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1. Sönmez K, Türkyilmaz Z, Karabulut R, Demiroğullari B, Ozen IO, Moralioğlu S, Başaklar AC, Kale N: Surgical breast lesions in adolescent patients and a review of the literature. Acta Chir Belg; 2006 Jul-Aug;106(4):400-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Breast disease in adolescence is uncommon, with most presenting lesions being benign.
  • Nipple discharge was observed in three patients.
  • These lesions are mostly benign in nature and can be treated conservatively but the possibility of precancerous lesion should be considered during follow-up.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Child. Female. Fibroadenoma / surgery. Gynecomastia / surgery. Humans. Male. Nipples / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17017692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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2. Kim HM, Park BW, Han SH, Moon HJ, Kwak JY, Kim MJ, Kim EK: Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma presenting as microcalcification in the nipple on screening mammogram: case report and review of the literature of radiologic features. Clin Imaging; 2010 Nov-Dec;34(6):462-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma presenting as microcalcification in the nipple on screening mammogram: case report and review of the literature of radiologic features.
  • Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma (ISA) of the nipple, first described by Rosen in 1983 (Am J Surg Pathol, 1983, 7, 739-745), is a rare benign tumor that can be misdiagnosed as a malignancy.
  • We describes a case of ISA of the nipple presenting as microcalcification that was found on screening mammography.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21092877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Tsuchiya S, Li F: Electron microscopic findings for diagnosis of breast lesions. Med Mol Morphol; 2005 Dec;38(4):216-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The normal mammary gland can be roughly divided into the large duct close to the nipple and the terminal duct located within the lobulus.
  • If the nuclei of the epithelial cells of normal mammary glands and benign breast lesions are compared with those of malignant breast lesions, the latter are primarily oval or circular in shape whereas the former often show marked notches.
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma and carcinoid tumor of the breast are histological types of breast carcinoma that show characteristic features under an electron microscope.

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  • [Cites] Am J Clin Pathol. 1976 Aug;66(2):291-375 [181979.001]
  • [Cites] Acta Pathol Jpn. 1981 Jan;31(1):45-54 [6263041.001]
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  • (PMID = 16378230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1860-1480
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical molecular morphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Mol Morphol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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4. Sartippour MR, Zhang L, Lu M, Wang HJ, Brooks MN: Nipple fluid basic fibroblast growth factor in patients with breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2005 Dec;14(12):2995-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nipple fluid basic fibroblast growth factor in patients with breast cancer.
  • Recently, there has been increasing interest in nipple fluid as a potential supplemental avenue for breast cancer diagnosis.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study, we determined the levels of an angiogenic factor basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the nipple fluid of healthy subjects as well as patients with benign breast conditions, those at high risk for breast cancer, and patients with active breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: Nipple fluid bFGF levels were as follows (mean +/- SE): 158 +/- 17 pg/mL from benign breasts, 561 +/- 277 pg/mL from high-risk breasts, and 1,343 +/- 441 pg/mL from cancerous breasts.
  • One-way ANOVA showed that the bFGF levels from cancerous breasts were significantly higher than those from benign and high-risk breasts (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0193, respectively).
  • After logarithmic transformation was applied to the data, high-risk breast bFGF levels were higher than those from benign breasts (P = 0.0028).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that nipple fluid bFGF levels are progressively elevated in high-risk and cancerous breasts compared with benign breasts.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Body Fluids / chemistry. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / analysis. Nipples

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  • (PMID = 16365024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 109063
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
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5. Page RN, Dittrich L, King R, Boulos F, Page DL: Syringomatous adenoma of the nipple occurring within a supernumerary breast: a case report. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Nov;36(11):1206-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Syringomatous adenoma of the nipple occurring within a supernumerary breast: a case report.
  • Originally described by Rosen in 1983, syringomatous nipple adenoma (SAN) is a tumor of disputed histogenesis, which can be problematic both diagnostically and therapeutically.
  • It is a benign primary tumor of breast epithelium with histology similar to that of the syringoma.
  • This case represents, to our knowledge, the first such reported case, and represents a significant finding as its presence could lend some confusion as to whether or not this represents a benign primary process of breast or a potentially infiltrative tumor of the skin.

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  • (PMID = 19469876.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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6. Richards T, Hunt A, Courtney S, Umeh H: Nipple discharge: a sign of breast cancer? Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2007 Mar;89(2):124-6
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  • [Title] Nipple discharge: a sign of breast cancer?
  • INTRODUCTION: Nipple discharge is regarded a sign of breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the association between nipple discharge and breast cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent operation for nipple discharge at a district general hospital (population 460,000) over a 3-year period were included.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-six patients underwent operation for nipple discharge.
  • Analysis of nipple discharge revealed red blood cells (RBCs) in 35 patients (40%).
  • Histopathology reported duct ectasia in 59 patients and benign ductal papilloma in 25.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nipple discharge alone is not usually a sign of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / secretion. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Exudates and Transudates / secretion. Nipples / secretion

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  • [Cites] World J Surg. 1989 Nov-Dec;13(6):736-42 [2696228.001]
  • [Cites] Br J Clin Pract Suppl. 1989 Nov;68:54-7; discussion 67-72 [2488566.001]
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  • (PMID = 17346403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1964556
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7. Oo KZ, Xiao PQ: Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple: clinical presentation and literature review. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Sep;133(9):1487-9
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  • [Title] Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple: clinical presentation and literature review.
  • Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple is a rare neoplasm of the breast.
  • Syringomatous adenoma of the nipple is often misdiagnosed because clinical examination and mammographic findings of syringomatous adenoma of the nipple mimic carcinoma.
  • Despite its benign behavior, syringomatous adenoma of the nipple usually shows infiltrative expansile proliferation into adjacent tissue and underlying breast tissue.
  • Histologically and clinically, syringomatous adenoma of the nipple is often confused with tubular carcinoma as well as low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast.
  • Special attention given to this tumor by pathologists and clinicians can avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment.

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  • (PMID = 19722761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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8. Castillo M, Sanjuán A, Pérez N, Zanón G, Bons N, Vilanova M, Vanrell JA, Merino MJ, Fernández PL: Fibrous Histiocytoma-like Spindle-Cell Proliferation in the Nipple After Body-Piercing. Int J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jan;14(1):89-93
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  • [Title] Fibrous Histiocytoma-like Spindle-Cell Proliferation in the Nipple After Body-Piercing.
  • We report the case of a 19-year-old pregnant woman who presented with a nipple tumor.
  • Although it showed low mitotic activity, scattered marked atypical cells with prominent nucleoli were identified, thus raising concern about the benign nature of the tumor.
  • To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a lesion of this type in the nipple after body-piercing.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Piercing / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / etiology. Nipples / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Int J Surg Pathol 14(1):89-93, 2006.
  • (PMID = 16501844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Vimentin
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9. Rageth CJ, Tausch C: Intramammarian flap reconstruction (IFR) technique in breast conserving surgery. Breast; 2009 Dec;18(6):387-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The pectoral part of the gland body can then be placed into the tumor bed without tension as a f;ap with a length of approximately 7-14 cm and a width of approximately 4-10 cm.
  • In 2007, the first author performed a total of 134 breast conserving surgeries (9 benign and 125 malignant diagnoses) which have been prospectively documented.
  • The results in the 4 remaining patients were cosmetically unsatisfactory; 3 were treated with and 1 without the intramammarian flap reconstruction.In most cases the technique leads to a quick and acceptable filling of the defect and avoids nipple deviation even after a large segmentectomy, so that the breast shape can be preserved and the original breast size is being only marginally reduced.

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  • (PMID = 19913416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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10. El Idrissi F, Fadli A: [Erosive adenomatosis of the nipple]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2005 Dec;34(8):813-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Erosive adenomatosis of the nipple].
  • [Transliterated title] Adénomatose érosive du mamelon.
  • First rule out galactophoric carcinoma underlying all the erosions of the nipple or a breast tumor.
  • A 52-year-old woman consulted for a right breast tumor that had developing for more than four years due to a serious nipple flow.
  • Physical examination disclosed an ulcer tumor of the nipple and the superior quadrant of the areole.
  • Wide tumor resection was performed.
  • The histological analysis led to the diagnosis of erosive nipple adenomatosis.
  • Erosive adenomatosis of the nipple is a benign tumor which developing within the lactic nipple.
  • Erosive adenomatosis of the nipple is very rare and should be suspected in patients with nipple erosions or a nipple tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16319774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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11. Laronga C, Drake RR: Proteomic approach to breast cancer. Cancer Control; 2007 Oct;14(4):360-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In particular, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis has been used to differentiate cancer profiles from benign profiles in samples from sera, plasma, tissue, nipple fluid, and ductal lavage.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Protein Array Analysis. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • (PMID = 17914336.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-2359
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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12. Sookhan N, Boughey JC, Walsh MF, Degnim AC: Nipple-sparing mastectomy--initial experience at a tertiary center. Am J Surg; 2008 Oct;196(4):575-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nipple-sparing mastectomy--initial experience at a tertiary center.
  • BACKGROUND: Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) combines skin-sparing mastectomy with preservation of the nipple-areolar dermis and intraoperative pathologic assessment of the nipple core.
  • The average distance of tumor from the nipple on imaging was 4.8 cm (range 4 to 5.7).
  • Nipple cores were all benign, and 2 patients developed self-limited superficial desquamation of the nipple.
  • At a mean follow up of 10.8 months, all nipple-areolar complexes were intact, and there were no local or systemic recurrences.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Body Image. Esthetics. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


13. Kijima Y, Matsukita S, Yoshinaka H, Owaki T, Aikou T: Adenoma of the nipple: report of a case. Breast Cancer; 2006;13(1):95-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenoma of the nipple: report of a case.
  • We report a case of an adenoma of the nipple in a 33-year-old Japanese woman who presented with a 2-year history of itching, eczema, and discharge from the left nipple.
  • Examination revealed a firm, well defined and erosive tumor measuring 10 x 11 mm that was sore, crusted, and indurated.
  • There was a slight serosanguineous discharge from the tumor.
  • Cytological material from the tumor obtained from the discharge and by fine needle aspiration (FNA) and scraping showed a papillary cell cluster thought to be a benign papilloma.
  • We performed a tumor resection with preservation of the nipple.
  • The histological diagnosis was adenoma of the nipple.
  • The patient was left with a cosmetically well-preserved nipple.
  • No recurrent tumor has been observed for two years after surgery.

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  • (PMID = 16518068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. Tao W, Kai F, Yue Hua L: Nipple adenoma in an adolescent. Pediatr Dermatol; 2010 Jul-Aug;27(4):399-401
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nipple adenoma in an adolescent.
  • Nipple adenoma is a rare tumor of the breast which usually appears in middle age women and rarely in adolescents.
  • We describe a 15-year-old female diagnosed with nipple adenoma.
  • Nipple adenoma is a benign neoplasia which should be recognized to avoid confusion with breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20653865.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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15. Leinweber B, Chott A, Kerl H, Cerroni L: Epidermotropic precursor T-cell lymphoma with highly aggressive clinical behavior simulating localized pagetoid reticulosis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Aug;29(4):392-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We describe a 43-year-old patient with a solitary, eczematous plaque on his right nipple that had developed during the previous 6 weeks.
  • The tumor cells expressed a T-phenotype (CD3+, CD20-) and were CD30-, CD4-, and CD8-negative.
  • Reevaluation of the skin lesion and of a tonsil specimen previously interpreted as benign hyperplasia showed features consistent with those observed in the lymph node.

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  • (PMID = 17667175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD43; 0 / Antigens, CD7
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16. Wu YH, Chen FY, Ouyang HY, Wang SM: [Clinical diagnosis of breast cancer with nonpalpable tumor]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2008 Sep;33(9):861-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical diagnosis of breast cancer with nonpalpable tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the early diagnosis of breast cancer with nonpalpable tumor.
  • METHODS: Forty-six cases of clinical nonpalpable tumor were examined by mammography and sonography.The cases of nipple discharge were also examined by fiberoptic ductoscopy.
  • Of them, 34 diagnosed with breast cancer were found with nodus, calcification or confused structure, and so on, 5 were considered benign tumor, and 7 were not found lesion by mammography.
  • Thirty-one cases were diagnosed with breast cancer, 6 with benign tumor, and 9 were not found occupying lesion by sonography.
  • Occupying lesions were found in 6 cases of nipple discharge by fiberoptic ductoscopy and were finally diagnosed by biopsy.

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  • (PMID = 18812668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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17. Blum A, Hartmann KW, Rütten A: [Brownish coloration of the left nipple in a 60-year-old woman]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):64-8
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  • [Title] [Brownish coloration of the left nipple in a 60-year-old woman].
  • Pigmented Paget disease of the nipple is a rare disease.
  • Circumscribed pigmentation of the nipple includes a wide spectrum of benign and malignant differential diagnostic considerations.
  • Biopsies should always be performed on unclear pigmentation of the nipple in both women and men.
  • Pagetoid intraepithelial cells of a melanocytic tumor are positive for S100, HMB45 or melan A, but not for cytokeratins.
  • Intraepithelial tumor cells of Paget disease are positive for cytokeratin 7.

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  • (PMID = 19967329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Odashiro M, Lima MG, Miiji LN, Odashiro DN, Carvalho GV, Prates Campos JC, Odashiro AN: Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple. Breast J; 2009 Jul-Aug;15(4):414-6
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  • [Title] Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple.
  • Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple is a rare, benign, locally invasive tumor with recurrence potential, showing sweat duct differentiation.
  • A 44-year-old woman presented with pain on the right nipple for 7 days.
  • On physical exam there was an irregular nodule on nipple area with edema.
  • The ultrasound showed a hypoechoic irregular nodule measuring 7.5 mm in the nipple area.
  • The lesion was surgically removed and histopathologically, the tumor was composed of ducts and tubules lined with a double-layered epithelial cells.
  • At the periphery, the ducts invaded muscular fibers of the nipple.

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  • (PMID = 19470133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Zhao YS, Pang D, Wang F, Xue YW, Gao DN, Li H, Li K, Wang BY, Wang D, Li HY: Nipple aspirate fluid collection, related factors and relationship between carcinoembryonic antigen in nipple aspirate fluid and breast diseases in women in Harbin, PRC. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2009 Mar;18(3):732-8
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  • [Title] Nipple aspirate fluid collection, related factors and relationship between carcinoembryonic antigen in nipple aspirate fluid and breast diseases in women in Harbin, PRC.
  • This study aimed to examine the factors related to the ability to obtain nipple aspirate fluids in Chinese women and to evaluate the diagnostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in nipple aspiration fluids.
  • Cross-sectional and case-control studies were used to examine the factors associated with the ability to obtain nipple aspiration fluids.
  • A matched case-control study was used to explore the association of CEA level in nipple aspiration fluids with breast disease.
  • The nipple aspiration fluid collection rate was 34.24% (201 of 587).
  • Multivariate logistic regression analysis results showed the following to be significantly associated with a greater ability to obtain nipple aspiration fluids: earlier age at menarche [odds ratio (OR), 2.61; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.15-5.91], lactating>12 months (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.44-3.60), wet-type ear wax (OR, 3.80; 95% CI, 2.39-6.02), and fatty diet (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02-2.39).
  • CEA levels in nipple aspiration fluids of cancerous breasts were significantly higher than those from breasts with benign disease and healthy controls (ORadj, 5.39; P<0.01).
  • The nipple aspiration fluid collection rate in Chinese native women is lower compared to non-Asian-descendant women.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Body Fluids / chemistry. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / analysis. Nipples

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  • (PMID = 19273481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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20. Sanati S, Leonard M, Khamapirad T, Eltorky MA: Nodular mucinosis of the breast: a case report with pathologic, ultrasonographic, and clinical findings and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Mar;129(3):e58-61
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  • This benign mass usually presents clinically as a poorly circumscribed, subareolar, myxoid mass in young female patients.
  • Clinical breast examination demonstrated a 1 cm "rubbery" mass directly under and continuous with the left nipple.
  • The skin that covered the mass had an edematous and irregular appearance without erythema or drainage from the nipple.
  • Ultrasonography demonstrated a 1-cm, nonintraductal, circumscribed, homogeneous, isoechoic mass that was continuous or part of the base of the left nipple.
  • These findings suggested a benign breast lesion, including a fibroadenoma or nipple adenoma.
  • Microscopic examination showed a well-circumscribed tumor with a nodular appearance, which consisted of an accumulation of pink myxoid tissue and contained spindle cells with bland-appearing nuclei, no mitosis, and mild cellularity.

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  • (PMID = 15737051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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21. Beier JP, Jaeger K, Horch RE: Reduction mammaplasty for benign phyllodes tumour in an adolescent female--a 13-year follow up. Breast; 2006 Aug;15(4):550-3
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  • [Title] Reduction mammaplasty for benign phyllodes tumour in an adolescent female--a 13-year follow up.
  • We present the case of a 17-year old female patient with a large benign phyllodes tumour.
  • Symmetry of breast contour and nipple-areola complex position could be restored.
  • Standard plastic surgical techniques like reduction mammaplasty might be applied in treating large benign tumours compromising the aesthetic aspect of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16310356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics
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22. Meherbano KM, Jaywant M, Girish J, Kiran B, Sanjay K, Anjali J, Nilima L, Dilip S, Vikas Y, Ratnamala K, Walde MS: Solitary intraductal papilloma of the breast--a diagnostic dilemma and the role of conferencing between surgeons and cytologist. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Oct;49(4):582-5
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  • A 40 year female, presented with the complaints of spontaneous, sticky, blood stained discharge from the nipple of the left breast since 6 months.
  • Cytology of the nipple discharge (ND) showed scanty cellularity consisting of tight papillary clusters of ductal cells in a hemorrhagic and inflammatory background.
  • The cytological diagnosis of a papillary tumor is provisional and the definitive diagnosis must await histological examination.
  • In view of rarity of this lesion, combined with the overlapping of cytologic features in benign and malignant papillary lesions, conferencing and communication with the surgeon should be an integral part of patient evaluation and management.

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  • (PMID = 17183864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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23. Zhu W, Qin W, Hewett JE, Sauter ER: Quantitative evaluation of DNA hypermethylation in malignant and benign breast tissue and fluids. Int J Cancer; 2010 Jan 15;126(2):474-82
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  • [Title] Quantitative evaluation of DNA hypermethylation in malignant and benign breast tissue and fluids.
  • The assessment of DNA had demonstrated altered methylation in malignant compared to benign breast tissue.
  • The purpose of our study was to (i) confirm the predictive ability of methylation assessment in breast tissue, and (ii) use the genes found to be cancer predictive in tissue to evaluate the diagnostic potential of hypermethylation assessment in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and mammary ductoscopic (MD) samples.
  • Methylation of CCND-2, p16, RAR-beta and RASSF-1a was significantly more prevalent in tumor than in normal tissue specimens.
  • Methylation frequency was higher in MD specimens from breasts with cancer than benign samples for p16 and RASSF-1a.

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  • (PMID = 19618401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA124818-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA124818; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA124818; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA124818-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCND2 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D2; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS144203; NLM/ PMC3398695
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24. Hirose M, Hashizume T, Seino N, Kubota H, Nobusawa H, Gokan T: Atlas of breast magnetic resonance imaging. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2007 Mar-Apr;36(2):51-65
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast has become important not only for assessing the extent of breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery but also for the evaluation and diagnosis of other benign and malignant pathologies.
  • We will illustrate the MRI features of various breast pathologies including malignant tumors such as invasive and noninvasive ductal carcinoma, special types of invasive carcinoma (mucinous, apocrine, lobular carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and so on), inflammatory carcinoma, semimalignant tumor (phyllodes tumor), benign tumors (fibroadenoma, intraductal and intracystic papilloma), inflammatory conditions, and postsurgical changes.
  • We will also demonstrate three-dimensional fusion images of MR ductography and breast MRI of patients with nipple discharge.

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  • (PMID = 17331837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-0188
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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25. Kim SH, Cha ES, Kim HS, Kang BJ, Choi JJ, Jung JH: Galactography acquired with digital mammography in patients with nipple discharge: a retrospective analysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Aug;280(2):217-22
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  • [Title] Galactography acquired with digital mammography in patients with nipple discharge: a retrospective analysis.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the galactographic findings taken with digital mammography and to compare the findings between benign and malignant breast diseases.
  • The difference in galactographic findings between malignant and benign breast diseases was analyzed using chi(2) test.
  • RESULTS: Of the total 42 cases, 11 cases were malignant breast diseases and 31 were benign diseases.
  • Common galactographic findings of benign diseases include ductal obstruction (48.3%) and single filling defect (51.6%), and common findings for malignant tumor include ductal dilatation (72.7%) and stenosis (63.6%).
  • A single filling defect and lobular filling defect was more prevalently seen in benign cases (P < 0.05).
  • Ductal dilatation was a common finding in both malignant and benign cases with no significant difference.
  • A preoperative diagnostic galactography is useful in making a differential diagnosis between benign diseases and malignant tumors in patients with pathologic nipple discharge.

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  • (PMID = 19115063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Rissanen T, Reinikainen H, Apaja-Sarkkinen M: Breast sonography in localizing the cause of nipple discharge: comparison with galactography in 52 patients. J Ultrasound Med; 2007 Aug;26(8):1031-9
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  • [Title] Breast sonography in localizing the cause of nipple discharge: comparison with galactography in 52 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate breast sonography in localizing abnormalities in the discharging duct in patients with spontaneous nipple discharge.
  • METHODS: Fifty-two patients with unilateral bloody or serous nipple discharge and normal findings on palpation and mammography underwent breast sonography before surgical duct excision.
  • RESULTS: The final diagnosis was benign in 47 cases (90%) and malignant in 5 cases (10%).
  • Sonography visualized an echogenic intraductal tumor in 36 (69%) of 52 cases, dilated duct(s) without an intraductal tumor in 6 cases (12%), and no abnormality in 10 cases (19%).
  • Eighty percent of papillomatous lesions, 58% of other benign lesions, and 20% of malignant lesions were sonographically positive.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sonography was found to be a valuable method for localizing intraductal abnormalities, especially papillomatous lesions, in patients with nipple discharge with no other clinical or radiologic findings.
  • Galactography remains the primary diagnostic method, especially in depicting malignant causes of nipple discharge, which may be seen only as duct dilatation on sonography.

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  • (PMID = 17646365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue
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27. Yang GZ, Li J, Ding HY: [Nipple adenoma: report of 18 cases with review of literatures]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Sep;38(9):614-6
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  • [Title] [Nipple adenoma: report of 18 cases with review of literatures].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of nipple adenoma of the breast.
  • METHODS: Morphological observation and immunohistochemistry were applied to 18 cases of nipple adenoma with a review of the related literatures.
  • The tumor cells were crowding, lack of an uniform morphology and polarity with intact myoepithelial cells around the ducts.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nipple adenoma is an infrequent type of benign breast neoplasm, presenting as sclerosing papilloma, papillomatosis or florid sclerosing adenosis.
  • A correct diagnosis is based on the peculiar location and morphology of the tumor, and immunohistochemistry is helpful in some cases.

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  • (PMID = 20079190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CK-34 beta E12; 0 / Keratin-5; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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28. Deutscher SL, Dickerson M, Gui G, Newton J, Holm JE, Vogeltanz-Holm N, Kliethermes B, Hewett JE, Kumar SR, Quinn TP, Sauter ER: Carbohydrate antigens in nipple aspirate fluid predict the presence of atypia and cancer in women requiring diagnostic breast biopsy. BMC Cancer; 2010 Oct 01;10:519
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  • [Title] Carbohydrate antigens in nipple aspirate fluid predict the presence of atypia and cancer in women requiring diagnostic breast biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: The goal of this prospective study was to determine (a) concentrations of the carbohydrate biomarkers Thomsen Friedenreich (TF) antigen and its precursor, Tn antigen, in nipple discharge (ND) collected from women requiring biopsy because of a suspicious breast lesion; and (b) if concentration levels predicted pathologic diagnosis.
  • TF was higher in women with 1) cancer (DCIS or invasive) vs. either no cancer (atypia or benign pathology, p = .048), or benign pathology (p = .018); and 2) abnormal (atypia or cancer) versus benign pathology (p = .016); and was more predictive of atypia or cancer in post- compared to premenopausal women.
  • High TF concentration and age were independent predictors of disease, correctly classifying either cancer or abnormal vs. benign pathology 83% of the time in postmenopausal women.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TF concentrations in ND were higher in women with precancer and cancer compared to women with benign disease, and TF was an independent predictor of breast atypia and cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20920311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA119095
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carbohydrates
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2958935
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29. Losken A, Styblo TM, Carlson GW, Jones GE, Amerson BJ: Management algorithm and outcome evaluation of partial mastectomy defects treated using reduction or mastopexy techniques. Ann Plast Surg; 2007 Sep;59(3):235-42
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  • Histology was invasive carcinoma (n = 33), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n = 20), fibroadenoma (n = 6), and benign breast tissue (n = 4).
  • The most common tumor location was upper outer quadrant, and the various pedicles used were superomedial (n = 22), inferior (n = 20), central (n = 7), and other (n = 14).
  • Total specimen weight on the tumor side was 762 g and 858 g on the contralateral side, to accommodate for radiation fibrosis.
  • Immediate complications were seen in 22% of cases and included delayed healing (n = 9), infection (n = 1), partial nipple loss (n = 1), hematoma (n = 1), and skin necrosis (n = 1).

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Plast Surg. 2007 Nov;59(5):592; author reply 593 [17992158.001]
  • (PMID = 17721207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-7043
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Park SY, Jung JY, Na JI, Byun HJ, Cho KH: A case of polypoid clear cell acanthoma on the nipple. Ann Dermatol; 2010 Aug;22(3):337-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of polypoid clear cell acanthoma on the nipple.
  • Clear cell acanthoma (CCA) is a rare benign epidermal tumor.
  • We observed an unusual case of polypoid CCA on the nipple of a 14-year-old girl.
  • At present, a few cases of CCA on the nipple area have been reported in the literature.
  • However, CCA presented as a polypoid tumor on the nipple area has been reported very rarely.
  • We herein report the very rare case of polypoid CCA on the nipple and suggest that CCA should be included in the clinical differential diagnosis of polypoid lesions on the nipple.

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  • (PMID = 20711275.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2917692
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Clear cell acanthoma / Nipple
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31. Kono S, Kurosumi M, Simooka H, Kawanowa K, Takei H, Suemasu K: Nipple adenoma found in a mastectomy specimen: report of a case with special regard to the proliferation pattern. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(2):234-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nipple adenoma found in a mastectomy specimen: report of a case with special regard to the proliferation pattern.
  • We report a case of nipple adenoma incidentally found in a mastectomy specimen, and describe its unique histological appearance and the immunohistochemical distribution of Ki-67 positive tumor cells.
  • A 45-year-old woman with no symptoms or sign related to the nipple had a left mastectomy for invasive breast cancer.
  • A small nipple adenoma, 7 mm in size, was incidentally recognized in the nipple of the resected breast.
  • Histologically, the tumor in the nipple was composed of numerous proliferative ducts with a tubular and florid papillomatous appearance.
  • Many demarcations between squamous cells of the epidermis and tumor cells were recognized in the summit as well as the lateral wall of the nipple.
  • A high Ki-67 labeling index (20.3%) was recognized in the tumor cells in the superficial region, and a low labeling index (0.7%) was seen in the deeper region of the tumor.
  • Based on these proliferative patterns, the symptoms and clinical signs related to the nipple that are often found in patients with nipple adenoma are thought to be associated with the destruction of the epidermis of the nipple by the invasion of benign tumor cells with high proliferative activity.

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  • (PMID = 17485911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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32. Ku J, Campbell C, Bennett I: Leiomyoma of the nipple. Breast J; 2006 Jul-Aug;12(4):377-80
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  • [Title] Leiomyoma of the nipple.
  • Leiomyoma is a rare, benign neoplasm of the nipple.
  • We report the case of a patient with a leiomyoma arising from her left nipple who presented with persistent nipple pain and tenderness which led to the eventual complete excision of her left nipple and areola complex.
  • Clinicians should be aware that this is a rare, but potential cause of chronic persistent pain and swelling in the region of the nipple-areola complex of the breast.

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  • (PMID = 16848853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Fackler MJ, Rivers A, Teo WW, Mangat A, Taylor E, Zhang Z, Goodman S, Argani P, Nayar R, Susnik B, Sukumar S, Khan SA: Hypermethylated genes as biomarkers of cancer in women with pathologic nipple discharge. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Jun 1;15(11):3802-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hypermethylated genes as biomarkers of cancer in women with pathologic nipple discharge.
  • PURPOSE: In a pilot study of women with pathologic nipple discharge (PND) undergoing ductoscopy, we tested quantitative assessment of gene promoter hypermethylation using quantitative multiplex methylation-specific PCR (QM-MSP) to enhance detection of duct carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • Furthermore, cells from ducts with DCIS displayed higher levels of methylation than those with benign lesions such as papilloma (P = 0.006); or ducts with minimal findings on ductoscopy (P = 0.0001).
  • Cumulative RASSF1A, TWIST1, and HIN1 gene methylation accurately distinguished ducts with cancerous versus benign lesions (100% sensitivity, 72% specificity, and area under the curve of 0.91 according to receiving operating characteristic analyses).

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  • (PMID = 19470737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA088843; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA88843-AV-14P1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA88843
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / SCGB3A1 protein, human; 0 / TWIST1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Twist Transcription Factor
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34. Lauwers K, Bestman TJ, Bergmans G, Molderez C: Granular cell tumour of the male breast. Acta Chir Belg; 2008 Jan-Feb;108(1):112-4
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  • Granular cell tumour (GCT) is a rare neoplasm that can be found in multiple sites throughout the body.
  • In general, it appears as a singular benign lesion, although it can be multi-focal and rare cases with malignant behaviour have been reported.
  • We report a rare case of granular cell tumour of the nipple in the male breast, treated by wide local excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / surgery. Granular Cell Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18411585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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35. Wood ME, Stanley MA, Crocker AM, Kingsley FS, Leiman G: Ductal lavage of cancerous and unaffected breasts: procedure success rate and cancer detection. Acta Cytol; 2009 Jul-Aug;53(4):410-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • They underwent bilateral nipple aspiration, followed by DL of those ducts demonstrating nipple aspiration fluid (NAF) production.
  • Samples were interpreted masked as to which breast was malignant, and the interpretation used a 5-category scheme: insufficient, benign, mildly atypical, markedly atypical or malignant.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19697725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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36. Perez-Bóscollo AC, Dutra RA, Borges LG, Stafuzza Gonçalves EM, Etchebehere RM, Rocha RL, da Silva MM, Ribeiro TC: Galactocele: an unusual cause of breast enlargement in children. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Jul;44(7):e1-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The patient presented with a tumor in the right breast that had appeared 6 months earlier with no pain, signs of inflammation, or nipple secretion.
  • Twelve cases found in the literature emphasize the importance of including galactocele in the differential diagnosis of benign breast masses in infancy.

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  • (PMID = 19573643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Sato K, Oda Y, Ueda Y, Katsuda S: Fasciitis ossificans of the breast. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(10):737-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The painless lesion was located 3 cm from the nipple in the lower outer quadrant of the left breast.
  • To avoid an unnecessarily aggressive treatment, fasciitis ossificans, a benign bone-forming nodule, needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of breast hard tumor.

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  • (PMID = 17728072.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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38. Koirala K, Shrestha ML, Chalise PR, Shrestha BB, Shrestha R: Leiomyoma of breast: a report of rare case. Nepal Med Coll J; 2008 Sep;10(3):207-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Leiomyoma is a benign smooth muscle neoplasm.
  • Leiomyoma of breast is a rare benign non epithelial tumor.
  • There was no history of nipple discharge, trauma or use of oral contraceptive pills.

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  • (PMID = 19253869.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nepal Med Coll J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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39. Alcock C, Layer GT: Predicting occult malignancy in nipple discharge. ANZ J Surg; 2010 Sep;80(9):646-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predicting occult malignancy in nipple discharge.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent minor or major duct surgery for pathological nipple discharge.
  • The results of clinical examination, mammography, ultrasonography and cytodiagnosis of the nipple discharge were studied in order to predict those patients at risk of underlying or occult malignancy.
  • METHODS: Between January 2004 and December 2006, 55 female patients aged between 24 and 82 years old underwent major or minor duct excision, 49 of which were for pathological nipple discharge.
  • RESULTS: Of the 49 patients undergoing surgery for nipple discharge, 21 were diagnosed with intraductal papilloma, 19 with duct ectasia, 6 with carcinoma, 2 with benign breast disease and 1 with lobular carcinoma in situ.
  • The sensitivity of blood detected in nipple discharge at predicting malignancy was 0.83, specificity of 0.53, positive predictive value of 0.20 and negative predictive value 0.96.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the various tests used in the assessment of pathological nipple discharge, this study highlights their limited help at predicting the cause.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / secretion. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Exudates and Transudates / secretion. Nipples / secretion

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
  • (PMID = 20840410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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40. Kinkor Z, Skálová A, Michal M, Janousek M, Kheck M: [Metastasing and relapsing "low grade" adenosquamous metaplastic breast cancer--is there a really indolent lesion? A description of three cases and review of literature]. Ceska Gynekol; 2005 May;70(3):211-6
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  • RESULTS: Partial mastectomy and segmentectomy were performed in three women 46, 72 and 74 years-old resp. for tumor, which size ranged from 20-35 mm in maximum diameter (mean 28 mm).
  • There were recognized metastases by one woman in two ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes mimicking benign breast heterotopia in one of them.
  • In two women with aggressive course the original biopsy was falsely interpreted, once as phyllodes tumor and secondly as benign sclerosing pseudotumor.
  • Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, however, has nothing to do with syringomatous adenoma of the nipple, which is a benign tumor of the skin adnexa.
  • Differential diagnosis includes spectrum of non-neoplastic slerosing lesions and above-mentioned phylloid tumor.
  • The rarity of this neoplasm does not exclude deep knowledge.


41. Uchida K, Toriumi Y, Kawase K, Tabei I, Yamashita A, Nogi H: Percutaneous endoscopy-guided biopsy of an intracystic tumor with a mammary ductoscopy. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(2):215-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Percutaneous endoscopy-guided biopsy of an intracystic tumor with a mammary ductoscopy.
  • We have treated many cases who had nipple discharge with mammary ductoscopy since 1992, and we have used this method to diagnose intracystic tumors.
  • METHODS: An endoscope was inserted into the cyst percutaneously, and the intracystic tumor was biopsied using forceps.
  • Four of six cases were cancer, and two were benign papillomas.

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  • (PMID = 17485908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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42. Yosepovich A, Perelman M, Ayalon S, Papa M, Kopolovic J: Syringomatous adenoma of the nipple: a case report. Pathol Res Pract; 2005;201(5):405-7
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  • [Title] Syringomatous adenoma of the nipple: a case report.
  • We present a case of a 33-year-old woman who underwent excisional breast biopsy due to a left nipple mass.
  • Histological examination revealed the morphologic and immunohistochemical pattern of syringomatous adenoma of the nipple.
  • This is a rare lesion of the breast that can clinically mimic breast carcinoma, but harbors a benign and only locally aggressive course.
  • Awareness of both the clinician and the pathologist for the possibility of diagnosing this tumor in the nipple region is mandatory to avoid mastectomy and lymph node dissection.

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  • (PMID = 16047951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins
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