent with results of immunohistochemical staining.
  • We conclude that B7-H4 is a promising new biomarker for ovarian carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD80 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16452214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD80; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / V-Set Domain-Containing T-Cell Activation Inhibitor 1; 0 / VTCN1 protein, human
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15. Santin AD, Diamandis EP, Bellone S, Marizzoni M, Bandiera E, Palmieri M, Papasakelariou C, Katsaros D, Burnett A, Pecorelli S: Overexpression of kallikrein 10 (hK10) in uterine serous papillary carcinomas. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2006 May;194(5):1296-302
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  • The goal of this study was to investigate the expression and secretion levels in vitro and in vivo of kallikrein 10 in uterine serous papillary carcinoma, a highly aggressive variant of endometrial tumor.
  • Secretion of kallikrein 10 protein by 10 primary tumor cultures including 3 uterine serous papillary carcinomas, 2 endometrioid carcinomas, and 5 ovarian serous papillary tumors was measured using a sensitive ELISA.
  • Finally, kallikrein 10 concentration in 75 serum and plasma samples from 22 healthy women, 20 women with benign diseases, 21 women with endometrioid carcinomas, and 12 uterine serous papillary carcinoma patients was studied.
  • RESULTS: Kallikrein 10 gene expression levels were significantly higher in uterine serous papillary carcinoma when compared with normal endometrial cell biopsies (mean copy number by real time polymerase chain reaction = 743 versus 1.4; uterine serous papillary carcinoma versus endometrioid carcinoma: P < .02).
  • In vitro kallikrein 10 secretion was detected in all primary uterine serous papillary carcinoma cell lines tested (mean = 2.7 microg/L), and the secretion levels were not significantly different to those found in primary ovarian serous papillary tumor cultures (mean 4.2 microg/L).
  • In contrast, no kallikrein 10 secretion was detectable in primary endometrioid carcinomas.
  • Kallikrein 10 serum and plasma concentrations (microg/L; mean +/- SEM) among normal healthy females (0.6 +/- 0.04), patients with benign diseases (0.6 +/- 0.06), and patients with endometrioid carcinomas (0.7 +/- 0.06) were not significantly different.
  • In contrast, serum and plasma kallikrein 10 values in uterine serous papillary carcinoma patients (1.2 +/- 0.1) were significantly higher than those in the non-cancer group (P = .002), benign group (P = .002), and endometrioid carcinoma patients (P = .005).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16647913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.- / KLK10 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins
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16. Okamoto S, Ito K, Sasano H, Moriya T, Niikura H, Terada Y, Sato S, Okamura K, Yaegashi N: Ber-EP4 and anti-calretinin antibodies: a useful combination for differential diagnosis of various histological types of ovarian cancer cells and mesothelial cells. Tohoku J Exp Med; 2005 May;206(1):31-40
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  • [Title] Ber-EP4 and anti-calretinin antibodies: a useful combination for differential diagnosis of various histological types of ovarian cancer cells and mesothelial cells.
  • The differential diagnosis between reactive mesothelial cells and ovarian carcinoma cells is often difficult in cytologic specimens.
  • Immunocytochemical procedures have been utilized in assisting this differential diagnosis, with limitations.
  • Furthermore, previous studies examined only serous type but not other histological types of ovarian carcinoma cases.
  • Therefore, we evaluated the practical value of various epithelial and mesothelial markers in differential diagnosis of these two types of cells.
  • Various types of ovarian carcinoma (serous, n = 22; mucinous, n = 10; endometrioid, n = 7; clear cell, n = 10) and benign mesothelial tissues (n = 15) were studied by immunohistochemistry.
  • We then studied effective panels of antibodies by immunohistochemistry in 43 cytologic specimens of ascites or peritoneal lavage fluid consisting of 20 reactive mesothelium and 23 adenocarcinomas of the ovary.
  • In the tissue specimens, Ber-EP4, a monoclonal antibody of epithelial antigen, and a polyclonal antibody against calretinin, which is expressed in mesothelium, are used in differentiating reactive mesothelial cells from ovarian carcinoma.
  • In conclusion, the combined immunostaining of cytologic specimens for Ber-EP4 and the anti-calretinin antibody is helpful for the differential diagnosis between mesothelial cells and not only serous type, but also mucinous, endometrioid and clear cell types of ovarian cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Epithelium / immunology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Calbindin 2. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / immunology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 15802873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-8727
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
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17. Brinton LA, Sakoda LC, Sherman ME, Frederiksen K, Kjaer SK, Graubard BI, Olsen JH, Mellemkjaer L: Relationship of benign gynecologic diseases to subsequent risk of ovarian and uterine tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2005 Dec;14(12):2929-35
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  • [Title] Relationship of benign gynecologic diseases to subsequent risk of ovarian and uterine tumors.
  • METHODS: Using record linkage techniques, we assessed the relationships between hospital and outpatient admissions for endometriosis or leiomyomas and the development of ovarian and uterine cancers in Denmark between 1978 and 1998.
  • Based on a population-based cohort exceeding 99,000 women, including 2,491 ovarian cancers, 860 borderline ovarian tumors, and 1,398 uterine cancers, we derived relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) associated with overall and histology-specific tumor risks after adjustment for calendar time and reproductive characteristics.
  • RESULTS: Endometriosis seemed to predispose to the development of ovarian cancer, with the association restricted to endometrioid or clear cell malignancies.
  • Five or more years after the diagnosis of endometriosis, the RRs (95% CIs) were 2.53 (1.19-5.38) for endometrioid (7 exposed cases) and 3.37 (1.24-9.14) for clear cell (4 exposed cases) malignancies.
  • CONCLUSION: In combination with clinical, pathologic, and molecular data, our results support that some endometriotic lesions may predispose to clear cell and endometrioid ovarian cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometriosis / complications. Leiomyoma / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / etiology. Uterine Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16365012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Lewis MR, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian involvement by metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma: still a diagnostic challenge. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Feb;30(2):177-84
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  • [Title] Ovarian involvement by metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma: still a diagnostic challenge.
  • Ovarian involvement by metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma, although not an uncommon occurrence, remains a diagnostic challenge.
  • The gross and histologic features of such metastases overlap those of primary ovarian epithelial neoplasms such as endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • The clinical and pathologic features of 86 cases of metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma involving the ovary were reviewed.
  • In 23 cases, an ovarian mass was the first manifestation of the disease.
  • Ovarian involvement was bilateral in 49 cases and unilateral in 33 (including 20 cases in which the only involved ovary measured at least 10 cm in greatest dimension).
  • Many involved ovaries featured smooth capsules without gross evidence of surface involvement by tumor.
  • In 23 cases, foci with a benign or low malignant potential appearance were seen.
  • In 9 of the cases, an ovarian primary was diagnosed or favored initially, and 5 of these cases were initially treated as ovarian primaries.
  • Metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an ovarian mass, even if the mass is large and unilateral or in a young patient, to secure proper treatment of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16434891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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19. Abbott KL, Lim JM, Wells L, Benigno BB, McDonald JF, Pierce M: Identification of candidate biomarkers with cancer-specific glycosylation in the tissue and serum of endometrioid ovarian cancer patients by glycoproteomic analysis. Proteomics; 2010 Feb;10(3):470-81
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  • [Title] Identification of candidate biomarkers with cancer-specific glycosylation in the tissue and serum of endometrioid ovarian cancer patients by glycoproteomic analysis.
  • Epithelial ovarian cancer is diagnosed less than 25% of the time when the cancer is confined to the ovary, leading to 5-year survival rates of less than 30%.
  • Therefore, there is an urgent need for early diagnostics for ovarian cancer.
  • Our study using glycotranscriptome comparative analysis of endometrioid ovarian cancer tissue and normal ovarian tissue led to the identification of distinct differences in the transcripts of a restricted set of glycosyltransferases involved in N-linked glycosylation.
  • In this study, we have extended our observations by the use of selected lectins to perform a targeted glycoproteomic analysis of ovarian cancer and normal ovarian tissues.
  • Our results have identified several glycoproteins that display tumor-specific glycosylation changes.
  • The glycoproteins that were verified were then analyzed further using existing microarray data obtained from benign ovarian adenomas, borderline ovarian adenocarcinomas, and malignant ovarian adenocarcinomas.
  • The verified glycoproteins found to be expressed above control levels in the microarray data sets were then screened for tumor-specific glycan modifications in serum from ovarian cancer patients.
  • Results obtained from two of these glycoprotein markers, periostin and thrombospondin, have confirmed that tumor-specific glycan changes can be used to distinguish ovarian cancer patient serum from normal serum.

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  • (PMID = 19953551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9861
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteomics
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41RR018502; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA064462; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR018502; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA128454; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA128454; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA064462
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteome
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS793820; NLM/ PMC4932840
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20. Aikhionbare FO, Mehrabi S, Kumaresan K, Zavareh M, Olatinwo M, Odunsi K, Partridge E: Mitochondrial DNA sequence variants in epithelial ovarian tumor subtypes and stages. J Carcinog; 2007 Jan 26;6:1
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  • [Title] Mitochondrial DNA sequence variants in epithelial ovarian tumor subtypes and stages.
  • BACKGROUND: A majority of primary ovarian neoplasms arise from cell surface epithelium of the ovaries.
  • Although old age and a positive family history are associated risk factors, the etiology of the epithelial ovarian tumors is not completely understood.
  • Additionally, knowledge of factors involved in the histogenesis of the various subtypes of this tumor as well as those factors that promote progression to advanced stages of ovarian malignancy are largely unknown.
  • METHODS: In this study, we determined the presence of polymorphisms and other sequence variants of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 102 epithelial ovarian tumors including 10 matched normal tissues that paired with some of the tumors.
  • There were relatively high frequencies of three mutations in the 12S rRNA gene at np 772, 773, and 780 in stage IIIC endometrioid tumors, two of which are novel (773delT and 780delC), and occurred with a frequency of 100% (7/7).
  • Furthermore, two mutations were observed in serous tumors only at np 1657 in stage IV (10/10), and at np 8221delA in benign cystadenomas (3/3) and borderline tumors (4/4).
  • A high frequency, 81% (13/16) of TC insertion at np 310 was found only in early stages of serous subtype (benign cystadenomas, 3/3; borderline tumors, 4/4; stage I tumors, 2/5 and matched normal tissues 4/4).
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that certain mtDNA mutations can reliably distinguish the different histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • In addition, these data raise the possibility that certain mtDNA mutations may be useful biomarkers for predicting tumor aggressiveness and may play a potential role in tumorigenesis.

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  • (PMID = 17257433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-3163
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Carcinog
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / P20 MD000272
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1794240
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21. Ma L, Liu FR, Zhang SL: [Detection of circulating hypermethylated tumor-specific RASSF1A DNA in ovarian cancer patients]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Dec;34(12):785-7
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  • [Title] [Detection of circulating hypermethylated tumor-specific RASSF1A DNA in ovarian cancer patients].
  • OBJECTIVE: To detect hypermethylated tumor-specific RASSF1A DNA in the circulation and its significance in ovarian cancers patients.
  • METHODS: Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) was used to study the hypermethylation of RASSF1A in preoperative serum samples from 51 ovarian cancer patients.
  • RESULTS: The RASSF1A gene was not methylated in peripheral blood samples from 51 normal patients and 51 patients with benign ovarian tumors.
  • Hypermethylation of RASSF1A gene was found in circulating tumor-specific DNA in 43.1% of patients (22 out of 51 cases) with ovarian cancers (P < 0.05).
  • There was no difference in hypermethylation of RASSF1A gene amongst various ovarian cancer subtypes (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is a higher frequency of RASSF1A hypermethylation in circulating tumor-specific DNA of ovarian cancer patients.
  • RASSF1A has been postulated to play an important role as tumor suppressor gene and can be silenced by promoter hypermethylation.
  • Such observation may carry diagnostic and prognostic implications when assessing ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Methylation. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / blood. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16545186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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22. Maeda D, Ota S, Takazawa Y, Aburatani H, Nakagawa S, Yano T, Taketani Y, Kodama T, Fukayama M: Glypican-3 expression in clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary. Mod Pathol; 2009 Jun;22(6):824-32
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  • [Title] Glypican-3 expression in clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary.
  • Glypican-3 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is overexpressed in various neoplasms such as hepatocellular carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and testicular yolk sac tumor.
  • Glypican-3 is currently regarded as a tumor marker and potential target for immunotherapy.
  • To clarify the significance of glypican-3 expression in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma, we evaluated glypican-3 expression by immunohistochemistry in nonneoplastic and neoplastic ovaries, and other Müllerian duct derivatives including endometrium in different menstrual phases.
  • Among the benign lesions examined, glypican-3 expression was identified exclusively in the endometrial epithelium in the gestational period.
  • A total of 213 cases of ovarian adenocarcinoma, including 94 clear cell adenocarcinomas, were studied.
  • Glypican-3 expression was observed in 44% of clear cell adenocarcinomas, whereas it was rarely observed in other histological subtypes: mucinous (4%), endometrioid (5%), and serous (11%; P<0.0001).
  • All six ovarian yolk sac tumors showed diffuse immunoreactivity for glypican-3.
  • In cases of clear cell adenocarcinoma, no correlations were found between glypican-3 expression and clinicopathological factors, such as tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, and death rate.
  • Our results suggest that overexpression of glypican-3 may be related to the development and aggressive behavior of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Glypicans / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19329941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glypicans
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23. Mukonoweshuro P, Oriowolo A: Stromal osseous metaplasia in a low-grade ovarian adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Oct;99(1):222-4
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  • [Title] Stromal osseous metaplasia in a low-grade ovarian adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Stromal osseous metaplasia is a rare and curious finding in tumors of the ovary.
  • CASE REPORT: The patient, a 66-year-old P3 G3 white female, had a past history of stage 1c left ovarian, well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma removed in 1981.
  • The tumor recurred 21 years later with prominent stromal osseous metaplasia that had not been present in the primary.
  • DISCUSSION: The pathogenesis of osseous metaplasia in epithelial tumors of the ovary is unclear; however, it is probable that a metaplastic process involving multipotential stromal stem cells results in bone formation.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign osseous metaplasia in ovarian tumors is rare and its histogenesis remains unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16023183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Ueda M, Toji E, Noda S: Germ line and somatic mutations of BRAF V599E in ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Jul-Aug;17(4):794-7
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  • [Title] Germ line and somatic mutations of BRAF V599E in ovarian carcinoma.
  • It has been shown that ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma evolves out of a stepwise progression from benign serous cystadenoma to serous borderline tumor (SBT) to micropapillary serous carcinoma (MPSC), and that BRAF activation is a very early somatic event in the tumorigenesis.
  • We postulated that BRAF could be a SBT susceptibility gene, and investigated both germ line and somatic mutations of BRAF V599E in 104 ovarian cancer patients.
  • BRAF V599E mutation in histologic samples was found in 5 (24%) of 21 SBTs, 1 (33%) of 3 MPSCs, 1 (17%) of 6 endometrioid carcinomas, but not detected in 42 conventional serous carcinomas, 12 mucinous borderline tumors, 10 mucinous, and 10 clear-cell carcinomas.
  • We also found no BRAF V599E mutation in 101 normal healthy women and 10 well-established ovarian cancer cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Serous / genetics. Mutation. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17309670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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25. Salamon C, Tornos C, Chi DS: Borderline endometrioid tumor arising in a paratubal cyst: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Apr;97(1):263-5
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  • [Title] Borderline endometrioid tumor arising in a paratubal cyst: a case report.
  • The following represents the first reported case of an endometrioid tumor of low malignant potential arising in a paratubal cyst.
  • She underwent laparoscopic bilateral ovarian cystectomy and partial right salpingectomy (for a 3-cm torsed paratubal cyst).
  • All frozen-section diagnoses were benign; however, final pathology revealed a borderline tumor of low malignant potential of endometrioid type in the right paratubal cyst.
  • Final pathologic analysis revealed no evidence of persistent borderline tumor.
  • Laparoscopic surgery is an option in the management of adnexal masses; however, rupture or puncture of masses should be avoided when possible to prevent potential tumor dissemination in the event of a malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / etiology. Cysts / complications. Fallopian Tube Diseases / complications

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  • (PMID = 15790473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. McIntosh MW, Liu Y, Drescher C, Urban N, Diamandis EP: Validation and characterization of human kallikrein 11 as a serum marker for diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Aug 01;13(15 Pt 1):4422-8
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  • [Title] Validation and characterization of human kallikrein 11 as a serum marker for diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: The serum tumor marker CA 125 is elevated in most clinically advanced ovarian carcinomas, and currently, one of the most promising early detection strategies for ovarian cancer uses CA 125 level in conjunction with imaging.
  • However, CA 125 is elevated in only 50% of early-stage ovarian cancer and is often elevated in women with benign ovarian tumors and other gynecologic diseases.
  • The human kallikrein 11 (hK11) marker has been reported to have favorable predictive value for ovarian cancer, although, by itself, it may be inferior to CA 125.
  • CA 125, hK11, and the composite marker were evaluated for their performance in identifying ovarian cancer and for temporal stability.
  • RESULTS: hK11 significantly distinguished ovarian cancer cases from healthy controls and is less sensitive to benign ovarian disease than is CA 125.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that hK11 is a valuable new biomarker for ovarian cancer and its temporal stability implies that it may do even better when used in a longitudinal screening program for early detection.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Serine Endopeptidases / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. CA-125 Antigen / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / blood. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Disease Progression. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17671125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA083636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA83636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21CA093568
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / trypsin-like serine protease; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases
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27. Kauppila S, Altinörs M, Väre P, Liakka A, Knuuti E, Nissi R: Primary sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis. APMIS; 2008 Sep;116(9):842-5
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  • [Title] Primary sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis.
  • Although endometriosis is a benign disease, some malignant tumors have been reported to develop in endometriotic lesions, most commonly in the ovary.
  • The relationship between endometriosis and malignancy is not well known, but the majority of endometriosis-associated ovarian malignancies are usually endometrioid adenocarcinomas and clear cell carcinomas.
  • The sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor that histologically closely resembles the sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • Despite its rarity, the correct histological diagnosis of the sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma is crucial to avoid misdiagnosis of a less aggressive tumor.
  • The tumor was diagnosed based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19024607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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28. Gryshkova V, Goncharuk I, Gurtovyy V, Khozhayenko Y, Nespryadko S, Vorobjova L, Usenko V, Gout I, Filonenko V, Kiyamova R: The study of phosphate transporter NAPI2B expression in different histological types of epithelial ovarian cancer. Exp Oncol; 2009 Mar;31(1):37-42
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  • [Title] The study of phosphate transporter NAPI2B expression in different histological types of epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • The identification of markers that are specifically expressed by different histological types of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) may lead to the development of novel and more specific diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
  • Sodium-dependent phosphate transporter NaPi2b (or MX35 ovarian cancer antigen) is a novel perspective marker of EOC.
  • AIM: To examine NaPi2b/MX35 expression in different histological types of epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • METHODS: Here, we describe the analysis of NaPi2b expression in serous (n = 17), endometrioid (n = 8), and mucinous ovarian tumors (n = 3) by Western-blotting (WB), immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR.
  • RESULTS: The results of immunohistochemical and WB analysis showed that benign and well-differentiated malignant papillary serous tumors as well as well-differentiated malignant endometriod tumors overexpress NaPi2b protein.
  • However, no overexpression of NaPi2b was detected in benign and malignant mucinous tumors as well as in poorly differentiated endometriod tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: We have shown the differential expression profile of NaPi2b phosphate transporter at protein level in various histological types of epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • This finding might facilitate the development of more effective approaches for diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / genetics. Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Phosphate Transport Proteins / genetics


29. Tinelli A, Malvasi A, Pellegrino M: An incidental peritoneal serous borderline tumor during laparoscopy for endometriosis. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(5):579-82
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  • [Title] An incidental peritoneal serous borderline tumor during laparoscopy for endometriosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary peritoneal serous borderline tumor (PPSBT) is an uncommon lesion, histologically indistinguishable from non-invasive peritoneal implants found in association with ovarian tumours of borderline malignancy.
  • CASE: A 37-year-old white woman was admitted for acute pelvic pain due to two 5 cm retrouterine bilateral ovarian cysts with an endometrioid aspect.
  • Clinical examination, CA 125, transvaginal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance were used preoperatively to confirm the suspected diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis; conservative laparoscopy with an extensive pelvic toilette of pelvic scarring was performed to preserve her fertility.
  • CONCLUSION: Although PPSBT is a rare entity, it is nonetheless important because of its macroscopic similarity to endometriosis and microscopic similarity to other peritoneal and mullerian proliferations of both benign and malignant biologic potential.
  • It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of endometrioid lesions on the peritoneal surfaces of visceral and parietal peritoneum in patients submitted for gynaecological problems.

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  • (PMID = 19899422.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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30. An HJ, Kim DS, Park YK, Kim SK, Choi YP, Kang S, Ding B, Cho NH: Comparative proteomics of ovarian epithelial tumors. J Proteome Res; 2006 May;5(5):1082-90
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  • [Title] Comparative proteomics of ovarian epithelial tumors.
  • We analyzed 12 ovarian epithelial tumors using 2D PAGE-based comparative proteomics to construct intra- and inter-tumoral distance map trees and to discover surrogate biomarkers indicative of an ovarian tumor.
  • The analysis was performed after laser microdissection of 12 fresh-frozen tissue samples, including 4 serous, 5 mucinous, and 3 endometrioid tumors, with correlation with their histopathological characteristics.
  • Ovarian epithelial tumors and normal tissues showed an apparent separation on the distance map tree.
  • The benign-looking cysts adjacent to the intraepithelial carcinoma (IEC) showed an expression pattern identical to that of the IEC area.
  • The overall gene expression profiles of serous or endometrioid carcinomas appeared to be less affected by grade or stage than by histologic type.
  • The potential candidate biomarkers screened in ovarian tumors and found to be significantly up-regulated in comparison to normal tissues were as follows: NM23, annexin-1, protein phosphatase-1, ferritin light chain, proteasome alpha-6, and NAGK (N-acetyl glucosamine kinase).
  • In conclusion, ovarian mucinous tumors are distinct from other ovarian epithelial tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Proteomics / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cluster Analysis. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Reference Values. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization / methods


31. Presneau N, Shen Z, Provencher D, Mes-Masson AM, Tonin PN: Identification of novel variant, 1484delG in the 3'UTR of H3F3B, a member of the histone 3B replacement family, in ovarian tumors. Int J Oncol; 2005 Jun;26(6):1621-7
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  • [Title] Identification of novel variant, 1484delG in the 3'UTR of H3F3B, a member of the histone 3B replacement family, in ovarian tumors.
  • Previous studies have implicated the chromosomal region at 17q25 as harboring tumor suppressor genes based on the frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) observed in epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC).
  • In contrast to three other EOC cell lines (TOV81D, TOV112D and TOV21G) and primary cultures derived from normal ovarian surface epithelial cells (NOSE), sequence analysis of the cDNA revealed a deletion of G at position 1484 of the transcribed sequence which is located within the 3'UTR of H3F3B.
  • OV90 was derived from ascites fluid of an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma of ovarian origin.
  • The variant allele was identified in 1 of 65 (2%) healthy women with no prior history of cancer and in 5 participants with ovarian tumors comprising of 4 of 79 (5%) malignant EOC, none of 10 low malignancy potential tumors, and 1 of 8 (13%) benign tumors.
  • All carriers of the variant alleles were heterozygous and tumor samples did not exhibit preferential LOH of the normal allele.
  • The variant allele was identified in EOC samples of clear cell (1 of 20), mucinous (1 of 8), mixed cell (1 of 3) and undifferentiated (1 of 2) histopathological subtypes but none of 34 serous or 12 endometrioid subtype tumors.
  • One of 3 mucinous benign tumors also harbored the variant allele.
  • The functional significance of the variant is unknown, however its presence in rare subtypes of ovarian epithelial tumors warrants further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] 3' Untranslated Regions / genetics. Histones / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15870878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / Histones
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32. Gulati A, Kaushik R, Sharma J: Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary associated with benign endometrioid peritoneal implants. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2009 Oct-Dec;52(4):594-5
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  • [Title] Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary associated with benign endometrioid peritoneal implants.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / pathology. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / complications. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Endometrium / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Ovary / pathology. Sclerosis / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19805994.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
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33. Zalutskiĭ IV, Vishnevskaia EE, Kurian LM: [Methodologic and organizational principles of selective screening for cervical, endometrial and ovarian carcinoma]. Vopr Onkol; 2006;52(1):74-7
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  • [Title] [Methodologic and organizational principles of selective screening for cervical, endometrial and ovarian carcinoma].
  • Data are presented on screening for cervical (CC), endometrial (UC) and ovarian (OC) carcinoma carried out in the Republic of Belarus as well as a discussion of logistic and methodologic aspects of the problem.
  • Local "centers for prevention and early diagnosis of reproductive organ tumors" form the backbone of the national system.
  • The rates of detection of such tumor-like ovarian formations as follicular, lutein, endometrioid and para-ovarian cysts increased 2.3-fold, benign tumors--2.2-fold and polycystosis--twofold.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Care Facilities / organization & administration. Endometrial Neoplasms / epidemiology. Mass Screening / methods. Mass Screening / organization & administration. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cysts / diagnosis. Endometrial Hyperplasia / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Republic of Belarus. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / epidemiology


34. Grisaru-Granovsky S, Salah Z, Maoz M, Pruss D, Beller U, Bar-Shavit R: Differential expression of protease activated receptor 1 (Par1) and pY397FAK in benign and malignant human ovarian tissue samples. Int J Cancer; 2005 Jan 20;113(3):372-8
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  • [Title] Differential expression of protease activated receptor 1 (Par1) and pY397FAK in benign and malignant human ovarian tissue samples.
  • Although proteases in general have been implicated in the remodeling of the extracellular tumor microenvironment, the role of cell surface receptors activated by proteolysis is now emerging.
  • In our present study we investigated the expression pattern of protease activated receptor 1 hPar1 in ovarian carcinoma tissue samples.
  • In contrast, no hPar1 expression was detected on the cell surface of normal ovarian epithelium.
  • In early stages of ovarian carcinoma (Ia), the contra lateral normal ovary showed strong PAR1 expression as opposed to the lack of expression in the ovarian epithelium obtained from normal individuals.
  • Phosphorylated FAK was seen in invasive ovarian carcinoma, but not in the normal ovarian epithelium.
  • The abundant hPar1 levels in pathological malignant ovarian carcinoma is likely to transmit signals leading to the phosphorylation of FAK and thereby alterations in the integrin functional state.
  • Altogether our data suggest that hPar1 and FAK cooperate to promote ovarian cancer malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, PAR-1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / genetics. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Epithelium / metabolism. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Focal Adhesion Kinase 1. Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization. Integrins / genetics. Integrins / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Ovary / metabolism. Ovary / pathology. Phosphorylation. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Vitronectin / genetics. Receptors, Vitronectin / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15455382.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, PAR-1; 0 / Receptors, Vitronectin; 0 / integrin alphaVbeta5; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Kinase 1; EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / PTK2 protein, human
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35. Kurman RJ, Shih IeM: The origin and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer: a proposed unifying theory. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):433-43
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  • [Title] The origin and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer: a proposed unifying theory.
  • Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy.
  • Efforts at early detection and new therapeutic approaches to reduce mortality have been largely unsuccessful, because the origin and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer are poorly understood.
  • This has led to the proposal that ovarian cancer develops de novo.
  • Studies have shown that epithelial ovarian cancer is not a single disease but is composed of a diverse group of tumors that can be classified based on distinctive morphologic and molecular genetic features.
  • One group of tumors, designated type I, is composed of low-grade serous, low-grade endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous and transitional (Brenner) carcinomas.
  • These tumors generally behave in an indolent fashion, are confined to the ovary at presentation and, as a group, are relatively genetically stable.
  • Moreover, the carcinomas exhibit a shared lineage with the corresponding benign cystic neoplasm, often through an intermediate (borderline tumor) step, supporting the morphologic continuum of tumor progression.
  • Recent studies have also provided cogent evidence that what have been traditionally thought to be primary ovarian tumors actually originate in other pelvic organs and involve the ovary secondarily.
  • Thus, it has been proposed that serous tumors arise from the implantation of epithelium (benign or malignant) from the fallopian tube.
  • Endometrioid and clear cell tumors have been associated with endometriosis that is regarded as the precursor of these tumors.
  • As it is generally accepted that endometriosis develops from endometrial tissue by retrograde menstruation, it is reasonable to assume that the endometrium is the source of these ovarian neoplasms.


36. Ye B, Skates S, Mok SC, Horick NK, Rosenberg HF, Vitonis A, Edwards D, Sluss P, Han WK, Berkowitz RS, Cramer DW: Proteomic-based discovery and characterization of glycosylated eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and COOH-terminal osteopontin fragments for ovarian cancer in urine. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jan 15;12(2):432-41
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  • [Title] Proteomic-based discovery and characterization of glycosylated eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and COOH-terminal osteopontin fragments for ovarian cancer in urine.
  • PURPOSE: The objective was to identify and characterize low molecular weight proteins/peptides in urine and their posttranslational modifications that might be used as a screening tool for ovarian cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Urine samples collected preoperatively from postmenopausal women with ovarian cancer and benign conditions and from nonsurgical controls were analyzed by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.
  • Quantitative and semiquantitative ELISAs were developed for preliminary validation in patients of 128 ovarian cancer, 52 benign conditions, 44 other cancers, and 188 healthy controls.
  • RESULTS: A protein (m/z approximately 17,400) with higher peak intensities in cancer patients than in benign conditions and controls was identified and subsequently defined as eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN).
  • A glycosylated form of EDN was specifically elevated in ovarian cancer patients.
  • Modified forms EDN and osteopontin fragments were elevated in early-stage ovarian cancers and a combination of both resulted to 93% specificity and 72% sensitivity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Specific elevated posttranslationally modified urinary EDN and osteopontin COOH-terminal fragments in ovarian cancer might lead to potential noninvasive screening tests for early diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / urine. Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin / urine. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / urine. Ovarian Neoplasms / urine. Sialoglycoproteins / urine
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / urine. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / urine. Amino Acid Sequence. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / surgery. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / urine. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / surgery. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / urine. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Glycosylation. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Osteopontin. Prognosis. Proteome. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Jan 15;12(2):323-7 [16428467.001]
  • (PMID = 16428483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50 CA 105009; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA 111949-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 86381
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proteome; 0 / SPP1 protein, human; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin; EC 3.1.- / Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin
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37. Hu CJ, Zhang F, Chen YJ, Sun XM, Zheng JF: [Correlation of hK6 expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Jul;31(7):520-3
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  • [Title] [Correlation of hK6 expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To approach the relationship between the expression of hK6 in ovarian neoplasm and clinicopathological variables and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients for finding a new tumor marker of the ovarian cancer.
  • METHODS: The expression of hK6 was detected by immunohistochemistry in 19 cases of benign, 11 cases of borderline and 45 cases of malignant ovarian neoplasms and statistically analyzed whether its expression correlate with clinicopathological variables and prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer.
  • RESULTS: The expression of hK6 in ovarian cancer tissues (60.0%) was significantly higher than that in the benign (15.8%) and borderline (27.3%) ovarian neoplasm tissues (P < 0.01).
  • The expression of hK6 in higher-grade ovarian cancer tissues (68.4% ) was higher than that in low-grade ones (14.3%, P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of hK6 in ovarian cancer was higher than that in benign and borderline ovarian neoplasms.
  • The expression of hK6 is higher in the ovarian cancer of late stage, higher-grade, with lymph node metastasis and is associated with a poorer prognosis. hK6 may become a new markers in prediction of prognosis of the patients with ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Kallikreins / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cystadenoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19950700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.- / KLK6 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins
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38. Popadiuk CM, Xiong J, Wells MG, Andrews PG, Dankwa K, Hirasawa K, Lake BB, Kao KR: Antisense suppression of pygopus2 results in growth arrest of epithelial ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Apr 1;12(7 Pt 1):2216-23
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  • [Title] Antisense suppression of pygopus2 results in growth arrest of epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • In epithelial ovarian cancer, constitutively active Wnt signaling is restricted to one (endometrioid) tumor subtype.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the level of expression and growth requirements of human Pygopus2 (hPygo2) protein in epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Expression and subcellular localization of hPygo2 was determined in epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines and tumors using Northern blot, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence.
  • Immunohistochemistry was done on 125 archived patient epithelial ovarian cancer tumors representing all epithelial ovarian cancer subtypes.
  • T-cell factor-dependent transcription levels were determined in epithelial ovarian cancer cells using TOPflash/FOPflash in vivo assays.
  • RESULTS: All six epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines and 82% of the patient samples overexpressed nuclear hPygo2 compared with control cells and benign disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: hPygo2 is unexpectedly widely expressed in, and required in the absence of, Wnt signaling for malignant growth of epithelial ovarian cancer, the deadliest gynecologic malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / drug effects. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / drug therapy. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Mice. Neoplasms, Experimental / therapy. Structure-Activity Relationship. Transplantation, Heterologous. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 16609037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / PYGO2 protein, human
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39. Lee S, Garner EI, Welch WR, Berkowitz RS, Mok SC: Over-expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Aug;106(2):311-7
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  • [Title] Over-expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in ovarian clear cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Unlike other histological types of epithelial ovarian carcinoma, ovarian clear cell carcinoma is known to have very poor response to therapy even when discovered in its early stages.
  • Since tumor hypoxia has been shown to be strongly associated with poor prognosis, deregulation of the representative factor of tissue hypoxia; hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and related protein; Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) may be associated with poor prognosis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Immunolocalization of both HIF-1alpha and VHL was performed on 56 cases of paraffin-embedded tissue sections of four different histological types of epithelial ovarian carcinoma and 5 cases of benign ovarian tumors as a control.
  • Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of both HIF1A and VHL was performed on RNA isolated from 61 microdissected frozen tissues of four different histological types of epithelial ovarian carcinoma and 6 cases of normal ovarian epithelial cells.
  • RESULTS: HIF-1alpha expression levels were significantly higher in ovarian clear cell carcinoma than in other histological types (P=0.001).
  • Among endometrioid, serous, and mucinous carcinoma, there were no differences in HIF-1alpha expression (P=0.643).
  • There was a negative correlation between HIF-1alpha and VHL in serous (r=-0.661, P=0.027) and in endometrioid carcinoma (r=-0.657 P=0.039), but no correlation was found between HIF-1alpha and VHL expression levels in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (P=0.60).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the role of hypoxia may change according to the histological type of ovarian carcinoma.
  • High expression of HIF-1alpha and its independence from VHL in ovarian clear cell carcinoma may confer chemoresistance in this histological type.

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  • (PMID = 17532031.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA103595; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA103595-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA103595-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105009-030002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA105009; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA105009-030002; United States / PHS HHS / / P50105009; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA133057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33CA103595
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS28316; NLM/ PMC1995602
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40. Osada R, Horiuchi A, Kikuchi N, Yoshida J, Hayashi A, Ota M, Katsuyama Y, Melillo G, Konishi I: Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha, hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha, and von Hippel-Lindau protein in epithelial ovarian neoplasms and allelic loss of von Hippel-Lindau gene: nuclear expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha is an independent prognostic factor in ovarian carcinoma. Hum Pathol; 2007 Sep;38(9):1310-20
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  • [Title] Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha, hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha, and von Hippel-Lindau protein in epithelial ovarian neoplasms and allelic loss of von Hippel-Lindau gene: nuclear expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha is an independent prognostic factor in ovarian carcinoma.
  • The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcriptional factor with important roles in tumor biology.
  • To clarify the possible involvement of the HIF-alpha subunit and von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein in the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma, we analyzed the immunohistochemical expressions of HIF-1alpha, HIF-2alpha, and VHL in 107 cases of epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • The frequency of the cytoplasmic expression of HIF-2alpha in carcinomas was higher than that in benign and borderline tumors (P < .0001).
  • Although LOH at the VHL gene locus was frequent in ovarian carcinomas (24%), there is no significant correlation between LOH and loss of VHL expression.
  • The log-rank test showed that nuclear positive immunostaining for HIF-1alpha (P = .002) and cytoplasmic positive immunostaining for HIF-2alpha (P = .0112) in tumor cells are associated with poor prognosis of patients with ovarian carcinoma.
  • These results show that the HIF-alpha subunit represents an important biomarker in the evaluation of the prognosis of patients with ovarian carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / chemistry. Carcinoma / pathology. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / analysis. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / chemistry. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Loss of Heterozygosity. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / analysis

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  • [ErratumIn] Hum Pathol. 2008 Jan;39(1):147. Mellilo, Giovanni [corrected to Melillo, Giovanni]
  • (PMID = 17555795.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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41. Esheba GE, Pate LL, Longacre TA: Oncofetal protein glypican-3 distinguishes yolk sac tumor from clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):600-7
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  • [Title] Oncofetal protein glypican-3 distinguishes yolk sac tumor from clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.
  • Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary is the surface epithelial neoplasm most often confused with primitive germ cell tumors, particularly yolk sac tumor (YST) and dysgerminoma.
  • To investigate whether GPC3 is useful in distinguishing YST from ovarian CCC, we studied the expression of GPC3 in a large series of ovarian neoplasms and compared it to the expression profiles of CK7 and alpha-fetoprotein.
  • Tissue microarrays containing over 400 benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms, including 34 CCCs were stained with monoclonal GPC3 (clone 1G12, Biomosaics, Burlington, VT).
  • These arrays contained a wide assortment of ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms and sex cord stromal neoplasms, as well as germ cell tumors.
  • All but one YST (97%), including those associated with mixed germ cell tumor were positive for GPC3, whereas all teratomas and embryonal carcinomas were negative.
  • Most CCCs (83%) were completely negative for GPC3, as were 99% serous, 94% endometrioid, and 100% mucinous tumors.
  • All other tissues, including normal ovary were negative for GPC3.
  • GPC3 seems to be a promising diagnostic marker for differentiating YST from ovarian CCC (P < 0.0001).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / chemistry. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / chemistry. Glypicans / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-7 / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tissue Array Analysis. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18277882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GPC3 protein, human; 0 / Glypicans; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 0 / oncofetal antigens
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42. Nolen B, Marrangoni A, Velikokhatnaya L, Prosser D, Winans M, Gorelik E, Lokshin A: A serum based analysis of ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Jan;112(1):47-54
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  • [Title] A serum based analysis of ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis.
  • OBJECTIVES: Ovarian epithelial carcinoma can be subdivided into separate histological subtypes including clear cell, endometrioid, mucinous, and serous.
  • This distinction could potentially be reflected in the levels of tumor produced factors that enter into the circulation and serve as biomarkers of malignant growth.
  • Here, we analyze levels of circulating biomarkers from a diverse set of patients diagnosed with ovarian carcinoma to identify biomarker trends and relationships associated with distinct carcinoma histotypes and divergent tumorigenic pathways.
  • METHODS: We utilize multiplexed bead-based immunoassays to measure serum levels of a diverse array of fifty-eight biomarkers from the sera of patients diagnosed with various histological subtypes of ovarian carcinoma and benign lesions.
  • Levels of each biomarker are compared statistically across carcinoma subtypes as well as with benign cases.
  • RESULTS: A total of 21 serum biomarkers differ significantly between patients diagnosed with ovarian carcinomas and benign cases.
  • Nine of these biomarkers are specific for carcinomas identified as clear cell, endometrioid, or mucinous in histology, while two biomarkers are specific for the serous histology.
  • Identified biomarkers include traditional and emerging tumor markers, cytokines and receptors, hormones, and adhesion- and metastasis-related proteins.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate here that the divergent histology-based tumorigenic pathways proposed for ovarian epithelial carcinomas are associated with distinct profiles of circulating biomarkers.
  • Continued investigation into the relationships between these factors should reveal new insights into the complex mechanisms underlying ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis.

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  • (PMID = 19007974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117452-04S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117452-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098642-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108990; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117452; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098642-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117452-04S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA136019-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA136019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117452-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117452-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117452-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098642-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108990-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117452-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117452-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117452-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108990-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098642-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA136019-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108990-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108990-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117452-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS92465; NLM/ PMC2657848
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43. Khunamornpong S, Lerwill MF, Siriaunkgul S, Suprasert P, Pojchamarnwiputh S, Chiangmai WN, Young RH: Carcinoma of extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder metastatic to the ovary: a report of 16 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):366-79
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  • [Title] Carcinoma of extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder metastatic to the ovary: a report of 16 cases.
  • Information on ovarian metastasis of carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder is limited.
  • The patients ranged from 21 to 87 years (mean, 59 years); 7 presented to gynecologists with nonspecific pelvic symptoms similar to primary ovarian neoplasms.
  • The primary tumor was identified before the detection of the ovarian lesions in 5 cases, was simultaneously detected with the ovarian metastases in 9, and was diagnosed postoperatively in 2.
  • All but one case had bilateral ovarian involvement.
  • The thirty-one ovarian lesions included twenty-nine grossly abnormal ovaries that were enlarged (range, 3.0-16.5 cm, mean, 9.4 cm) and 2 ovaries with only microscopic involvement.
  • Microscopically, ovarian surface implants were seen in 66%, multinodular growth in 58%, and infiltrative stromal invasion in 81%.
  • Mucinous epithelial differentiation was seen in 81%, sometimes with foci of benign-like or borderline-like epithelium simulating primary ovarian mucinous neoplasia.
  • Signet ring cells were present in sufficient quantity for a diagnosis of Krukenberg tumor in four tumors.
  • Nonmucinous carcinomatous components included adenocarcinoma with high-grade endometrioid-like morphology in 2 cases, papillary adenocarcinoma simulating mixed müllerian epithelial adenocarcinoma in 1, and undifferentiated carcinoma in 2.
  • Although the diagnosis of a metastatic tumor to the ovary is possible in most of the cases based on standard diagnostic criteria, problems in the differential diagnosis may be posed by morphologic patterns that overlap strikingly with primary ovarian neoplasms, benign, borderline, and malignant, as discussed herein.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18580314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Kato N, Sasou S, Motoyama T: Expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta) in clear cell tumors and endometriosis of the ovary. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jan;19(1):83-9
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  • [Title] Expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta) in clear cell tumors and endometriosis of the ovary.
  • Clear cell tumors of the ovary are frequently associated with ovarian endometriosis.
  • Microarray analysis revealed recently that hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta) was significantly upregulated in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.
  • In the present study, we examined 30 clear cell tumors (26 malignant, three borderline, and one benign) and 40 endometriotic cysts to clarify if differentiation into the clear cell lineage already begins in ovarian endometriosis.
  • All of the 30 clear cell tumors, including borderline and benign ones, showed immunohistochemical expression of HNF-1beta in the nucleus, while other types of ovarian epithelial tumors (endometrioid, serous, mucinous, and Brenner tumors) rarely expressed it.
  • In nine of the 12 cases, distinct nuclear immunostaining for HNF-1beta was detected in the endometriotic epithelium, as well as in the clear cell tumor.
  • Our results indicate that HNF-1beta is an excellent molecular marker for ovarian clear cell tumors, including benign, borderline and malignant lesions.
  • Early differentiation into the clear cell lineage takes place in ovarian endometriosis, not only in atypical endometriosis, but also in endometriosis with degenerative and regenerative changes, and this is probably responsible for the frequent occurrence of clear cell carcinoma in ovarian endometriosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta / biosynthesis. Ovarian Diseases / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Epithelial Cells / chemistry. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Ovarian Cysts / metabolism. Ovarian Cysts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16258507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 138674-15-4 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta
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45. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Title] Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.
  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • In 8 cases, NSCNEC was associated with other epithelial neoplasms, including mucinous neoplasms of low malignant potential, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, mixed endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma, and a high-grade carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • In 2 cases, the tumor was associated with a mature cystic teratoma; one of them also containing an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • A single case was associated with a benign ovarian cyst.
  • The latter case had a dermoid cyst in the contralateral ovary.
  • NSCNEC represented anywhere from 10% to 90% of the ovarian tumor.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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46. Bar JK, Słomska I, Rabczyńki J, Noga L, Gryboś M: Expression of p53 protein phosphorylated at serine 20 and serine 392 in malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms: correlation with clinicopathological parameters of tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Nov;19(8):1322-8
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  • [Title] Expression of p53 protein phosphorylated at serine 20 and serine 392 in malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms: correlation with clinicopathological parameters of tumors.
  • The study investigated the expression of p53 protein phosphorylated at serine 20 (Ser20) and Ser392 and the association between clinicopathological parameters of ovarian neoplasms with respect to p53 protein overexpression.
  • METHODS: p53 protein expression was evaluated on tissues from malignant and benign ovarian tumors.
  • RESULTS: The correlation between p53 protein overexpression and p53-Ser392 phosphorylation was found in ovarian carcinomas (P = 0.001, r = +0.27).
  • In the total group of ovarian carcinomas, significant differences were observed in p53 protein overexpression between well (G1) and poor (G3) tumor grades (P = 0.005) and between serous and endometrioid types of tumor (P = 0.04), whereas p53-Ser20 phosphorylation was associated with advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P = 0.004) and high tumor grade (P = 0.02).
  • In p53-positive ovarian carcinomas, p53-Ser392 phosphorylation was associated with advanced tumor stage (P = 0.02) and high tumor grade (P = 0.049).
  • p53-Ser20 phosphorylation was associated with low tumor grade of p53-positive ovarian carcinomas (P = 0.02) and with high tumor grade of p53-negative ovarian carcinomas (P = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed that p53 phosphorylation at Ser20 and Ser392 is an early event in ovarian tumor development.
  • The authors suggest that the expression of p53 protein phosphorylated at Ser20 and Ser392 in ovarian carcinomas determines their individual clinical features depending on p53 protein status and may be useful biological biomarkers characterizing their behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Serine / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


47. Kalyanasundaram K, Ganesan R, Perunovic B, McCluggage WG: Diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas with no stromal response: report of a series, including cases with cervical and ovarian involvement and emphasis on the potential for misdiagnosis. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;18(2):138-43
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  • [Title] Diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas with no stromal response: report of a series, including cases with cervical and ovarian involvement and emphasis on the potential for misdiagnosis.
  • Endometrial carcinomas, particularly of endometrioid type, can invade the myometrium or cervix without eliciting a stromal desmoplastic or inflammatory response and have been referred to as diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas.
  • The neoplasms consisted of 12 endometrioid carcinomas, 1 mixed endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma, and 1 serous carcinoma.
  • Several of the cases were seen in consultation and the pattern of infiltration raised a number of differential diagnoses, both benign and malignant, depending on the site of tumor involvement, including adenomyosis, adenomyoma, primary endocervical glandular lesions, cervical mesonephric remnants, endometriosis or tuboendometrioid metaplasia, and ovarian cortical inclusion cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


48. Viganó P, Somigliana E, Chiodo I, Abbiati A, Vercellini P: Molecular mechanisms and biological plausibility underlying the malignant transformation of endometriosis: a critical analysis. Hum Reprod Update; 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):77-89
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  • Although population-based studies have unequivocally reported an increased risk of ovarian cancer in women with endometriosis, the biological evidence supporting the idea of endometriosis as a preneoplastic condition is scanty and not well substantiated.
  • According to some allelotyping studies, from one-third to one-half of endometriosis lesions would harbour somatic genetic changes in chromosomal regions supposed to contain genes involved in ovarian tumourigenesis, especially for the endometrioid histotype.
  • These findings would be consistent with the progression model for carcinogenesis from the benign precursor to ovarian cancer but they could not be unequivocally replicated.
  • A single group has found missense mutations and deletions of PTEN gene in about 20% of ovarian endometriotic cysts.
  • Moreover, in a model of genetically engineered mice harbouring an oncogenic allele of K-ras resulting in benign lesions reminiscent of endometriosis, a conditional deletion of PTEN caused the progression towards the endometrioid tumour.
  • Based on these data, the causal link between endometriosis and ovarian endometrioid/clear cell carcinomas remains to be defined both in terms of entity of association and of underlying molecular mechanisms.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometriosis / genetics. Endometriosis / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chromosome Aberrations. Cytogenetic Analysis. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Loss of Heterozygosity. Mice. Mutation. Oncogenes / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16172112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-4786
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction update
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod. Update
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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49. Wang H, Rosen DG, Wang H, Fuller GN, Zhang W, Liu J: Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 and 5 are differentially regulated in ovarian cancer of different histologic types. Mod Pathol; 2006 Sep;19(9):1149-56
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 and 5 are differentially regulated in ovarian cancer of different histologic types.
  • Overexpression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP5 contributes to the invasiveness and progression of several human cancers, but their role and clinical significance in ovarian cancer has not been investigated in detail.
  • We examined IGFBP2 and IGFBP5 expression levels using two tissue microarrays, one containing six normal surface epithelium, six benign serous cysts, 10 serous borderline tumors, eight low-grade, and 20 high-grade serous carcinomas.
  • The other comprising 441 ovarian cancers of different histologic types linked to a clinicopathologic database.
  • Each tumor was sampled in duplicate with a 1.0-mm punch core needle.
  • IGFBP2 and IGFBP5 were overexpressed in high-grade serous carcinomas compared to normal surface epithelium, benign serous cysts, serous borderline tumors, or low-grade serous carcinoma.
  • They were differentially expressed in different types of ovarian carcinomas, being more often expressed at high levels in high-grade serous carcinoma, malignant mixed mullerian tumors and undifferentiated carcinoma, and more often expressed at low levels or not at all in clear cell and mucinous carcinomas.
  • We concluded that IGFBP2 and IGFBP5 might play a role in the development of high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma, but not in mucinous or clear cell ovarian carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5 / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / mortality. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / mortality. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Published online 26 May 2006.
  • (PMID = 16729015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5
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50. Nezhat F, Datta MS, Hanson V, Pejovic T, Nezhat C, Nezhat C: The relationship of endometriosis and ovarian malignancy: a review. Fertil Steril; 2008 Nov;90(5):1559-70
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  • [Title] The relationship of endometriosis and ovarian malignancy: a review.
  • Studies have confirmed histologic transition from benign endometriosis to ovarian malignancy, including malignant transformation of extraovarian endometriosis.
  • The prevalence of endometriosis in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, especially in endometrioid and clear cell types, has been confirmed to be higher than in the general population.
  • Ovarian cancers and adjacent endometriotic lesions have shown common genetic alterations, such as PTEN, p53, and bcl gene mutations, suggesting a possible malignant genetic transition spectrum.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Endometriosis / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genomic Instability. Humans. Incidence. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Interleukin-1 / metabolism. Interleukin-8 / metabolism. Mutation. Prevalence. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Fertil Steril. 2009 May;91(5):e35; author reply e36 [19338996.001]
  • [CommentIn] Fertil Steril. 2009 May;91(5):e37; author reply e36 [19342031.001]
  • (PMID = 18993168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IL8 protein, human; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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51. O'Neill CJ, McCluggage WG: p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis. Adv Anat Pathol; 2006 Jan;13(1):8-15
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  • [Title] p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis.
  • In cervical squamous lesions, p16 is positive in most high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and in some cases of low-grade CIN, usually those associated with high-risk HPV. p16 may be useful to identify small focal high-grade CIN lesions, to distinguish some cases of CIN involving immature metaplastic squamous epithelium from immature metaplastic squamous epithelium not involved by CIN and to distinguish high-grade CIN from benign mimics.
  • In cervical glandular lesions, p16 is useful, as part of a panel, in the distinction between adenocarcinoma in situ (diffusely positive) and benign mimics, including tuboendometrial metaplasia and endometriosis, which are usually p16-negative or focally positive. p16 may be used, in combination with other markers, to distinguish between a cervical adenocarcinoma (diffuse positivity) and an endometrioid-type endometrial adenocarcinoma (negative or focally positive).
  • In the uterus, p16 positivity is more common and widespread in leiomyosarcomas than leiomyomas, and this may be a useful aid to diagnosis, although problematic uterine smooth muscle neoplasms have not been extensively studied.
  • Metastatic cervical adenocarcinomas in the ovary are usually diffusely p16-positive, and because these may closely mimic a primary ovarian endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma, this may be a valuable diagnostic aid, although p16 expression in primary ovarian adenocarcinomas of these morphologic subtypes has not been widely investigated.
  • Some ovarian serous carcinomas, similar to their uterine counterparts, are p16-positive.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemistry. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Genes, p16. Genitalia, Female / chemistry. Genitalia, Female / physiopathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. Vulvar Neoplasms / chemistry. Vulvar Neoplasms / classification. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16462152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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52. McCluggage WG: Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in cervical pathology. Pathology; 2007 Feb;39(1):97-111
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  • As with biopsies from other sites in the female genital tract, immunohistochemistry is now being increasingly used in cervical pathology as an aid to diagnosis.
  • In the broad field of cervical glandular lesions, topics covered include: the value of markers such as MIB1, p16 and bcl-2 in distinguishing adenocarcinoma in situ and glandular dysplasia from benign mimics; markers of mesonephric lesions, including CD10; markers of value in the diagnosis of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, such as HIK1083; markers of value in distinguishing metastatic cervical adenocarcinoma in the ovary from primary ovarian endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • A panel of markers, comprising oestrogen receptor, vimentin, monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen and p16, is of value in distinguishing between a cervical adenocarcinoma and an endometrial adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type.
  • Markers of use in the diagnosis of cervical neuroendocrine neoplasms, including small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, are discussed.
  • It is stressed that small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas may be negative with most of the commonly used neuroendocrine markers and this does not preclude the diagnosis. p63, a useful marker of squamous neoplasms within the cervix, is of value in distinguishing small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (p63 negative) from small cell squamous carcinoma (p63 positive) and in confirming that a poorly differentiated carcinoma is squamous in type.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17365826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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53. Lee JH, Zhang X, Shin BK, Lee ES, Kim I: Mac-2 binding protein and galectin-3 expression in mucinous tumours of the ovary: an annealing control primer system and immunohistochemical study. Pathology; 2009;41(3):229-33
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  • [Title] Mac-2 binding protein and galectin-3 expression in mucinous tumours of the ovary: an annealing control primer system and immunohistochemical study.
  • AIM: We used a new differential display method, the annealing control primer (ACP) system, to analyse the differentially expressed genes in mucinous ovarian tumours.
  • To verify the corresponding target gene, immunohistochemical staining was performed on various epithelial tumours of the ovary.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The ACP-based reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that 21 genes were upregulated in the mucinous ovarian adenoma and 14 genes were upregulated in the mucinous ovarian carcinoma.
  • Among them, we selected one upregulated gene, the Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2 BP), and verified the expression of the Mac-2 BP and its ligand, galectin-3, in a variety of epithelial ovarian tumours by immunohistochemistry.
  • Positive expression of the Mac-2 BP was significantly higher in the mucinous ovarian tumours compared to the other epithelial tumours.
  • Mac-2 BP expression was significantly increased in the borderline and malignant tumours compared to the benign tumours.
  • Galectin-3 expression was more frequent in clear cell carcinomas, serous tumours and mucinous tumours than in endometrioid and transitional tumours.
  • However, there were no differences in galectin-3 expression in comparisons among benign, borderline and malignant mucinous and serous tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the Mac-2 BP may play a role in the development and progression of mucinous ovarian tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. DNA Primers. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19291534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / TAA90K protein, human
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54. Tsuchiya T, Nakahama K, Asakawa Y, Maemura T, Tanaka M, Takeda S, Morita M, Morita I: The reduction in pigment epithelium-derived factor is a sign of malignancy in ovarian cancer expressing low-level of vascular endothelial growth factor. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2009 Feb;25(2):104-9
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  • [Title] The reduction in pigment epithelium-derived factor is a sign of malignancy in ovarian cancer expressing low-level of vascular endothelial growth factor.
  • The aim of this study was to characterise the roles of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors on ovarian cancer.
  • METHODS: The expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, angiogenic factor) and pigment epithelial growth factor (PEDF, anti-angiogenic factor) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in ovarian tumors.
  • Microvessel density (MVD) was evaluated by the total microvessel length in high-power field of tumor tissue preparations.
  • RESULTS: MVD correlated with tumor malignancy.
  • The VEGF expression levels in some malignant tumors (VEGF-L) were as low as that in benign tumors.
  • The PEDF expression levels in VEGF-L malignant tumors were significantly lower than those in benign tumors.
  • On the other hand, the PEDF expression levels in VEGF-H malignant tumor tissues were not significantly different from those in benign tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: The reduction in PEDF expression levels may be, in part, responsible for tumor malignancy in VEGF-L ovarian tumors.
  • Furthermore, PEDF may be a useful marker of malignancy in VEGF-L ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / physiopathology. Eye Proteins / genetics. Nerve Growth Factors / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology. Serpins / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / physiopathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / blood supply. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / physiopathology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Microcirculation / physiology. Neoplasms / blood supply. Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms / physiopathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19253105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-0766
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Serpins; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / pigment epithelium-derived factor
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55. Rossing MA, Cushing-Haugen KL, Wicklund KG, Doherty JA, Weiss NS: Risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in relation to benign ovarian conditions and ovarian surgery. Cancer Causes Control; 2008 Dec;19(10):1357-64
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  • [Title] Risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in relation to benign ovarian conditions and ovarian surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: Some forms of ovarian neoplasms may be preventable through the removal of precursor lesions.
  • We assessed the risk associated with a prior diagnosis of, and ovarian surgery following, ovarian cysts and endometriosis, with a focus on characterizing risk among tumor subgroups.
  • METHODS: Information was collected during in-person interviews with 812 women with ovarian cancer diagnosed in western Washington State from 2002 to 2005 and 1,313 population-based controls.
  • RESULTS: The risk of a borderline mucinous ovarian tumor associated with a history of an ovarian cyst was increased (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-2.8), but did not vary notably according to receipt of subsequent ovarian surgery.
  • While risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer was slightly increased among women with a cyst who had no subsequent ovarian surgery, it was reduced when a cyst diagnosis was followed by surgery (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.9).
  • Women with a history of endometriosis had a threefold increased risk of endometrioid and clear cell invasive tumors, with a lesser risk increase among women who underwent subsequent ovarian surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest differences in the relation of ovarian cysts and endometriosis with risk of specific subtypes of ovarian cancer as well as the possibility that ovarian surgery in women with these conditions may lower the risk of invasive disease.

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  • (PMID = 18704718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7225
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer causes & control : CCC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Causes Control
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087538-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087538-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087538; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA87538; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087538-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087538-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087538-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087538-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087538-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS146032; NLM/ PMC2751585
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56. Ota T, Gilks CB, Longacre T, Leung PC, Auersperg N: HOXA7 in epithelial ovarian cancer: interrelationships between differentiation and clinical features. Reprod Sci; 2007 Sep;14(6):605-14
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  • [Title] HOXA7 in epithelial ovarian cancer: interrelationships between differentiation and clinical features.
  • Interrelationships between HOXA7 expression and ovarian cancer progression are investigated by cDNA array and by immunohistochemistry of normal ovaries and 538 epithelial ovarian tumor microarrays.
  • HOXA7 mRNA expression was higher in carcinomas than in benign tumors.
  • There were significant associations of strong HOXA7 staining of stroma and tumor nuclei with the clear cell histotype (stroma: P = .0022, nuclei: P = .0003) and of weak/absent staining with serous carcinomas.
  • Tumor E-cadherin expression correlated significantly with HOX7 staining in stroma (P = .0002) but not within tumors.
  • HOXA7 staining of tumor cell nuclei is correlated significantly with improved disease-specific survival (P = .0104), which is suggestive of the biological and potentially clinical importance of subcellular HOXA7 localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / chemistry. Cell Differentiation. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Homeodomain Proteins / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry


57. Guo DH, Pang SJ, Shen Y: [Atypical endometriosis: a clinicopathologic study of 163 cases]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Nov;43(11):831-4
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  • The pathologic changes of AEM including its glandular epithelium, stroma, background and the conditions coexisting with tumor were observed.
  • Of 172 AEM foci of 163 patients, 168 were in the ovary, and the other 4 were in the fallopian tube, cervix and uterine serosa respectively.
  • The rate of ovarian AEM was 6.81% of endometriosis.
  • AEM associated with tumour was found in 26 cases (15.95%) and among 27 of ovarian AEM, 15 were malignant, 9 borderline and 3 benign.
  • The walls of AEM cyst were presented with three layers of epithelium, endometrioid stroma and fibrosis-collagen.
  • The endometrioid stroma were usually thin in contrast to the fibro-collagen tissue, which was often thick with scarred background.
  • The transformation from AEM to tumor was found in most of the malignant tumors (14/15, 93%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: AEM lesions hold some features of both EM and tumor, which may have a relatively higher potential for tumorigenesis and canceration.
  • The process of damage and repair in EM foci during a long course may play a role in the development of EM into AEM and finally into tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology. Epithelium / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosarcoma / complications. Adenosarcoma / epidemiology. Adenosarcoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Young Adult


58. Kline RC, Bazzett-Matabele LB: Adnexal masses and malignancies of importance to the colorectal surgeon. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2010 Jun;23(2):63-71
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  • In this article, the authors review both benign and malignant ovarian masses, as the colorectal surgeon who encounters an adnexal mass at the time of surgery should be aware of the steps necessary for surgical staging and optimal tumor resection.Ovarian tumors-most of which are benign-are divided into three major categories, in order of frequency: epithelial, germ cell, and sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Nonneoplastic conditions of the ovary that may present as adnexal masses include the following, according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification: pregnancy luteoma, hyperplasia of ovarian stroma, hyperthecosis, massive edema, solitary follicle cysts and corpus luteal cysts, multiple follicle cysts, and endometriosis.Epithelial ovarian tumors arise from the surface epithelium and can be benign or malignant.
  • Histologic types are serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, or Brenner.
  • Germ cell tumors are more likely to appear in females under 20 years, accounting for 70% of ovarian tumors in this age group.
  • The more common sex cord-stromal tumors include granulosa stromal cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, and gynandroblastomas.Surgical staging and optimal tumor resection are also addressed, with a focus on epithelial malignancies, as they are the most relevant to colorectal surgeons.

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  • (PMID = 21629623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2967325
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adnexal masses / ovarian cancer / ovarian cysts
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59. Bi SN, Dai SZ, Yao Q, Che YC, Wang N: [Expression of mesothelin mRNA and protein in ovarian carcinomas]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Apr;30(4):288-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression of mesothelin mRNA and protein in ovarian carcinomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of mesothelin (MESO) mRNA and protein and its significance in ovarian carcinomas.
  • METHODS: Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression level of MESO mRNA and protein, respectively, in 124 samples of ovarian tumor and normal tissues, including 84 epithelial ovarian carcinomas, 12 borderline ovarian tumors, 16 benign ovarian tumors and 12 normal ovarian tissues.
  • RESULTS: The expression of MESO mRNA and protein in epithelial ovarian carcinomas (1.4005 +/- 0.4646, 2.7857 +/- 2.2712) and borderline ovarian tumors (1.0650 +/- 0.3100, 2.9167 +/- 2.391) were significantly higher than that in benign ovarian tumors (0.6463 +/- 0.2419, 1.2500 +/- 1.6125) and normal ovarian tissues (0.6439 +/- 0.2729, 0.9167 +/- 1.2401) (P < 0.05), and also significantly higher in serous cystadenocarcinoma (1.5255 +/- 0.4151, 3.3036 +/- 2.6141) and endometrioid carcinoma (1.5250 +/- 0.5419, 3.0000 +/- 2.3094) than that in mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (1.0675 +/- 0.3149, 1.0556 +/- 1.9242) (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrated that the expression of MESO mRNA and protein is increased in ovarian carcinomas and borderline ovarian tumors, and MESO may play a role in the adhesion and dissemination of ovarian carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Case-Control Studies. Female. GPI-Linked Proteins. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Ovary / metabolism. Ovary / pathology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18788634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / mesothelin
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60. Ota K, Ito K, Akahira J, Sato N, Onogawa T, Moriya T, Unno M, Abe T, Niikura H, Takano T, Yaegashi N: Expression of organic cation transporter SLC22A16 in human epithelial ovarian cancer: a possible role of the adriamycin importer. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jul;26(3):334-40
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  • [Title] Expression of organic cation transporter SLC22A16 in human epithelial ovarian cancer: a possible role of the adriamycin importer.
  • Adriamycin is considered to be an active agent for ovarian cancer.
  • Recently, the benefit of adding adriamycin to the current standard regimen, paclitaxel and platinum, is evaluated to improve the outcome of patients with ovarian cancer.
  • Therefore, we examined the expression of SLC22A16 in ovarian cancers.
  • Twelve ovarian carcinoma cell lines were used for immunoblotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to confirm the expression of SLC22A16 mRNA and protein.
  • Five normal ovaries, 12 ovarian adenomas, and 94 ovarian cancer cases were obtained from patients after surgical therapy.
  • The SLC22A16 immunoreactivity was detected in 15 (16%) of 94 epithelial ovarian cancer, 1 (8.3%) of 12 benign adenomas, but 0 (0%) of 5 normal ovary cases.
  • In ovarian cancer tissues, SLC22A16 immunoreactivity was detected in 2 (5%) of 38 serous adenocarcinoma, 1 (6.7%) of 15 endometrioid adenocarcinoma, 0 (0%) of 14 mucinous adenocarcinoma, and 12 (46.2%) of 26 clear-cell adenocarcinoma (P < 0.0001, clear-cell vs other histologies).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / pharmacokinetics. Doxorubicin / pharmacokinetics. Organic Cation Transport Proteins / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction


61. Shibata K, Kajiyama H, Mizokami Y, Ino K, Nomura S, Mizutani S, Terauchi M, Kikkawa F: Placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression in benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian epithelia. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jul;98(1):11-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression in benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian epithelia.
  • The authors evaluated P-LAP and GLUT4 expression in benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian epithelia.
  • METHODS: Histologic sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from 11 patients with benign serous or mucinous cystadenomas, 14 patients with serous or mucinous borderline tumors, and 80 patients with epithelial-ovarian adenocarcinomas (29 serous, 17 endometrioid, 14 mucinous, and 20 clear cell adenocarcinomas) were stained for P-LAP and GLUT4 using each polyclonal antibody.
  • Expressions of P-LAP and GLUT-4 in ovarian cancer cells were detected by Western blotting.
  • RESULTS: P-LAP immunoreactivity was detected in 2 of 11 benign cystadenomas.
  • None of the 11 benign ovarian tumors showed any immunoreactivity for GLUT4.
  • P-LAP was expressed in 23 of 29 in serous, 15 of 17 endometrioid, 13 of 14 mucinous, and all clear-cell adenocarcinomas.
  • GLUT4 was expressed in 13 of 29 serous, 13 of 17 endometrioid, 13 of 14 mucinous, and 18 of 20 clear-cell adenocarcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: P-LAP and GLUT4 are available not only for the evaluation of ovarian epithelial malignancy, but also as targets for molecular therapy.
  • Further study to investigate the roles of P-LAP and GLUT4 in ovarian carcinoma is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystinyl Aminopeptidase / biosynthesis. Monosaccharide Transport Proteins / biosynthesis. Muscle Proteins / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Growth Processes / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Epithelium / enzymology. Epithelium / metabolism. Female. Glucose Transporter Type 4. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ovarian Diseases / enzymology. Ovarian Diseases / metabolism. Ovarian Diseases / pathology. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 15907336.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 4; 0 / Monosaccharide Transport Proteins; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / SLC2A4 protein, human; EC 3.4.11.3 / Cystinyl Aminopeptidase; EC 3.4.11.3 / leucyl-cystinyl aminopeptidase
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62. Oliva E, Alvarez T, Young RH: Sertoli cell tumors of the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 54 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Feb;29(2):143-56
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  • [Title] Sertoli cell tumors of the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 54 cases.
  • Ovarian Sertoli cell tumors are rare, and their morphologic spectrum, behavior, and factors influencing the latter are not clearly established.
  • Delicate septa were occasionally seen and were conspicuous in areas of one tumor.
  • The cells usually had pale to occasionally densely eosinophilic cytoplasm, but 6 tumors were composed of cells with prominent foamy cytoplasm, falling in the category of "lipid-rich" Sertoli cell tumor, and one had cells with clear non-foamy cytoplasm.
  • Those 3 patients had pelvic-abdominal recurrences 18, 36, and 9 months, respectively, after the initial diagnosis.
  • Two of the three clinically malignant stage I tumors had moderate to severe cytologic atypia and brisk mitotic activity (>5 or more mitoses/10 high power fields [HPFs]), and one of these had tumor cell necrosis.
  • Among the 10 clinically benign stage I tumors with more than 5 years of follow-up, only 3 had >5 mitoses/10 HPFs, but none had more than mild cytologic atypia and none had tumor cell necrosis.
  • Two of the three patients with stage III disease had follow-up information and one was alive at 16 months and the second developed splenic metastases 2 years after the initial diagnosis.
  • Although Sertoli cell tumors usually have a distinctive tubular pattern that facilitates the diagnosis, other patterns may occasionally predominate, causing confusion with various other primary and metastatic ovarian tumors.
  • EMA, inhibin, and chromogranin represent the most helpful triad of immunomarkers serving to exclude two common mimics of Sertoli cell tumors (endometrioid carcinoma [inhibin-; EMA+; chromogranin-] and carcinoid tumor [inhibin-; EMA+; chromogranin+]).
  • Although CD99 and calretinin are often expressed in these tumors, they are much less specific and not as helpful in the differential diagnosis.
  • Most Sertoli cell tumors are stage I, unilateral, cytologically bland, and clinically benign, but occasional examples are high stage, and about 11% of stage I tumors have worrisome histologic features that may portend an adverse outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli Cell Tumor / metabolism. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15644771.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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63. Castellvi J, Garcia A, de la Torre J, Hernandez J, Gil A, Xercavins J, Ramón y Cajal S: Ephrin B expression in epithelial ovarian neoplasms correlates with tumor differentiation and angiogenesis. Hum Pathol; 2006 Jul;37(7):883-9
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  • [Title] Ephrin B expression in epithelial ovarian neoplasms correlates with tumor differentiation and angiogenesis.
  • Differential gene expression studies are identifying new sets of genes with a role in the classification, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of some human tumors.
  • Ephrin B1, a factor involved in angiogenesis, has been shown to be up-regulated in ovarian carcinomas, making it a potential target for cancer treatment.
  • This study investigates ephrin B expression in ovarian tumors to validate results from gene expression studies and evaluates its significance with a clinical-pathological correlation.
  • Specimens from 112 benign, borderline, and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors were examined.
  • Ephrin B was detected in 50% of ovarian tumors: clear cell carcinomas (93%), serous carcinomas (74%), mucinous carcinomas (29%), and endometrioid carcinomas (27%).
  • High-grade carcinomas showed greatest ephrin B expression, whereas benign tumors and low-grade carcinomas were rarely positive.
  • A correlation was found between ephrin B expression and microvessel density, supporting the angiogenic role of this factor in ovarian carcinomas.
  • A distinctive pattern of ephrin B expression was observed in ovarian tumors: high-grade tumors and clear cell and serous carcinomas show higher expression, correlating with the aggressiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Ephrin-B1 / biosynthesis. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood supply. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16784989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ephrin-B1
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