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1. Thanou-Stavraki A, James JA: Primary Sjogren's syndrome: current and prospective therapies. Semin Arthritis Rheum; 2008 Apr;37(5):273-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Relevant English and non-English articles acquired through Medline were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: pSS usually has a benign clinical course, centered on sicca features and general musculoskeletal manifestations, and is managed symptomatically.
  • Muscarinic agonists and topical cyclosporine yield well-documented improvement in ocular sicca features.
  • Although traditional antirheumatic drugs are used empirically for polyarthritis and other Sjogren's symptoms, their efficacy in pSS overall and as disease-modifying agents is limited.
  • Among the biologic agents already examined in pSS, those targeting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha failed to demonstrate significant benefit.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of pSS patients with severe extraglandular disease should differ from that of patients with predominantly sicca features and/or general muscoloskeletal manifestations. pSS treatment is mainly symptomatic, primarily directed against sicca complaints.
  • The traditional anti-rheumatic agents show limited efficacy in the systemic process and use of systemic TNF-alpha inhibitors has been very disappointing.
  • B cell depleting treatments and other newer biologic therapies appear more promising.

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  • (PMID = 17714766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0049-0172
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Arthritis Rheum.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR49084; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI31584; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR15577; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR45084; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P30 AR053483; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR20143; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR48045; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR48940
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 251
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2. Holak H, Weber U, Holak N, Donhuijsen K: [Neuroendocrine tumors of visual system--Merkel cell carcinoma]. Klin Oczna; 2003;105(6):362-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Belonging to the APUD-system tumors, the highly malignant Merkel cell carcinoma affects in 10% the ocular adnexes, 50-60% of the patients develop a metastasis to the lymph nodes, and the five year survival rate is only 38%.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the last eight years the Merkel cell carcinoma was diagnosed in four patients and was treated by wide resection, radiotherapy and cytostatic drugs.
  • Characteristic is clinical uniform appearance of the tumor as painless, reddish nodule with smooth surface, telangiectatic blood vessels, fast growing and fast leading to metastasis.
  • Furthermore, the histological characteristics of the tumor were found as well as NSE, S100 proteins and neuroendocrine granula, which allow to classify to the APUD--system and to distinguish from the more benign tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As neuroendocrine tumor the Merkel cell carcinoma represents a high malignant tumor in ophthalmology.
  • The certain diagnosis is only made by histological and immunohistological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / therapy. Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Eyelid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15049256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinika oczna
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Oczna
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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3. Robinson JW, Brownstein S, Jordan DR, Hodge WG: Conjunctival mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a patient with ocular cicatricial pemphigoid and a review of the literature. Surv Ophthalmol; 2006 Sep-Oct;51(5):513-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conjunctival mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a patient with ocular cicatricial pemphigoid and a review of the literature.
  • The woman was undergoing mitomycin C injections for ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, diagnosed in the same eye 2 years prior to identification of the neoplasm.
  • The tumor invaded the cornea, sclera, lacrimal gland, regional small nerves, and lymphatics, but did not show intraocular involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Conjunctivitis / complications. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Basement Membrane / pathology. Biopsy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Fluorometholone / therapeutic use. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ofloxacin / therapeutic use


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4. Apostol S, Filip M, Nechita A, Filip A: A lymphoid conjunctival tumor--clinical aspects; therapeutical options. Oftalmologia; 2005;49(1):26-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A lymphoid conjunctival tumor--clinical aspects; therapeutical options.
  • The therapeutical and also investigational approach was to excise all suspected tissue and to biopsy to determine if benign or malignant (clinically indistinguishable).
  • The conjunctival biopsy revealed a non-Hodgkin malignant conjunctival MALT lymphoma.
  • In this case, of ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma with localised disease, we took into account local treatment: external beam radiation therapy, topical use of chemotherapy agents and biologic therapy (subconjunctival injections with interferon-alpha).
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Injections. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15934333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0875
  • [Journal-full-title] Oftalmologia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oftalmologia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
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5. Saw VP, Dart RJ, Galatowicz G, Daniels JT, Dart JK, Calder VL: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid and its effect on conjunctival fibroblasts. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2009 Nov;50(11):5310-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid and its effect on conjunctival fibroblasts.
  • PURPOSE: First, to determine whether tumor necrosis factor-(TNF)-alpha is expressed in the conjunctiva of ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) and the consequences of systemic immunosuppressive treatment on this expression.
  • METHODS: The expression of TNFalpha in conjunctival tissues of patients with actively inflamed ocular MMP (n = 10), patients with clinically noninflamed ocular MMP after systemic immunosuppressive treatment (n = 10), and normal subjects (n = 10) was studied by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: In active ocular MMP, TNFalpha is expressed by a large number of stromal infiltrating cells (234 cells/mm(2)), and although the level of stromal TNFalpha expression is significantly reduced after immunosuppressive treatment (90 cells/mm(2)), these levels are still significantly elevated compared with normal conjunctiva (10 cells/mm(2), P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increased conjunctival expression of TNFalpha in ocular MMP suggests that systemic TNFalpha antagonists are likely to be effective in controlling severe disease unresponsive to conventional systemic immunosuppression.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctiva / drug effects. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Collagen / metabolism. Female. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Fibroblasts / metabolism. HLA-DR Antigens / metabolism. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Middle Aged. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19494201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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6. Canizares MJ, Smith DI, Conners MS, Maverick KJ, Heffernan MP: Successful treatment of mucous membrane pemphigoid with etanercept in 3 patients. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Nov;142(11):1457-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), also known as cicatricial pemphigoid, is a serious, autoimmune, blistering disorder that can result in blindness and other complications as a result of scarring of the mucous membranes.
  • All 3 patients had oral mucosal involvement, and 1 had severe, recalcitrant, ocular disease.
  • The patient with ocular involvement experienced stabilization of progression.
  • Etanercept may be an effective treatment option for MMP of the oral and ocular mucous membranes.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunoglobulin G / therapeutic use. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / drug therapy. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / therapeutic use. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Conjunctival Diseases / complications. Conjunctival Diseases / diagnosis. Conjunctival Diseases / drug therapy. Conjunctival Diseases / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Etanercept. Female. Humans. Injections, Subcutaneous. Middle Aged. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 17116836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept
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7. Letko E, Bhol K, Foster SC, Ahmed RA: Influence of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy on serum levels of anti-beta 4 antibodies in ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. A correlation with disease activity. A preliminary study. Curr Eye Res; 2000 Aug;21(2):646-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Influence of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy on serum levels of anti-beta 4 antibodies in ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. A correlation with disease activity. A preliminary study.
  • PURPOSE: To determine any correlation between activity of ocular cicatricial pemphigoid and titer of anti-beta 4 antibodies, and any effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy on serum levels of anti-beta 4 antibodies followed over a 12 month period, using the specific immunoblot assay (IBA).
  • Each patient was treated with at least two immunosuppressive agents prior to the institution of IVIg.
  • The presence of anti-beta 4 antibodies in the patients' sera was detected by IBA using bovine gingival lysate (BGL) or tumor cell line lysate (TCL) as substrates.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies / blood. Antigens, CD / immunology. Eye Diseases / immunology. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / drug therapy. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Animals. Cattle. Female. Humans. Immunoblotting. Integrin beta4. Male. Middle Aged. Severity of Illness Index. Tetanus Toxoid / immunology

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  • (PMID = 11148601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-3683
  • [Journal-full-title] Current eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY09379-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 0 / Integrin beta4; 0 / Tetanus Toxoid
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8. Razzaque MS, Foster CS, Ahmed AR: Role of enhanced expression of m-CSF in conjunctiva affected by cicatricial pemphigoid. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2002 Sep;43(9):2977-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of enhanced expression of m-CSF in conjunctiva affected by cicatricial pemphigoid.
  • Macrophage accumulation in the submucosa is also an important feature in the pathogenesis of ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP).
  • METHODS: Biopsy specimens from the conjunctiva of 10 untreated patients with active OCP and from 5 normal subjects were studied for the expression of m-CSF, macrophages, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a cell cycle protein, by immunohistochemistry.
  • In addition, fibroblasts isolated from conjunctiva of normal individuals and from patients with OCP were studied for the expression of m-CSF by immunostaining and real-time PCR.
  • To identify the factors that induce m-CSF in conjunctival fibroblasts, the fibroblasts were incubated with different concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and the levels of m-CSF mRNA were determined by real-time PCR and the amount of m-CSF produced was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
  • RESULTS: Normal conjunctiva showed weak expression of m-CSF in the conjunctival epithelial cells and stroma.
  • Conjunctival expression of m-CSF protein was significantly (P < 0.0001) increased in conjunctival biopsy specimens from patients with OCP. m-CSF was detected in the infiltrating macrophages, stromal cells (presumably fibroblasts), and conjunctival epithelial cells.
  • Compared with normal control conjunctival tissue, a 1.2-fold increase in the expression of mRNA for m-CSF was detected by real-time PCR in the conjunctival tissue obtained from patients with OCP.
  • Increased expression of m-CSF correlated significantly (P < 0.0004) with an increased stromal accumulation of macrophages in conjunctival biopsy specimens of patients with OCP.
  • In addition, fibroblasts isolated and cultured from conjunctiva of patients with OCP showed significantly increased (1.7-fold) expression of m-CSF compared with normal conjunctival fibroblasts.
  • When conjunctival fibroblasts were treated with IL-1alpha or TNF-alpha, real-time PCR and ELISA detected an increased level of m-CSF.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An increased expression of m-CSF was observed in conjunctiva from patients with active OCP.
  • There was a positive correlation between expression of m-CSF and accumulation of macrophages in conjunctival biopsy sections obtained from patients with OCP.
  • Increased expression of m-CSF, mainly by conjunctival fibroblasts and infiltrating inflammatory cells, may play an important role in the regulation of local proliferation of macrophages in OCP.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctiva / metabolism. Conjunctival Diseases / metabolism. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Fibroblasts / metabolism. Fibroblasts / pathology. Humans. Interleukin-1 / pharmacology. Macrophages / metabolism. Macrophages / pathology. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 12202518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01EY08379
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 81627-83-0 / Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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9. Razzaque MS, Foster CS, Ahmed AR: Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in conjunctival pathology in ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2004 Apr;45(4):1174-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in conjunctival pathology in ocular cicatricial pemphigoid.
  • Ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP) is an autoimmune disease in which affected conjunctivae show features of an immunoinflammatory disease.
  • In addition, the effects of interleukin (IL)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 on the induction of MIF by conjunctival fibroblasts were studied by quantitative real-time PCR.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctivitis / metabolism. Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors / metabolism. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Conjunctiva / metabolism. Conjunctiva / pathology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Fibroblasts / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Interleukin-1 / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transforming Growth Factor beta / pharmacology. Transforming Growth Factor beta1. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15037585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY14228
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TGFB1 protein, human; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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