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1. Bassi MA, Podgaec S, Dias Júnior JA, Sobrado CW, D Amico Filho N: [Bowel endometriosis: a benign disease?]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2009 Sep-Oct;55(5):611-6
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  • [Title] [Bowel endometriosis: a benign disease?].
  • Endometriosis is generally assumed to be a benign disease, but it is estimated that 1% of cases are associated with cancer, especially when both conditions are present in the ovary.
  • Endometriosis itself typically behaves as a neoplasia process, spreading over adjacent stroma and being associated with distant lesions.
  • This is an update on the diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic knowledge of, management of bowel implants of endometrial tissue, as well as the relation with neoplastic processes to better understand its benign nature or eventual potential for malignancy.

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  • [ErratumIn] Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2009 Nov-Dec;55(6):764
  • (PMID = 19918666.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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2. Jones S, Chen WD, Parmigiani G, Diehl F, Beerenwinkel N, Antal T, Traulsen A, Nowak MA, Siegel C, Velculescu VE, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, Willis J, Markowitz SD: Comparative lesion sequencing provides insights into tumor evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2008 Mar 18;105(11):4283-8
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  • We show that the times separating the birth of benign, invasive, and metastatic tumor cells can be determined by analysis of the mutations they have in common.
  • When combined with prior clinical observations, these analyses suggest the following general conclusions about colorectal tumorigenesis: (i) It takes approximately 17 years for a large benign tumor to evolve into an advanced cancer but <2 years for cells within that cancer to acquire the ability to metastasize;.
  • (iii) the process of cell culture ex vivo does not introduce new clonal mutations into colorectal tumor cell populations; and (iv) the rates at which point mutations develop in advanced cancers are similar to those of normal cells.

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  • (PMID = 18337506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA57345; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA043460; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA127306; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121113; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM078986; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA127306; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA062924; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM078986; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62924; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA120237; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121113; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM078986-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA043703; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA43460; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA043703; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA120237; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA116867; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM078986-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116867; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / ; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA057345; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA057345; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA105090
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-49-2 / DNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2393770
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3. Gos M, Miłoszewska J, Przybyszewska M: [Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer progression]. Postepy Biochem; 2009;55(2):121-8
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  • According to recently published data, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition--a process important for embryonic development, may be involved in many pathological processes such as wound healing, tissue fibrosis or cancer progression.
  • The EMT process in cell is driven by growth factors (EGF, PDGF, HGF) or other signaling proteins such as TGF-beta, sonic hedgehog (Shh), Wnt/beta-catenin and extracellular matrix (ECM) components that may stimulate cellular growth and migration.
  • During cancer progression, the EMT process is necessary to the conversion of benign tumor to aggressive and highly invasive cancer.
  • During the colonization of distant sites, a reverse process mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) takes place and metastatic cancer cells again acquire the epithelial phenotype.
  • It has been suggested that also cells within tumor microenvironment e.g. cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) are generated in part from normal epithelial cells in EMT process.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19824467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0032-5422
  • [Journal-full-title] Postepy biochemii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Postepy Biochem.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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4. Rozeman LB, Hameetman L, Cleton-Jansen AM, Taminiau AH, Hogendoorn PC, Bovée JV: Absence of IHH and retention of PTHrP signalling in enchondromas and central chondrosarcomas. J Pathol; 2005 Mar;205(4):476-82
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  • Enchondromas and conventional central chondrosarcomas are, respectively, benign and malignant hyaline cartilage-forming tumours that originate in the medulla of bone.
  • In order to gain a better understanding of the molecular process underlying malignant transformation of enchondroma, and to investigate whether there is a biological difference between conventional central cartilaginous tumours and those of enchondromatosis or with phalangeal localization, a series of 64 enchondromas (phalanx, n = 21; enchondromatosis, n = 15) and 89 chondrosarcomas (phalanx, n = 17; enchondromatosis, n = 13) was collected.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fingers / pathology. Hedgehog Proteins. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15685701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Trans-Activators
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5. Schnatz PF, Guile M, O'Sullivan DM, Sorosky JI: Clinical significance of atypical glandular cells on cervical cytology. Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Mar;107(3):701-8
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  • Of the AGUS Pap tests, the remaining 71.0% corresponded to benign findings, including reactive changes, polyps, and normal histology.
  • Patients with AGUS, which favors a neoplastic process, or with a concurrent ASCUS have a greater likelihood of disease.


6. Blanco-Aparicio C, Cañamero M, Cecilia Y, Pequeño B, Renner O, Ferrer I, Carnero A: Exploring the gain of function contribution of AKT to mammary tumorigenesis in mouse models. PLoS One; 2010;5(2):e9305
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  • We thoroughly analyzed the preneoplastic and neoplastic mammary lesions of these mice and correlated the process of tumorigenesis to AKT levels.
  • We analyzed the benign, premalignant and malignant lesions extensively by pathology and at molecular level analysing the expression of proteins involved in the PI3K/AKT pathway and in cellular senescence.
  • Finally, our work shows that levels of activated AKT are not essential in the induction of benign or premalignant tumors, or in the cooperation of AKT with other tumorigenic signal such as mutant p53, once AKT pathway is activated, the relative level of activity seems not to determine the phenotype.


7. Fuerst M, Zustin J, Lohmann C, Rüther W: [Synovial chondromatosis]. Orthopade; 2009 Jun;38(6):511-9
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  • Primary articular synovial chondromatosis is a benign, self-limiting neoplastic process in which hyaline cartilage nodules form in the synovial tissue.
  • Malignant transformation is unusual and can be difficult to distinguish from benign disease.

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  • (PMID = 19458934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0431
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Orthopade
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopade
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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8. Lamp O, Honscha KU, Jakob J, Lamp J, Schweizer S, Reischauer A, Gottschalk J, Hahn A, Ebert M, Rothemund S, Blaschzik S, Einspanier A: Investigation of the local expression of the relaxin system in canine mammary tumours. Reprod Domest Anim; 2009 Jul;44 Suppl 2:224-9
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  • This process is dominantly mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), which are well known to be positively regulated by relaxin (RLX) in various tissues, including human breast cancer.
  • In the first part of the present study, concentrations of RLX, oestradiol and progesterone from plasma samples of bitches with CMT were compared with clinical and survival data to investigate the predictive value of these hormones.
  • Comparison of hormone concentrations in 93 bitches in terms of benign or malignant nature of the CMT, lung metastases, recidivation and 12-month survival discovered no significances.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. Relaxin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19754574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0531
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Domest. Anim.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Peptide; 9002-69-1 / Relaxin
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9. Scurry WC Jr, McGinn JD: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in pregnancy: a case of emergent airway management. Ear Nose Throat J; 2008 Jun;87(6):E8-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a benign neoplastic process involving squamous epithelium of the respiratory tract, typically the vocal folds.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be the etiologic agent in this disease process, as well as in condyloma acuminata, or genital warts.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Papilloma / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Pregnancy Outcome


10. Picken MM, Fresco R: Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney: preliminary immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies of the epithelial component. Ultrastruct Pathol; 2005 May-Aug;29(3-4):283-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Although the histogenesis of this tumor is unknown, it has been proposed that both components of the tumor, i.e., stromal and epithelial, are neoplastic.
  • The authors report preliminary immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies of the epithelial component from one case of a typical, benign, mixed epithelial, and stromal tumor of the kidney.
  • The authors believe that in a benign tumor such morphologic heterogeneity is inconsistent with neoplastic proliferation.
  • Therefore, they postulate that in mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney the tubules are entrapped rather than neoplastic.
  • Additional studies are needed to address this issue and electron microscopy should play a significant role in this process.

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  • (PMID = 16036882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0191-3123
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrastructural pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrastruct Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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11. Jeon YS, Lee JW, Cho SG: Is it from the mesentery or the omentum? MDCT features of various pathologic conditions in intraperitoneal fat planes. Surg Radiol Anat; 2009 Jan;31(1):3-11
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  • Various pathologic conditions such as benign and malignant neoplasm, inflammatory process, and traumatic lesions may involve the mesentery and the omentum.
  • Among various neoplastic diseases that involve the mesentery and the omentum, secondary neoplasms are more frequent than primary ones.

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  • (PMID = 18600294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0930-1038
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Radiol Anat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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12. Huynh TT, Moran KR, Blackburn AH, Jacobs DG, Thomason MH, Sing RF: Optimal management strategy for incidental findings in trauma patients: an initiative for midlevel providers. J Trauma; 2008 Aug;65(2):331-4; discussion 335-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Midlevel providers (MLP) can help streamline this process.
  • Incidental findings of clinical significance included 18 pulmonary nodules or neoplasms, 9 adrenal masses (>4 mm), 7 patients with lymphadenopathy, 5 benign cystic lesions, and 3 renal masses.
  • Other neoplastic lesions included bladder (2), thyroid (2), ovary (1), breast (1), and rectum (1).

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  • (PMID = 18695467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of trauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Trauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Martínez-Brocca MA, Castilla C, Navarro E, Amaya MJ, Travado P, Japón MA, Sáez C: Clinicopathological correlations of Bcl-xL and Bax expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Feb;68(2):190-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: The Bcl-2 family proteins are essential mediators in the apoptotic process.
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: We examined the immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-xL and Bax in benign nodular thyroid disease (BNTD) and DTC and their association with clinicopathological parameters.
  • Non-neoplastic thyroid tissue was largely unstained for both proteins.

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  • (PMID = 17803695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein
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14. Gabal SM, Habib FM, Helmy DO, Ibrahim MF: Expression of estrogen receptor-B ( ER-B ) in bengin and malignant prostatic epithelial cells and its correlation with the clinico-pathological features. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2007 Dec;19(4):239-48
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  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks were obtained from thirty-five patients who underwent radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for prostate cancer, 15 core biopsies diagnosed as PIN and 10 TURP ( transurethral prostatic resection ) diagnosed as BPH ( benign prostatic hyperplasia ) were assessed for ER-Beta expression using immunohistochemistry.
  • From these data we can conclude that estrogen can affect prostatic cancerogenesis and neoplastic progression through an ER-Beta mediated process in human prostate tissue.

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  • (PMID = 19672287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta
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15. Hocke M, Menges M, Topalidis T, Dietrich CF, Stallmach A: Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound in discrimination between benign and malignant mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Apr;134(4):473-80
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  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound in discrimination between benign and malignant mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes.
  • BACKGROUND: Enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum reflect neoplastic, infectious or other diseases.
  • EUS-guided fine needle aspiration was performed and cytologic specimens were diagnosed as representing a malignant or benign process in case of Papanicolau IV and V, or Papanicolau I and II, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Based on cytology results, the investigated lymph nodes were classified as neoplastic (n = 48) or non-neoplastic lymph nodes.
  • Using the B-mode criteria the preliminary diagnosis was confirmed in 64 out of 74 benign lymph nodes (specificity 86%).
  • Using the advanced contrast-enhanced EUS criteria the diagnosis was confirmed in 68 of 74 benign lymph nodes (specificity 91%).
  • The contrast-enhanced EUS criteria to identify benign lymph nodes and node enlargement in malignant lymphoma do not differ.
  • CONCLUSION: Contrast-enhanced EUS improves the specificity in diagnosing benign lymph nodes as compared to B-mode EUS.

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  • (PMID = 17891499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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16. Wouda RM, Chalkley MD, Fraser AR, Moses PA: Hepatic myelolipoma incarcerated in a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a cat. Aust Vet J; 2010 Jun;88(6):231-5
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  • Myelolipoma is an extremely rare benign tumour, composed of extramedullary haematopoietic cells and adipose tissue.
  • Myelolipomas are hypothesised to result from metaplastic alteration, rather than a neoplastic process, although this theory cannot be substantiated.

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  • (PMID = 20553572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-0813
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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17. Tao Y, Wei Q, Xu Z, Bai R, Li Y, Luo C, Dong Y, Gao G, Lu Y: Holistic and network analysis of meningioma pathogenesis and malignancy. Biofactors; 2006;28(3-4):203-19
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  • Meningiomas, which originate from arachnoid cells and constitute the largest subgroup of all intracranial tumors, are generally benign, yet have the capacity to progress into a higher histological grade of malignancy associated with an increase in biological aggressivity and/or capacity to recur.
  • In this potential pathway, ITGB1 could be the most important "superoncogene" playing a vital role in apoptosis and proliferation, while FOXO3A, MDM4 and MT3 are important to the malignancy process.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD29 / genetics. Child. Child, Preschool. China / epidemiology. Down-Regulation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Products, tat / metabolism. Humans. Immunoblotting. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Sex Factors. Thioredoxins / analysis. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17473381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-6433
  • [Journal-full-title] BioFactors (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biofactors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD29; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / Proteome; 52500-60-4 / Thioredoxins
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18. Tang L, Dai DL, Su M, Martinka M, Li G, Zhou Y: Aberrant expression of collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 in human solid cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 15;12(12):3716-22
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  • PURPOSE: The collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) is a promigratory protein first found to be expressed during rat tissue repair process.
  • RESULTS: In benign nevi and noninvasive melanoma biopsies, there was little CTHRC1 protein expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16778098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTHRC1 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins
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19. Martin GM: Clonal attenuation of somatic cells in aging mammals: a review of supportive evidence and its biomedical significance. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2007 Nov;1119:1-8
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  • Publications from the author's laboratory and from other laboratories are reviewed that support the proposition that clonal attenuation is a continuous process throughout the life course and that it occurs in vivo in primates.
  • Finally, the implications of clonal attenuation and replicative senescence, for such major age-related pathologic processes as neoplasia, atherosclerosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and osteoarthritis, are addressed; these and other disorders of aging can be characterized as a mixture of atrophy and hyperplasia, presumably related to a failure of homeostatic cell-cell interactions in aging tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / metabolism. Cell Aging. Cell Communication. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Homeostasis. Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17717099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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20. Blum B, Bar-Nur O, Golan-Lev T, Benvenisty N: The anti-apoptotic gene survivin contributes to teratoma formation by human embryonic stem cells. Nat Biotechnol; 2009 Mar;27(3):281-7
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  • A deeper understanding of this process should aid in the development of safer cell therapies and may help elucidate the basic principles of tumor initiation.
  • We find that transplantation of diploid hES cells from four independent cell lines generates benign teratomas with no sign of malignancy or persisting embryonal carcinoma-like cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Embryonic Stem Cells. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / genetics. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Teratoma

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  • (PMID = 19252483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-1696
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Biotechnol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE13586
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Proteins
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21. Langer R, Dinges J, Dobritz M, Brauer RB, Perren A, Becker K, Kremer M: Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen presenting as a rapidly growing tumour in a patient with rectal cancer. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • Since a metastatic process could not be ruled out, splenectomy was performed, and the tumour emerged as a sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen.
  • SANT is a rare, recently recognised, non-neoplastic vascular lesion of the spleen that radiologically may be difficult to distinguish from vascular splenic lesions such as splenic hamartoma, haemangioma or littoral cell angioma.
  • SANT is considered to be a benign lesion.

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  • (PMID = 21918654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3030094
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22. Cichon MA, Degnim AC, Visscher DW, Radisky DC: Microenvironmental influences that drive progression from benign breast disease to invasive breast cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia; 2010 Dec;15(4):389-97
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  • [Title] Microenvironmental influences that drive progression from benign breast disease to invasive breast cancer.
  • Invasive breast cancer represents the endpoint of a developmental process that originates in the terminal duct lobular units and is believed to progress through stages of increasing proliferation, atypical hyperplasia, and carcinoma in situ before the cancer acquires invasive and metastatic capabilities.
  • By comparison with invasive breast cancer, which has been studied extensively, the preceding stages of benign breast disease are more poorly understood.
  • Much less is known about the molecular changes underlying benign breast disease development and progression, as well as the transition from in situ into invasive disease.
  • However, recent studies have identified alterations in stromal cell function that may be critical for disease progression from benign disease to invasive cancer: key functions of myoepithelial cells that maintain tissue structure are lost, while tissue fibroblasts become activated to produce proteases that degrade the extracellular matrix and trigger the invasive cellular phenotype.

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  • (PMID = 21161341.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7039
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116201; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90628-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122086; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA090628; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA132879; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA128660; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA128660; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA116201; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA132879; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122086
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3011086
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23. Gojnic M, Likic I, Pervulov M, Petkovic S, Fazlagic A, Vasiljevic B: The significance of Doppler flow in early detection of uterine sarcoma in older primigravida pregnancies. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2005;26(3):291-3
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  • Doppler flow was accepted as the authoritative parameter for non-invasive detection of a malignant process.
  • By histopathological analysis, we received benign results in 31 cases, while in four cases where we decided on hysterectomy and surgical delivery, we received malignant results, i.e. leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / ultrasonography. Leiomyosarcoma / ultrasonography. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / ultrasonography. Uterine Neoplasms / ultrasonography


24. de Oliveira JT, de Matos AJ, Gomes J, Vilanova M, Hespanhol V, Manninen A, Rutteman G, Chammas R, Gärtner F, Bernardes ES: Coordinated expression of galectin-3 and galectin-3-binding sites in malignant mammary tumors: implications for tumor metastasis. Glycobiology; 2010 Nov;20(11):1341-52
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  • In order to elucidate the role of galectin-3 in the complex multistage process of cancer metastasis, we examined galectin-3 and galectin-3-binding site expression in a series of 82 spontaneous canine mammary tumors (CMT) and two CMT cell lines.
  • Benign CMT tumors exhibited strong nuclear/cytoplasmic galectin-3 immunostaining, whereas malignant CMT tumors and metastases exhibited dramatically decreased galectin-3 expression with the majority of the immunostaining confined to the cytoplasm.
  • Finally, GLT25D1 mRNA expression was strikingly downregulated in malignant CMT-U27 compared with the benign cell line, and its expression was further decreased in a galectin-3 knockdown CMT-U27 cell line.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Binding Sites. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Dogs. Down-Regulation. Female. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 20591828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2423
  • [Journal-full-title] Glycobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glycobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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25. Safioleas MC, Constantinos K, Michael S, Konstantinos G, Constantinos S, Alkiviadis K: Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma: a case report and review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Sep 21;12(35):5739-42
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  • [Title] Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (BMPM) is a rare tumor that occurs mainly in women in their reproductive age.
  • The pathogenesis of BMPM is unclear and a controversy regarding its neoplastic and reactive nature exists.
  • The biological behavior of BMPM is characterized by its slowly progressive process and high rate of recurrence after surgical resection.


26. Cook AC, Tuck AB, McCarthy S, Turner JG, Irby RB, Bloom GC, Yeatman TJ, Chambers AF: Osteopontin induces multiple changes in gene expression that reflect the six "hallmarks of cancer" in a model of breast cancer progression. Mol Carcinog; 2005 Aug;43(4):225-36
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  • Tumor progression is a multistep process, which enables cells to evolve from benign to malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Sialoglycoproteins / pharmacology

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15864800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-1987
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Carcinog.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K24-CA85429; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA85052
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SPP1 protein, human; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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27. Fuji RN, Patton KM, Steinbach TJ, Schulman FY, Bradley GA, Brown TT, Wilson EA, Summers BA: Feline systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis: eight cases and literature review. Vet Pathol; 2005 Sep;42(5):608-17
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  • Immunohistochemically, the majority of intravascular cells expressed von Willebrand factor, and a smaller number expressed smooth muscle actin, compatible with a dual population of endothelial cells and pericytes, suggesting a reactive rather than a neoplastic process.
  • The histopathology resembles reactive angioendotheliomatosis in humans, a benign cutaneous intravascular endothelial and pericytic proliferative condition.


28. Taylor W, Mathias A, Ali A, Ke H, Stoynev N, Shilkaitis A, Green A, Kiyokawa H, Christov K: p27(Kip1) deficiency promotes prostate carcinogenesis but does not affect the efficacy of retinoids in suppressing the neoplastic process. BMC Cancer; 2010 Oct 08;10:541
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  • [Title] p27(Kip1) deficiency promotes prostate carcinogenesis but does not affect the efficacy of retinoids in suppressing the neoplastic process.
  • In benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and in most carcinomas, p27(Kip1) is down-regulated, suggesting its potential resistance to retinoids.

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  • (PMID = 20932324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA095712; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / CN-35112
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cdkn1b protein, mouse; 0 / Retinoids; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 5300-03-8 / alitretinoin; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2958951
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29. Kojima M, Sakurai S, Shimizu K, Itoh H: B-cell cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia representing progressive transformation of germinal center: a report of 2 cases. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;18(5):429-32
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  • Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH) is a reactive polyclonal benign lymphoproliferative process predominantly composed of B cells or T cells, either localized or disseminated.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Germinal Center / pathology. Pseudolymphoma / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18815203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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30. Benkada S, Jroundi L, Jaziri A, Elkettani N, Chami I, Boujida N, Bacadi D: [Myositis ossificans circumscripta: a case report]. J Radiol; 2006 Mar;87(3):317-9
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  • Myositis ossificans circumscripta is a benign lesion characterized by focal heterotopic soft tissue ossification, occurring in young people generally after localized trauma.
  • Clinical and radiological appearances may mimic a sarcomatous neoplastic process.
  • We report a case of myositis ossificans occurring after trauma, so as to illustrate the different imaging features of this benign pathology on conventional radiographs and computed tomography.

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  • [CommentIn] J Radiol. 2006 Jun;87(6 Pt 1):681-2; author reply 682 [16788545.001]
  • (PMID = 16550118.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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31. Zagólski O, Gajda M, Czajecki K: [Granular cell tumor of the larynx--literature review and case report]. Przegl Lek; 2007;64(9):598-600
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  • The exact origin of granular cell tumor is still unclear, however most authors believe it to be a neoplastic process derived from neuroectoderm.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical removal of the laryngeal granular cell tumor with indications and extent of the resection like in benign tumors, was therapeutically efficient in the presented case.

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  • (PMID = 18510083.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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32. Schneider HP, Böcker W: Hormones and progeny of breast tumor cells. Climacteric; 2006 Apr;9(2):88-107
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  • Full differentiation is a gradual process and takes many years, and is only fully attained by pregnancy.
  • Immunophenotypia of benign proliferative breast disease favors a fundamentally different epithelial composition from that of most malignant epithelial proliferations such as atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ, lobular neoplasia and invasive breast carcinoma.
  • Immunophenotypical characterization of these lesions assists in distinguishing benign from malignant disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Mammary Glands, Human / cytology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16698656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1369-7137
  • [Journal-full-title] Climacteric : the journal of the International Menopause Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Climacteric
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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33. Cho SI, Choi JY, Do NY, Kang CY: An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the nasal dorsum. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Dec;43(12):e35-7
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  • Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the nose is an uncommon benign proliferative lesion that clinically mimics a neoplastic process.
  • This tumor is a localized and completely benign lesion.

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  • (PMID = 19040918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Kurman RJ, Shih IeM: The origin and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer: a proposed unifying theory. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):433-43
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  • Moreover, the carcinomas exhibit a shared lineage with the corresponding benign cystic neoplasm, often through an intermediate (borderline tumor) step, supporting the morphologic continuum of tumor progression.
  • Thus, it has been proposed that serous tumors arise from the implantation of epithelium (benign or malignant) from the fallopian tube.
  • Finally, preliminary data suggest that mucinous and transitional (Brenner) tumors arise from transitional-type epithelial nests at the tubal-mesothelial junction by a process of metaplasia.


35. Di Cristofaro J, Silvy M, Lanteaume A, Marcy M, Carayon P, De Micco C: Expression of tpo mRNA in thyroid tumors: quantitative PCR analysis and correlation with alterations of ret, Braf , ras and pax8 genes. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Jun;13(2):485-95
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  • We performed a qualitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis to measure the expression of variants of tpo mRNA in 13 normal tissue samples, 30 benign tumors (BT), 21 follicular carcinomas (FC), 20 classical papillary carcinomas (PCc), 12 follicular variants of papillary carcinomas (PCfv) and nine oncocytic carcinomas (OC).
  • Both reduction in quantity of TPO and impairment of its maturation process could account for the atypical immunohistochemical reaction of MoAb47 with TPO.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / enzymology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Iodide Peroxidase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 16728576.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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36. Sheahan P, Crotty PL, Hamilton S, Colreavy M, McShane D: Infarcted angiomatous nasal polyps. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Mar;262(3):225-30
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  • Compromise of their vascular supply may occasionally lead to infarction, resulting in clinical, radiological and pathological features that simulate a neoplastic process.
  • Although entirely benign, they may simulate neoplastic processes, thus awareness of their existence is of considerable importance.

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  • (PMID = 15060832.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
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37. Tremblay G, Deschênes J, Alpert L, Quenneville LA: Overexpression of estrogen receptors in columnar cell change and in unfolding breast lobules. Breast J; 2005 Sep-Oct;11(5):326-32
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  • The cases came from 51 women age 35-80 years (mean 52 years) with the following associated findings: 27 carcinomas and 24 benign lesions.
  • Since CCC is the initial step in unfolding of lobules, a process which can evolve into various conditions, including cyst formation and epithelial hyperplasia, the distribution of ER was also evaluated in the latter conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16174153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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38. Reyes Macías JF, Sánchez Prieto M: Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2007 Jan;12(1):E26-9
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  • Synovial Chondromatosis (SC) is a disease whose etiology is unknown, can be defined as a benign synovial process characterized by the formation of metaplastic cartilaginous nodes inside connective tissue of articular surfaces, is considered an active metaplastic phenomenon better than a neoplastic process; it presents a greater preference to affect women who constitute almost 70% of reported cases, the age range is wide and oscillates between 18-75 years (average 44.6 years).

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  • (PMID = 17195823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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39. Brouland JP, Gélébart P, Kovàcs T, Enouf J, Grossmann J, Papp B: The loss of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase 3 expression is an early event during the multistep process of colon carcinogenesis. Am J Pathol; 2005 Jul;167(1):233-42
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  • [Title] The loss of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase 3 expression is an early event during the multistep process of colon carcinogenesis.
  • To better characterize the role of SERCA3 in colon carcinogenesis, its expression has been investigated in colonic epithelium, benign lesions, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Colonic Polyps / enzymology. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins. Endoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases. TCF Transcription Factors. Trans-Activators / genetics. Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein. Transcription Factors. Transfection. Transgenes. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 15972967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TCF Transcription Factors; 0 / TCF7L2 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 3.6.3.8 / ATP2A3 protein, human; EC 3.6.3.8 / Calcium-Transporting ATPases; EC 3.6.3.8 / Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1603437
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40. Carter T, Flik K, Boland P, Kennedy JG: Iliac hematoma mimicking neoplasm in adolescent athletes. Orthopedics; 2008 Nov;31(11):1144
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  • However, the presentation of such injuries can at times be clinically indistinguishable from the onset of a benign or malignant neoplastic process.
  • The authors recommend a diagnostic algorithm to approach the differentiation of iliac hematoma from neoplasm and address the issue of waiting time in the diagnostic process.


41. Auerbach A, Fanburg-Smith JC, Wang G, Rushing EJ: Focal myositis: a clinicopathologic study of 115 cases of an intramuscular mass-like reactive process. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Jul;33(7):1016-24
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  • [Title] Focal myositis: a clinicopathologic study of 115 cases of an intramuscular mass-like reactive process.
  • BACKGROUND: Focal myositis is an uncommon inflammatory pseudotumor of skeletal muscle that can be confused with a variety of neoplastic and inflammatory diseases.
  • Clinical diagnostic considerations ranged from benign entities such as rhabdomyoma, intramuscular lipoma, fibromatosis, myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, and inflammatory myopathy to malignant entities such as rhabdomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, and lymphoma.
  • It can be easily mistaken for an inflammatory myopathy, dystrophy, alternate reactive, or even neoplastic process.

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  • (PMID = 19363438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
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42. Gebhardt C, Breitenbach U, Richter KH, Fürstenberger G, Mauch C, Angel P, Hess J: c-Fos-dependent induction of the small ras-related GTPase Rab11a in skin carcinogenesis. Am J Pathol; 2005 Jul;167(1):243-53
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  • Malignant transformation of mouse skin by tumor promoters and chemical carcinogens, such as the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), is a multistage process leading to the formation of squamous cell carcinomas.
  • It has been shown that mice lacking the AP-1 family member c-Fos exhibit an impaired transition from benign to malignant skin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. rab GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism


43. Basil CF, Zhao Y, Zavaglia K, Jin P, Panelli MC, Voiculescu S, Mandruzzato S, Lee HM, Seliger B, Freedman RS, Taylor PR, Hu N, Zanovello P, Marincola FM, Wang E: Common cancer biomarkers. Cancer Res; 2006 Mar 15;66(6):2953-61
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  • We used 373 archival samples inclusive of normal tissues of various lineages and benign or malignant tumors (predominantly colon, melanoma, ovarian, and esophageal cancers).
  • In particular, seven gene pairs were identified with high predictive power (87%) in segregating malignant from benign lesions.
  • Receiver operator characteristic curves based on the same genes could segregate malignant from benign tissues with 94% accuracy.
  • Their selective expression by cancerous compared with paired normal tissues suggests an association with the oncogenic process resulting in stable expression during disease progression when the presently used differentiation markers are unreliable.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cluster Analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16540643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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44. Krengel S: Nevogenesis--new thoughts regarding a classical problem. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Oct;27(5):456-65
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  • The development of melanocytic nevi is a multifactorial and heterogeneous biologic process that involves prenatal and postnatal steps.
  • As a consequence, there are two main perspectives to nevi: that of a hamartoma and that of a benign tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Nevus / physiopathology. Skin Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16148419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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45. Suh SI, Seol HY, Lee JH, Lee YH, Kim TK, Lee NJ, Woo JS, Kim IS: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the larynx. Head Neck; 2006 Apr;28(4):369-72
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  • BACKGROUND: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, composed of myofibroblastic spindle cells with acute and chronic inflammatory cells, is an unusual, benign solid mass that mimics a neoplastic process.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16470877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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46. Ababneh K, Al-Khateeb T: Aggressive pregnancy tumor mimicking a malignant neoplasm: a case report. J Contemp Dent Pract; 2009;10(6):E072-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Pregnancy tumor is a benign hyperplastic gingival lesion occurring during pregnancy that is indistinguishable from a pyogenic granuloma arising in nonpregnant females, or in males.
  • A malignant process was suspected, and an incisional biopsy revealed a pregnancy tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Alveolar Bone Loss / etiology. Gingival Neoplasms / pathology. Gingival Overgrowth / pathology. Granuloma, Pyogenic / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20020084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of contemporary dental practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Contemp Dent Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Hernández JL, Rodríguez-Parets JO, Valero JM, Muñoz MA, Benito MR, Hernandez JM, Bullón A: High-resolution genome-wide analysis of chromosomal alterations in elastofibroma. Virchows Arch; 2010 Jun;456(6):681-7
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  • Elastofibroma is a rare, benign fibrous proliferation that most commonly occur in periscapular soft tissues and is characterized by accumulated elastic fibers.
  • Although the lesion is generally regarded as a reactive process, an unusual fibroblastic pseudotumor or as a fibroelastic tumor-like lesion, its etiology remains unknown.
  • Cytogenetic studies in these lesions detected chromosomal instability and some recurrent clonal chromosomal changes, which raised the possibility that the lesion represents a neoplastic process.

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  • (PMID = 20422214.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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48. Romeo S, Eyden B, Prins FA, Briaire-de Bruijn IH, Taminiau AH, Hogendoorn PC: TGF-beta1 drives partial myofibroblastic differentiation in chondromyxoid fibroma of bone. J Pathol; 2006 Jan;208(1):26-34
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  • Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare benign cartilaginous bone tumour with a lobular architecture containing stellate and myofibroblast-like spindle cells.
  • The expression of potential genes driving this process was quantified by Q-RT-PCR (TGF-beta1, fibronectin, its EDA splice variant, and PAI-1).
  • Ultrastructurally, neoplastic cells showed the presence of myofilaments and rare dense bodies, which were more prominent in spindle cells and less so in chondroblast-like cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / immunology. Adolescent. Adult. Calcium-Binding Proteins / immunology. Calmodulin-Binding Proteins / immunology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Child. Chondrocytes / pathology. Chondrocytes / ultrastructure. Desmin / immunology. Female. Fibroblasts / pathology. Fibroblasts / ultrastructure. Fibronectins / genetics. Fibronectins / immunology. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Microfilament Proteins. Microscopy, Electron / methods. Microscopy, Immunoelectron / methods. Middle Aged. Muscle Proteins / immunology. Muscle, Smooth / immunology. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / genetics. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / immunology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Signal Transduction / physiology. Transforming Growth Factor beta1

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • (PMID = 16278817.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Calmodulin-Binding Proteins; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1; 0 / TGFB1 protein, human; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 0 / calponin
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49. Brimo F, Vollmer RT, Case B, Aprikian A, Kassouf W, Auger M: Accuracy of urine cytology and the significance of an atypical category. Am J Clin Pathol; 2009 Nov;132(5):785-93
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  • We subclassify atypical cases to "atypical, favor a reactive process" or "atypical, unclear if reactive or neoplastic."
  • An atypical diagnosis did not carry a significant increased risk of urothelial neoplasia compared with the benign category.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. ROC Curve. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19846822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Kramer F, Stöver T, Warnecke A, Diensthuber M, Lenarz T, Wissel K: BDNF mRNA expression is significantly upregulated in vestibular schwannomas and correlates with proliferative activity. J Neurooncol; 2010 May;98(1):31-9
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  • Vestibular schwannoma arising from Schwann cells of the vestibular nerve are mostly benign and slow-growing.
  • Most of the pathogenic mechanisms regulating the vestibular schwannoma growth process are unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor / genetics. Cell Proliferation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Neuroma, Acoustic / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Up-Regulation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19937367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ARTN protein, human; 0 / Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; 0 / Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta2
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51. Thomas S, Reisman D: Localization of a mutant p53 response element on the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 promoter: mutant p53 activities are distinct from wild-type. Cancer Lett; 2006 Aug 18;240(1):48-59
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  • Recent evidence indicates that some mutations in p53 arise as the cancer progresses from a benign tumor to a metastatic tumor and that these mutations in p53 actively contribute to the process of cancer progression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Genes, Reporter. Humans. Luciferases. Mice. Mutation. Repressor Proteins / metabolism. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 16236433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR16461
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / TIMP3 protein, human; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
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52. Roufas A, Kim P, Reeves D, Sutton G: A rare unilateral case of ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid. Cornea; 2010 Dec;29(12):1462-4
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  • Histological analysis and immunofluorescence testing excluded a neoplastic process and confirmed the diagnosis.
  • This case demonstrates that the presentation of unilateral eyelid pyogenic granulomas should include ocular MMP in the differential diagnosis once a neoplastic process has been excluded.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctivitis / diagnosis. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20847684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4798
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Complement C3; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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53. Liu Z, Liu D, Bojdani E, El-Naggar AK, Vasko V, Xing M: IQGAP1 plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Dec 15;16(24):6009-18
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  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined IQGAP1 copy gain and its relationship with clinicopathologic outcomes of thyroid cancer and investigated its role in cell invasion and molecules involved in the process.
  • RESULTS: We found IQGAP1 copy number (CN) gain ≥ 3 in 1 of 30 (3%), 24 of 74 (32%), 44 of 107 (41%), 8 of 16 (50%), and 27 of 41 (66%) of benign thyroid tumor, follicular variant papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC), follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), tall cell papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and anaplastic thyroid cancer, respectively, in the increasing order of invasiveness of these tumors.

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20959410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113507-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / ras GTPase-Activating Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS242709; NLM/ PMC3005072
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54. Kim HS, Kwon JW, Ahn JH, Chang MJ, Cho EY: Localized tenosynovial giant cell tumor in both knee joints. Skeletal Radiol; 2010 Sep;39(9):923-6
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  • Tenosynovial giant cell tumor, previously called pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), is a rare benign neoplastic process that may involve the synovium of the joint.

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  • (PMID = 20354849.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2161
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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55. Krohn K, Maier J, Paschke R: Mechanisms of disease: hydrogen peroxide, DNA damage and mutagenesis in the development of thyroid tumors. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Oct;3(10):713-20
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  • Somatic mutations can be identified in two-thirds of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas and 'hot' thyroid nodules, whereas equivalent mutations relevant for benign 'cold' thyroid nodules are unknown.
  • We reconstruct a line of events that could explain the predominant neoplastic character (i.e. originating from a single mutated cell) of thyroid nodular lesions.
  • This process might be triggered by the oxidative nature of thyroid hormone synthesis or additional oxidative stress caused by iodine deficiency or smoking.

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  • (PMID = 17893690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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56. Duncan TD, Rashid Q, Speights F, Ejeh I: Endoscopic transaxillary approach to the thyroid gland: our early experience. Surg Endosc; 2007 Dec;21(12):2166-71
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  • Most nodules are benign and can be managed nonoperatively with careful medical follow-up.
  • However surgical extirpation occasionally becomes necessary to exclude a malignant neoplastic process.
  • Although the majority of surgically excised thyroid lesions are histologically benign, patients are traditionally left with a permanent transverse surgical scar in a highly visible area of the neck.

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  • (PMID = 17479328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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57. Rivero VE, Motrich RD, Maccioni M, Riera CM: Autoimmune etiology in chronic prostatitis syndrome: an advance in the understanding of this pathology. Crit Rev Immunol; 2007;27(1):33-46
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  • The prostate is the target of many inflammatory and neoplastic disorders that affect men of all ages.
  • Pathological conditions of the prostate gland range from infection of this organ by ascending bacteria from infected urine, to chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) of a still unknown etiology (accompanied with inflammation and lymphocyte infiltration of the gland), to benign hyperplasia and cancer.
  • Remarkably, an inflammation state, in the absence of an invading infectious agent, is established in these patients, suggesting that an autoimmune process could be involved.

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  • (PMID = 17430095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8401
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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58. Little L, Stewart CJ: Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in normal endocervix and diagnostic value in reactive and neoplastic endocervical lesions. Mod Pathol; 2010 Apr;23(4):611-8
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  • [Title] Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in normal endocervix and diagnostic value in reactive and neoplastic endocervical lesions.
  • It may be difficult to distinguish reactive glandular lesions from adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix, and although several immunohistochemical markers have established value in this diagnostic setting, none is completely reliable.
  • We have noted that neoplastic endocervical lesions often show loss of nuclear cyclin D1 expression in contrast to benign glandular cells.
  • In contrast, most cases of adenocarcinoma in situ were completely negative and, therefore, cyclin D1 staining distinguished benign from neoplastic epithelial cells.
  • Although focal cyclin D1 expression was observed in 5/19 cases of adenocarcinoma in situ, the staining was associated with more marked cytological atypia precluding confusion with a reactive process.

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  • (PMID = 20062011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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59. Prieto VG, Mourad-Zeidan AA, Melnikova V, Johnson MM, Lopez A, Diwan AH, Lazar AJ, Shen SS, Zhang PS, Reed JA, Gershenwald JE, Raz A, Bar-Eli M: Galectin-3 expression is associated with tumor progression and pattern of sun exposure in melanoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Nov 15;12(22):6709-15
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  • PURPOSE: Most studies accept a multistep pathogenic process in melanoma that may include the phases of benign nevi and dysplastic nevi, melanoma, and metastatic melanoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Nevus / metabolism. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17121890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 76098; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA 093459
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Nuclear Proteins
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60. Hauzman EE, Papp Z: Conception without the development of a human being. J Perinat Med; 2008;36(2):175-7
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  • This group, designated with the term gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, comprises the benign hydatidiform mole, the invasive mole (chorioadenoma destruens) and the frankly malignant variety, choriocarcinoma.
  • In the human, two types of tumors, dermoid cysts and teratomas, are believed to result from this process.
  • [MeSH-major] Fertilization / physiology. Personhood. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18211258.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-5577
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of perinatal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Perinat Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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61. Suh I, Shibru D, Eisenhofer G, Pacak K, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Candidate genes associated with malignant pheochromocytomas by genome-wide expression profiling. Ann Surg; 2009 Dec;250(6):983-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in malignant pheochromocytoma by examining differences in the gene expression profile between benign and malignant tumors.
  • There are also no reliable and uniformly accepted histopathologic criteria to distinguish benign from malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • METHODS: We performed genome-wide expression profiling of 58 pheochromocytomas (29 benign and sporadic, 16 benign and hereditary, 13 malignant) with technical and biologic replication.
  • Supervised cluster analysis showed almost completely separate clustering between benign and malignant tumors.
  • The differentially expressed genes with known function belonged to 8 biologic process categories; signal transduction, transcription, protein transport, protein synthesis, smooth muscle contraction, ion transport, chemotaxis, and electron transport.
  • Ten differentially expressed genes had high diagnostic accuracy, and 5 of these genes (CFC1, FAM62B, HOMER1, LRRN3, TBX3, ADAMTS) in combination had an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.96 for distinguishing benign versus malignant tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Differentially expressed genes between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas distinguish between these tumors with high diagnostic accuracy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Genetic Association Studies / methods. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19661783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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62. Pettorini BL, Frassanito P, Caldarelli M, Tamburrini G, Massimi L, Di Rocco C: Molecular pathogenesis of craniopharyngioma: switching from a surgical approach to a biological one. Neurosurg Focus; 2010 Apr;28(4):E1
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  • Craniopharyngioma has long been considered a benign tumor because of its pathological aspect.
  • Nowadays, craniopharyngioma must be considered a complex molecular disease, and a detailed explanation of the mechanisms underlying its aggressive biological and clinical behavior, despite some benign pathological features, would be the first step toward defining the best management of craniopharyngioma.
  • Indeed, advances in the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms at the base of craniopharyngioma oncogenesis will lead to comprehension of the critical checkpoints involved in neoplastic transformation.
  • The final research target will be the definition of new biological agents able to reverse the neoplastic process by acting on these critical checkpoints.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Humans. Molecular Biology / methods. Neoplastic Processes

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  • (PMID = 20367353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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63. Ferri C, Antonelli A, Mascia MT, Sebastiani M, Fallahi P, Ferrari D, Giunti M, Pileri SA, Zignego AL: B-cells and mixed cryoglobulinemia. Autoimmun Rev; 2007 Dec;7(2):114-20
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  • It can be regarded as benign lymphoproliferative condition that may evolve to frank lymphoma.
  • HCV infection is the main causative factor of MC, as well as of other overlapping disorders, through multifactorial and multistep pathogenetic process.
  • HCV-related B-cell proliferation represents an important model of virus-driven autoimmune/neoplastic disorder.

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  • (PMID = 18035320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1568-9972
  • [Journal-full-title] Autoimmunity reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Autoimmun Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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64. Bianchi-Frias D, Pritchard C, Mecham BH, Coleman IM, Nelson PS: Genetic background influences murine prostate gene expression: implications for cancer phenotypes. Genome Biol; 2007;8(6):R117
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  • However, the normal prostatic phenotypic variability dictated by a genetic background that is potentially capable of influencing the process of carcinogenesis has not been established.
  • Analyses of human prostate transcripts orthologous to variable murine prostate genes identified differences in gene expression in benign epithelium that correlated with the differentiation state of adjacent tumors.
  • For example, the gene encoding apolipoprotein D, which is known to enhance resistance to cell stress, was expressed at significantly greater levels in benign epithelium associated with high-grade versus low-grade cancers.

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  • (PMID = 17577413.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-760X
  • [Journal-full-title] Genome biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genome Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078836; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA084294; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA078836; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA085859; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA84294; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA85859
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2394769
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65. Andrychowski J, Taraszewska A, Czernicki Z, Jurkiewicz J, Netczuk T, Dabrowski P: Ten years observation and treatment of multifocal pilocytic astrocytoma. Folia Neuropathol; 2009;47(4):362-70
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  • It is a benign, generally well-delineated, WHO grade I tumour with favorable prognosis, which makes it different from diffuse astrocytomas, classified as higher grades of malignancy.
  • The presented case indicates that despite the spread of the neoplastic process, a histopathologically benign tumour (WHO I grade) allows for long-term survival and observation period.
  • In the presented case we dealt now with the ascending spread process and the occurrence of the new foci in both subtentorial and parameningeal spaces inside the cranial cavity.

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  • (PMID = 20054789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-572X
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Neuropathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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66. Yang G, Thieu K, Tsai KY, Piris A, Udayakumar D, Njauw CN, Ramoni MF, Tsao H: Dynamic gene expression analysis links melanocyte growth arrest with nevogenesis. Cancer Res; 2009 Dec 1;69(23):9029-37
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  • To identify molecular determinants of this process, we performed a Bayesian-based dynamic gene expression analysis on primary melanocytes undergoing proliferative arrest.
  • These MGAP genes were preferentially represented in benign melanocytic nevi over melanomas and selectively mapped to the hepatocyte fibrosis pathway.
  • This transcriptional relationship between melanocyte growth stasis, nevus biology, and fibrogenic signaling was further validated in vivo by the demonstration of strong pericellular collagen deposition within benign nevi but not melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Melanocytes / physiology. Melanoma / genetics. Nevus / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19903842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Sung MT, Eble JN, Wang M, Tan PH, Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L: Inverted papilloma of the urinary bladder: a molecular genetic appraisal. Mod Pathol; 2006 Oct;19(10):1289-94
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  • The monoclonal origin demonstrated in the study of X-chromosome inactivation indicates the clonal process of inverted papilloma; however, the low incidence of LOH supports the view that inverted papilloma in urinary bladder is a benign neoplasm with molecular genetic abnormalities different from those of urothelial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Interferon-alpha / genetics. Male. Receptors, Androgen / genetics. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Urothelium / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16862073.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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68. Ganeshan A, Hon LQ, Soonawalla Z, De'Costa H: Plexiform neurofibroma of the oesophagus: a mimicker of malignancy. Br J Radiol; 2005 Dec;78(936):1095-7
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  • Numerous investigations failed to elucidate the benign nature of the condition.
  • This report highlights the tendency of plexiform neurofibromas to grow extensively and encase surrounding structures, thereby mimicking a neoplastic process.

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  • (PMID = 16352584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1285
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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69. Kalajian AH, Cely SJ, Malone JC, Burruss JB, Callen JP: Hydroxyurea-associated dermatomyositis-like eruption demonstrating abnormal epidermal p53 expression: a potential premalignant manifestation of chronic hydroxyurea and UV radiation exposure. Arch Dermatol; 2010 Mar;146(3):305-10
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  • While hydroxyurea-associated nonmelanoma skin cancers are known to be associated with significant morbidity and occasional mortality, to date, dermatomyositis-like eruption has been considered a benign entity, other than its ability to mimic true dermatomyositis leading to inappropriate immunosuppression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that dermatomyositis-like eruption and hydroxyurea-associated squamous dysplasia represent similar clinical manifestations of a common underlying chronic phototoxic process involving aberrant keratinocyte p53 expression mediated by hydroxyurea's antimetabolite properties and UV radiation exposure.
  • Accordingly, we suggest that dermatomyositis-like eruption, previously considered a benign entity, may represent a premalignant precursor of hydroxyurea-associated nonmelanoma skin cancers warranting discontinuation of hydroxyurea therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatomyositis / chemically induced. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, p53 / genetics. Hydroxyurea / adverse effects. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / etiology. Precancerous Conditions / etiology. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects


70. Liu Y: Benign ovarian and endometrial uptake on FDG PET-CT: patterns and pitfalls. Ann Nucl Med; 2009 Feb;23(2):107-12
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  • [Title] Benign ovarian and endometrial uptake on FDG PET-CT: patterns and pitfalls.
  • Knowledge of benign FDG uptake of the ovaries and uterus is important for daily practice of nuclear medicine radiologists.
  • Increased uptake in the ovaries or uterus indicates a pathologic or neoplastic process in postmenopausal patients.
  • Benign functional uptake of premenopausal ovaries or uterus is related to the menstrual cycle; therefore, information about the patient's menstrual status is crucial for interpretation.
  • Increased ovarian uptake may also be identified in histologically different benign tumor entities.
  • Nonmenstrual-related endometrial uptake may be present in many benign diseases as well.

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  • (PMID = 19225932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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71. Zaccaria E, Rebora A, Rongioletti F: Multiple eruptive dermatofibromas and immunosuppression: report of two cases and review of the literature. Int J Dermatol; 2008 Jul;47(7):723-7
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  • Dermatofibromas are common benign fibrohistiocytic tumors that are most often solitary.
  • MEDF have been reported in the setting of autoimmune diseases, treated with immunosuppressive drugs, in the course of HIV infection and in neoplastic diseases.
  • An association with immunosuppression has led to the speculation that they are the result of an abortive immunoreactive process.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / immunology. Immunocompromised Host / immunology. Multiple Myeloma / immunology. Sezary Syndrome / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / immunology


72. Frigui M, Khabir A, Jallouli M, Mnif Z, Hdiji S, Elloumi M, Boudaouara T, Bahloul Z: [Recurrent inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with renal, retroperitoneal and lymph node involvement]. Rev Med Interne; 2009 Apr;30(4):372-6
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  • Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are uncommon and benign tumors with unknown aetiology.
  • The recurrence of some inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors and their expression of chromosomal abnormalities found in some types of lymphoma suggest that some of these lesions constitute a true neoplastic process.

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  • (PMID = 18818004.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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73. Baltzell K, Eder S, Wrensch M: Breast carcinogenesis: can the examination of ductal fluid enhance our understanding? Oncol Nurs Forum; 2005 Jan;32(1):33-9
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  • PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore current breast carcinogenesis theories and the possibility of examining breast epithelial cells to confirm steps in the carcinogenic process and the relationship between intraductal sampling techniques and their role in enhanced risk prediction.
  • DATA SYNTHESIS: Examining breast epithelial cells may provide insight into the carcinogenic process while it is occurring.
  • Differentiating between true precursors and benign changes is an important step in breast cancer risk assessment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Epithelial Cells

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  • (PMID = 15660141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-0688
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology nursing forum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol Nurs Forum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Chiappetta G, Ferraro A, Botti G, Monaco M, Pasquinelli R, Vuttariello E, Arnaldi L, Di Bonito M, D'Aiuto G, Pierantoni GM, Fusco A: FRA-1 protein overexpression is a feature of hyperplastic and neoplastic breast disorders. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:17
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  • [Title] FRA-1 protein overexpression is a feature of hyperplastic and neoplastic breast disorders.
  • BACKGROUND: Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1) is an immediate early gene encoding a member of AP-1 family of transcription factors involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and other biological processes. fra-1 gene overexpression has an important role in the process of cellular transformation, and our previous studies suggest FRA-1 protein detection as a useful tool for the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasias.
  • Here we investigate the expression of the FRA-1 protein in benign and malignant breast tissues by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, RT-PCR and qPCR analysis, to evaluate its possible help in the diagnosis and prognosis of breast neoplastic diseases.
  • METHODS: We investigate the expression of the FRA-1 protein in 70 breast carcinomas and 30 benign breast diseases by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, RT-PCR and qPCR analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: The data shown here suggest that FRA-1 expression, including its intracellular localization, may be considered a useful marker for hyperplastic and neoplastic proliferative breast disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / metabolism. Breast Diseases / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasms / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17254320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / fos-related antigen 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1796888
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75. Endo M, Hasegawa T, Tashiro T, Yamaguchi U, Morimoto Y, Nakatani F, Shimoda T: Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation with a t(1;17) translocation. Virchows Arch; 2005 Jul;447(1):99-102
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  • Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP) is a benign lesion that tends to recur repeatedly.
  • Whether BPOP is a reactive proliferative lesion or a neoplastic lesion, however, remains controversial.
  • These results suggest that t(1;17) is a distinct translocation of BPOP and that BPOP is a neoplastic lesion, rather than a reactive proliferative process.

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  • (PMID = 15926071.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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76. Menegazzo M, Bagatella P, Marson P, Donadel C, De Silvestro G, Corsini A: Reduced mobilisation of hematopoietic stem cells after hepatic resection for malignant liver disease. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Dec;14(4):381-5
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  • Aim of this study has been to determine whether the nature of the hepatic lesion (benign vs. malignant disease) can give rise to a different degree of mobilisation of HSCs.
  • Two groups of patients were selected: the first included seven patients undergoing hepatic resection (five major and two minor) for a benign liver disease (focal nodular hyperplasia, hemangioma cavernosa, angioma, biliary adenofibroma) and the second included seven patients undergoing hepatic resection (five major and two minor) for a malignant (either primary or secondary) liver disease.
  • White blood cell count and CD34+ (percentage and total number) at time T(0) (basal value before surgery) and at time T(1) (value on the sixth-eighth day after surgery) have been evaluated by standard methods.
  • In the group undergoing hepatic resection for a benign liver disease, a significant increase of CD34+ cells, both in percentage (0.082 +/- 0.043 vs. 0.048 +/- 0,026, p = 0.041) and in absolute number (8.14 +/- 5.95 vs. 3.26 +/- 2.63, p = 0.018) have been documented, as opposed to the group of patients affected with a malignant liver disease, where no significant variation has been observed (CD34+ %: 0.044 +/- 0.033 vs. 0.041 +/- 0.031, p: n.s.
  • Since it has been documented that the type of the hepatic lesion can induce a different regenerative response, it has to be explained how the neoplastic lesions can negatively influence the mobilization of HSCs.
  • It can be hypothesized that a variety of humoral factors, including stromal cell-derived factor, matrix metalloproteinases, hepatocyte growth factor and interleukin-8 can influence the process of mobilization of HSCs after liver resection surgery.


77. Michaloglou C, Vredeveld LC, Soengas MS, Denoyelle C, Kuilman T, van der Horst CM, Majoor DM, Shay JW, Mooi WJ, Peeper DS: BRAFE600-associated senescence-like cell cycle arrest of human naevi. Nature; 2005 Aug 4;436(7051):720-4
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  • In cultured cells, senescence can be elicited prematurely by oncogenes; however, whether such oncogene-induced senescence represents a physiological process has long been debated.
  • Human naevi (moles) are benign tumours of melanocytes that frequently harbour oncogenic mutations (predominantly V600E, where valine is substituted for glutamic acid) in BRAF, a protein kinase and downstream effector of Ras.
  • Validating these results in vivo, congenital naevi are invariably positive for SA-beta-Gal, demonstrating the presence of this classical senescence-associated marker in a largely growth-arrested, neoplastic human lesion.
  • Naevi do not appear to suffer from telomere attrition, arguing in favour of an active oncogene-driven senescence process, rather than a loss of replicative potential.
  • Thus, both in vitro and in vivo, BRAF(V600E)-expressing melanocytes display classical hallmarks of senescence, suggesting that oncogene-induced senescence represents a genuine protective physiological process.


78. Liu K, Tripp S, Layfield LJ: Heterotopic ossification: review of histologic findings and tissue distribution in a 10-year experience. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(9):633-40
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  • Heterotopic ossification (HO) within tissues involved by a pathologic process is a well-recognized phenomenon.
  • Less frequently, carcinomas and some benign neoplasms will undergo heterotopic ossification.
  • Twenty-two cases were neoplasms of non-osseous tissues, and 63 cases were non-neoplastic lesions.

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  • (PMID = 17728073.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMP4 protein, human; 0 / BMP6 protein, human; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; EC 3.4.24.- / Metalloendopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.19 / BMP1 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.19 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1
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79. Moretti VM, de la Cruz M, Brooks JS, Lackman RD: Early pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor: precursor or distinct lesion? Orthopedics; 2010 Jul;33(7):516
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  • Originally believed to be a precursor lesion to neoplastic pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor, and possibly identical to hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesion/tumor, there have been recent suggestions that it is distinct from pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor and is instead a reactive process.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Vessels / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
  • (PMID = 20608621.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Kiaris H: Anatomically independent tumors revisited. Future Oncol; 2006 Aug;2(4):463-7
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  • However, recent advances in tumor stroma biology imply the operation of an alternative process that can be classified as in-between these two previously mentioned mechanisms.
  • Considering that stromal fibroblasts possess the ability to stimulate malignant transformation of normal and/or benign lesions, and that these fibroblasts may persist during therapy, it is conceivable that the oncogenic pathway(s) to be followed by the epithelial cells - which will eventually grow to different and independent malignant foci - have been predetermined by the initiating events that are responsible for the transition of stromal fibroblasts into this cancer-associated state.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Fibroblasts / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16922613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6694
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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81. Abdollahi A, Folkman J: Evading tumor evasion: current concepts and perspectives of anti-angiogenic cancer therapy. Drug Resist Updat; 2010 Feb-Apr;13(1-2):16-28
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  • The universality of this approach is demonstrated by the broad spectrum of malignant and benign tumor entities, as well as non-neoplastic diseases, that are currently treated with anti-angiogenic agents.
  • The presumption that tumor growth and metastasis are angiogenesis-dependent implies that the number of potential targets of an anti-cancer therapy could be reduced to those that stimulate the angiogenesis process.

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20061178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2084
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Resist. Updat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 152
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82. Onuma K, Dabbs DJ, Bhargava R: Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):418-25
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  • [Title] Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) showed either weak (predominantly) or moderate (occasionally) expression in about 40% of the cases in comparison with strong positivity in benign endocervical glandular epithelium.
  • Reduction of MGB staining was seen in transition from benign epithelium to AIS.
  • These results confirm that MGB is not specific for breast carcinoma, but is also variably expressed in nonneoplastic and neoplastic endocervical and endometrial tissues.
  • MGB expression is altered in neoplastic endocervical epithelium compared with normal, and may indicate its decreased expression in the process of early carcinogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 18580321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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83. Shaco-Levy R, Sharabi S, Benharroch D, Piura B, Sion-Vardy N: Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin expression in endometriosis, low-grade endometrial carcinoma and non-neoplastic eutopic endometrium. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Aug;139(2):226-32
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  • [Title] Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin expression in endometriosis, low-grade endometrial carcinoma and non-neoplastic eutopic endometrium.
  • We hypothesized that endometriosis, being a benign process, will show different MMPs and adhesion molecules expressions, compared to endometrioid endometrial carcinoma, a disease with potential of malignant behavior.

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  • (PMID = 18295959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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84. Biermann K, Zhou H, Büttner R: [Molecular pathology of testicular germ cell tumors: an update]. Pathologe; 2008 Sep;29(5):348-53
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  • Germ cell tumors (GCT) comprise a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant tumors.
  • Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified (IGCNU) is the precursor of type II GCT and derives from undifferentiated germ cells, gonocytes, which persist in the newborn testis and escape the normal differentiation process.
  • New diagnostic markers for neoplastic germ cells, including OCT3/4 and AP-2gamma, are specifically detected in IGCNU, seminomas and embryonal carcinomas and are helpful in the differentiation of type II GCT from other malignant tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18633620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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85. Jesalpura JP, Chung HW, Patnaik S, Choi HW, Kim JI, Nha KW: Arthroscopic treatment of localized synovial chondromatosis of the posterior knee joint. Orthopedics; 2010 Jan;33(1):49
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  • Synovial chondromatosis is an uncommon, benign neoplastic process typically affecting adult men and most commonly involving the knee, hip, and elbow joints.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
  • (PMID = 20055354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. John R, El-Rouby NM, Tomasetto C, Rio MC, Karam SM: Expression of TFF3 during multistep colon carcinogenesis. Histol Histopathol; 2007 07;22(7):743-51
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  • This common type of cancer is generally believed to occur in a multistep process which involves alterations of various tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes during the progression through benign lesions towards carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Proliferation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / chemistry. Colon / chemistry. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Trefoil Factor-3

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  • (PMID = 17455148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / TFF3 protein, human; 0 / Trefoil Factor-3
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87. Abdelsayed RA, Sharma S, Ferguson H: Fibrous cortical defect (nonossifying fibroma) of the mandibular ramus: report of 2 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2010 Oct;110(4):504-8
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  • Fibrous cortical defect, also known as metaphyseal fibrous defect and nonossifying fibroma, among other terms, is a benign, non-neoplastic proliferative process that is relatively common in the long bones of skeletally immature adolescents.
  • This process is very rare in the gnathic bones, and only a few sporadic case reports are documented.

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  • [Copyright] Published by Mosby, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20692185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Medina-Achirica C, Gutiérrez de la Peña C, Gómez Menchero J, Gutiérrez Cafranga E, López Hurtado M, Gil Quiros J, Mateo Vallejo F: [Multicentric inflammatory pseudotumor]. Cir Esp; 2007 Mar;81(3):150-2
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  • Inflammatory pseudotumor is a non-neoplastic process characterized by irregular growth of inflammatory cells.
  • This type of tumor can arise in any part of the body; most are confined to a single site and are benign.

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  • (PMID = 17349240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents
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89. Matsubayashi S, Nakashima M, Kumagai K, Egashira M, Naruke Y, Kondo H, Hayashi T, Shindo H: Immunohistochemical analyses of beta-catenin and cyclin D1 expression in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB): a possible role of Wnt pathway in GCTB tumorigenesis. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(9):626-33
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  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign neoplasm but occasionally shows local recurrence, and histologically consists of osteoclast-like giant cells (GC) and stromal mononuclear cells (SC), which are capable of proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation.
  • Activation of Wnt signaling can induce osteoblast differentiation and osteoclastgenesis during bone resorption process.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19324500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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90. Grammatikakis I, Ivanov S, Evangelinakis N, Zevoudis S, Tziortzioti V: [Incidence of synchronous primary neoplasms of the female reproductive tract in women with ovarian endometriosis: a retrospective analysis of 811 cases]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2009;48(3):26-30
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  • PURPOSE: Although endometriosis is a benign disorder recent studies suggest endometriosis could be viewed as a neoplastic process.

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  • (PMID = 20198760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0324-0959
  • [Journal-full-title] Akusherstvo i ginekologii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Akush Ginekol (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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91. Henriques AC, Cazal C, Castro JF: [Low intensity laser therapy effects on cell proliferation and differentiation: review of the literature]. Rev Col Bras Cir; 2010 Aug;37(4):295-302
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  • These properties have already been established for cultured benign cells, but there is a controversy when extended to the spectrum of the malignant neoplastic process, normally generating great discussions.

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  • (PMID = 21085848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1809-4546
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Col Bras Cir
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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92. Bui MM, Bagui TK, Boulware DC, Letson DG, Nasir A, Kaiser HE, Pledger WJ, Coppola D: Altered expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins in benign and malignant bone and soft tissue neoplasms. In Vivo; 2007 Sep-Oct;21(5):729-37
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  • [Title] Altered expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins in benign and malignant bone and soft tissue neoplasms.
  • These data suggest a role of cyclins in the process of human sarcomagenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Cyclins / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18019405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCND3 protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin D3; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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93. Kiroglu Y, Benek B, Yagci B, Cirak B, Tahta K: Spinal cord compression caused by vertebral hemangioma being symptomatic during pregnancy. Surg Neurol; 2009 Apr;71(4):487-92; discussion 492
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  • BACKGROUND: Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumors of the spine, and it remains silent in the vast majority of subjects afflicted.
  • Imaging studies revealed a T4 vertebral hemangioma, which involved the vertebral body, pedincules, transverse, and spinous process with a focal extradural extension of soft tissue component.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Thoracic Vertebrae / pathology


94. Murphey MD, Rhee JH, Lewis RB, Fanburg-Smith JC, Flemming DJ, Walker EA: Pigmented villonodular synovitis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5):1493-518
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  • Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) represents an uncommon benign neoplastic process that may involve the synovium of the joint diffusely or focally (PVNS) or that may occur extraarticularly in a bursa (pigmented villonodular bursitis [PVNB]) or tendon sheath (pigmented villonodular tenosynovitis [PVNTS]).


95. Zagorianakou P, Zagorianakou N, Stefanou D, Makrydimas G, Agnantis NJ: The enigmatic nature of apocrine breast lesions. Virchows Arch; 2006 May;448(5):525-31
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  • Apocrine epithelium of the breast may be a normal process of differentiation rather than a result of metaplasia, and it has been demonstrated that it is estrogen-receptor, progesterone-receptor and bcl-2 negative, but androgen-receptor (AR) positive.
  • Apocrine epithelium is seen in a wide spectrum of breast entities, ranging from benign lesions to invasive carcinoma.
  • In the last decade, several lines of evidence support the idea that some breast benign epithelial apocrine lesions are clonal lesions and may be considered as truly pre-malignant or precursors of breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / cytology. Breast / cytology. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / cytology

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  • (PMID = 16570182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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96. Kuhn E, Dorji T, Rodriguez J, Rosai J: Extramedullary erythropoiesis in chronic subdural hematoma simulating metastatic small round cell tumor. Int J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jul;15(3):288-91
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  • It is important for surgical pathologists to be aware of this benign process and not to overinterpret it as either a primary or metastatic malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD34 / genetics. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Erythropoietin / genetics. Erythropoietin / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glycophorin / genetics. Glycophorin / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17652539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Glycophorin; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin
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97. Maxim PG, Carson JJ, Benaron DA, Loo BW Jr, Xing L, Boyer AL, Friedland S: Optical detection of tumors in vivo by visible light tissue oximetry. Technol Cancer Res Treat; 2005 Jun;4(3):227-34
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  • This process can be difficult and unreliable, as tumor lesions may be visually indistinguishable from benign inflammatory conditions and the surrounding mucosa.
  • In this study, we evaluated the ability of local ischemia detection using visible light spectroscopy (VLS) to differentiate neoplastic from normal tissue based on capillary tissue oxygenation during endoscopy.
  • We conclude that VLS tissue oximetry can distinguish neoplastic tissue from normal tissue with a high specificity (though a low sensitivity), potentially aiding the endoscopic detection of gastrointestinal tumors.

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  • (PMID = 15896077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0346
  • [Journal-full-title] Technology in cancer research & treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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98. Song Y, Song S, Zhang D, Zhang Y, Chen L, Qian L, Shi M, Zhao H, Jiang Z, Guo N: An association of a simultaneous nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of Fra-1 with breast malignancy. BMC Cancer; 2006;6:298
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  • METHODS: The expression of Fra-1 was investigated by immunohistochemistry in neoplastic breast diseases ranging from benign fibroadenoma to very aggressive undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: All neoplastic breast tissues, either benign or malignant breast tissues, were nuclear immunoreactive for Fra-1-recognizing antibody.
  • The pattern of Fra-1 expression by benign neoplastic cells was predominantly nuclear.
  • Overexpression of Fra-1, leading to a persistent high cytoplasmic accumulation, may play a role in the process of breast carcinogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 17192200.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / fos-related antigen 1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770932
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99. Zhang Z, Rosen DG, Yao JL, Huang J, Liu J: Expression of p14ARF, p15INK4b, p16INK4a, and DCR2 increases during prostate cancer progression. Mod Pathol; 2006 Oct;19(10):1339-43
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  • Cellular senescence is an age-related process where cells remain metabolically active but in a growth-arrested state at the G1 phase. p14(ARF), p15(INK4b), and p16(INK4a), which are known to regulate G1 cell cycle arrest, and the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member decoy receptor 2 (DCR2), have been recently identified as senescence markers.
  • Because p16(INK4a)-positive cells were detected only in premalignant lesions and carcinomas but not in normal or benign tissues, p16(INK4a) may aid in the diagnosis of PIN and prostate cancer in difficult cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Tissue Array Analysis. Tumor Necrosis Factor Decoy Receptors

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  • (PMID = 16799475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / TNFRSF10D protein, human; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor Decoy Receptors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF
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100. Liu JP, Li H: Telomerase in the ovary. Reproduction; 2010 Aug;140(2):215-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Telomerase, an enzyme complex that binds the chromosome ends (telomeres) and maintains telomere length and integrity, is present in germ cells, proliferative granulosa cells, germline stem cells, and neoplastic cells in the ovary, but it is absent in differentiated or aged cells.
  • Activation of telomerase in the ovary underpins both benign and malignant cell proliferation in several compartments, including the germ cells, membrana granulosa, and the ovarian surface epithelium.
  • Studies of how telomerase operates and regulates ovary development may provide insight into the development of both germ cells for ovarian reproductive function and neoplastic cells in ovarian cancer.
  • The current review summarizes the roles of telomerase in the development of oocytes and proliferation of granulosa cells during folliculogenesis and in the process of tumorigenesis.

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  • (PMID = 20562297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1741-7899
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reproduction
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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