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1. Sibio S, Borrini F, Sammartino P, Accarpio F, Biacchi D, Caprio G, Iafrate F, Baccheschi AM, Cornali T, Di Giorgio A: Predominant Brenner tumor combined with struma ovarii containing a papillary microcarcinoma associated with benign peritoneal strumosis: report of a case and histologic features. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Sep;21(3):199-203
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predominant Brenner tumor combined with struma ovarii containing a papillary microcarcinoma associated with benign peritoneal strumosis: report of a case and histologic features.
  • Brenner tumor and struma ovarii, two uncommon ovarian tumors arising alone or together with dermoid cysts or adenomas, are both rare entities.
  • Few published reports describe coexisting Brenner tumor and malignant struma ovarii.
  • The mass consisted predominantly of a Brenner tumor associated with struma ovarii containing a single small island of thyroid tissue that had undergone malignant transformation into a well-differentiated papillary carcinoma and also normal thyroid tissue that had spread to the peritoneum.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Struma Ovarii / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20532676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Takeuchi M, Matsuzaki K, Sano N, Furumoto H, Nishitani H: Malignant Brenner tumor with transition from benign to malignant components: computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings with pathological correlation. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2008 Jul-Aug;32(4):553-4
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  • [Title] Malignant Brenner tumor with transition from benign to malignant components: computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings with pathological correlation.
  • We report computed tomographic and magnetic resonance findings of an ovarian malignant Brenner tumor with transition from benign to malignant components.
  • The tumor was demonstrated as a cystic mass with solid mural components.
  • The benign component contained dense calcifications on computed tomography and showed very low intensity on T2-weighted images, whereas the malignant component showed high intensity.
  • The admixture of 2 components may well reflect the pathological feature and may be a diagnostic clue to malignant Brenner tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Middle Aged. Ovary / pathology. Ovary / radiography. Ovary / surgery. Rare Diseases

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  • (PMID = 18664841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3145
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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3. Pickhardt PJ, Hanson ME: Incidental adnexal masses detected at low-dose unenhanced CT in asymptomatic women age 50 and older: implications for clinical management and ovarian cancer screening. Radiology; 2010 Oct;257(1):144-50
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  • [Title] Incidental adnexal masses detected at low-dose unenhanced CT in asymptomatic women age 50 and older: implications for clinical management and ovarian cancer screening.
  • Final pathologic findings of surgically excised lesions were cystadenoma or cystadenofibroma (n = 14; 11 serous, three mucinous); nonneoplastic cysts (n = 5; two endometriomas); mature teratoma (n = 3); hydrosalpinx (n = 2); fibroma (n = 1); and benign Brenner tumor (n = 1).
  • No ovarian cancers were prospectively identified, although four cases of ovarian cancer developed subsequent to a negative adnexal finding at CT examination during a 15-44-month interval among the remaining 2751 women.
  • CONCLUSION: Incidental indeterminate adnexal lesions were relatively common at unenhanced CT (4.1%), but subsequent work-up revealed no ovarian cancers.
  • Furthermore, a normal finding at CT was not protective against short-term development of ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Colonography, Computed Tomographic. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Mass Screening. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Postmenopause. Prevalence

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  • [CommentIn] Radiologe. 2011 Jan;51(1):8 [21153800.001]
  • (PMID = 20663974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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4. Lu S, Pei F, Liao SL: [Invasive urothelial carcinoma in bladder associated with bilateral benign ovarian Brenner tumor: report of a case]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Jul;38(7):485-6
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  • [Title] [Invasive urothelial carcinoma in bladder associated with bilateral benign ovarian Brenner tumor: report of a case].
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19781200.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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5. Houghton O, McCluggage WG: The expression and diagnostic utility of p63 in the female genital tract. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Sep;16(5):316-21
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  • Placental site nodule and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (lesions derived from chorionic-type intermediate trophoblast) are usually p63 positive whereas placental site reaction and placental site trophoblastic tumor (lesions derived from implantation site intermediate trophoblast) are usually negative; thus, p63 may be useful in the diagnostic algorithm of trophoblastic lesions. p63 positivity in ovarian epithelial tumors is uncommon and largely restricted to squamous and transitional neoplasms, including benign and borderline Brenner tumor. p63 is also positive in cervical transitional metaplasia, Walthard rests, vulval Paget disease secondary to an underlying urothelial malignancy, tubulosquamous polyp of the vagina, and ectopic prostatic tissue in the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genitalia, Female / metabolism. Humans. Metaplasia / diagnosis. Metaplasia / metabolism. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 19700941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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6. Kato N, Sasou S, Motoyama T: Expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta) in clear cell tumors and endometriosis of the ovary. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jan;19(1):83-9
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  • [Title] Expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta) in clear cell tumors and endometriosis of the ovary.
  • Clear cell tumors of the ovary are frequently associated with ovarian endometriosis.
  • Microarray analysis revealed recently that hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta) was significantly upregulated in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.
  • In the present study, we examined 30 clear cell tumors (26 malignant, three borderline, and one benign) and 40 endometriotic cysts to clarify if differentiation into the clear cell lineage already begins in ovarian endometriosis.
  • All of the 30 clear cell tumors, including borderline and benign ones, showed immunohistochemical expression of HNF-1beta in the nucleus, while other types of ovarian epithelial tumors (endometrioid, serous, mucinous, and Brenner tumors) rarely expressed it.
  • In nine of the 12 cases, distinct nuclear immunostaining for HNF-1beta was detected in the endometriotic epithelium, as well as in the clear cell tumor.
  • HNF-1beta expression was observed either in atypical endometriosis (four cases), or in endometriosis of a reactive nature (five cases).
  • Furthermore, 16 of 40 (40%) endometriotic cysts without a neoplasm also expressed HNF-1beta, and the expression was almost exclusively observed in the epithelium showing inflammatory atypia.
  • Our results indicate that HNF-1beta is an excellent molecular marker for ovarian clear cell tumors, including benign, borderline and malignant lesions.
  • Early differentiation into the clear cell lineage takes place in ovarian endometriosis, not only in atypical endometriosis, but also in endometriosis with degenerative and regenerative changes, and this is probably responsible for the frequent occurrence of clear cell carcinoma in ovarian endometriosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta / biosynthesis. Ovarian Diseases / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Epithelial Cells / chemistry. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Ovarian Cysts / metabolism. Ovarian Cysts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16258507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 138674-15-4 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta
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7. Oh SN, Rha SE, Jung SE, Lee YJ, Choi BG, Byun JY, Ku YM, Jung CK: Transitional cell tumor of the ovary: computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging features with pathological correlation. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2009 Jan-Feb;33(1):106-12
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  • [Title] Transitional cell tumor of the ovary: computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging features with pathological correlation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of transitional cell tumors, including newly established transitional cell carcinoma, according to tumor type with pathological correlation.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the CT and MR images of 22 patients with transitional cell tumors of ovary (14 benign Brenner, 2 borderline Brenner, 2 malignant Brenner, and 4 transitional cell carcinomas) for the following factors: size, location, configuration, signal intensity, staging, and accompanying ovarian tumors.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen tumors were detected on CT or MRI (8 benign, 2 borderline, and 6 malignant tumors), and the mean size of measurable tumors was 8.8 cm.
  • Benign Brenner tumors were homogeneous solid (n = 6) or unilocular cystic (n = 2).
  • Two borderline Brenner tumors were multilocular cystic.
  • Malignant tumors, including malignant Brenner tumors and transitional cell carcinomas, were heterogeneous solid (n = 3) or multilocular cystic (n = 3).
  • The signal intensity of solid components on T2-weighted images was isointense compared with that of muscle in benign and borderline Brenner tumors and hyperintense in malignant tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The CT and MR appearance of transitional cell tumors varied according to tumor type.
  • Benign Brenner tumors were homogeneous solid or unilocular cystic pattern, and malignant tumors were heterogeneous solid or multilocular cystic.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19188796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3145
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Lin CH, Liu FS, Ho ES: Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Sep;45(3):268-71
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  • [Title] Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ovary is a rare, recently recognized, subtype of ovarian surface epithelial cancer.
  • We present a case of TCC of the ovary, managed by staging operation and followed by postoperative chemotherapy with carboplatin and cyclophosphamide.
  • After surgery, the pathologic report of the left ovarian tumor was TCC, grade 2-3, stage IA.
  • CONCLUSION: TCC of the ovary is a rare subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • It differs from malignant Brenner tumor by the absence of a benign or borderline Brenner component.
  • Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach, and patient outcomes after chemotherapy are better than for other types of common epithelial ovarian cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Hysterectomy. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovariectomy


9. Esheba GE, Longacre TA, Atkins KA, Higgins JP: Expression of the urothelial differentiation markers GATA3 and placental S100 (S100P) in female genital tract transitional cell proliferations. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Mar;33(3):347-53
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  • To further investigate the similarities (or dissimilarities) between female genital tract transitional proliferations and bladder urothelium, we evaluated the expression of S100P and GATA3, 2 proteins that we previously found to be strongly expressed in bladder urothelial tumors, in 25 benign ovarian Brenner tumors, 19 Walthard cell nests (17 tubal and 2 ovarian hilus), 1 mature teratoma with a benign urothelial proliferation, 2 proliferating (borderline) ovarian Brenner tumors, 1 malignant Brenner tumor, and 12 ovarian transitional cell carcinomas (TCC).
  • Eighty-eight percent of Brenner tumors were positive for S100P, whereas 96% and 100% were positive for GATA3 and p63, respectively.
  • One of 2 proliferating Brenner tumors was positive for S100P, whereas both cases were positive for GATA3 and p63; the malignant Brenner tumor was positive for S100P and p63, but negative for GATA3.
  • Tubal Walthard cell nests were either completely negative or showed only scattered positive staining for S100P; in contrast, 89.5% and 100% of Walthard nests, including the 2 ovarian cases were positive for GATA3 and p63.
  • The teratoma-associated benign urothelial proliferation was also negative for S100P, but positive for GATA3 and p63.
  • Although proliferating and malignant Brenner tumors may exhibit a more intermediate immunoprofile, expression of S100P, GATA3, and p63 by a majority of ovarian Brenner tumors underscores the similarity between these neoplasms and urothelial proliferations of bladder origin.
  • The indeterminate phenotype seen in Walthard nests and ovarian TCC suggests that these proliferations may represent an incomplete or alternate form of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calcium-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / metabolism. GATA3 Transcription Factor / biosynthesis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19092634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / GATA3 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA3 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100P protein, human
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10. Marwah N, Mathur SK, Marwah S, Singh S, Karwasra RK, Arora B: Malignant Brenner tumour--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Apr;48(2):251-2
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  • [Title] Malignant Brenner tumour--a case report.
  • Malignant Brenner tumour is a rare pathological entity.
  • Apart from identification of typical benign, metaplastic and/or proliferating components, stromal invasion must be observed for diagnosis of Brenner tumour.
  • A case of malignant Brenner tumour is described along with a brief review of strict criteria of diagnosis and its biological behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16758686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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11. Ziadi S, Trimeche M, Hammedi F, Hidar S, Sriha B, Mestiri S, Korbi S: Bilateral proliferating Brenner tumor of the ovary associated with recurrent urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder. N Am J Med Sci; 2010 Jan;2(1):39-41
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  • [Title] Bilateral proliferating Brenner tumor of the ovary associated with recurrent urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.
  • CONTEXT: Brenner tumors of ovary are relatively uncommon neoplasm.
  • Most of them are benign and less than 5% are proliferating or borderline.
  • The association between Brenner tumor of the ovary and papillary urothelial carcinoma of bladder is extremely rare.
  • CASE REPORT: We describe an unusual case of proliferating bilateral Brenner tumor of the ovary with a highly recurrent low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma of bladder.
  • CONCLUSION: The immunohistopathological similarities of ovarian and bladder tumors and their association in the current case, may be coincidental but may reflect a common initiating event inducing similar pathogenesis changes in the epithelium of both organs.

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  • (PMID = 22624111.001).
  • [ISSN] 2250-1541
  • [Journal-full-title] North American journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N Am J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3354386
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Brenner tumor / ovary / urinary bladder / urothelial carcinoma
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12. Soini Y, Talvensaari-Mattila A: Expression of claudins 1, 4, 5, and 7 in ovarian tumors of diverse types. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Oct;25(4):330-5
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  • [Title] Expression of claudins 1, 4, 5, and 7 in ovarian tumors of diverse types.
  • In this study, 60 different types of ovarian lesions, mainly consisting of ovarian neoplasms, were studied for the expression of claudins 1, 4, 5, and 7.
  • Strong expression of claudins 1, 4, and 7 was seen in benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • Expression of claudin 5, reported to be mainly present in endothelial cells, was seen in ovarian epithelial tumors, but with a significantly lower frequency than claudins 1, 4, and 7.
  • The results show that claudins 1, 4, and 7 are mainly expressed in ovarian epithelial tumors and can thus be used to indicate epithelial differentiation in them.
  • No significant difference was seen between epithelial benign and malignant lesions, except for claudin 5, which seemed stronger in malignant epithelial tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Membrane Proteins / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatoid Tumor / chemistry. Brenner Tumor / chemistry. Carcinoma / chemistry. Claudin-1. Claudin-4. Claudin-5. Claudins. Dysgerminoma / chemistry. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Krukenberg Tumor / chemistry. Ovarian Cysts. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / chemistry. Teratoma / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16990707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLDN1 protein, human; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / CLDN5 protein, human; 0 / CLDN7 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-1; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / Claudin-5; 0 / Claudins; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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13. Ceauşu M, Terzea D, Georgescu A, Dobrea C, Mihai M, Iosif C, Vasilescu F, Ardeleanu C: Transitional cell tumors of the ovary: a compact group with a heterogeneous histological and immunophenotypical pattern. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2008;49(4):513-6
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  • [Title] Transitional cell tumors of the ovary: a compact group with a heterogeneous histological and immunophenotypical pattern.
  • A small percentage of ovarian neoplasms are transitional cell tumors, which proves to be a distinct group with various histological and immunohistochemical patterns.
  • In this study, 13 archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of transitional cell tumors of the ovary have been assessed using standard HE stain and the indirect tristadial ABC peroxidase IHC method for 11 antibodies (CA125, CK7, CEA, EMA, MNF116, CK20, Vim, ER, PgR, PCNA, Ki-67).
  • More than 50% were malignant Brenner tumors.
  • CA125 was positive in all malignant tumors (of Brenner type and transitional cell carcinomas), but not in benign and borderline tumors, while CK7 was positive in approximately 70% of all cases.
  • A direct correlation statistically significant has been noted between the aforementioned proliferation factors and the tumor grade (r = 0.4, p = 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brenner Tumor / metabolism. Brenner Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Phenotype


14. Giordano G, D'Adda T, Gnetti L, Merisio C, Raboni S: Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium associated with benign ovarian brenner tumor: a case report with immunohistochemistry molecular analysis and a review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jul;26(3):298-304
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  • [Title] Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium associated with benign ovarian brenner tumor: a case report with immunohistochemistry molecular analysis and a review of the literature.
  • This neoplasm is very rare, with only 13 cases reported in the international literature.
  • In this paper, a new case of TCCE associated with benign ovarian Brenner tumor is described.
  • Moreover, immunohistochemical and molecular studies are carried out in the effort to establish the phenotype and etiology of this rare neoplasm.
  • The molecular study, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) failing to reveal the presence of HPV DNA, demonstrates that neither the TCCE nor the ovarian Brenner tumor is caused by an HPV infection.
  • The association of TCCE with benign ovarian Brenner tumor could be a coincidental event.
  • Conversely, this finding could be the manifestation of a multicentric metaplastic process (neometaplasia), involving both the coelomic epithelium of the ovary and the Mullerian epithelium of the uterus, or the evidence of "field effect" that manifests differently at different anatomical sites.
  • In our view, other cases of TCCE associated with ovarian Brenner tumor should be reported to confirm the last 2 hypotheses.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17581415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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15. Takeuchi K, Kitazawa S, Wakahashi S, Sugimoto M, Morizane M, Maruo T: A case of virilizing brenner tumor in a postmenopausal woman with stromal androgenic activity. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Jul;25(3):230-2
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  • [Title] A case of virilizing brenner tumor in a postmenopausal woman with stromal androgenic activity.
  • Although there are several reports of Brenner tumor showing estrogen activities, it is an extremely rare cause of androgen excess leading to virilism, and the source or mechanism of its androgen production is also unknown at present.
  • Bilateral ovarian tumors were detected, and her serum testosterone (1.7 ng/mL) and estradiol (75 pg/mL) levels were elevated.
  • The ovarian tumors were diagnosed as benign Brenner tumor associated with fibrothecoma-like and luteinized stromal cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / analysis. Brenner Tumor / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Postmenopause / physiology. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16810058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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16. Kline RC, Bazzett-Matabele LB: Adnexal masses and malignancies of importance to the colorectal surgeon. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2010 Jun;23(2):63-71
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  • In this article, the authors review both benign and malignant ovarian masses, as the colorectal surgeon who encounters an adnexal mass at the time of surgery should be aware of the steps necessary for surgical staging and optimal tumor resection.Ovarian tumors-most of which are benign-are divided into three major categories, in order of frequency: epithelial, germ cell, and sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Nonneoplastic conditions of the ovary that may present as adnexal masses include the following, according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification: pregnancy luteoma, hyperplasia of ovarian stroma, hyperthecosis, massive edema, solitary follicle cysts and corpus luteal cysts, multiple follicle cysts, and endometriosis.Epithelial ovarian tumors arise from the surface epithelium and can be benign or malignant.
  • Histologic types are serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, or Brenner.
  • Germ cell tumors are more likely to appear in females under 20 years, accounting for 70% of ovarian tumors in this age group.
  • The more common sex cord-stromal tumors include granulosa stromal cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, and gynandroblastomas.Surgical staging and optimal tumor resection are also addressed, with a focus on epithelial malignancies, as they are the most relevant to colorectal surgeons.

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  • (PMID = 21629623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2967325
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adnexal masses / ovarian cancer / ovarian cysts
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17. Heye S, Bielen D, Vanbeckevoort D: Left ovarian Brenner tumor. JBR-BTR; 2005 Sep-Oct;88(5):245-6
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  • [Title] Left ovarian Brenner tumor.
  • Ovarian Brenner tumors are uncommon neoplasms of the ovary, representing approximately 2% of all ovarian neoplasms.
  • Nowadays there is general agreement that Brenner tumors are derived from the surface epithelium of the ovary or the pelvic mesothelium through transitional cell metaplasia.
  • Association with other surface-derived neoplasms, either in the ipsilateral or contralateral ovary, is reported in 30% of the cases.
  • We report a case of benign ovarian Brenner tumor and discuss the typical features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scan as well as the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Calcinosis / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparotomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16302335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-7430
  • [Journal-full-title] JBR-BTR : organe de la Société royale belge de radiologie (SRBR) = orgaan van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Radiologie (KBVR)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JBR-BTR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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18. Tamai K, Koyama T, Saga T, Kido A, Kataoka M, Umeoka S, Fujii S, Togashi K: MR features of physiologic and benign conditions of the ovary. Eur Radiol; 2006 Dec;16(12):2700-11
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  • [Title] MR features of physiologic and benign conditions of the ovary.
  • In reproductive women, various physiologic conditions can cause morphologic changes of the ovary, resembling pathologic conditions.
  • Benign ovarian diseases can also simulate malignancies.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can play an important role in establishing accurate diagnosis.
  • Multicystic lesions that may mimic cystic neoplasms include hyperreactio luteinalis, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • Recognition of clinical settings can help establish diagnosis.
  • In endometrial cysts, MRI usually provides specific diagnosis; however, decidual change during pregnancy should not be confused with secondary neoplasm.
  • Ovarian torsion and massive ovarian edema may mimic solid malignant tumors.
  • Many benign tumors, including teratoma, Brenner tumor, and sex-cord stromal tumor, frequently show characteristic MRI features.
  • Knowledge of MRI features of these conditions is essential in establishing accurate diagnosis and determining appropriate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Ovarian Diseases / diagnosis. Ovary / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16736136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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19. Kurman RJ, Shih IeM: The origin and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer: a proposed unifying theory. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):433-43
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  • [Title] The origin and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer: a proposed unifying theory.
  • Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy.
  • Efforts at early detection and new therapeutic approaches to reduce mortality have been largely unsuccessful, because the origin and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer are poorly understood.
  • This has led to the proposal that ovarian cancer develops de novo.
  • Studies have shown that epithelial ovarian cancer is not a single disease but is composed of a diverse group of tumors that can be classified based on distinctive morphologic and molecular genetic features.
  • One group of tumors, designated type I, is composed of low-grade serous, low-grade endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous and transitional (Brenner) carcinomas.
  • These tumors generally behave in an indolent fashion, are confined to the ovary at presentation and, as a group, are relatively genetically stable.
  • Moreover, the carcinomas exhibit a shared lineage with the corresponding benign cystic neoplasm, often through an intermediate (borderline tumor) step, supporting the morphologic continuum of tumor progression.
  • Recent studies have also provided cogent evidence that what have been traditionally thought to be primary ovarian tumors actually originate in other pelvic organs and involve the ovary secondarily.
  • Thus, it has been proposed that serous tumors arise from the implantation of epithelium (benign or malignant) from the fallopian tube.
  • As it is generally accepted that endometriosis develops from endometrial tissue by retrograde menstruation, it is reasonable to assume that the endometrium is the source of these ovarian neoplasms.
  • Finally, preliminary data suggest that mucinous and transitional (Brenner) tumors arise from transitional-type epithelial nests at the tubal-mesothelial junction by a process of metaplasia.


20. Abd El-Wahed MM: Expression and subcellular localization of maspin in human ovarian epithelial neoplasms: correlation with clinicopathologic features. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2005 Sep;17(3):173-83
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  • [Title] Expression and subcellular localization of maspin in human ovarian epithelial neoplasms: correlation with clinicopathologic features.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Maspin is an inhibitor of serine proteinases with tumor suppressor activity that is down-regulated in breast and prostate cancer, but overexpressed in pancreatic carcinoma.
  • However, there were very few published data regarding the role of maspin in ovarian carcinoma.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate maspin expression in ovarian epithelial neoplasms and correlate its expression with some clinicopathologic parameters.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy eight paraffin embedded ovarian specimens from patients with ovarian epithelial neoplasms comprised the material of this study.
  • They included 18 benign, 14 low malignant potential (LMP) and 46 malignant epithelial ovarian neoplasms, in addition to seven specimens from normal ovarian tissues as a control.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical study of maspin expression using streptavidin biotin immunoperoxidase method revealed that, normal ovarian surface epithelium did not express maspin as well as benign serous and mucinous ovarian epithelial neoplasm.
  • However, all benign Brenner ovarian tumors were maspin positive.
  • On the other hand, 57.14% of LMP tumors showed weak maspin expression and 63% of malignant ovarian epithelial tumors showed maspin expression with 39.1% over expression.
  • The two malignant Brenner tumors studied were maspin negative.
  • CONCLUSION: Maspin was expressed in a substantial proportion of ovarian tumors with poor prognostic parameters.
  • These results may offer new insights regarding the role of maspin in ovarian cancer that may also impact diagnosis and treatment strategies.
  • Moreover, variation in maspin expression between Brenner tumor and other epithelial surface ovarian tumors may indicate that the different histological types probably represent distinct disease entities and involve different molecular pathways.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Serine Proteinase Inhibitors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brenner Tumor / metabolism. Brenner Tumor / pathology. CA-125 Antigen / analysis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / analysis. Epithelium / metabolism. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Ovary / metabolism. Serpins

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  • (PMID = 16799655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / SERPIN-B5; 0 / Serine Proteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Serpins
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21. Wang XY, Dai JR, Zhu Z, Zhao YF, Zhou CW: [CT features of ovarian Brenner tumor and a report of 9 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 May;32(5):359-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [CT features of ovarian Brenner tumor and a report of 9 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: In order to improve the preoperative diagnostic accuracy, the computed tomographic (CT) features of ovarian Brenner tumor were described and analyzed.
  • METHODS: CT image and clinical data of nine patients with pathologically confirmed Brenner tumor were collected and analyzed retrospectively.
  • There were 8 benign lesions and 1 borderline lesion.
  • Among the nine cases, 5 were benign tumors with uniform structure, 3 were benign tumors accompanied with other pathological components, and 1 was borderline tumor.
  • On the CT images, the 5 uniform benign lesions showed to be solid tumor of low density (lower than that of muscle) or with small cyst inside, two of the 5 lesions had calcification, and other 2 lesions showed slightly heterogeneous enhancement after enhanced scanning.
  • The 3 benign Brenner tumors accompanied with other pathological structures were solid-cystic or cystic, with a clear demarcation of solid and cystic components.
  • The one borderline tumor was a heterogeneous solid one and its density was higher than that of muscle, with a large proportion of low density and large calcification, and moderately enhanced after enhancing.
  • CONCLUSION: Ovarian Brenner tumors are usually unilateral and often accompanied with other type of tumor components.
  • When a tumor is of uniform component, the CT imaging often shows a homogeneous solid tumor with homogeneous or heterogeneous density.
  • When a tumor is accompanied with other tumor components, it may be solid-cystic or cystic and has partial calcification.
  • After enhancing, a benign Brenner tumor is slightly enhanced, while the borderline one is moderately/highly enhanced.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / radiography. Ovarian Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / radiography. Cystadenoma, Serous / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ovary / radiography. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20723434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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22. Gedikbasi A, Ulker V, Aydin O, Akyol A, Numanoglu C, Ceylan Y: Brenner tumor in pregnancy: clinical approach and pathological findings. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2009 Jun;35(3):565-8
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  • [Title] Brenner tumor in pregnancy: clinical approach and pathological findings.
  • The Brenner tumor is an uncommon ovarian tumor in pregnancy with only three previous cases in the English published reports.
  • A 35-year-old woman delivered abdominally because of distress symptoms and a Brenner tumor was resected incidentally.
  • Histological examination revealed a tumor composed of epithelial nests and areas of stromal luteinization.
  • Brenner tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adnexal masses during pregnancy.
  • These tumors are mainly benign and show typical luteinization associated with the hormonal milieu in pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Pregnancy Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19527401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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23. Gojnic M, Dugalic V, Vidaković S, Papic M, Jeremic K, Pervulov M, Milicevic S: Breast cancer and borderline ovarian carcinoma in young patients--case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2005;26(5):579-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast cancer and borderline ovarian carcinoma in young patients--case report.
  • Borderline ovarian tumors comprise 10% to 15% of all epithelial tumors of the ovary.
  • Regardless of the tumor type (serous, mucinous, clear cell, Brenner, mixed) they can be benign, borderline or malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans


24. Cuatrecasas M, Catasus L, Palacios J, Prat J: Transitional cell tumors of the ovary: a comparative clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic analysis of Brenner tumors and transitional cell carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Apr;33(4):556-67
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  • [Title] Transitional cell tumors of the ovary: a comparative clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic analysis of Brenner tumors and transitional cell carcinomas.
  • Transitional cell tumors of the ovary include 2 distinct clinicopathologic categories: Brenner tumors and transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs).
  • We have performed a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic analysis of 19 transitional cell tumors including 13 Brenner tumors (5 benign, 7 borderline, and 1 malignant) and 6 TCCs.
  • Six borderline Brenner tumors were stage IA and 1 stage IIA.
  • The malignant Brenner tumor was stage IA.
  • Two patients who had borderline Brenner tumors were alive and well at 3 and 10.9 years.
  • The patient who had a malignant Brenner tumor died of pulmonary thromboembolism shortly postoperatively, and 2 patients with TCCs died of tumor 1.8 and 13 years, postoperatively.
  • Brenner tumors and TCCs differed mainly in the expression of EGFR, p16, and p53.
  • Benign Brenner tumors showed a low immunoexpression for all markers.
  • Borderline Brenner tumors failed to immunoreact for p16, Rb, and p53; and showed weak immunostaining for Cyclin D1, moderate for Ras, and strong for EGFR.
  • The malignant Brenner tumor was also negative for p16, Rb, and p53, and strongly positive for Cyclin D1, Ras, and EGFR.
  • Our results suggest that Brenner tumors and TCCs follow different tumorigenic pathways, whereas borderline and malignant Brenner tumors are low-grade neoplasms with activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway through EGFR, TCCs are high-grade tumors that have p53 mutations and p16 and p53 protein overexpression.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Gene Dosage. Genes, erbB-1 / genetics. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Tissue Array Analysis. Treatment Outcome


25. D'Angelo E, Dadmanesh F, Pecorelli S, Prat J: Squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary arising from a mucinous cystic tumor of endocervical (müllerian) type. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Nov;29(6):529-32
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary arising from a mucinous cystic tumor of endocervical (müllerian) type.
  • Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary is extremely rare.
  • We studied a 58-year-old woman in whom a keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary had arisen from a mucinous cystic tumor of endocervical (müllerian) type.
  • The tumor was interpreted initially as a transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary with marked squamous differentiation, but there was no evidence of either transitional cell carcinoma or malignant Brenner tumor.
  • The mucinous columnar epithelial component was largely benign and only focally proliferative or borderline.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2011 Jul;30(4):396-7 [21623198.001]
  • (PMID = 20881861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Liao XY, Xue WC, Shen DH, Ngan HY, Siu MK, Cheung AN: p63 expression in ovarian tumours: a marker for Brenner tumours but not transitional cell carcinomas. Histopathology; 2007 Oct;51(4):477-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p63 expression in ovarian tumours: a marker for Brenner tumours but not transitional cell carcinomas.
  • AIMS: To investigate p63 expression in ovarian neoplasms.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry using an antibody that detects all p63 isoforms was performed on 103 primary ovarian neoplasms of different histological types.
  • Diffuse nuclear immunoreactivity of p63 was demonstrated in the 17 benign and five borderline Brenner tumours.
  • Only one of the six malignant Brenner tumours displayed p63 expression. p63 immunoreactivity was absent in all the ovarian transitional cell carcinomas (TCC), but was demonstrated extensively in TCCs of the urinary bladder.
  • Besides focal p63 expression in epidermal basal cells of immature and mature teratomas, all other ovarian lesions were devoid of p63 expression. p63 expression was also demonstrated in cervical transitional cell metaplasia and Walthard cell nests of fallopian tubes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Expression of p63 protein is apparently cell lineage specific and in ovarian neoplasms is confined to benign and borderline Brenner tumours.
  • The loss of expression in malignant Benner tumours suggests a role for p63 in Brenner carcinogenesis.
  • The distinct patterns of p63 expression in TCCs in the ovary and urinary bladder may help in their differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brenner Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Prognosis

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  • [CommentIn] Histopathology. 2008 Aug;53(2):228 [18518899.001]
  • (PMID = 17880529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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27. Green GE, Mortele KJ, Glickman JN, Benson CB: Brenner tumors of the ovary: sonographic and computed tomographic imaging features. J Ultrasound Med; 2006 Oct;25(10):1245-51; quiz 1252-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brenner tumors of the ovary: sonographic and computed tomographic imaging features.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the sonographic appearance of ovarian Brenner tumors with computed tomographic (CT) correlation.
  • METHODS: Twenty-two female patients (age range, 32-78 years; mean, 58 years) with 25 ovarian Brenner tumors were identified from pathologic records from 1990 to 2005.
  • RESULTS: Tumors ranged in size from 0.3 to 12 cm (mean, 2.5 cm); all were benign.
  • Eight (36%) of 22 patients had a total of 12 associated benign ovarian neoplasms (1 was contralateral); 3 patients had bilateral Brenner tumors.
  • Four tumors appeared at least partially cystic, of which 3 had coexistent cystic ovarian lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Brenner tumors are most often solid neoplasms found incidentally and frequently seen in association with other benign ovarian epithelial neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / ultrasonography. Ovarian Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16998096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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