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1. Mohan K, Kumar V, Sarkar M, Prakash BS: Temporal changes in endogenous estrogens and expression of behaviors associated with estrus during the periovulaory period in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Trop Anim Health Prod; 2010 Jan;42(1):21-6
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  • Estrus and its behavioral signs were detected at hourly intervals by visual observations, per recta examination of genitalia and bull parading four times in a day for 30 minutes each.
  • Among the behavioral signs of estrus, swollen vulva (80%) was the best indicator of estrus followed by excitement (70%).
  • Among the duration of behavioral estrus signs the first and longest duration of estrus signs was swollen vulva which was seen upto 19.8 +/- 0.8 h after onset of estrus.
  • The first sign of estrus to be observed was a swollen vulva and this symptom persisted the longest.

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  • [Cites] Horm Behav. 2006 May;49(5):626-33 [16490196.001]
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  • [Cites] Theriogenology. 2005 Mar 15;63(5):1366-77 [15725444.001]
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  • (PMID = 19544005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7438
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical animal health and production
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Anim Health Prod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens
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2. Klerkx EP, Alarcón P, Waters K, Reinke V, Sternberg PW, Askjaer P: Protein kinase VRK-1 regulates cell invasion and EGL-17/FGF signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans. Dev Biol; 2009 Nov 1;335(1):12-21
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  • We found that VRK-1 is essential in hermaphrodites for formation of the vulva, uterus, and utse and for development and maintenance of the somatic gonad and thus the germ line.
  • VRK-1 regulates anchor cell polarity and the timing of anchor cell invasion through the basement membranes separating vulval and somatic gonadal cells during the L3 larval stage.
  • Expression of a translational VRK-1Colon, two colonsGFP fusion protein in the ventral nerve cord and vulva precursor cells restores vulva and uterus formation, suggesting both cell autonomous and non-autonomous roles of VRK-1.

  • Gene Ontology. gene/protein/disease-specific - Gene Ontology annotations from this paper .
  • SciCrunch. WormBase: Data: Gene Expression .
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  • (PMID = 19679119.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-564X
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM007499; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 0 / EGL-15 protein, C elegans; 0 / Egl-17 protein, C elegans; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / VRK-1 protein, C elegans
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS382120; NLM/ PMC3378332
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3. Chase DM, Basu T, Saffari B, Ries S, Berman ML: Malignant eccrine spiradenoma of the vulva: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1465-9
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  • [Title] Malignant eccrine spiradenoma of the vulva: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Malignant eccrine spiradenoma is a rare skin tumor of sweat gland origin.
  • We present the first reported case of this tumor in the female genitalia.
  • Due to the rarity of this tumor, there has yet to be an established standard of care.
  • Her diagnosis was made after excision of the cystic tumor.
  • As malignant eccrine spiradenoma is a rare tumor, no standard care exists for treatment and postoperative management.
  • Although lymph node sampling and/or lymphadenectomy is frequently reported in the treatment of this tumor, hematogenous metastasis can also occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Adult. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16803551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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4. Santacruz MR, Proctor L, Thomas DB, Gehrig PA: Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma: a report of a gynecologic case. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Sep;98(3):498-501
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare tumor that has been reported and discussed in neurosurgical, orthopedic, and otolaryngologic literature.
  • We report a case of vulvar extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma.
  • CASE: This is a case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with a soft tissue mass in the left vulva and underwent local excision.
  • CONCLUSION: We report the first case of an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma arising in the vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Chondrosarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15992919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Argenta PA, Thomas S, Chura JC: Proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma vs. malignant rhabdoid tumor of the vulva: a case report, review of the literature, and an argument for consolidation. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Oct;107(1):130-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma vs. malignant rhabdoid tumor of the vulva: a case report, review of the literature, and an argument for consolidation.
  • BACKGROUND: Vulvar sarcomas, which comprise less than 2% of vulvar malignancies, are a heterogeneous group of tumors.
  • "Proximal" type epithelioid sarcoma (PES) and malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) describe a rare subset of vulvar malignancies which share histologic features and an aggressive clinical course.
  • CASE: We describe a case of vulvar PES/MRT in a 35 year old female treated with radical excision, inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomy, and adjuvant radiation who remains without evidence of disease 40 months after surgery.
  • We review all English language reports of vulvar PES or MRT, and compare treatments and outcomes.
  • CONCLUSION: Vulvar PES/MRT is a rare disease attended by high rates of local and distant relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdoid Tumor / therapy. Sarcoma / therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant


6. Renckens CN: [Women with pelvic complaints and atypical varicose veins, varicose veins of the vulva and insufficiency of the pelvic veins; treatment with embolisation]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 Jun 11;149(24):1364-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Women with pelvic complaints and atypical varicose veins, varicose veins of the vulva and insufficiency of the pelvic veins; treatment with embolisation].
  • [MeSH-major] Embolization, Therapeutic. Pelvic Pain / diagnosis. Pelvis / blood supply. Varicose Veins / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • [CommentOn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 Mar 12;149(11):557-60 [15799637.001]
  • (PMID = 16008043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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7. Albores-Saavedra J, Batich K, Chable-Montero F, Sagy N, Schwartz AM, Henson DE: Merkel cell carcinoma demographics, morphology, and survival based on 3870 cases: a population based study. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Jan;37(1):20-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor arising predominantly on sun-exposed skin of older and usually immunosuppressed individuals.
  • The salivary glands, nasal cavity, lip, lymph nodes, vulva, vagina and esophagus were the most common extracutaneous sites.
  • Age did not predict survival, yet gender, site and tumor size revealed clear differences.
  • The most significant predictor of survival was tumor stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Demography. Ethnic Groups. Female. Humans. Male. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19638070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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8. Tjalma WA, Colpaert CG: Myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Feb;96(2):548-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the vulva.
  • BACKGROUND: Myxoid leiomyosarcoma (MLMS) of the vulva is a mesenchymal tumor with only five reported cases in the literature.
  • CASE: We report an 85-year-old woman with a unilateral nonulcerating, painless vulvar mass.
  • Initial biopsies were benign.
  • However, clinically, this lesion was suspicious for a soft tissue tumor.
  • Definitive histology revealed a myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the vulva.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Vulvar myxoid leiomyosarcomas are rare and can be confused with other benign or malignant tumors.
  • It is important to be aware of this rare tumor variant, in order to plan appropriate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15661250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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9. Kurita T: Developmental origin of vaginal epithelium. Differentiation; 2010 Sep-Oct;80(2-3):99-105
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  • As the vagina opened in puberty, urogenital sinus epithelium was detected only in the vulva, but not in the vagina.
  • Additionally, from embryo to adult stages, residual Wolffian duct epithelium was present in the dorsolateral stromal wall of the vagina, but not within vaginal or vulvar epithelium.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • [CommentIn] Differentiation. 2010 Sep-Oct;80(2-3):81 [20667647.001]
  • (PMID = 20638775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0436
  • [Journal-full-title] Differentiation; research in biological diversity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Differentiation
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD057877; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD064402-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA154358-01; United States / PHS HHS / / RHD064402A; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD064402; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD057877-01A25580; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA154358; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA154358-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD057877; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD057877-01A25580; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD064402-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS224317; NLM/ PMC2943051
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10. Guo YL, Geng L, You K, Qiao J, Liu CR: [Preliminary study of vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao; 2009 Oct 18;41(5):561-4
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  • [Title] [Preliminary study of vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias].
  • OBJECTIVE: To detect the clinical features of vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias (VIN and VAIN, respectively).
  • METHODS: Total 148 women were performed vulvar or vaginal coloposcopy-directed biopsy pathology tests, from Sep.
  • RESULTS: Among 148 women, vulvar or vaginal histologic results were vulvar cancer for 1, VIN or VAIN 2, 3 for 23, VIN or VAIN for 16, condyloma for 61, vulvitis and vaginitis for 47.
  • Compared to women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), women with VIN or VAIN were older.
  • The rate of high-risk HPV DNA in women with vulvar or vaginal lesions was 84% (84/100).
  • The vulva and vagina should be carefully inspected by colposcopic examination at the time of colposcopy for any abnormal findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colposcopy. DNA, Viral / blood. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19829675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-167X
  • [Journal-full-title] Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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11. Palopoli MF, Rockman MV, TinMaung A, Ramsay C, Curwen S, Aduna A, Laurita J, Kruglyak L: Molecular basis of the copulatory plug polymorphism in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature; 2008 Aug 21;454(7207):1019-22
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  • The copulatory plug is a gelatinous mass that covers the hermaphrodite vulva, and its deposition decreases the mating success of subsequent males.
  • Although C. elegans descends from an obligate-outcrossing, male?female ancestor, it occurs primarily as self-fertilizing hermaphrodites.

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  • (PMID = 18633349.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4687
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nature
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / R01 HG004321-01; United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / R01 HG004321; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016463; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR-016463; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P50 GM071508; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / ; United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / HG004321-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Retroelements; 0 / plg-1 protein, C elegans
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS73506; NLM/ PMC2597896
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12. Ghaemmaghami F, Karimi Zarchi M, Mousavi A: Major labiaectomy as surgical management of vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum: three cases and a review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Jul;278(1):57-60
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  • [Title] Major labiaectomy as surgical management of vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum: three cases and a review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) is a developmental defect of lymphatics in deep dermal and subcutaneous layers.
  • Lymphangiomas of the vulva are rare.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate major labiaectomy as surgical management of vulval lymphangioma, we report our experiences on surgical treatment of three cases of this rare disease from Gynecologic Oncology Department of Vali-E-Asr Hospital.
  • METHODS: Three female patients, aged 18, 17 and 63 years, presented with persistent edema, papules, and vesicles of the labia major, among which two first cases had congenital LC and another case had developed 9 years after radical hysterectomy, lymph node dissection, and adjuvant radiotherapy of cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphangioma / surgery. Vulva / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18414885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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13. Dash S, Awasthi RT, Bandana K: Pedunculated angiomyxoma of the vulva - a rare clinical entity. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ); 2005 Oct-Dec;3(4):423-4
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  • [Title] Pedunculated angiomyxoma of the vulva - a rare clinical entity.
  • BACKGROUND: Aggressive angiomyxoma is an uncommon mesenchymal tumor that preferentially involves the pelvic and perineal regions of females.
  • CASE: A 33-year-old parous woman with a slow growing pedunculated soft tissue tumour of the vulva which later underwent surface ulceration.
  • Pathological findings in the case were suggestive of an aggressive angiomyxoma, a distinctive soft tissue non-malignant tumour, which could, at times be locally aggressive.
  • [MeSH-major] Myxoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16449849.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-2027
  • [Journal-full-title] Kathmandu University medical journal (KUMJ)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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14. Lockwood-Rayermann S: Lymphedema in gynecologic cancer survivors: an area for exploration? Cancer Nurs; 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):E11-8
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  • Assessment and management strategies for upper extremity lymphedema following treatment of breast cancer cannot be directly transferred to lower extremity lymphedema affecting women with cancer of the ovary, cervix, uterus, and vulva because of limb size, volume, and location.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / complications. Lymphedema
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Lower Extremity. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17666969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-9804
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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15. Tsvetkov Ch, Gorchev G: [Surgical treatment of vulva cancer--current approach and tendencies in lymph nodes dissection]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2008;47(2):49-53
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of vulva cancer--current approach and tendencies in lymph nodes dissection].
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18642587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0324-0959
  • [Journal-full-title] Akusherstvo i ginekologii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Akush Ginekol (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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16. González-Bugatto F, Añón-Requena MJ, López-Guerrero MA, Báez-Perea JM, Bartha JL, Hervías-Vivancos B: Vulvar leiomyosarcoma in Bartholin's gland area: a case report and literature review. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Feb;279(2):171-4
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  • [Title] Vulvar leiomyosarcoma in Bartholin's gland area: a case report and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant tumours of the vulvar soft tissue are very uncommon.
  • When localized in the Bartholin's gland area these tumours can be mistaken for benign lesions, leading to a delayed diagnosis.
  • CASE: A 52-year-old woman presenting with a vulvar nodule, which was diagnosed as a Bartholin's gland cyst and was referred to the hospital for surgical excision of the lesion.
  • Pathologist report informed of a 6 cm diameter leiomyosarcoma of the vulva with compromised resection margins; extension studies did not suggest any additional lesions and radical hemivulvectomy with ipsilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy was performed.
  • CONCLUSION: Any vulvar lesion with unusual characteristics or insidious evolution in labia majora or Bartholin's glands area should be carefully and promptly studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Bartholin's Glands / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Groin. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant


17. Akerman G, Dussour C, Haddad B, Paniel BJ, Rouzier R: [Epidemiology of vulvar intra-epithelial neoplasias]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2007 Dec;35(12):1251-6
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  • [Title] [Epidemiology of vulvar intra-epithelial neoplasias].
  • The vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia has been identified as one of the 12 neoplasias whose incidence increases in the developed countries.
  • The vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and invasive vulvar cancer incidence increases by 2.4% per annum; and this principally in young women.
  • The VIN account for 57% of the vulvar neoplasias and are actually more frequent than invasive carcinomas.
  • It should be noted that, contrary to the cervical neoplasia that are related for nearly 100% to the HPV, only 30-40% of invasive cancers of the vulva are related to HPV, while the other carcinomas are related to the evolution of a vulvar lichen sclerous.
  • These lesions can be benign for the HPV6 and 11 and preneoplastic or neoplastic for the HPV16 and 18.
  • The presence of HPV16 and 18 is found in 70 to 80% of the VIN suggesting that HPV vaccines could decrease the incidence VIN and HPV related invasive vulvar cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Vaccines / immunology. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / epidemiology. Vulvar Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Female. Humans. Incidence. Precancerous Conditions

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  • (PMID = 18054264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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18. Tvermoes BE, Boyd WA, Freedman JH: Molecular characterization of numr-1 and numr-2: genes that increase both resistance to metal-induced stress and lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Cell Sci; 2010 Jun 15;123(Pt 12):2124-34
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  • Constitutive transcription of numr-1 and numr-2 is developmentally regulated and occurs in the intestine, in head and tail neurons, and vulva muscles.

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  • (PMID = 20501697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-9137
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cell science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / Z01 ES102045; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / Z01 ES102046; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Numr-1 protein, C elegans; 0 / Numr-2 protein, C elegans; 00BH33GNGH / Cadmium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2880014
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19. Staiano JJ, Wong L, Butler J, Searle AE, Barton DP, Harris PA: Flap reconstruction following gynaecological tumour resection for advanced and recurrent disease--a 12 year experience. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2009 Mar;62(3):346-51
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  • [Title] Flap reconstruction following gynaecological tumour resection for advanced and recurrent disease--a 12 year experience.
  • The predominant site of the primary tumour was vulva, accounting for 83% of the cases, with cervix, ovary, vagina and endometrium making up the remainder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Genital Neoplasms, Female / surgery. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Surgical Flaps / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Surgical Wound Infection / prevention & control. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18784004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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20. Ninomiya R, Kishi K, Imanishi N, Nakajima H, Nakajima T: Reconstruction of vulva using pudendal thigh gluteal fold bilobed flap. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2010 Feb;63(2):e130-2
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  • [Title] Reconstruction of vulva using pudendal thigh gluteal fold bilobed flap.
  • In reconstructing a large defect of the vulva, we combined the gluteal fold and the pudendal thigh flaps and made a bilobed flap.
  • Thus, the gluteal fold pudendal thigh bilobed flap seems to be ideal for reconstructing large vulvar defects.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Surgical Flaps. Vaginal Neoplasms / surgery. Vulva / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Buttocks / surgery. Female. Humans

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  • [Copyright] 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19595655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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21. Denschlag D, Kontny U, Tempfer C, Orlowska-Volk M, Niemeyer C, Gitsch G: Low-grade myxofibrosarcoma of the vulva in a 15-year-old adolescent: a case report. Int J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jan;13(1):117-9
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  • [Title] Low-grade myxofibrosarcoma of the vulva in a 15-year-old adolescent: a case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15735866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Horton E, Dobin SM, Debiec-Rychter M, Donner LR: A clonal translocation (7;8)(p13;q11.2) in a leiomyoma of the vulva. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Oct 1;170(1):58-60
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  • [Title] A clonal translocation (7;8)(p13;q11.2) in a leiomyoma of the vulva.
  • We present the first case of a vulvar leiomyoma studied by cytogenetics.
  • The tumor formed a 3.0-cm periurethral nodule in a middle-aged woman and was positive for the muscle markers desmin and caldesmon, and for estrogen and progesterone receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Leiomyoma / genetics. Translocation, Genetic. Vulvar Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Karyotyping. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16965956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Jang YH, Kim YC, Lee ES: Warty squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva in older women: association with human papillomavirus. Yonsei Med J; 2005 Feb 28;46(1):155-8
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  • [Title] Warty squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva in older women: association with human papillomavirus.
  • Accordingly, WSCC should be differentiated from other verruciform neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Skin Neoplasms / virology. Vulvar Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans

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  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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24. Groenen SM, Timmers PJ, Burger CW: Recurrence rate in vulvar carcinoma in relation to pathological margin distance. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Jul;20(5):869-73
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  • [Title] Recurrence rate in vulvar carcinoma in relation to pathological margin distance.
  • OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the results of a retrospective study of surgical approaches and recurrence rates relating to patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the vulva.
  • METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 93 cases of vulvar cancer.
  • The data collected included clinicopathological and surgical characteristics and the following potential risk factors: pathological margin distance, less than 8 mm; stromal invasion depth, more than 2.5 mm; tumor size; and presence of benign or premalignant epithelial disorders.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-three patients (median age, 74 years) underwent modified radical vulvectomy, hemi-vulvectomy, or local wide excision for SCC of the vulva from 2000 to 2005.
  • The tumor was radically removed in 80 patients (86%), although the histopathological margin was less than 8 mm in 50 patients (54%).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Vulva / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2011 Jul;21(5):794 [21697677.001]
  • (PMID = 20606536.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Kumar S, Shah JP, Bryant CS, Imudia AN, Morris RT, Malone JM Jr: A comparison of younger vs older women with vulvar cancer in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2009 May;200(5):e52-5
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  • [Title] A comparison of younger vs older women with vulvar cancer in the United States.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the prognostic variables and survival of younger (< 50 years) to that of older (> or = 50 years) women with vulvar cancer.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Subjects with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva were identified from the limited use Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program 1988-2005.
  • CONCLUSION: A striking survival difference exists between younger and older women with squamous cell vulvar cancer, which supports the view that etiopathogenesis of this disease may vary between age groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Vulvar Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data. United States / epidemiology. Young Adult


26. Horn LC, Einenkel J, Höckel M, Kölbl H, Kommoss F, Lax SF, Riethdorf L, Schnürch HG, Schmidt D: [Recommendations for the handling and oncologic pathology report of lymph node specimens submitted for evaluation of metastatic disease in gynecologic malignancies]. Pathologe; 2005 Jul;26(4):266-72
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  • Metastatic involvement of regional and distant lymph nodes represents the selection basis for adjuvant therapy in a large number of solid neoplasms.
  • The present paper provides recommendations for gross dissection, laboratory procedures and reporting for lymph node biopsies, lymph node dissections and sentinel lymph node biopsies (SLN) for cancers of the vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, endometrium, Fallopian tubes and the ovaries, submitted for the evaluation of metastatic disease.
  • In addition, the detection of isolated tumor cells should be reported, particularly with respect to the detection method (immunostains or molecular methods).
  • In cases of metastatic disease and carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP-syndrome), information should be given regarding the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / standards. Prognosis. Quality Assurance, Health Care

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  • (PMID = 15915329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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27. Benoit-Corven C, Foucher C, Maruani A, Machet L, Lorette G, Body G: [Vulvoperineoplasty for vulvar pain in the posterior fourchette (15 cases)]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Aug-Sep;133(8-9 Pt 1):663-5
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  • [Title] [Vulvoperineoplasty for vulvar pain in the posterior fourchette (15 cases)].
  • [Transliterated title] Vulvopérinéoplastie pour douleurs vulvaires localisées à la fourchette (15 cas).
  • BACKGROUND: Vulvar pain is a common presenting complaint in dermatology consultations arising from numerous possible causes.
  • Where such pain is mechanical, resulting from stretching of the vulva, particularly during sexual intercourse, the patient should be checked for anatomical features that could account for the pain, localised anatomical adhesions or sclerosis of the fourchette, and amenable to treatment by vulvoperineoplasty.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of all patients undergoing vulvoperineoplasty for vulvar pain in the fourchette was carried out between 1.1.1993 and 1.1.2003.
  • DISCUSSION: Vulvoperineoplasty is a simple procedure and proved useful for female patients presenting vulvar pain and adhesions or sclerosis of the fourchette.
  • [MeSH-major] Perineum / surgery. Vulva / surgery. Vulvar Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Coitus. Dyspareunia / surgery. Female. Humans. Hypertrophy. Pain, Postoperative / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Sclerosis. Tissue Adhesions / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17053735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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28. Plaza JA, Torres-Cabala C, Ivan D, Prieto VG: HER-2/neu expression in extramammary Paget disease: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemistry study of 47 cases with and without underlying malignancy. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Jul;36(7):729-33
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  • We investigated Her-2/neu expression by immunohistochemistry in cases of EMPD with and without underlying malignancy to try to correlate with tumor recurrence, progression and possible targeted therapy.
  • Forty-seven cases were analyzed (6 from the scrotum, 7 perianal region, 1 axilla and 33 vulva).
  • Two cases had invasive EMPD (one from vulva and one from scrotum).
  • Of the noninvasive EMPD of the vulva (32 cases), Her-2/neu was shown in 38%.
  • The case of invasive vulvar EMPD was negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Paget Disease, Extramammary / enzymology. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged


29. Sheikh ZA, Nair I, Vijaykumar DK, Jojo A, Nandeesh M: Neuroendocrine tumor of vulva: a case report and review of literature. J Cancer Res Ther; 2010 Jul-Sep;6(3):365-6
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumor of vulva: a case report and review of literature.
  • Neuroendocrine tumor (Merkel cell carcinoma-MCC) of the vulva is a very rare entity with less than 15 cases reported in the English literature.
  • In absence of any definite guidelines for management (due to its rarity), extrapolation of data from extra-vulvar MCC seems logical.
  • We present a case of vulvar neuroendocrine tumor who presented at a locally advanced stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis


30. Yildiz F, Atahan IL, Ozyar E, Karcaaltincaba M, Cengiz M, Ozyigit G, Aydin A, Usubütün A, Ayhan A: Radiotherapy in congenital vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 May-Jun;18(3):556-9
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy in congenital vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum.
  • Congenital lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) of the vulva is a rare disorder with unknown etiology.
  • In this report, we describe a patient with persistent vulvar LC despite sclerosing therapy and several surgical excisions.
  • She was treated with a course of external radiotherapy and showed a dramatic objective response with relief of all symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphangioma / congenital. Lymphangioma / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / congenital. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dose Fractionation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17692089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. El Demellawy D, Saleh R, Daya D, Alowami S: Malignant giant cell tumor of the vulva. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):93-7
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  • [Title] Malignant giant cell tumor of the vulva.
  • Giant cell malignant fibrous histiocytoma or giant cell tumor of the soft parts (GCTSP) is a rare soft tissue tumor.
  • GCTSP has an unpredictable behavior; the majority of the reported cases showed benign histology and those that showed malignant morphologic features were extremely rare.
  • To the best of our knowledge, GCTSP has never been reported to involve the vulva in the English literature.
  • We report the first case of malignant GCTSP of the vulva.
  • Histologic features and the immunoprofile of the tumor and differential diagnosis are discussed in detail.
  • Although extremely rare, consideration of the potential occurrence of GCTSP in the vulva is recommended to avoid a potential diagnostic pitfall.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19952930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Batashki I, Amaliev I, Markova D, Amaliev G, Milchev N: [Ovarian cancer with metastatic lesion in the vagina (foetus papiraceus)]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2009;48(3):49-51
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  • Very rarely it metastasizes to cervix, vulva and vagina; this type of metastases present a diagnostic challenge to the gynecologist and pathologist.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Vagina / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


33. Oni G, Mahaffey P: Treatment of angiokeratoma of the vulva with pulsed dye laser therapy. J Cosmet Laser Ther; 2010 Feb;12(1):51-2
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  • [Title] Treatment of angiokeratoma of the vulva with pulsed dye laser therapy.
  • Angiokeratoma of the vulva is relatively rare with few cases reported in the literature.
  • The lesions are usually asymptomatic, but clinical presentations can include bleeding and vulval pruritus.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiokeratoma / radiotherapy. Lasers, Dye. Low-Level Light Therapy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Vulva
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19929291.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4180
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cosmetic and laser therapy : official publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cosmet Laser Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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34. Takei H, Powell SZ: Tumor-to-tumor metastasis to the central nervous system. Neuropathology; 2009 Jun;29(3):303-8
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  • [Title] Tumor-to-tumor metastasis to the central nervous system.
  • Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is a well-recognized phenomenon.
  • Meningioma is the most common intracranial host tumor, with the breast and lung being the most common primary sites.
  • We report herein two such cases of metastasis from pulmonary adenocarcinoma and malignant melanoma (MM) of vulva, respectively.
  • Case 1: a 69-year-old female smoker who had a history of right upper lobectomy of lung for adenocarcinoma presented with a headache and altered mental status, and was found to have a left temporal contrast-enhancing mass with massive surrounding edema on MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Meningioma / pathology. Meningioma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Brain / pathology. Brain / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18647266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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35. Suzuki N, Toyoda H, Sano M, Nishiwaki K: Chondroitin acts in the guidance of gonadal distal tip cells in C. elegans. Dev Biol; 2006 Dec 15;300(2):635-46
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  • We found that MIG-22 is expressed in migrating DTCs, hypodermal seam cells, developing vulva and oocytes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / genetics. Female. Glycosyltransferases / genetics. Male. Molecular Sequence Data

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  • (PMID = 16982046.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-1606
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 9007-27-6 / Chondroitin; EC 2.4.- / Glycosyltransferases; EC 2.4.- / sqv-5 protein, C elegans
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36. Polet D, Lambrechts A, Ono K, Mah A, Peelman F, Vandekerckhove J, Baillie DL, Ampe C, Ono S: Caenorhabditis elegans expresses three functional profilins in a tissue-specific manner. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton; 2006 Jan;63(1):14-28
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  • In adult worms, PFN-1 is expressed in the neurons, the vulva, and the somatic gonad, PFN-2 in the intestinal wall, the spermatheca, and the pharynx, and PFN-3 localizes in a striking dot-like fashion in body wall muscle.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
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  • (PMID = 16317718.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-1544
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell motility and the cytoskeleton
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR048615-03; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR048615-04; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR48615; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR048615-04; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR048615; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR048615-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Profilins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 9DLQ4CIU6V / Proline
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS45853; NLM/ PMC2575421
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37. Kuloğlu Z, Kansu A, Demirçeken F, Bozkir M, Kundakçi N, Bingöl-Koloğlu M, Girgin N: Crohn's disease of the vulva in a 10-year-old girl. Turk J Pediatr; 2008 Mar-Apr;50(2):197-9
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  • [Title] Crohn's disease of the vulva in a 10-year-old girl.
  • Vulval involvement is an uncommon extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease, and it is very rare in children.
  • Patients with vulval CD typically present with erythema and edema of the labia majora, which progresses to extensive ulcer formation.
  • Vulval Crohn's disease can appear before or after intestinal problems or it may occur simultaneously.
  • We emphasize that although vulval involvement in childhood is uncommon, Crohn's disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of nontender, red, edematous lesions of the genital area.
  • [MeSH-major] Crohn Disease / pathology. Vulvar Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18664090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4301
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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38. Elas D, Benda JA, Galask RP: Langerhans' cell histiocytosis of the vulva: the Iowa experience. J Reprod Med; 2008 Jun;53(6):417-9
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  • [Title] Langerhans' cell histiocytosis of the vulva: the Iowa experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Vulvar presentation of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (histiocytosis X) is rare.
  • Once a diagnosis of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis is made, there is no formal treatment protocol.
  • CASES: We report the case histories of 2 women who presented to the Vulva/Vaginal Disease Clinic at the University of Iowa.
  • The first patient, a 76-year-old woman, had a 1-year history of vulvar pruritus.
  • CONCLUSION: Presentation of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis as a vulvar primary condition is rare and probably underdiagnosed as its clinical presentation can vary.
  • Langerhans' cell histiocytosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in females who present with chronic pruritus, pain, ulcerations or intermittent rashes.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / complications. Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / diagnosis. Vulvar Diseases / diagnosis. Vulvar Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Iowa


39. Malliah R, Gilhooly P, Lambert WC, Heller DS: Sebaceous hyperplasia of the vulva: case report and review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2006 Jan;10(1):55-7
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  • [Title] Sebaceous hyperplasia of the vulva: case report and review of the literature.
  • The occurrence of the lesion on the vulva is exceptionally rare.
  • We report a case of sebaceous hyperplasia of the vulva with an unusual presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Vulva / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Biopsy. Clobetasol / administration & dosage. Clobetasol / analogs & derivatives. Clobetasol / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Hyperplasia / pathology. Middle Aged. Vasoconstrictor Agents / administration & dosage. Vasoconstrictor Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16378033.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-2591
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 9P6159HM7T / halobetasol; ADN79D536H / Clobetasol
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40. Myers TR, Greenwald I: Wnt signal from multiple tissues and lin-3/EGF signal from the gonad maintain vulval precursor cell competence in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 Dec 18;104(51):20368-73
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  • [Title] Wnt signal from multiple tissues and lin-3/EGF signal from the gonad maintain vulval precursor cell competence in Caenorhabditis elegans.
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans vulva has been a valuable paradigm for defining components of signaling pathways and elucidating how signaling events are coordinated to generate a developmental pattern.
  • Vulval precursor cells (VPCs) are induced to adopt vulval fates in the third larval stage by LIN-3, an EGF-like signal produced by the gonad.
  • By using tissue-specific rescue of mig-14/Wntless, which is required for the production of Wnt ligands, we found that Wnt signal produced by multiple tissues, including neurons and muscles, promotes or maintains VPC competence before vulval induction.


41. Han TJ, Lee CH, Yoo CW, Shin HJ, Park HJ, Cho KH, Park JY, Choi SW, Kim JY: Synchronous multifocal HPV-related neoplasm involving both the genital tract and the head-and-neck area: a case report of Fanconi anemia. Radiother Oncol; 2009 Jul;92(1):138-41
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  • [Title] Synchronous multifocal HPV-related neoplasm involving both the genital tract and the head-and-neck area: a case report of Fanconi anemia.
  • We report the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with multiple squamous cell neoplasms synchronously arising in the cervix, vulva, oral cavity and oropharynx.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Fanconi Anemia / complications. Genital Neoplasms, Female / complications. Head and Neck Neoplasms / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19368986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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42. Chi CC, Wang SH, Prenter A, Cooper S, Wojnarowska F: Basement membrane zone and dermal extracellular matrix of the vulva, vagina and amnion: An immunohistochemical study with comparison with non-reproductive epithelium. Australas J Dermatol; 2010 Nov;51(4):243-7
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  • [Title] Basement membrane zone and dermal extracellular matrix of the vulva, vagina and amnion: An immunohistochemical study with comparison with non-reproductive epithelium.
  • This study aims to compare the antigenic expression of the BMZ and the dermal extracellular matrix in female genital skin and mucosa and amnion, with non-reproductive skin and mucosa.
  • METHODS: An indirect immunofluorescence technique was used to compare the antigenic expression of hemidesmosome, lamina lucida, anchoring filaments, lamina densa, anchoring fibrils and extracellular matrix in samples of non-reproductive skin (three), oral mucosa (three), vulval skin (two), vagina (three) and amnion (four).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The BMZ and dermal extracellular matrix of vagina and vulva are very similar to those of non-reproductive skin and mucosa despite their various functions, but differs from amnion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amnion / immunology. Amnion / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Collagen Type IV / metabolism. Collagen Type VII / metabolism. Female. Fibrinogen / metabolism. Hemidesmosomes / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Laminin / metabolism. Mouth Mucosa / immunology. Mouth Mucosa / metabolism. Mucous Membrane / immunology. Mucous Membrane / metabolism. Skin / immunology. Skin / metabolism. Tenascin / metabolism. Vulva / immunology. Vulva / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2010 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 21198519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-0960
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Collagen Type IV; 0 / Collagen Type VII; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Tenascin; 0 / kalinin; 0 / laminin 1; 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen
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43. Gore GA, Dandekar LM: Aggressive angiomyxoma of female vulva. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Jul-Sep;47(3):352-4
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  • [Title] Aggressive angiomyxoma of female vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Liposarcoma, Myxoid / diagnosis. Myxoma / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Humans. Middle Aged. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20587922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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44. Aulmann S, Schleibaum J, Penzel R, Schirmacher P, Gebauer G, Sinn HP: Gains of chromosome region 3q26 in intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva are frequent and independent of HPV status. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Sep;61(9):1034-7
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  • [Title] Gains of chromosome region 3q26 in intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva are frequent and independent of HPV status.
  • AIMS: Two different forms of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) are recognised:.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of chromosome 3q26 gains in the spectrum of precancerous lesions and invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the vulva.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical evaluation of p16 and p53 expression aids in the differential diagnosis of squamous cell alterations of the vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 / genetics. Vulvar Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Female. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, p16. Genes, p53. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Tumor Virus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 18559375.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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45. Buisson O, Foldes P, Jannini E, Mimoun S: Coitus as revealed by ultrasound in one volunteer couple. J Sex Med; 2010 Aug;7(8):2750-4
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  • We performed a coronal section on the top of the vulva during the penetration.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Male. Orgasm / physiology. Penis / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
  • (PMID = 20626602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of sexual medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sex Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Yun IS, Lee JH, Rah DK, Lee WJ: Perineal reconstruction using a bilobed pudendal artery perforator flap. Gynecol Oncol; 2010 Sep;118(3):313-6
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  • METHODS: This study enrolled a total of 15 female patients who had undergone perineal reconstruction with pudendal artery perforator flaps.
  • Seven of them had vulva cancer, seven others had extramammary Paget's disease and the remaining one patient had rectovaginal fistula.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Paget Disease, Extramammary / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20538324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Creatsas G, Deligeoroglou E: Expert opinion: vaginal aplasia: creation of a neovagina following the Creatsas vaginoplasty. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2007 Apr;131(2):248-52
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  • Among them the Creatsas modification of Williams vaginoplasty is an operative technique which involves the following surgical steps: Under general anesthesia, and after cutting the hymen with the use of diathermy, a U-shaped incision is made in the vulva extending across the perineum and up to the medial side of the labia to the level of the external urethral meatus, being 4cm lateral to it.
  • A second layer of the same material is used to approximate the subcutaneous fat and the perineal muscles and finally, the external skin is sutured with absorbable interrupted stitches.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Hymen / surgery. Surgically-Created Structures. Vulva / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17350745.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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48. Schott S, Ramos F, Coustham V, Palladino F: HPL-2/HP1 prevents inappropriate vulval induction in Caenorhabditis elegans by acting in both HYP7 and vulval precursor cells. Genetics; 2009 Feb;181(2):797-801
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  • [Title] HPL-2/HP1 prevents inappropriate vulval induction in Caenorhabditis elegans by acting in both HYP7 and vulval precursor cells.
  • A current model for Caenorhabditis elegans vulval cell fate specification is that SynMuv genes act redundantly in the hyp7 hypodermal syncytium to repress the LIN-3/EGF inducer and prevent ectopic vulval induction of vulva precursor cells (VPCs).
  • [MeSH-major] Caenorhabditis elegans / embryology. Caenorhabditis elegans / physiology. Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / physiology. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / physiology. Vulva / embryology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Embryonic Induction / genetics. Embryonic Induction / physiology. Embryonic Stem Cells / cytology. Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Epidermal Growth Factor / physiology. Female. Genes, Helminth. Giant Cells / cytology. Mutation. RNA Interference

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  • (PMID = 19064713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6731
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genetics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / HPL-2 protein, C elegans; 148412-70-8 / Lin-3 protein, C elegans; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2644966
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49. Amita M, Darshit D, Rekha W, Hemant T: Giant neurofibroma of the vulva. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol; 2005 Feb;45(1):84-5
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  • [Title] Giant neurofibroma of the vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurofibroma / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15730375.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8666
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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50. Scurry J, van der Putte SC, Pyman J, Chetty N, Szabo R: Mammary-like gland adenoma of the vulva: review of 46 cases. Pathology; 2009;41(4):372-8
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  • [Title] Mammary-like gland adenoma of the vulva: review of 46 cases.
  • AIMS: Hidradenoma papilliferum (HP) of the anogenital region, which was previously thought to be an apocrine tumour, is now believed to be derived from anogenital mammary-like glands (MLG) and is more accurately termed MLG adenoma.
  • We sought to explore any ramifications that may have resulted from the perceived change in histogenesis of this tumour.
  • Unusual vulvar tumours, which have been previously reported as erosive adenomatosis, sclerosing adenosis, papillary adenofibroma, syringocystadenoma papilliferans, etc., are variants of MLG adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19404851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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51. Braendle C, Felix MA: The other side of phenotypic plasticity: a developmental system that generates an invariant phenotype despite environmental variation. J Biosci; 2009 Oct;34(4):543-51
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  • We study such developmental robustness to environmental variation using vulval cell fate patterning in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a study system.
  • First, we present evidence indicating that vulval formation is under stabilizing selection.
  • Second, we discuss quantitative data on the precision and variability in the output of the vulval developmental system in different environments and different genetic backgrounds.
  • Third, we illustrate how environmental and genetic variation modulate the cellular and molecular processes underlying the formation of the vulva.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biological Evolution. Body Patterning / genetics. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Female. Genotype. Vulva / cytology. Vulva / growth & development

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  • (PMID = 19920340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-7138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biosciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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52. Chaturvedi AK, Madeleine MM, Biggar RJ, Engels EA: Risk of human papillomavirus-associated cancers among persons with AIDS. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2009 Aug 19;101(16):1120-30
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  • BACKGROUND: Although risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers of the anus, cervix, oropharynx, penis, vagina, and vulva is increased among persons with AIDS, the etiologic role of immunosuppression is unclear and incidence trends for these cancers over time, particularly after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996, are not well described.
  • During 1996-2004, low CD4 T-cell count was associated with statistically significantly increased risk of invasive anal cancer among men (relative risk [RR] per decline of 100 CD4 T cells per cubic millimeter = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.66, P = .006) and non-statistically significantly increased risk of in situ vagina or vulva cancer (RR = 1.52, 95% CI = 0.99 to 2.35, P = .055) and of invasive cervical cancer (RR = 1.32, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.80, P = .077).


53. Vetrano G, Lombardi G, Di Leone G, Parisi A, Scardamaglia P, Pate G, Verrico M, Corosu R: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: risk factors for persistence and recurrence in adolescents. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(3):189-92
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  • [Title] Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: risk factors for persistence and recurrence in adolescents.
  • These infections can occur in one or multiple areas of the female genitalia but the vulva is usually the initial site of implantation for HPV.
  • The sites most frequently affected by lesions were the vulva, perianus and perineum (194/234; 82.9%), and the cervix (125/234; 53.4%).
  • HPV infection is detected by abnormal pap test, but the low correlation with colposcopic and histological findings in this study justify the support of other examinations such as colposcopy and punch biopsy for diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adolescent Behavior. Adult. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice. Humans. Italy / epidemiology. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Sexual Behavior. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / diagnosis. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / epidemiology. Vaginal Smears


54. Dadhwal V, Bahadur A, Gupta R, Bansal S, Mittal S: Peripheral neuroectodermal tumor of the vulva: a case report. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2010 Jan;14(1):59-62
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  • [Title] Peripheral neuroectodermal tumor of the vulva: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuroectodermal tumors arising from vulva are extremely rare; only 12 cases have been reported so far.
  • Judicious use of a panel of markers led to diagnosis of peripheral neuroectodermal tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Judicious use of a panel of markers and a molecular test, if necessary, helps in confirming the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral / diagnosis. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20040838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Yang CC, Cold CJ, Yilmaz U, Maravilla KR: Sexually responsive vascular tissue of the vulva. BJU Int; 2006 Apr;97(4):766-72
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  • [Title] Sexually responsive vascular tissue of the vulva.
  • OBJECTIVE: To better understand the genital changes that occur during the female sexual response, using a gross anatomical and histological study of the vascular tissue of the vulva, supplemented with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • RESULTS: There are five vascular compartments of the female external genitalia, found in the clitoris, clitoral bulbs, labia minora, urethra, and vestibule/vagina.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The vulva contains a substantial amount of vascular tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Arousal / physiology. Sexual Behavior / physiology. Vulva / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Libido / physiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • [CommentIn] BJU Int. 2006 Aug;98(2):463-4 [16879696.001]
  • (PMID = 16536770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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56. Mayor P, Galvez H, Guimaraes DA, Lopez-Gatius F, Lopez-Bejar M: Serum estradiol-17beta, vaginal cytology and vulval appearance as predictors of estrus cyclicity in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the eastern Amazon region. Anim Reprod Sci; 2007 Jan;97(1-2):165-74
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  • [Title] Serum estradiol-17beta, vaginal cytology and vulval appearance as predictors of estrus cyclicity in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the eastern Amazon region.
  • This report describes the characteristics of estrus in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the eastern Amazon.
  • The objective of the first experiment was to assess the efficacy of estrus diagnosis by serum estradiol-17beta measurements, vaginal cytology and vulval appearance.
  • Estrus was characterized by the reddish and tumescent appearance of the vulva, the presence of vaginal mucus and vaginal opening, which persisted for 4, 4, 2, and 2 days, respectively.
  • Following estrus, superficial and intermediate cells were notably reduced and the appearance of the vulval appearance was characterized by a pale, non-tumescent vulva and vaginal closure.
  • A complete concordance in estrus diagnosis by the 3 methodologies was observed in 35 (62.5%) of the total 56 estrus predictions.
  • In conclusion, examining the vulval appearance and taking a vaginal smear constitutes a useful method of detecting estrus and predicting the period of male acceptance of the collared peccary female.
  • [MeSH-major] Artiodactyla / physiology. Estradiol / blood. Estrus / physiology. Vagina / cytology. Vulva / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Wild. Female. Genitalia, Female / anatomy & histology. Genitalia, Female / physiology. Predictive Value of Tests. Vaginal Smears / methods. Vaginal Smears / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16500049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-4320
  • [Journal-full-title] Animal reproduction science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anim. Reprod. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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57. Adib T, Barton DP: The sentinel lymph node: relevance in gynaecological cancers. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Oct;32(8):866-74
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  • RESULTS: Vulva cancer is the most frequently investigated gynaecological cancer with regard to SLN detection because of its anatomical location and easily accessible nodal basin.
  • Although there are no randomised controlled trials, some data suggest SLN detection in vulval cancer may alter clinical practice and reduce the number of groin lymphadenectomies.
  • CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node detection in vulval cancer may reduce the need for radical groin lymphadenectomy and thereby reduce morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16765015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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58. Wang H, Qiao YL: [Human papillomavirus types and their related diseases]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao; 2007 Oct;29(5):678-84
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  • High-risk HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 61 have shown causal relationship with cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, anus, oral cavity, and oropharynx.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / virology. Papillomaviridae / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18051728.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-503X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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59. Ma Y, Bi H, Xia Y, Yang X, Li J: [Vaginal reconstruction with modified pudendal-thigh flap]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Dec;22(12):1415-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: To increase the success rate of vaginal reconstruction with pudendal-thigh flap, reduce the chance of hemocirculatory disorder and relieve the deformity of greater lip of pudendum and vaginal orifice.
  • The flap of 12.0 cm x 5.5 cm was designed at the lateral of the greater lip of pudendum, with the groin as the axis.
  • RESULTS: All flaps survived, and the contour of the vulva was satisfactory.
  • One female's vagina was found pilous at 20 months after the operation, and no special treatment was given.
  • Two female patients had the experience of sexual intercourse and felt satisfied after using lubricant.
  • CONCLUSION: The modified pudendal-thigh flap has reliable blood supply and makes the transferring during vaginal reconstruction more convenient and the contour of the vulva more satisfactory.
  • [MeSH-major] Circumcision, Female / methods. Transsexualism / surgery. Vagina / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Skin Transplantation. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 19137878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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60. Zheng M, Messerschmidt D, Jungblut B, Sommer RJ: Conservation and diversification of Wnt signaling function during the evolution of nematode vulva development. Nat Genet; 2005 Mar;37(3):300-4
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  • [Title] Conservation and diversification of Wnt signaling function during the evolution of nematode vulva development.
  • Cell-fate specification and cell-cell signaling have been well studied during vulva development in Caenorhabditis elegans and provide a paradigm in evolutionary developmental biology.
  • A common aspect of vulva formation in both species is the polarization of the P7.p lineage, which is responsible for vulval symmetry.
  • In C. elegans, Wnt signaling is crucial for P7.p cell-fate patterning; nothing is known about vulval symmetry in P. pacificus.
  • In addition, mutations in Ppa-lin-17 (encoding Frizzled) and morpholino knock-down of Ppa-lin-44 (encoding Wnt), Ppa-egl-20 (encoding Wnt), Ppa-mig-5 (encoding Dsh), Ppa-apr-1 (encoding APC) and Ppa-bar-1 (encoding beta-catenin) results in gonad-independent vulva differentiation, indicating that these genes have a role in a negative signaling process.
  • In contrast, in C. elegans, Wnt signaling has a positive role in vulva induction, and mutations in bar-1 result in a hypoinduced phenotype.
  • Therefore, whereas the molecular mechanisms that generate vulval symmetry are conserved, the genetic control of vulva induction diversified during evolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Caenorhabditis elegans / metabolism. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Vulva / growth & development
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Base Sequence. Female. Membrane Proteins / chemistry. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Molecular Sequence Data. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. Wnt Proteins

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  • (PMID = 15696167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1061-4036
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY562975
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Wnt Proteins
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61. van Seters M, ten Kate FJ, van Beurden M, Verheijen RH, Meijer CJ, Burger MP, Helmerhorst TJ: In the absence of (early) invasive carcinoma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia associated with lichen sclerosus is mainly of undifferentiated type: new insights in histology and aetiology. J Clin Pathol; 2007 May;60(5):504-9
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  • [Title] In the absence of (early) invasive carcinoma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia associated with lichen sclerosus is mainly of undifferentiated type: new insights in histology and aetiology.
  • BACKGROUND: Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is presumed to be the precursor of invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the vulva.
  • However, evidence for this is limited to a small number of studies describing epithelial alterations adjacent to vulvar SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Cell Differentiation. DNA, Viral / analysis. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae / classification. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16714399.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1994523
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62. Terada KY, Shimizu DM, Jiang CS, Wong JH: Outcomes for patients with T1 squamous cell cancer of the vulva undergoing sentinel node biopsy. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Aug;102(2):200-3
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  • [Title] Outcomes for patients with T1 squamous cell cancer of the vulva undergoing sentinel node biopsy.
  • OBJECTIVE: This retrospective review was undertaken to evaluate survival in patients with T1 squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva treated with radical local excision and sentinel node dissection.
  • The primary tumor was removed with radical local excision.
  • CONCLUSION: The survival for patients with early vulvar cancer treated with sentinel node dissection and radical local excision appears excellent.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16406504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Farrell AM, Dean D, Millard PR, Charnock FM, Wojnarowska F: Cytokine alterations in lichen sclerosus: an immunohistochemical study. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Nov;155(5):931-40
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  • METHODS: An immunohistochemical study of 12 specimens of genital lichen sclerosus and one specimen of extragenital lichen sclerosus was undertaken using monoclonal antibodies to interferon (IFN)-gamma, IFN-gamma receptor, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-2 receptor (CD25), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and its ligand CD11a.
  • Control specimens were seven specimens of normal vulva obtained during gynaecological procedures, three specimens of normal skin, adjacent uninvolved thigh from three of the patients with lichen sclerosus, five specimens of nonvulval psoriasis, four specimens of nonvulval lichen planus and two specimens from chronic wounds.
  • RESULTS: The lichen sclerosus specimens demonstrated slightly increased staining for IFN-gamma within the epidermis compared with the normal vulva and nonvulval skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytokines / metabolism. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Epidermis / immunology. Female. HLA-DR Antigens / metabolism. Humans. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / metabolism. Interferon-gamma / metabolism. Interleukin-1alpha / metabolism. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / immunology. Middle Aged. Receptors, Interferon / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism. Vulva / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17034521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / Interleukin-1alpha; 0 / Receptors, Interferon; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / interferon gamma receptor; 126547-89-5 / Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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64. Ding DC, Hsu S, Hsu YS, Chen HT: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva in a young female: a brief case report. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Sep;140(1):128-9
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  • [Title] Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva in a young female: a brief case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Myxoma / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 / genetics. Female. Humans. Translocation, Genetic / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16844280.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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65. Skrenková J, Fait T: [Vulval oedema as the first sign of Crohn's disease--case reports]. Ceska Gynekol; 2006 Jul;71(4):348-50
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  • [Title] [Vulval oedema as the first sign of Crohn's disease--case reports].
  • [Transliterated title] Edém vulvy jako první príznak Crohnovy choroby--kazuistiky.
  • OBJECTIVE: To show a rare reason of vulval oedema.
  • SUBJECT AND METHOD: Oedema of vulva is presented in three case reports as form of cutaneous Crohn's disease.
  • It causes mistakes of diagnosis and therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Oedema of vulva as a sign of vulval Crohn's disesase can appear even several years before intestinal problems.


66. Le T, Menard C, Hicks-Boucher W, Hopkins L, Weberpals J, Fung-Kee-Fung M: Final results of a phase 2 study using continuous 5% Imiquimod cream application in the primary treatment of high-grade vulva intraepithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Sep;106(3):579-84
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  • [Title] Final results of a phase 2 study using continuous 5% Imiquimod cream application in the primary treatment of high-grade vulva intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the activity of 5% Imiquimod cream in the primary treatment of vulva intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) grade 2/3.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17582474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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67. Schindelman G, Whittaker AJ, Thum JY, Gharib S, Sternberg PW: Initiation of male sperm-transfer behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans requires input from the ventral nerve cord. BMC Biol; 2006 Aug 15;4:26
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  • This behavior has been divided into the following steps: response, backing, turning, vulva location, spicule insertion, and sperm transfer.

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  • (PMID = 16911797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1741-7007
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / F32 NS042497; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / F32 NS043037; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS042497; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS043037
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 0 / Luminescent Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Unc-18 protein, C elegans; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1564418
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68. Alés-Fernández M, Rodríguez-Pichardo A, García-Bravo B, Ferrándiz-Pulido L, Camacho-Martínez FM: Three cases of Lipschutz vulval ulceration. Int J STD AIDS; 2010 May;21(5):375-6
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  • [Title] Three cases of Lipschutz vulval ulceration.
  • A Lipschütz ulcer or 'ulcus vulvae acutum' is an acute simple ulceration of the vulva or vagina of non-venereal origin which can be associated with lymphadenopathy.
  • The cases serve to illustrate a little known but potentially important differential diagnosis of vulval ulceration.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Ulcer / pathology. Vulvar Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Fusidic Acid / therapeutic use. Humans. Infant. Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies

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  • (PMID = 20498113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies; 59XE10C19C / Fusidic Acid
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69. Heffernan TP, Sarode VR, Hoffman B, Lea J: Recurrent phyllodes tumor of the vulva: a case report with review of diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 May;29(3):294-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent phyllodes tumor of the vulva: a case report with review of diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis.
  • Phyllodes tumor of the vulva is extremely rare with only 6 cases reported in the literature.
  • We report a case of recurrent phyllodes tumor of the vulva in a 39-year-old woman.
  • The tumor showed biphasic morphology with a typical leaf-like pattern and a cellular stroma with rare mitosis.
  • Review of literature with emphasis on diagnostic features and differential diagnosis are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20407333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Biedrzycki OJ, Rufford B, Wilcox M, Barton DP, Jameson C: Malignant clear cell hidradenoma of the vulva: report of a unique case and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jan;27(1):142-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant clear cell hidradenoma of the vulva: report of a unique case and review of the literature.
  • Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is a rare tumor derived from eccrine sweat glands with a predilection for the head, face, and upper extremities.
  • We present a unique case of MCCH of the vulva with completely bland cytological features.
  • A previously healthy 39-year-old woman underwent marsupialization of a presumed left-side vulval Bartholin gland cyst.
  • Microscopy revealed a tumor with the features of CCH; no atypia, necrosis, or mitoses were observed.
  • Ten months later, she developed enlarging left groin nodes, one of which contained a metastatic clear cell tumor.
  • Radiological examination did not reveal any other primary source, and the diagnosis of MCCH was confirmed through an expert review.
  • A reexcision of the vulval primary site, which contained residual tumor, was performed.
  • It also highlights the importance of considering MCCH in the differential diagnosis of a lymph node containing a metastatic clear cell tumor or an apparent metastatic clear cell lesion in the skin.
  • We review the current literature on MCCH and discuss the problems in the differential diagnosis and treatment of this rare tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bartholin's Glands / pathology. Cysts / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18156989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Zhu XH, Ou-Yang L, Li B, Ma NY: [Vulva superficial angiomyxoma: a case report]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2010 Jan;39(1):109-10
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  • [Title] [Vulva superficial angiomyxoma: a case report].
  • [MeSH-major] Myxoma / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20175246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-9292
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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72. Kokcu A, Yildiz L, Bildircin D, Kandemir B: Vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum presenting periodic symptoms. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum presenting periodic symptoms.
  • The authors report a case of acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC), localised in the right labium majus of vulva and characterised by periodic symptoms for 8 years; however, 3 months after the right major labiectomy, the same symptoms developed in both the left labium majus and the right labium minus.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphangioma. Periodicity. Vulvar Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [Cites] Pathology. 2009;41(5):448-53 [19396719.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006 Mar-Apr;16(2):930-4 [16681790.001]
  • [Cites] J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2008 Mar-Apr;15(2):205-8 [18312992.001]
  • [Cites] Dermatol Online J. 2007;13(4):10 [18319007.001]
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  • (PMID = 22802470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3030071
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73. Martínez-Salazar EA: A new rhabdiasid species from Norops megapholidotus (Sauria: Polychrotidae) from Mexico. J Parasitol; 2006 Dec;92(6):1325-9
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  • The Mexican taxon differs from the other species in the genus by a combination of characters: possession of 4 lips, corpus slightly inflated, slightly postequatorial vulva, and presence of swollen cuticle of anterior and posterior ends.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Mexico. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17304815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3395
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Hoberg EP, Abrams A, Pilitt PA: A new species of trichostrongyloid in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) (Artiodactyla: Bovinae) from Uganda. J Parasitol; 2010 Feb;96(1):129-36
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  • We refer A. giganticus to this genus based on a strongly tapering lateral synlophe, relatively large numbers of ridges at all levels of the body, miniscule cervical papillae, poorly demarcated divisions of the ovejector, absence of vulval cuticular inflations, and the presence of slightly protruding lips at the vulva.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Uganda

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  • (PMID = 19874071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-2345
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Medeiros F, Nascimento AF, Crum CP: Early vulvar squamous neoplasia: advances in classification, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis. Adv Anat Pathol; 2005 Jan;12(1):20-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Early vulvar squamous neoplasia: advances in classification, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis.
  • The recognition and classification of preinvasive vulvar neoplasia are complicated by the facts that (a) their respective carcinomas have a diverse (human papillomavirus [HPV]- and non-HPV-related) pathogenesis;.
  • (b) not all vulvar squamous carcinomas are associated with precursors with strictly defined morphologic features;.
  • (c) many carcinomas have epithelial changes that are abnormal but lack sufficient nuclear atypia to warrant classification as an intraepithelial neoplasm; and (d) even lesions associated with a common etiologic agent (HPV) present a diverse morphologic spectrum.
  • In this review, five categories of early vulvar neoplasia are defined, based on the available literature, into (a) low-grade lesions with minimal cancer risk, (b) high-grade lesions associated with HPV, (c) high-grade lesions associated with other etiologies, (d) squamous atypias defined by abnormalities in differentiation rather than abnormalities in nuclear morphology, and (d) early carcinomas that do not exhibit conspicuous stromal invasion.
  • Recognition of these five categories is germane to proper management of women with squamous lesions of the vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / classification. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / classification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Tumor Virus Infections / classification. Tumor Virus Infections / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15614161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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76. Uke MS, Kulkarni MB, Ajit D, Gujral S: Diagnosis of hidradenoma papilliferum of the vulva on cytologic smears: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):907-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis of hidradenoma papilliferum of the vulva on cytologic smears: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Hidradenoma papilliferum is a rare benign tumor of the vulva that occurs mainly in women in the skin of the anogenital region.
  • Clinically it may mimic a carcinoma, so the correct cytologic interpretation of the tumor cells with subsequent careful histologic confirmation is essential for good management.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology and vulvar scraping of the lesion were reported as a malignant tumor, and the case was referred to our center for further management.
  • Repeat vulvar smears showed mainly groups and clusters of benign-looking glandular cells and were interpreted as a benign tumor.
  • Subsequent histology confirmed the diagnosis of hidradenoma papilliferum.
  • The clinical presentation should not mislead the cytologic interpretation of the tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / diagnosis. Cytological Techniques. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulva / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21053567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Bilenchi R, Poggiali S, Pisani C, Santopietro R, Miracco C, Vatti R, Lucani B, Andreassi A, Gonnelli S: Malignant hypercalcemia in vulvar cancer. Minerva Ginecol; 2005 Oct;57(5):569-74
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  • [Title] Malignant hypercalcemia in vulvar cancer.
  • Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) is a common paraneoplastic syndrome, most often associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, esophagus, kidneys and breast, but rarely with vulval cancer.
  • The case of a 70-year-old patient with massive squamous cell epithelioma of the vulva complicated by HHM is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology. Vulvar Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16205603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4784
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva ginecologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Ginecol
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
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78. Dereli T, Turk BG, Kazandi AC: Syringomas of the vulva. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 2007 Oct;99(1):65-6
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  • [Title] Syringomas of the vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Syringoma / pathology. Vulva / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17588575.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gynaecol Obstet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Nakamoto T, Inoue Y, Ueki T, Niimi N, Iwasaki Y: Primary amelanotic malignant melanoma of the female urethra. Int J Urol; 2007 Feb;14(2):153-5
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  • [Title] Primary amelanotic malignant melanoma of the female urethra.
  • The case is reported of amelanotic malignant melanoma of the female urethra mimicking urethral caruncle.
  • A 75-year-old woman complained of a mass of the external meatus.
  • Urethral carunclectomy was performed, but histological diagnosis was amelanotic malignant melanoma.
  • Finally, she underwent en block resection of urethra including bladder neck, uterus, adnexa, vagina, and vulva.
  • As urinary diversion, she underwent a continent cathererizable stoma with an appendicovesicostomy, according to the method described by Mitrofanoff, and Y-V graft for reconstruction of the vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic. Urethral Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Urethral Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17302574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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80. Fuste V, del Pino M, Perez A, Garcia A, Torne A, Pahisa J, Ordi J: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina: human papillomavirus detection, p16(INK4A) overexpression and clinicopathological correlations. Histopathology; 2010 Dec;57(6):907-16
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  • Patients with HPV-positive tumours were associated frequently with a history of carcinoma or intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix or vulva diagnosed more than 5 years before (56% versus 0%; P=0.01).
  • HPV-positive tumours were more frequently of non-keratinizing, basaloid or warty type than HPV-negative neoplasms (84% versus 14.3%; P<0.001), and showed diffuse positive immunoreactivity for p16(INK4a) (96%, versus 14.3%; P<0.001).
  • HPV-positive tumours tend to affect women with history of cervical neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Limited.
  • (PMID = 21166704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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81. Hoekstra HJ, Wobbes T: [Surgical treatment of early-stage vulva carcinoma and the complications of the operation]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 May 14;149(20):1133; author reply 1133-4
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of early-stage vulva carcinoma and the complications of the operation].
  • [Transliterated title] Chirurgische behandeling van vulvacarcinoom in een vroeg stadium en de complicaties van de ingreep.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Surgical Procedures, Operative / methods. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Wound Healing

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  • [CommentOn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 Feb 12;149(7):336-42 [15751805.001]
  • (PMID = 15932146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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82. Ghaemmaghami F, Karimi Zarchi M, Mousavi A: Surgical management of primary vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum and postradiation: case series and review of literature. J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2008 Mar-Apr;15(2):205-8
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  • [Title] Surgical management of primary vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum and postradiation: case series and review of literature.
  • Vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum is a defect of lymphatics in the reticular dermis.
  • Lymphangiomas of the vulva are rare.
  • To describe major labiaectomy as surgical management of primary vulval lymphangioma and postradiation, experiences about surgical treatment of 3 cases of this rare disease are reported.
  • Three female patients (aged 17, 18, and 63 years) had persistent edema, papules, and vesicles of the labia major.
  • [MeSH-major] Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Lymphangioma / surgery. Vulvar Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Edema / etiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18312992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4650
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimally invasive gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Invasive Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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83. Kirby TO, Rocconi RP, Numnum TM, Kendrick JE, Wright J, Fowler W, Mutch DG, Bhoola SM, Huh WK, Straughn JM Jr: Outcomes of Stage I/II vulvar cancer patients after negative superficial inguinal lymphadenectomy. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Aug;98(2):309-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes of Stage I/II vulvar cancer patients after negative superficial inguinal lymphadenectomy.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the patterns of recurrence associated with superficial inguinal lymphadenectomy (SupIL) and vulvectomy for patients with Stage I/II vulvar cancer.
  • METHODS: A retrospective chart review identified patients from 1990-2001 with Stage I/II vulvar cancer that underwent SupIL and vulvectomy.
  • RESULTS: 65 patients with Stage I/II vulvar cancer with a pathologically negative SupIL were identified (30 Stage I, 35 Stage II).
  • Three patients recurred in the inguinal region, (4.6%) and 11 patients (16.9%) recurred on the vulva.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SupIL and vulvectomy for Stage I/II vulvar cancer have a low recurrence rate in the inguinal region when nodes are negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Gynecol Oncol. 2006 Jan;100(1):219-20; author reply 220 [16216321.001]
  • (PMID = 15975642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Sereda D, Sauthier P, Hadjeres R, Funaro D: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva: a case report and review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2009 Jan;13(1):46-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Aggressive angiomyxoma is a variant of myxoid neoplasms of the female pelvic soft parts.
  • The term "aggressive" refers to the tumor's locally infiltrative and recurrent nature because distant metastases are rare.
  • Histopathological and radiological examinations were consistent with a diagnosis of aggressive angiomyxoma.
  • CONCLUSION: We highlight the novel use of a GnRH agonist as a neoadjuvant to surgery in aggressive angiomyxoma to shrink the tumor preoperatively and decrease surgical morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Goserelin / administration & dosage. Myxoma / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19098606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin
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85. Ye W, Robbins RT: Morphological Observation on Longidorus crassus Thorne, 1974 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) and Its Intraspecies Variation. J Nematol; 2005 Mar;37(1):83-93
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  • Hierarchical cluster analysis based on female morphometric character means including body length, distance from vulva opening to anterior end, head width, odontostyle length, esophagus length, body width, tail length, and anal body width were used to examine the morphometric relationships and create dendrograms for 23 Arkansas populations and the lectotype population.

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  • (PMID = 19262847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-300X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2620947
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Arkansas / Longidorus crassus / distribution / hierarchical cluster analysis / morphometrics / variability
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86. Kolkman I, Aerts S, Vervaecke H, Vicca J, Vandelook J, de Kruif A, Opsomer G, Lips D: Assessment of differences in some indicators of pain in double muscled Belgian Blue cows following naturally calving vs caesarean section. Reprod Domest Anim; 2010 Feb;45(1):160-7
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  • The main behavioural indicators of pain were alertness, transition in posture from standing to lying and vice versa, aggressive behaviour, vocalization, rumination quality, reaction on wound and vulva pressure and the percentage of visible eye-white.
  • Cows of the CS group reacted significantly more when pressure was put on the left flank on the first, third and fourteenth day after calving, whereas animals that calved per vaginam showed more reaction when pressure was put on the area around the vulva, but only on the first day.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aggression / physiology. Animals. Eating. Female. Heart Rate. Hydrocortisone / blood. Palpation / veterinary. Parturition / physiology. Posture / physiology. Pregnancy. Respiration. Rumen / physiology. Vocalization, Animal. Vulva

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  • (PMID = 20175248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0531
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Domest. Anim.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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87. Schlosser BJ: Contact dermatitis of the vulva. Dermatol Clin; 2010 Oct;28(4):697-706
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  • [Title] Contact dermatitis of the vulva.
  • Contact dermatitis of the vulva is common, with irritant contact dermatitis occurring more frequently than allergic contact dermatitis.
  • Patients with chronic vulvar dermatoses are at greater risk and should continually be reassessed for possible contact dermatitis.
  • Patient education and follow-up are essential in optimizing treatment and preventing recurrence of vulvar contact dermatitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatitis, Allergic Contact / diagnosis. Dermatitis, Allergic Contact / drug therapy. Dermatitis, Irritant / diagnosis. Dermatitis, Irritant / drug therapy. Vulvitis / diagnosis. Vulvitis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Estrogens / therapeutic use. Female. Histamine Antagonists / therapeutic use. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20883913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0520
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Histamine Antagonists
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88. Plichta KL, Joyce SA, Clarke D, Waterfield N, Stock SP: Heterorhabditis gerrardi n. sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): the hidden host of Photorhabdus asymbiotica (Enterobacteriaceae: gamma-Proteobacteria). J Helminthol; 2009 Dec;83(4):309-20
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  • Key diagnostic features include: body size and excretory pore position of the third-stage infective juveniles; male bursa with a reduction of bursal rays, usually affecting the terminal set of papillae, with symmetrical or asymmetrical loss of one or two pairs; vulva of hermaphrodites more anteriorly located than in other species in the indica-group (V% average: 43), with non-protruding or slightly protruding lips, and longer tail length (average: 106 mum).

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  • (PMID = 19216823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1475-2697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of helminthology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Helminthol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Helminth; 0 / DNA, Ribosomal
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89. Ordon W, Malinowski A, Pawłowicz P: [Extensive vulva cancer with enormous tumor of the vagina]. Ginekol Pol; 2008 Jan;79(1):60-4
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  • [Title] [Extensive vulva cancer with enormous tumor of the vagina].
  • The following is a case report documenting a 53-year old patient with extremely advanced vulva cancer (stage IV).
  • The patient needed urgent operative treatment because of massive bleeding from large tumor located inside and out of the vagina.
  • The prime step was to stop tumor hemorrhage, perform cystotomy and decompression of the urinary bladder and exteriorization of artificial anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 18510053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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90. Marri S, Gupta BP: Dissection of lin-11 enhancer regions in Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. Dev Biol; 2009 Jan 15;325(2):402-11
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  • To further dissect apart the nature of lin-11 regulation we focused on three Caenorhabditis species C. briggsae, C. remanei, and C. brenneri that are substantially diverged from C. elegans but share almost identical vulval morphology.
  • Analysis of the in vivo role of these sequences in C. elegans has led to the identification of three functionally distinct enhancers for the vulva, VC neurons, and uterine pi lineage cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Genetically Modified. Base Sequence. Caenorhabditis elegans / embryology. Caenorhabditis elegans / genetics. Caenorhabditis elegans / growth & development. Caenorhabditis elegans / metabolism. Cell Lineage. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Molecular Sequence Data. Receptors, Notch / metabolism. Species Specificity. Vulva / embryology. Vulva / growth & development. Vulva / metabolism


91. Salman MC, Kuzey GM, Dogan NU, Yuce K: Aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva recurring 8 years after initial diagnosis. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Sep;280(3):485-7
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  • [Title] Aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva recurring 8 years after initial diagnosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Aggressive angiomyxoma is an uncommon soft tissue tumor which preferentially involves pelvic and vulvoperineal regions of young adult females.
  • CASE: A 28-year-old woman who had had a history of surgically excised aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva presented with a complaint of vulvar mass.
  • CONCLUSION: Aggressive angiomyxoma should be kept in mind when an asymptomatic and slow-growing vulvar mass is detected in young females.
  • [MeSH-major] Myxoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19153754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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92. Almeida Mdo S, Carvalho LL, Arcoverde JC, Capucho Lde F, Monteiro CT, Fontenelle GE: [Dystrophic calcinosis of the vulva in a patient with CREST syndrome]. Acta Reumatol Port; 2010 Apr-Jun;35(2):264-6
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  • [Title] [Dystrophic calcinosis of the vulva in a patient with CREST syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Calcinose distrófica de vulva em paciente com síndrome Crest.
  • [MeSH-major] CREST Syndrome / complications. Calcinosis / etiology. Vulvar Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20734547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-464X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta reumatológica portuguesa
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Reumatol Port
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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93. O'Neill CJ, McCluggage WG: p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis. Adv Anat Pathol; 2006 Jan;13(1):8-15
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  • [Title] p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis.
  • In cervical squamous lesions, p16 is positive in most high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and in some cases of low-grade CIN, usually those associated with high-risk HPV. p16 may be useful to identify small focal high-grade CIN lesions, to distinguish some cases of CIN involving immature metaplastic squamous epithelium from immature metaplastic squamous epithelium not involved by CIN and to distinguish high-grade CIN from benign mimics.
  • In cervical glandular lesions, p16 is useful, as part of a panel, in the distinction between adenocarcinoma in situ (diffusely positive) and benign mimics, including tuboendometrial metaplasia and endometriosis, which are usually p16-negative or focally positive. p16 may be used, in combination with other markers, to distinguish between a cervical adenocarcinoma (diffuse positivity) and an endometrioid-type endometrial adenocarcinoma (negative or focally positive).
  • In the vulva, p16 is positive in HPV-associated vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) but negative in VIN not associated with HPV.
  • Similarly, HPV-associated invasive squamous carcinomas are p16-positive, whereas the more common non-HPV-associated neoplasms are largely negative or focally positive.
  • In the uterus, p16 positivity is more common and widespread in leiomyosarcomas than leiomyomas, and this may be a useful aid to diagnosis, although problematic uterine smooth muscle neoplasms have not been extensively studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemistry. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Genes, p16. Genitalia, Female / chemistry. Genitalia, Female / physiopathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. Vulvar Neoplasms / chemistry. Vulvar Neoplasms / classification. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16462152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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94. Horn LC, Schierle K, Klostermann K, Schnürch HG, Hantschmann P: [Pathoanatomical preparation and reporting of specimens from precancerous lesions and carcinomas of the vulva]. Pathologe; 2009 Feb;30(1):56-64
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  • [Title] [Pathoanatomical preparation and reporting of specimens from precancerous lesions and carcinomas of the vulva].
  • [Transliterated title] Pathologisch-anatomische Aufarbeitung und Befundung von Präparaten bei Präkanzerosen und Karzinomen der Vulva.
  • On the basis of varying morphology and pathogenesis, two types of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasias (VIN) have been defined: the common type (approximately 98%), classic VIN, is characterised by strong association to high-risk HPV infection (up to 90%), occurrence at younger age (median age 30-40 years) and multifocality.
  • It is usually diagnosed in combination with vulvar (keratinizing) squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Prognostically relevant factors in vulvar cancer include stage of disease, inguinal lymph node involvement, size of metastatic deposits and presence of extracapsular extension, depth of invasion and distance of the tumor from resection margins.
  • Tumor grade and the presence of lymphovascular space involvement are controversially discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma in Situ / genetics. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genes, p53. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Vulva / anatomy & histology. Vulva / pathology. Vulvar Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19130058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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95. Botros SM, Dieterich M, Sand PK, Goldberg RP: Successful treatment of Zoon's vulvitis with high potency topical steroid. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct; 2006 Feb;17(2):178-9
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  • Zoon's vulvitis is a rare, chronic condition of the vulva that presents with burning, pruritus, and dysuria with characteristic lesions and histopathology.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Vulva / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15834511.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] International urogynecology journal and pelvic floor dysfunction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; ADN79D536H / Clobetasol
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96. Pirgon O, Atabek ME, Suleymanoglu S: Genital prolapse in a newborn following resection of sacrococcygeal teratoma. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Oct;22(5):e96-8
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  • Neonatal genital prolapse usually occurs during the first few days of life and presents as a tumor mass protruding from the vulva.
  • We present a 15-day-old female neonate who developed neonatal genital prolapse following the operation of sacral teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Teratoma / surgery. Uterine Prolapse / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Risk Factors. Sacrococcygeal Region


97. Rozmus-Warcholińska W, Loch T, Czuba B, Mazurek U, Mucha J, Dworak D, Sodowski K: [Genital warts associated with HPV infection during II and III trimester of pregnancy--a case report and analysis of treatment options]. Ginekol Pol; 2007 Nov;78(11):888-91
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  • A visible genital form of HPV infection are genital warts, which are commonly caused by HPV types 6 and 11, and appear on the vulva, cervix, vagina, urethra and anus.
  • Oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 are also found in genital warts and are associated with vulval (VII), cervical (CIN) and anal (AIN) intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / therapy. Human papillomavirus 6 / isolation & purification. Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Pregnancy Trimester, Second. Pregnancy Trimester, Third

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  • (PMID = 18306923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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98. Choschzick M, Woelber L, Hess S, zu Eulenburg C, Schwarz J, Simon R, Mahner S, Jaenicke F, Müller V: Overexpression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) in vulvar cancer is associated with tumor progression and development of locoregional lymph node metastases. Virchows Arch; 2010 May;456(5):483-90
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  • [Title] Overexpression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) in vulvar cancer is associated with tumor progression and development of locoregional lymph node metastases.
  • This study was designed to assess the role of CAIX in primary vulvar cancer.
  • One hundred forty-two well-characterized primary vulvar carcinomas were analyzed on a tissue microarray (TMA).
  • Three tissue cores were sampled from each tumor.
  • To determine CAIX expression in benign vulvar tissue, we constructed a TMA with 120 samples of normal mucosa and non-neoplastic diseases.
  • CAIX expression was found in 77/135 (57%) of all assessable vulvar cancer specimens and 48 (35.5%) exhibited a moderate or strong expression.
  • CAIX expression in vulvar carcinomas was significantly stronger compared to non-neoplastic vulvar tissue (p < 0.001).
  • High levels of CAIX expression were related to pT stage (p < 0.01), tumor size (p < 0.01), depth of invasion (p < 0.05), as well as inguinal lymph node metastases (p < 0.05).
  • There was also a trend towards shorter recurrence-free patient survival in CAIX-positive compared to CAIX-negative vulvar cancers.
  • CAIX staining results in different tissue cores from the same tumor were homogeneous, raising the possibility of a hypoxia-independent expression.
  • In conclusion, CAIX is overexpressed in the majority of vulvar carcinomas with relationships to advanced tumor stages and development of lymph node metastases.
  • Our data support the potential therapeutic benefit of newly developed targeting antibodies in advanced vulvar cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Carbonic Anhydrases / biosynthesis. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carbonic Anhydrase IX. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / physiopathology. Middle Aged. Vulva / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20358226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrase IX; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases
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99. Berrébi A, Badiou W, Duclusaud A: [Frequency, persistence and recurrence of HPV lesions of the uterine cervix in HIV-seropositive women]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2008 May;36(5):521-4
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  • Surveillance must not be restricted to the uterine cervix because of the frequency of multifocal lesions: vagina, vulva, perineum and anus.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / epidemiology. Immunocompromised Host. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Tumor Virus Infections / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Comorbidity. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Prevalence. Recurrence. Risk Factors. Sentinel Surveillance. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 18486518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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100. Docimo S Jr, Shon W, Elkowitz DE: Bartholin's abscess arising within hidradenoma papilliferum of the vulva: a case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):282
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  • [Title] Bartholin's abscess arising within hidradenoma papilliferum of the vulva: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Hidradenoma papilliferum is an uncommon, benign, cystic, papillary tumor that occurs almost exclusively in the female anogenital region.
  • A preoperative diagnosis of Bartholin's abscess was made.

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