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1. Nam EJ, Yun MJ, Oh YT, Kim JW, Kim JH, Kim S, Jung YW, Kim SW, Kim YT: Diagnosis and staging of primary ovarian cancer: correlation between PET/CT, Doppler US, and CT or MRI. Gynecol Oncol; 2010 Mar;116(3):389-94
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and staging of primary ovarian cancer: correlation between PET/CT, Doppler US, and CT or MRI.
  • RESULTS: Histopathology showed benign tumors in 25 patients, borderline tumors in 13 patients, and malignant tumors in 95 patients.
  • In distinguishing malignant/borderline from benign ovarian tumors, the accuracy of PET/CT (0.921) was higher than that of pelvis US (0.830) and abdomino-pelvic CT or pelvis MRI (0.749; P=0.013).
  • In addition, PET/CT detected new, unexpected co-existing malignant tumors in five (3.8%) cases including two thyroid tumors, two breast tumors, and one pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: PET/CT is superior to pelvis US, abdomino-pelvic CT, and pelvic MRI for diagnosis of malignant ovarian tumors and is useful in revealing metastatic ovarian cancer and co-existing malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography. ROC Curve. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Doppler. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19926121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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2. Ruchala M, Skiba A, Gurgul E, Uruski P, Wasko R, Sowinski J: The occurrence of thyroid focal lesions and a need for fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with acromegaly due to an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2009;30(3):382-6
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  • [Title] The occurrence of thyroid focal lesions and a need for fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with acromegaly due to an increased risk of thyroid cancer.
  • Several studies revealed increased frequency of thyroid carcinoma in these patients.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of thyroid lesions, including thyroid cancer in acromegalic patients and to estimate possible factors influencing their occurrence, especially high IGF-1 level.
  • Thyroid gland was evaluated in ultrasound examination.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was performed in every solid or mixed thyroid nodule.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid morphology abnormalities were found in 75 patients (87.2%).
  • There were 5 cases of thyroid carcinoma (5.8%): 3 papillary carcinomas and two follicular variants of papillary cancer.
  • Out of five cancers three were multifocal, one infiltrated thyroid capsule and one was diagnosed at the stage of metastases to four lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed common co-existence of acromegaly and thyroid lesions.
  • Furthermore, it revealed considerably high occurrence of thyroid carcinoma in these patients.
  • In view of this correlation, the potential role of IGF-1 in pathogenesis of benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms should be considered.
  • Due to high frequency of thyroid cancer in acromegalic patients, we suggest to perform fine needle aspiration biopsy in each case of thyroid nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / epidemiology. Acromegaly / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chi-Square Distribution. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / blood. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Incidence. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Thyrotropin / blood. Thyroxine / blood

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  • (PMID = 19855364.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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3. Yang SW, Lin CY: A peculiar site of chondroma: the epiglottis. Acta Otolaryngol; 2005 Aug;125(8):906-9
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  • Chondroma of the laryngeal cartilage is an uncommon benign cartilaginous neoplasm.
  • The commonest location is the posterior lamina of the cricoid cartilage, followed by the thyroid cartilage.
  • We present this case to highlight the occurrence of this rare benign lesion in the epiglottis, and stress that it should not be neglected in the differential diagnosis of an epiglottic mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Chondroma / diagnosis. Epiglottis / surgery. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16158541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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4. Hoftijzer HC, Liu YY, Morreau H, van Wezel T, Pereira AM, Corssmit EP, Romijn JA, Smit JW: Retinoic acid receptor and retinoid X receptor subtype expression for the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Apr;160(4):631-8
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  • [Title] Retinoic acid receptor and retinoid X receptor subtype expression for the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Although differential expression of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) subtypes between benign and malignant thyroid tissues has been described, their diagnostic value has not been reported.
  • AIM: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of RAR and retinoid X receptor (RXR) subtype protein expression for the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.
  • METHODS: We used a tissue array containing 93 benign thyroid tissues (normal thyroid, multinodular goiter, and follicular adenoma (FA)) and 77 thyroid carcinomas (papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma, and follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC)).
  • RESULTS: We found increased expression of cytoplasmic (c) RARA, cRARG, cRXRB and decreased expression of nuclear (n) RARB, nRARG, and nRXRA in thyroid carcinomas compared with benign tissues.
  • Using cluster analysis, the combination of negative staining of membranous RXRB and positive staining for cRXRB had a high positive predictive value (98%) for malignant thyroid disease, whereas the combination of positive nRXRA and negative cRXRB staining had a high predictive value (91%) for benign thyroid lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that differences in RAR and RXR subtype protein expression may be valuable for the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 19155317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Retinoid X Receptors
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5. Ondik MP, Kang J, Bayerl MG, Bruno M, Goldenberg D: Teflon laryngeal granuloma presenting as laryngeal cancer on combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography scanning. J Laryngol Otol; 2009 May;123(5):575-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) has been increasingly used in the diagnostic investigation of patients with neoplasms of the head and neck.
  • Positron emission tomography and computed tomography have also proven useful for surveillance of thyroid cancers that no longer concentrate radioiodine.
  • However, certain benign or inflammatory lesions can also accumulate 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and lead to misdiagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVES: We review and discuss the pitfalls of using positron emission tomography and computed tomography for surveillance of thyroid cancer.
  • METHOD: We present the case of a 48-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a laryngeal neoplasm on integrated positron emission tomography and computed tomography scanning, after a routine ultrasound demonstrated an enlarged thyroid nodule.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Positron emission tomography positive Teflon granulomas have previously been reported in the nasopharynx and vocal folds, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who have undergone prior surgery involving Teflon injection.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma, Foreign-Body / diagnosis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Polytetrafluoroethylene / adverse effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18976510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-84-0 / Polytetrafluoroethylene
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6. Sabitha, Suneetha, Mohanty S, Rao P: Serum anti - TPO levels in benign and malignant breast tumors. Indian J Clin Biochem; 2009 Jul;24(3):266-8
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  • [Title] Serum anti - TPO levels in benign and malignant breast tumors.
  • Breast cancer is a hormone dependent neoplasm.
  • Conflicting results regarding the clinical correlation between breast cancer and thyroid diseases have been reported.

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  • [Cites] Br Med J. 1976 Jan 31;1(6004):257-9 [1082357.001]
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  • (PMID = 23105847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-1915
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Clin Biochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3453311
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast cancer / FNAC / anti — TPO
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7. Barnett BP, Sheth S, Ali SZ: Cytopathologic analysis of paratracheal masses: a study of 737 cases with clinicoradiologic correlation. Acta Cytol; 2009 Nov-Dec;53(6):672-8
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  • Of these, 41 (40%) revealed nonneoplastic lesions, and 62 (60%) yielded malignant neoplasms.
  • Malignant neoplasms from local spread included lung non-small cell carcinoma 6, SQCC 3 and ACA 3, papillary thyroid carcinoma 3 and other 2.
  • The most common diagnosis is a malignant tumor (60%), with metastatic carcinoma (73%) the most common neoplasm (lung ACA the most common primary source).
  • The most common benign entity is a hyperplastic lymph node (24%).
  • Ancillary studies (immunoctyochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and electron microscopy) were helpful and provided definitive diagnosis in 30% of the initially nondiagnostic FNA samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Tracheal Neoplasms / pathology. Tracheal Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20014557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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8. Carling T, Udelsman R: Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: what to recommend. Thyroid; 2005 Jun;15(6):583-7
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  • [Title] Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: what to recommend.
  • Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid are usually diagnosed following fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of a dominant thyroid nodule.
  • An FNA diagnosis of a follicular neoplasm represents a heterogeneous group of lesions including benign follicular hyperplasia, follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas, and the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • Hürthle cell neoplasms are also often included in this group.
  • Because the criteria for malignancy in both follicular and Hürthle cell neoplasms requires vascular or capsular invasion seen on permanent histology, the majority of these patients undergo surgical resection.
  • Intraoperative frozen section analysis of follicular neoplasms rarely renders informative information.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16029125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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9. Subbiah S, Collins BJ, Schneider AB: Factors related to the recurrence of thyroid nodules after surgery for benign radiation-related nodules. Thyroid; 2007 Jan;17(1):41-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Factors related to the recurrence of thyroid nodules after surgery for benign radiation-related nodules.
  • OBJECTIVE: Benign thyroid nodules are increased by radiation exposure and recurrences are common.
  • The goal of this study was to determine the factors related to recurrence of nodular disease and the efficacy of thyroid hormone therapy in reducing them.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS: The study population was drawn from a cohort of 4296 people treated before the age of 16 with conventional external radiation for benign conditions of the head and neck between 1939 and the early 1960s.
  • The study group consisted of 632 subjects who had benign nodules removed surgically.
  • At the discretion of their physicians, 426 subjects were treated with thyroid hormone after surgery, 198 were not, and in 8 subjects, thyroid hormone treatment status was unknown.
  • The group who took thyroid hormone had a lower recurrence rate than the untreated group (14.2% vs. 34.2%).
  • The risk of recurrence was reduced to 0.69 (0.47-1.01) in thyroid hormone-treated subjects, regardless of extent of surgery, and to 0.66 (0.46-0.97) when only the subjects with less than 75% of their thyroid removed were considered.
  • CONCLUSION: Thyroid hormone therapy reduced recurrences in this irradiated cohort.
  • It should be recommended to all patients with irradiated thyroids and previous thyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms. Thyroid Nodule

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  • (PMID = 17274748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21518
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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10. Aron M, Kapila K, Verma K: Utility of galectin 3 expression in thyroid aspirates as a diagnostic marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Jul;49(3):376-80
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  • [Title] Utility of galectin 3 expression in thyroid aspirates as a diagnostic marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Galectin-3 is a 31kD beta-galactoside binding lectin, which is known to be expressed in various neoplasms including thyroid tumors.
  • This study was conducted to study the role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules onfine needle aspirates (FNAC).
  • The cytology diagnosis of these cases was: papillary carcinoma (25), follicular neoplasm (16), adenomatous goiter (20), hyperplastic nodule (5), medullary carcinoma (5) and anaplastic carcinoma (1).
  • Galectin-3 positivity was seen in 80% of papillary carcinomas, 37.5% offollicular neoplasms and in 60% of benign nodules.
  • Three of thefollicular neoplasms that were diagnosed on histology as carcinoma were positive on cytology and one case offollicular adenoma was also positive.
  • However, since it is also expressed in a variety of benign lesions, its role as a pre-surgical markerfor differentiating benignfrom malignant thyroid nodules is limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Academies and Institutes. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. India. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17001889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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11. Bologna-Molina R, González-González R, Mosqueda-Taylor A, Molina-Frechero N, Damián-Matsumura P, Dominguez-Malagón H: Expression of syndecan-1 in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with extracapsular invasion. Arch Med Res; 2010 Jan;41(1):33-7
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  • [Title] Expression of syndecan-1 in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with extracapsular invasion.
  • Evidence suggests that loss of SDC-1 expression in several benign and malignant epithelial neoplasms is an unfavorable prognostic indicator, but its expression profile in thyroid gland neoplasms remains to be elucidated.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate SDC-1 expression in papillary carcinomas of the thyroid (PCT) that were both larger and smaller (papillary microcarcinoma) than 10mm, with or without extracapsular extension (PCT-E and PCT-NE).
  • METHODS: The expression of SDC-1 was studied in 62 cases of PCT-E and PCT-NE using a tissue microarrays technique (TMA).
  • It is more frequently expressed in PCT-E than PCT-NE (p=0.002) and the stromal expression of SDC-1 is more intense in PCT-E that are >10 mm (p=0.026).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Syndecan-1 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2010 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20430252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5487
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Syndecan-1
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12. Abu-Amero KK, Alzahrani AS, Zou M, Shi Y: High frequency of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human thyroid carcinomas and complex I respiratory defect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Oncogene; 2005 Feb 17;24(8):1455-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High frequency of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human thyroid carcinomas and complex I respiratory defect in thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • Significant progress has been made to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine thyroid tumor development and progression.
  • The potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in thyroid tumorigenesis is not well defined.
  • In the present study, we investigated the frequency of mtDNA mutations in 24 thyroid tumor specimens (19 primary papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), one follicular thyroid carcinoma, and four multinodular hyperplasias) and four thyroid cancer cell lines by sequencing the entire coding regions of mitochondrial genome.
  • All the thyroid tumor cell lines carried sequence variations that change amino acid and have not been reported previously as normal sequence variants.
  • Flow cytometry analysis of mitochondria respiratory function in the thyroid tumor cell lines revealed a severe defect in mitochondrial complex I activity.
  • The majority of the mutations was involved in genes located in the complex I of the mitochondrial genome.
  • These data suggest that mtDNA mutations may play an important role in the thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Given that mtDNA mutation is present in the benign multinodular hyperplasia, it might be involved in the early stage of tumor development.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. Electron Transport Complex I / physiology. Mutation / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15608681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; EC 1.6.5.3 / Electron Transport Complex I
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13. van Roosmalen J, van Hemel B, Suurmeijer A, Groen H, Ruitenbeek T, Links TP, Plukker JT: Diagnostic value and cost considerations of routine fine-needle aspirations in the follow-up of thyroid nodules with benign readings. Thyroid; 2010 Dec;20(12):1359-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic value and cost considerations of routine fine-needle aspirations in the follow-up of thyroid nodules with benign readings.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is the most accurate tool to identify malignancy in solitary thyroid nodules.
  • Although some recommend routinely repeating FNA for nodules that are initially read as benign, there is no consensus.
  • We evaluated clinical relevancy and considered costs of routine follow-up FNA in nodules initially read as benign.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the records of all 739 patients who underwent FNA of solitary thyroid nodules at our institution from 1988 to 2004.
  • According to their physicians practice, some patients had a "follow-up biopsy" after an initially benign FNA reading as a matter of routine (Group I approach) or if their clinical status changed (Group II approach).
  • RESULTS: The initial FNA was benign in 576 (78%), suspicious for follicular neoplasms in 106 (14.4%), and malignant in 57 patients (7.7%).
  • Follow-up FNA was performed in 292 patients with initially benign lesions, 235 in Group I approach and 57 in Group II approach.
  • The FNA diagnosis according to Group I approach remained benign on follow-up biopsy in 96.2% (226/235), was altered to follicular neoplasm in 3% (7/235), and was suspicious for malignancy in 0.8% (2/235).
  • When following Group II approach, the follow-up FNA was benign in 93% (53/57), undetermined in 1.7% (1/57), and showed follicular neoplasm in 5.3% (3/57).
  • Combining Groups I and II methods, 5 of 292 patients had a malignant nodule on histological examination, a false-negative rate of 1.7% for the initial FNA, but without a difference in prevalence of thyroid malignancy between the groups.
  • Cost-consequence analysis showed no benefit in routine follow-up FNA after initially benign FNA readings.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Routine follow-up FNA in patients whose initial FNA is benign has a low diagnostic upgrading value and is relatively costly.
  • In patients whose initial FNA is benign, we recommend the FNA be repeated only if clinically suspicious signs or complaints develop.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / economics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cost-Benefit Analysis. False Negative Reactions. Humans. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20954810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Ahmed M, Bin Yousef H, Greer W, Faraz H, Al Sobhi S, Al Zahrani A, Raef H, Al Ghamdi A, Al Kadhi Y, Al Dayel F: Hurthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland. ANZ J Surg; 2008 Mar;78(3):139-43
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  • [Title] Hurthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: A clinicopathological analysis and long-term follow up of 32 patients with Hurthle cell neoplasm (HCN) was undertaken to contrast the clinical and histological features between benign versus malignant HCN of thyroid and to examine the effect of treatment on the outcome.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 32 patients with HCN who were identified out of an archival clinical/pathological/imaging database of 3752 thyroid cancer patients seen between 1976 and June 2006.
  • All patients underwent thyroid surgery.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients were classified as malignant HCN (MHCN) and 15 as benign HCN (BHCN).
  • The mean tumour size was 4.43 +/- 0.66 cm for MHCN, and 2.57 +/- 0.32 cm for BHCN (P = 0.03).
  • Multicentric tumour foci were evident in five cases (29%) of MHCN but none among the BHCN (P = 0.03).
  • At neck exploration cervical lymph node dissection was carried out in nine MHCN patients with findings of tumour metastases in 33%.
  • Postoperatively, three MHCN patients had no thyroid remnant on ultrasound and computed tomography of neck and undetectable serum thyroglobulin; these were considered to be in remission.
  • Fourteen other MHCN patients with postoperative thyroid remnant and/or distant metastases received 131I treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Features of MHCN consisted of a large tumour size, unequivocal capsular and vascular invasion, multicentric tumour foci, metastatic lymph node deposits in one-third of patients and presence of distant metastasis in a few.
  • Findings of dominant Hurthle cell cytology in a fine-needle aspiration biopsy from a thyroid nodule should prompt surgical resection of the lesion to assess malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] ANZ J Surg. 2008 Mar;78(3):115 [18269467.001]
  • (PMID = 18269475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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15. Deandrea M, Ragazzoni F, Motta M, Torchio B, Mormile A, Garino F, Magliona G, Gamarra E, Ramunni MJ, Garberoglio R, Limone PP: Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation. Thyroid; 2010 Oct;20(10):1077-83
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has proved to be an effective diagnostic tool in patients with thyroid nodules.
  • To date, however, among lesions showing a follicular pattern, FNAC is still unable to differentiate between benign and malignant ones.
  • METHODS: We report a cohort of 927 consecutive cases who underwent thyroid surgery in our hospital between 2000 and 2008.
  • All the cytologic specimens were divided into five categories (Thy 1: inadequate material, Thy 2: benign, Thy 3: indeterminate, Thy 4: suspicious for malignancy, Thy 5: malignant).
  • Thy3 specimens were further divided into three subcategories (Thy 3a, or "follicular lesions of indeterminate significance": scant colloid, microfollicular pattern, or small clusters of thyrocytes with round nuclei usually without, but sometimes with, minimal cellular pleomorphism; Thy 3b, or "follicular neoplasm": absence of colloid, small clusters, or microfollicles of medium-large sized cell populations arranged in cohesive groups with nuclear overlapping, crowding, and pleomorphisms; and Thy 3c or "Hurthle-cell neoplasm": scant colloid, sheets or clusters of oxyphilic cells).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the National Cancer Institute consensus showing a different risk of malignancy for "follicular lesions of undetermined significance” compared with "follicular neoplasms" and "Hurthle cells neoplasms," which are more suspect for malignancy.
  • This subclassification could improve clinical management of thyroid nodules, helping to better select patients for surgery or follow up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Humans. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20883171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Daniels JS: Granular cell tumour of tongue: A case report. Saudi Dent J; 2009 Jul;21(2):75-8
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  • [Title] Granular cell tumour of tongue: A case report.
  • Granular cell tumour, also known as Abrikossoff tumour, is a relatively uncommon benign neoplasm, which is more commonly found in females in the 4th to 6th decades of life even though it can occur in all ages.
  • Although majority of granular cell tumours are benign, some are clinically aggressive and a few frankly malignant forms have been reported.
  • Some benign lesions exhibit surface ulcerations and this clinical appearance, combined with the overlying pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, seen histologically, may lead to misdiagnosis of malignancy if adequate biopsy material was not taken.
  • A case of granular cell tumour which occurred on the midline area of the dorsum of the posterior 1/3 of the tongue is reported in a 20-year-old female patient.
  • It is interesting because the patient was younger than the average age of occurrence and the tumour occurred in a similar site to that of a lingual thyroid.

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  • (PMID = 23960463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1013-9052
  • [Journal-full-title] The Saudi dental journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Dent J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3722994
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Dorsum of posterior one-third of tongue / Granular cell tumour / Lingual thyroid / Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia / Squamous cell carcinoma of tongue
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17. Yüksel M, Eziddin S, Wardelmann E, Biersack HJ: 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2006 Sep;25(5):316-9
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  • [Title] 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy.
  • A patient with suspicion of a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas underwent a somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 111In-Pentetreotide.
  • 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy showed discrete uptake of the radiotracer in the head of the pancreas and focal uptake in the right upper thyroid lobe.
  • Normal thyroid tissue and thyroid disorders, such as cancers, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and adenomas often show increased uptake of 111In-pentetreotide resulting in a possible false positive interpretation in patients with neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Adding a 48h planar image might contribute to the differential diagnosis between benign or malignant lesions, as in the present case where the uptake decreased in an adenoma after 48 hours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Indium Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromogranin A / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Serotonin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17173778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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18. Chang YJ, Mittal V, Remine S, Manyam H, Sabir M, Richardson T, Young S: Correlation between clinical and histological findings in parathyroid tumors suspicious for carcinoma. Am Surg; 2006 May;72(5):419-26
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  • Carcinoma of the parathyroid is a rare malignancy that can be cured surgically if the proper diagnosis and treatment is given initially.
  • Our goal is to review the correlation between clinical and final histopathological findings that can arouse the suspicion of such malignancy and their true predictive value in the diagnosis.
  • Among 168 patients who underwent parathyroid excision, 14 (8.3%) had hyperplasia of the parathyroid, 121 (72%) had benign adenoma, 25 (14.8%) had other benign lesions, and 8 (4.7%) patients had primary carcinoma of the parathyroid confirmed by pathology.
  • Our mean serum calcium level was 11.57 mg/dL, which was lower than the mean level (12 mg/dL) for benign hyperparathyroidism.
  • The mean tumor size was 2.18 cm, smaller than the proposed for malignant criteria, and none of the eight patients (0%) had any symptoms of hypercalcemia at the time of diagnosis.
  • Seven of eight patients (87.5%) had frank signs of invasion together with other histological features, and two patients had associated papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Five patients from our series did not meet clinical criteria for malignancy (tumor size > 3 cm, palpable mass, and serum calcium > 14 mg/dL), but had undisputable histological findings (high mitotic pattern, fibrous trabeculae, capsular invasion, vascular invasion, and nodular involvement).
  • On the other hand, 17 patients with benign histology had tumors greater than 3 cm, and an additional 18 had palpable masses on physical examination.
  • The patients with diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma, their kindred, and those with large adenomas may benefit from genetic screening for HRTP2 gene mutations in search of early detection of tumors suspicious for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Aged, 80 and over. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16719197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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19. Shi Y, Ding X, Klein M, Sugrue C, Matano S, Edelman M, Wasserman P: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration with atypia of undetermined significance: a necessary or optional category? Cancer; 2009 Oct 25;117(5):298-304
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  • [Title] Thyroid fine-needle aspiration with atypia of undetermined significance: a necessary or optional category?
  • BACKGROUND: Atypia of undetermined significance is a controversial category in thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA), not only for its questioned clinical utility, but also for its very existence as an expression of uncertainty.
  • The current study was performed to investigate the potential impact of eliminating this category on the sensitivity and specificity for detecting thyroid neoplasms by FNA.
  • These cases were reinterpreted blindly by 2 experienced reviewers, who eliminated atypia of undetermined significance as a diagnostic possibility and reclassified these cases as either benign, follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, or malignant.
  • RESULTS: After eliminating the atypia of undetermined significance category, the sensitivity for detecting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was reduced from 100% to 27% (P = .04).
  • In those atypia of undetermined significance cases that were reclassified as benign, 37% had PTC.
  • In those reclassified as follicular neoplasm or suspicious for malignancy, 38% were histologically proven to be benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Eliminating the diagnosis of atypia of undetermined significance substantially decreases the sensitivity of thyroid FNAs and increases both false-positive and false-negative rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 19711470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Gu LQ, Li FY, Zhao L, Liu Y, Zang XX, Wang TX, Chen HP, Ning G, Zhao YJ: BRAFV600E mutation and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2009 Apr;19(4):347-54
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  • [Title] BRAFV600E mutation and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The BRAF mutation V600E (BRAF(V600E)) is the most common genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), while overexpression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) has been found in various tumors.
  • Both of these events are implicated in carcinogenesis, tumor progression, recurrence, etc.
  • METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from 123 paraffin-embedded PTC tumor tissue samples and amplified for analysis of the V600E mutation in exon 15 of the BRAF gene by polymerase chain reaction.
  • XIAP expression was examined by immunohistochemical methods in 46 PTCs, 18 benign nodular goiters, and 10 Hashimoto's thyroiditis samples.
  • BRAF(V600E) was significantly correlated with younger age at diagnosis (p = 0.026), tumor size (p = 0.009), and histological variants (p = 0.024).
  • By logistic regression analysis, a significant relationship was found between tumor size and the BRAF(V600E) mutation (p = 0.03).
  • XIAP was expressed in 82.6% of PTCs, which was a higher percentage than observed in the group of benign thyroid disorders (35.7%, p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that BRAF(V600E) is associated some of the aggressive clinicopathological features of PTC including younger age at diagnosis, larger tumor size, and classic histological type, as well as also extrathyroidal invasion.
  • XIAP-positive staining was more prevalent in PTCs than in the benign thyroid disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Amino Acid Substitution. Female. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Hashimoto Disease / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19355825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein; 0 / XIAP protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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21. Giuliani C, Cotellese R, Cino M, Angelucci D, Monari F, Napolitano G, Monaco F, Francomano F: Metastasis as presenting feature of thyroid follicular carcinoma; report of a patient thyroidectomized for benign multinodular nontoxic goiter. Thyroid; 2005 Jun;15(6):624-6
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  • [Title] Metastasis as presenting feature of thyroid follicular carcinoma; report of a patient thyroidectomized for benign multinodular nontoxic goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16029132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Milas M, Mazzaglia P, Chia SY, Skugor M, Berber E, Reddy S, Gupta M, Siperstein A: The utility of peripheral thyrotropin mRNA in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms and surveillance of thyroid cancers. Surgery; 2007 Feb;141(2):137-46; discussion 146
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  • [Title] The utility of peripheral thyrotropin mRNA in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms and surveillance of thyroid cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid cells in peripheral circulation express uniquely thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) mRNA, and their detection may aid thyroid cancer management.
  • Thyroid cancer detection was assessed from known clinical diagnostic criteria and mRNA for patients with follicular neoplasms (n = 64) and long-term cancer follow-up (n = 13).
  • RESULTS: Adding TSHR mRNA to fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) maintained high sensitivity (90%) but improved specificity (73%) for thyroid cancer diagnosis.
  • When FNAB specimens indicated follicular neoplasm, a decision algorithm combining TSHR mRNA and abnormal thyroid ultrasound features correctly diagnosed all cancer patients (100% sensitivity) and would have spared operation for benign disease in 38%.
  • During long-term thyroid cancer surveillance, TSHR mRNA had a 91% concordance with radioactive iodine whole body scan (WBS)-detectable disease, agreed with thyroglobulin (Tg) levels in 64% of patents, missed disease in 5%, but was more sensitive to detecting disease than Tg levels in 31% of patients, including all patients with Tg antibodies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Detecting circulating thyroid cancer cells is useful for initial thyroid cancer diagnosis and postoperatively predicts recurrent cancer.
  • This novel test promises to enhance thyroid cancer patient care by management algorithms that combine histologic, genomic, and clinical criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Thyrotropin / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17263967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin
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23. Barroeta JE, Wang H, Shiina N, Gupta PK, Livolsi VA, Baloch ZW: Is fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of multiple thyroid nodules justified? Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(1):61-5
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  • [Title] Is fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of multiple thyroid nodules justified?
  • BACKGROUND: The clinical management of patients with solitary thyroid nodule is well established; however, the evaluation of patients with multiple thyroid nodules is controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to assess if there is a correlation between the risk of malignancy and number of thyroid nodules.
  • DESIGN: The study cohort included 2,884 patients (2,410 females and 474 males) with 3,274 thyroid nodules that underwent FNA under ultrasound guidance between November 1997 and April 2004.
  • Multiple thyroid nodules were aspirated in 360 patients; 2 in 332 (291 females, 41 males), 3 nodules in 26 (23 females, 3 males), and 4 nodules in 2 patients (1 female, 1 male).
  • Subsequent information regarding the histological diagnosis was obtained in the cases that underwent surgical excision.
  • The FNA specimens were diagnosed as benign (n = 1,663, 51%), neoplasm (n = 880, 27%), suspicious for neoplasm or papillary carcinoma (n = 234, 7%), malignant (n = 187, 6%), and non-diagnostic (n = 310, 9%).
  • The surgical pathology diagnosis was benign in 656 nodules (52%) and malignant in 596 nodules (48%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The cancer risk is similar for patients with one or two nodules over 1 cm and decreases with three or more thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16760581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Rossi ED, Raffaelli M, Minimo C, Mule A, Lombardi CP, Vecchio FM, Fadda G: Immunocytochemical evaluation of thyroid neoplasms on thin-layer smears from fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Cancer; 2005 Apr 25;105(2):87-95
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  • [Title] Immunocytochemical evaluation of thyroid neoplasms on thin-layer smears from fine-needle aspiration biopsies.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the most reliable diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules.
  • A difficult cytologic diagnosis may be supported by an immunocytochemical study.
  • DESIGN: Thyroid FNABs (n = 99) with both conventional (CS) and thin-layer cytology (TLC) smears were studied.
  • The cases were diagnosed as follows: 5 benign lesions (BL), 13 papillary carcinomas (PC), and 81 follicular proliferations (FP).
  • The category of FP was divided into three subgroups according to nuclear features of follicular cells: Follicular neoplasm (FN NOS), oxyphilic follicular neoplasm (OFN), and follicular lesion with nuclear pleomorphism (FLWNP).
  • Out of 37 FP, the ICCP yielded positive in 15 cases (4 benign, 11 malignant) and negative in 11 (all benign).
  • In the FLWNP subgroup, the ICCP was positive in 11 (84.6%) and negative in 2 histologically benign cases.
  • CONCLUSION: The combined panel of antibodies and the nuclear pleomorphism of follicular cells were effective in distinguishing between thyroid nodules requiring surgery from thyroid nodules requiring just follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytodiagnosis / methods. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antibodies. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Galectin 3 / immunology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oncogene Proteins / immunology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / immunology

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  • [Copyright] 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15742329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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25. Stojadinovic A, Peoples GE, Libutti SK, Henry LR, Eberhardt J, Howard RS, Gur D, Elster EA, Nissan A: Development of a clinical decision model for thyroid nodules. BMC Surg; 2009;9:12
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  • [Title] Development of a clinical decision model for thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules represent a common problem brought to medical attention.
  • Four to seven percent of the United States adult population (10-18 million people) has a palpable thyroid nodule, however the majority (>95%) of thyroid nodules are benign.
  • While, fine needle aspiration remains the most cost effective and accurate diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules in current practice, over 20% of patients undergoing FNA of a thyroid nodule have indeterminate cytology (follicular neoplasm) with associated malignancy risk prevalence of 20-30%.
  • These patients require thyroid lobectomy/isthmusectomy purely for the purpose of attaining a definitive diagnosis.
  • Given that the majority (70-80%) of these patients have benign surgical pathology, thyroidectomy in these patients is conducted principally with diagnostic intent.
  • Clinical models predictive of malignancy risk are needed to support treatment decisions in patients with thyroid nodules in order to reduce morbidity associated with unnecessary diagnostic surgery.
  • METHODS: Data were analyzed from a completed prospective cohort trial conducted over a 4-year period involving 216 patients with thyroid nodules undergoing ultrasound (US), electrical impedance scanning (EIS) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) prior to thyroidectomy.
  • A Bayesian model was designed to predict malignancy in thyroid nodules based on multivariate dependence relationships between independent covariates.
  • A receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC) curve of these predictions and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated to determine model robustness for predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid nodule size, FNA cytology, US and EIS characteristics were highly predictive of malignancy.
  • Cross validation of the model created with Bayesian Network Analysis effectively predicted malignancy [AUC = 0.88 (95%CI: 0.82-0.94)] in thyroid nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: An integrated predictive decision model using Bayesian inference incorporating readily obtainable thyroid nodule measures is clinically relevant, as it effectively predicts malignancy in thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Bayes Theorem. Decision Support Techniques. Models, Statistical. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Area Under Curve. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. ROC Curve. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19664278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2482
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2731077
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26. Besic N, Sesek M, Peric B, Zgajnar J, Hocevar M: Predictive factors of carcinoma in 327 patients with follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Med Sci Monit; 2008 Sep;14(9):CR459-67
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  • [Title] Predictive factors of carcinoma in 327 patients with follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to find predictive factors of carcinoma in patients with follicular neoplasm.
  • The specific aim was to discover whether preoperative serum thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration in patients with thyroid neoplasm can differentiate between those with thyroid carcinoma and those with benign disease.
  • MATERIAL/METHODS: A total of 327 patients (263 females, 64 males, median age: 51.5 years) with follicular neoplasm in whom carcinoma was only suspected and who were surgically treated at the authors' institute in 1988-2004 were included in the study.
  • RESULTS: The histopathological diagnoses were carcinoma, benign goiter, and adenoma in 119 (36%), 104 (32%), and 104 (32%) patients, respectively.
  • The independent predictors of malignancy as shown by multivariate logistic regression were tumor diameter and preoperative Tg concentration.
  • Thyroid carcinoma was more common in the patients with follicular neoplasm and serum Tg concentration over 300 ng/ml than in those with lower Tg concentrations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Predictors of malignancy were tumor diameter and preoperative Tg concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18758416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1643-3750
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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27. Widder S, Guggisberg K, Khalil M, Pasieka JL: A pathologic re-review of follicular thyroid neoplasms: the impact of changing the threshold for the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Surgery; 2008 Jul;144(1):80-5
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  • [Title] A pathologic re-review of follicular thyroid neoplasms: the impact of changing the threshold for the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Histopathologic criterion for follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC) has only recently been utilized universally.
  • The purpose was to determine whether, on review, these criteria would result in a change in diagnosis of follicular neoplasm (FN).
  • METHODS: A ten-year clinical cohort included patients with a diagnosis of a follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma (FC), or FVPTC.
  • Clinical follow-up, including ultrasonography, was carried out on all patients with a change in diagnosis.
  • Initially, 118 were benign, 56 were FVPTC, and 11 were FC.
  • Overall, 46 (25%) patients had a change in diagnosis on re-review; 35 were reclassified from a benign diagnosis to a re-reviewed malignant diagnosis, with 5 reclassified as minimally invasive FC, 4 as occult PTC, and 26 (74%) as FVPTC.
  • Eleven patients were reclassified to a benign diagnosis.
  • A third independent thyroid pathologist also reviewed the histopathologic slides of these 46 patients and concurred with the change in diagnosis in 41 of the 46 patients.
  • Although there have been no clinical ramifications in the patients with a changed diagnosis, the ethical issues surrounding these 46 patients are important and present a substantive quandary to the clinicians responsible for their care.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / ethics. Ethics, Clinical. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Classification. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans


28. Papi G, Rossi G, Corsello SM, Corrado S, Fadda G, Di Donato C, Pontecorvi A: Nodular disease and parafollicular C-cell distribution: results from a prospective and retrospective clinico-pathological study on the thyroid isthmus. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jan;162(1):137-43
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  • [Title] Nodular disease and parafollicular C-cell distribution: results from a prospective and retrospective clinico-pathological study on the thyroid isthmus.
  • OBJECTIVE: The isthmus represents a peculiar, as yet partially unexplored, thyroid gland area.
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess i) the prevalence and clinico-pathological features of solitary thyroid isthmic nodules (STIN);.
  • ii) the frequency of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) arising from the isthmus; and iii) the C-cell distribution in the isthmus of patients with MTC and benign nodular thyroid disease (NTD).
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-C(t) antibodies on lateral lobes and isthmi of 50 benign NTD and 50 MTC cases.
  • All patients had the neoplasm located in lateral thyroid lobes, none in the isthmus.
  • C cells were disclosed in lateral thyroid lobes of 100% MTC and 77% benign NTD patients; isthmi were free of C cells in either group.

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  • (PMID = 19793761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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29. Mills LJ, Poller DN, Yiangou C: Galectin-3 is not useful in thyroid FNA. Cytopathology; 2005 Jun;16(3):132-8
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 is not useful in thyroid FNA.
  • INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have suggested that galectin-3 immunohistochemistry may be useful in the fine needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma as it has been reported to selectively stain carcinomas and not adenomas or goitres.
  • METHODS: Fifty-one patients were included in a prospective study of galectin-3 in thyroid FNA; 88.2% were female and 11.8% male, mean age 53 years, range 25-87 years.
  • One benign and one inadequate FNA were negative for galectin-3 staining.
  • Four follicular neoplasm/suspicious of carcinoma cases showed negative staining.
  • CONCLUSION: Galectin-3 immunohistochemistry does not appear to be a useful adjunct to diagnosis in thyroid FNA as it does not reliably distinguish malignant and benign lesions.
  • Many thyroid aspirates are of low cellularity and are not suitable for cell block immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Galectin 3. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15924608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5507
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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30. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1102-9; discussion 1109-10
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • We postulated that expression analysis of genes that modulate angiogenesis would identify differentially expressed genes that would help to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms and serve as markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: A complementary DNA (cDNA) array with 96 genes that modulate angiogenesis was used to identify differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm cDNA array expression data in 123 patients (4 normal thyroid, 26 hyperplastic nodules, 27 follicular adenomas, 23 follicular cancers, 18 follicular variant of papillary cancers, 25 papillary cancers).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two genes were upregulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms by cDNA array analysis, but only 13 genes had higher messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (P < or = .04).
  • Of the 13 differentially expressed genes, the combined use of angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) mRNA expression levels was best for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid neoplasms, with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 75%, and negative predictive value of 94%.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 mRNA expression was elevated in higher TNM stage neoplasms and in patients with high-risk AMES (Age, distant Metastasis, Extrathyroidal invasion, and tumor Size) differentiated thyroid cancers (P < or = .005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Angiopoietin 2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and could improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 are markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Angiogenic Proteins / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics


31. Ishikawa T, Miwa M, Uchida K: Quantitation of thyroid peroxidase mRNA in peripheral blood for early detection of thyroid papillary carcinoma. Thyroid; 2006 May;16(5):435-42
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  • [Title] Quantitation of thyroid peroxidase mRNA in peripheral blood for early detection of thyroid papillary carcinoma.
  • We applied quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect tissue-specific mRNAs in circulating cancer cells for the diagnosis of early-stage cancer.
  • By Northern blotting, the thyroid peroxidase gene (TPO) was strictly expressed in the thyroid.
  • We also used RT-PCR to examine TPO and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) mRNAs in peripheral blood in 33 thyroid papillary carcinoma patients at stages I (23 cases), II (8 cases) and III (3 cases), 49 noncancer patients with benign thyroid diseases, and 20 healthy volunteers.
  • TPO mRNA was detected in 14 of 23 (61%) cases of stage I carcinoma but only 2 of 49 cases with benign thyroid disease.
  • By real-time quantitative RT-PCR, the estimated number of thyrocytes in the circulation ranged from 0.24 and 2700 cells per milliliter of whole blood in 7 of 9 patients at stages I and II, and thyrocyte number did not correlate with tumor size or serum thyroglobulin level.
  • Our results might suggest that detection and quantification of tissue-specific mRNAs (e.g., TPO) in peripheral blood could serve as a means to identify potential tumor markers at early stages of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Iodide Peroxidase / blood. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Blotting, Northern. Blotting, Southern. Child. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16756464.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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32. Baloch ZW: Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up. Cytojournal; 2006 Apr 07;3:9
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up.
  • The differential diagnosis of a follicular lesion/neoplasm in thyroid FNA specimens includes hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule, follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In our laboratory we separate follicular lesions of thyroid into hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule (HN), follicular neoplasm (FON) and follicular derived neoplasm with focal nuclear features suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (FDN).
  • All cases were evaluated for histologic diagnosis, age, sex and size of the nodule.
  • No statistically significant relationship was noted between the sizes of the nodules and benign vs. malignant diagnosis.
  • According to this study it is important to divide follicular patterned lesions of thyroid into FON and FDN in the cytology specimens due to significantly different risk of malignancy (22% vs. 72%).

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  • (PMID = 16603062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1458352
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33. Leinung S, Möbius C, Udelnow A, Hauss J, Würl P: Histopathological outcome of 597 isolated soft tissue tumors suspected of soft tissue sarcoma: a single-center 12-year experience. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 May;33(4):508-11
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  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this present report was to analyze the patients referred to us with the presumptive diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma (STS).
  • Open biopsy revealed soft tissue sarcoma in 318 cases, benign mesenchymal tumor in 124 cases and isolated metastases (ISTM) from carcinomas in 98 patients; other pathologies were found in 57 patients.
  • The primary carcinomas were lung cancer in 26 patients, breast cancer in 19 patients, renal carcinoma in 16 patients, carcinoma of the esophagus in 12 patients, colonic carcinoma in 5 patients, thyroid gland cancer in 6 patients, and in 14 patients carcinoma of unknown primary was diagnosed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our collective with soft tissue tumor, 50% of the patients had the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, 20% presented with a metastasis of carcinoma and 20% had a benign tumor.
  • Referring to our results, in patients with the presumptive diagnosis of soft tissue sarcomas, soft tissue metastasis of a primary carcinoma was unexpectedly common, indicating that greater consideration should be given to this differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17081724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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34. Miyakoshi A, Dalley RW, Anzai Y: Magnetic resonance imaging of thyroid cancer. Top Magn Reson Imaging; 2007 Aug;18(4):293-302
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of thyroid cancer.
  • Thyroid cancer is a unique malignancy arising from the endocrine system, and its nature is different from more common squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region.
  • Multiple imaging modalities are used for imaging work up for thyroid cancer, including nuclear medicine imaging, ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Imaging findings of benign and malignant thyroid lesions overlap substantially, and differentiation may be difficult.
  • In this chapter, we will discuss the role of MRI in thyroid cancer staging and key imaging appearance that affect staging of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17893594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-3459
  • [Journal-full-title] Topics in magnetic resonance imaging : TMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Top Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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35. Tysome JR, Chandra A, Chang F, Puwanarajah P, Elliott M, Caroll P, Powrie J, Hubbard JG, Clarke SE, Jeannon JP, Simo R: Improving prediction of malignancy of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Br J Surg; 2009 Dec;96(12):1400-5
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  • [Title] Improving prediction of malignancy of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is essential in the investigation of thyroid nodules.
  • The British Thyroid Association guidelines recommend clarification of whether follicular nodules are probable follicular neoplasms that require surgical excision.
  • This study assessed the value of the subclassification of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules into either follicular neoplasms or other pathology.
  • METHODS: The cytology reports of all thyroid FNAs performed between November 2005 and December 2007 at a single institution reported as Thy 3 (follicular lesions) were reviewed.
  • They were reclassified as Thy 3A (probable follicular neoplasm) or Thy 3B (probable non-neoplastic lesion), and subsequently correlated with final clinical outcome to determine the predictive value of this subclassification.
  • If Thy 3A were to predict malignancy and Thy 3B benign disease, the sensitivity of the classification was 88 per cent, with a specificity of 55 per cent and negative predictive value of 91 per cent.
  • CONCLUSION: Subclassification of Thy 3 nodules into Thy 3A and Thy 3B improves the assessment of risk for thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19918854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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36. Bocciolini C, Dall'olio D, Cavazza S, Laudadio P: Schwannoma of cervical sympathetic chain: assessment and management. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2005 Jun;25(3):191-4
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  • Schwannoma arising from the cervical sympathetic chain is an uncommon benign nerve tumour.
  • This tumour most often presents as an asymptomatic solitary neck mass, with slow-growing and rare malignant degeneration.
  • Definitive pre-operative diagnosis may be difficult and investigations are not usually helpful.
  • Diagnosis relies on clinical suspicion and confirmation is often obtained by means of surgical pathology.
  • Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for this tumour, with recurrence being rare.
  • Diagnostic studies included computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound which confirmed a circumscribed mass in the upper left portion of the neck next to the thyroid gland.
  • The pathologic and radiological evaluations, treatment and postoperative complications of this neoplasm are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglia, Sympathetic / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / surgery

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  • [Cites] Am Surg. 2000 Jan;66(1):52-5 [10651348.001]
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  • (PMID = 16450776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-100X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2639869
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37. Murata S, Herman P, Iwashina M, Mochizuki K, Nakazawa T, Kondo T, Nakamura N, Lakowicz JR, Katoh R: Application of microscopic Forster resonance energy transfer to cytological diagnosis of the thyroid tumors. J Biomed Opt; 2005 May-Jun;10(3):034008
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  • [Title] Application of microscopic Forster resonance energy transfer to cytological diagnosis of the thyroid tumors.
  • We propose a novel application of microscopic Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to clinical cytological diagnosis based on sensitive measurements of distance changes between fluorescently labeled deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) molecules.
  • We have employed the microscopic FRET imaging for investigation of six papillary carcinomas and eight benign cases.
  • We have not found significant difference of the mean FRET efficiency between the benign and malignant groups.
  • On the other hand, the texture analysis revealed a significant difference of the intranuclear spatial distribution of FRET efficiencies between the benign and malignant groups.
  • The results indicate that despite the similar average distance between the AT- and the GC-rich DNA segments in the papillary carcinomas and the benign cases, the former has more heterogeneous distribution of the AT- and the GC-rich DNA segments in nuclei compared to the benign groups.
  • We have demonstrated that the FRET imaging is a helpful tool for the medical cytological diagnosis of human tumors by giving information on the chromatin topology on the scale below the resolution of conventional optical microscopes. (c) 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Neoplasm / ultrastructure. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
  • (PMID = 16229652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-3668
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical optics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Opt
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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38. Haas SN: Management of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid. S D Med; 2006 Oct;59(10):425-7
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  • [Title] Management of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is usually an indolent tumor with a good survival prognosis especially when small and limited to the thyroid gland.
  • The prevalence of this tumor in younger patients with long life expectancies, however, magnifies the problem of late recurrences.
  • Current published guidelines recommend near total thyroidectomy for all differentiated thyroid cancers with the exception of small papillary carcinomas (< 1.0 cm) found coincidentally after surgery for benign disease, providing there are no other risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Life Expectancy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17124919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-3317
  • [Journal-full-title] South Dakota medicine : the journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] S D Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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39. Sahin M, Sengul A, Berki Z, Tutuncu NB, Guvener ND: Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy and ultrasonographic features of infracentimetric nodules in patients with nodular goiter: correlation with pathological findings. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(1):67-74
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  • In addition, we used sonography to assess the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules, and we evaluated the extent of disease in infracentimetric cancers.
  • The cytopathological results of 472 US-FNABs from 207 nodular goiter patients (170 women, 37 men; mean age, 51.5 +/- 13.1 yr) seen between 1999 and 2004 were categorized into five groups: inadequate, benign, suspicious, follicular neoplasm, and malignant.
  • More thyroid cancer could be detected in infracentimetric nodules that were hypoechoic or had fine calcification on ultrasonography (which may be helpful in discriminating which nodules are appropriate for FNAB) than in supracentimetric nodules.
  • In conclusion, small tumor size does not guarantee a low risk of thyroid cancer, and US-FNAB may be useful tool for diagnosing malignant infracentimetric nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16760582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Fryknäs M, Wickenberg-Bolin U, Göransson H, Gustafsson MG, Foukakis T, Lee JJ, Landegren U, Höög A, Larsson C, Grimelius L, Wallin G, Pettersson U, Isaksson A: Molecular markers for discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors. Tumour Biol; 2006;27(4):211-20
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  • [Title] Molecular markers for discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify molecular markers useful for the diagnostic discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • METHODS: A panel of thyroid tumors was characterized with expression profiling using cDNA microarrays.
  • A robust algorithm for gene selection was developed to identify molecular markers useful for the classification of heterogeneous tumor classes.
  • The study included tumor tissue specimens from 10 patients with benign follicular adenomas and from 10 with malignant tumors.
  • Several of the identified genes, for example DIO1, CITED1, CA12 and FN1, have previously been observed as differentially expressed in various thyroid tumors.
  • These genes have the potential for molecular classification of follicular thyroid tumors and for providing improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in thyroid malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Genetic Markers. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. DNA Primers. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16675914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Genetic Markers
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41. Ito Y, Higashiyama T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Long-term follow-up for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma treated as benign nodules. Anticancer Res; 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):1039-43
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  • [Title] Long-term follow-up for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma treated as benign nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: The recent prevalence of ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has facilitated the detection and diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • However, there are still cases that are preoperatively misdiagnosed and treated as benign nodules because ultrasonographic and FNAB findings do not provide sufficient evidence for a malignant diagnosis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated the prognoses of 56 patients with papillary carcinoma who underwent thyroidectomy without node dissection under a diagnosis of benign nodules.
  • RESULTS: None of the patients underwent further surgery such as completion total thyroidectomy and node dissection after the pathological diagnosis of papillary carcinoma was established.
  • Two patients showed recurrence in the remnant thyroid and one showed recurrence in the bone.
  • None of the patients have died of thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Papillary carcinomas misdiagnosed as benign nodules on ultrasonography and FNAB are indolent and very slow-growing.
  • Immediate further surgery is not needed for such cases, even if they were resected as benign nodules at the initial surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17465240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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42. Lee SM, Kwak KH: Risk factors and a predictive model for thyroid cancer in Korean women. Cancer Nurs; 2010 Jul-Aug;33(4):310-9
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  • [Title] Risk factors and a predictive model for thyroid cancer in Korean women.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence in Korean women has increased radically and is the highest in all cancer types.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer and to develop a predictive model based on these risk factors.
  • To construct a predictive model, the participants selected were 260 female outpatients diagnosed with malignant neoplasm of thyroid gland who had undergone thyroid removal surgery.
  • Nine variables, including occupation, live(d) in coastal region, family history of thyroid cancer, history of benign thyroid tumor, menopause status and weight gain, number of full-term deliveries, abortion, exercise intensity, and stress, remained as statistically significant risk factors in the stepwise regression model.
  • CONCLUSION: The predictive power of the model was relatively good, so it can be used to identify individuals at high risk for thyroid cancer.
  • Thus, it will be possible to detect thyroid cancer in its earliest stage, diminish mortality, and improve quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Logistic Models. Risk Assessment / organization & administration. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 20495449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-9804
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Yi JG, Marom EM, Munden RF, Truong MT, Macapinlac HA, Gladish GW, Sabloff BS, Podoloff DA: Focal uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose by the thyroid in patients undergoing initial disease staging with combined PET/CT for non-small cell lung cancer. Radiology; 2005 Jul;236(1):271-5
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  • [Title] Focal uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose by the thyroid in patients undergoing initial disease staging with combined PET/CT for non-small cell lung cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of focal fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by the thyroid gland on combined positron emission tomographic (PET) and computed tomographic (CT) scans in patients undergoing staging of newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated for FDG-avid thyroid foci.
  • Corresponding thyroid CT findings were recorded in patients with focal increased FDG thyroid uptake.
  • RESULTS: PET results showed that six patients (4.3%) had seven foci of increased FDG uptake in the thyroid.
  • Five of the seven foci (in four patients) corresponded to a low-attenuation thyroid lesion on the non-enhanced CT scan.
  • Four of the lesions were found to be papillary thyroid cancers at fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • The fifth lesion was found to be benign at thyroidectomy.
  • The remaining two patients did not have histologic confirmation of their thyroid lesion because no specific biopsy site was visualized on CT or sonographic images and lesions were considered benign.
  • Maximum SUV of the thyroid cancers ranged from 3.0 to 32.9 (mean, 13.7).
  • Maximum SUV of benign thyroid lesions ranged from 4.6 to 6.2 (mean, 5.4).
  • CONCLUSION: Focal thyroid FDG uptake found during the initial staging of NSCLC at PET/CT indicates a high likelihood of primary thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiography. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies


44. Takeyama H, Hosoya T, Shinozaki N, Watanabe M, Manome Y, Shioya H, Kinoshita S, Uchida K, Anazawa S, Morikawa T: Cytological and histological diagnoses of recurrent thyroid carcinoma with monoclonal antibody JT-95, which can detect modified fibronectin. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(7):507-15
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  • [Title] Cytological and histological diagnoses of recurrent thyroid carcinoma with monoclonal antibody JT-95, which can detect modified fibronectin.
  • Although fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has increasingly gained importance as a tool in thyroid diagnosis over the recent years, up to 20% of thyroid carcinomas, in particular follicular tumors and follicular variant tumors, are inconclusive by FNA.
  • The monoclonal antibody (MoAb) JT-95 detects the modified fibronectin, expressed in most thyroid carcinomas.
  • Consequently, it has been applied to FNA and tissue section specimens obtained from thyroid tumors during surgery.
  • For FNA specimens of 57 thyroid tumors followed-up for more than 10 years postoperatively and stained with both the Papanicolaou and the immunoperoxidase technique using MoAb JT-95, we retrospectively compared the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the two procedures.
  • The pathological results of aspirated specimens, after a change in diagnosis following recurrence, revealed that 43 of 47 malignant lesions were positive, while nine of 10 benign tumors remained unreactive using MoAb JT-95.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Fibronectins / immunology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17573201.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / JT95 monoclonal antibody
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45. Chang T, Husain AN, Colby T, Taxy JB, Welch WR, Cheung OY, Early A, Travis W, Krausz T: Pneumocytic adenomyoepithelioma: a distinctive lung tumor with epithelial, myoepithelial, and pneumocytic differentiation. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):562-8
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  • [Title] Pneumocytic adenomyoepithelioma: a distinctive lung tumor with epithelial, myoepithelial, and pneumocytic differentiation.
  • Pulmonary tumors with epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation are rare, thought to be of bronchial minor salivary gland origin and classified similarly to salivary gland neoplasms.
  • Some glands were filled with colloidlike secretion and had an inner, cuboidal epithelial cell layer (pankeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and thyroid transcription factor-1 positive), surrounded by an outer layer of myoepithelial cells merging with foci of spindled myoepithelial cells (high molecular weight keratin, S100, smooth muscle actin, calponin, caldesmon, and p63 positive).
  • There were also some glands lined by a single layer of plump cells that were positive for surfactant protein-A in addition to the other epithelial cell markers.
  • The biologic behavior to date has been benign.
  • This is the first reported series of a distinctive lung tumor with epithelial, myoepithelial, and pneumocytic differentiation that differs histologically from all previously recognized pulmonary salivary gland-type and pneumocytic tumors.
  • It is a unique benign appearing neoplasm for which the designation pneumocytic adenomyoepithelioma is suggested.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17414103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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46. Ishikawa T, Hamaguchi Y, Tanabe M, Momiyama N, Chishima T, Nakatani Y, Nozawa A, Sasaki T, Kitamura H, Shimada H: False-positive and false-negative cases of fine-needle aspiration cytology for palpable breast lesions. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(4):388-92
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  • METHODS: A total of 382 cases of palpable breast lesions that had undergone fine needle aspiration and histopathologic diagnosis were reviewed with an emphasis on the rate of false positive diagnoses in benign breast lesions.
  • RESULTS: A diagnosis of " malignant " was made in 98 of the 382 specimens (25.6%).
  • CONCLUSION: Palpable breast tumors can be definitively diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination, radiological studies and FNA, when the radiological studies concur with the diagnosis by FNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adult. Cytodiagnosis. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasms, Ductal, Lobular, and Medullary / parasitology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17986804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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47. Schmidt M, Dietlein M, Schröder U, Schicha H: False-positive uptake of I-131 in a laryngocele mimicking thyroid remnant after thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Nov;31(11):716-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] False-positive uptake of I-131 in a laryngocele mimicking thyroid remnant after thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • A 66-year-old woman underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma stage pT4 followed by radioiodine therapy with 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) iodine-131.
  • Radioiodine therapy revealed intense radioiodine uptake of the neck, which was interpreted as thyroid remnant tissue.
  • Neither thyroid remnant tissue nor enlarged cervical lymph nodes could be demonstrated either on CT or on MRI.
  • Further examination of the patient in the ear, nose and throat department confirmed the finding of a laryngocele and biopsies demonstrated benign tissue.
  • The patient declined definitive operative revision of the laryngocele and is in good health 8 years after the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes. Laryngeal Diseases / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17053394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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48. Paramo JC, Mesko T: Age, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid. Endocr Pract; 2008 May-Jun;14(4):447-51
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  • [Title] Age, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical predictors of malignancy in patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of 71 patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm who underwent thyroidectomy between January 1992 and December 2000.
  • Age, sex, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography characteristics of the lesions were assessed.
  • These clinical factors were compared between cases that had benign definitive pathologic findings and those that were found to be carcinomas on permanent sections.
  • RESULTS: Nine (13%) of the 71 follicular neoplasms were found to be carcinomas after definitive pathologic evaluation.
  • When the in-office ultrasonography findings were interpreted as benign, only 7% (3/46) of cases were malignant compared with 40% (4/10) when the ultrasonography findings were suspicious (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age and tumor size are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • Total thyroidectomy is reasonable in patients with follicular neoplasm on frozen section if they are young (<45 years old), with large (>4 cm) tumors or if there are suspicious findings on in-office ultrasonography.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18558598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Sheth S: Role of ultrasonography in thyroid disease. Otolaryngol Clin North Am; 2010 Apr;43(2):239-55, vii
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  • [Title] Role of ultrasonography in thyroid disease.
  • Ultrasonography (US) is the single-most valuable imaging modality in the evaluation of the thyroid gland.
  • This review discusses the US appearances of thyroid nodules, emphasizing sonographic features associated with potentially malignant or, at the other end of the spectrum, likely benign nodules.
  • Diffuse thyroid abnormalities have also been reviewed.
  • The technique of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy and the emerging role of elastography in characterizing thyroid nodules have also been addressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Elasticity Imaging Techniques. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / surgery. Hashimoto Disease / ultrasonography. Humans. Incidental Findings. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Staging. Reference Values. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20510712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8259
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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50. Ciobanu D, Căruntu ID, Vulpoi C, Florea N, Giuşcă SE: Morphometric parameters and silver stain used in diagnosis of thyroid follicular diseases. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2006;47(4):323-30
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  • [Title] Morphometric parameters and silver stain used in diagnosis of thyroid follicular diseases.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid is limited in distinguishing hyperplastic nodular goiter from true follicular neoplasm and in separating follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma.
  • The present study was done to evaluate if the morphologic and morphometric investigations and silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), either alone or in association would help to differentiate the thyroid follicular diseases.
  • 40 FNAB smears of thyroid follicular diseases, histopathologically diagnosed as nodular goiter, lymphocytic thyroiditis, follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, were analyzed using the standard cytological exam, quantitative analysis and NORs assessment.
  • The qualitative evaluation, correlated with the numerical results obtained from the quantitative analysis, revealed that the cellular pattern, mean nuclear diameter and NORs area are valuable criteria in the diagnosis of the benign and malign follicular lesions, respectively.
  • The results attained through morphometry increase the sensibility and the specificity of FNAB in the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Silver Staining. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / diagnosis. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17392977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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51. Zhao J, Leonard C, Gemsenjäger E, Heitz PU, Moch H, Odermatt B: Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling. Oncol Rep; 2008 Feb;19(2):329-37
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  • [Title] Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling.
  • It is difficult to distinguish benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors by histological or cytological examination.
  • The goal of this study was to reveal gene expression variations between benign and malignant follicular lesions of the thyroid gland.
  • We investigated gene expression profiles from 24 follicular thyroid tumors (12 carcinomas and 12 adenomas) and 13 normal thyroid tissues using high-density human cDNA arrays.
  • The identification of gene expression changes was based on signal intensity ratios of tumor versus normal thyroid parenchyma.
  • Our results demonstrate a potential use of gene expression profiling for differentiating benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • A detailed investigation of the differentially expressed genes could give new insights into molecular pathways of malignant transformation of thyroid follicular neoplasm and may help to develop a molecular tool for the preoperative differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Gene Expression Profiling. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18202778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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52. Bargren AE, Meyer-Rochow GY, Sywak MS, Delbridge LW, Chen H, Sidhu SB: Diagnostic utility of fine-needle aspiration cytology in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer. World J Surg; 2010 Jun;34(6):1254-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of fine-needle aspiration cytology in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients present with thyroid nodules less often than adults, but the rate of malignancy is much higher.
  • This study was designed to determine the ability of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA) to diagnose accurately and facilitate management of thyroid neoplasms in pediatric patients.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study revealed 110 patients <19 years old who had undergone thyroid surgery and FNA biopsy at two academic institutions over the last 28 years.
  • FNA sensitivity for diagnosing papillary thyroid cancer (PC) and follicular neoplasm (FN) was investigated.
  • Among the PCs patients, the FNA results were as follows: 1 (4%) nondiagnostic, 6 (22%) atypical, 2 (7%) benign, and 18 (67%) malignant lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FNA biopsy can reliably diagnose malignancy in pediatric thyroid patients and should be used as a standard technique to indicate surgical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20091309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Demirer AN, Kemal Y, Gursoy A, Sahin M, Tutuncu NB: Clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancer in patients on dialysis for end-stage renal disease. Thyroid; 2008 Jan;18(1):45-50
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancer in patients on dialysis for end-stage renal disease.
  • BACKGROUND: The prevalence rate of thyroid cancers in patients with renal failure is variable in different studies.
  • Our aim was to determine the prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancers in the dialysis population and to evaluate the potential risk factors.
  • Then we compared the data of thyroid cancer patients on dialysis (n = 9) with the data of patients who had histopathologically verified benign thyroid disease on dialysis (n = 23) and with the histopathological data of thyroid cancer patients without ESRD.
  • RESULTS: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was the only histotype that was found in 9 of 420 (2.1%) ESRD patients on dialysis.
  • Two patients had lymphatic metastasis at diagnosis.
  • Eight PTCs were classified as tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage I and one as stage II.
  • Among the analyzed factors, age (r = 0.374, p = 0.01) and duration of dialysis (r = 0.436, p = 0.007) showed a significant positive correlation with the occurrence of thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the prevalence of thyroid cancer in patients undergoing dialysis was not higher than that in the background population.
  • Age and duration of dialysis showed a significant positive correlation with the occurrence of thyroid cancer in patients on dialysis.
  • The effect of these characteristics on prognosis of thyroid cancer in dialysis patients is needed to be further evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Renal Dialysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


54. Faquin WC, Cibas ES, Renshaw AA: "Atypical" cells in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens of benign thyroid cysts. Cancer; 2005 Apr 25;105(2):71-9
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  • [Title] "Atypical" cells in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens of benign thyroid cysts.
  • BACKGROUND: Cystic lesions of the thyroid are common.
  • Most are benign nodules with degenerative changes in a multinodular goiter.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) specimens from these cystic nodules usually are easily interpreted as benign.
  • However, occasionally, cells with atypical features are encountered, increasing the possibility of a cystic malignant neoplasm.
  • To the authors' knowledge, the microscopic features of these benign cells, presumed to be of cyst-lining origin, have not been well described to date.
  • To refine the description of their morphologic features, with the belief that better recognition will avoid unnecessary surgery, the authors examined the cytologic and corresponding histologic features of thyroid cysts with "atypical" cells.
  • METHODS: A total of 149 FNAB specimens from thyroid cysts containing atypical cells were identified.
  • Seventy-five specimens with subsequent histologic correlation showing a benign cystic thyroid nodule were selected for study.
  • RESULTS: The majority of specimens (94%) were diagnosed cytologically as atypical thyroid cysts.
  • However, in 29% of these specimens, a papillary or Hurthle cell neoplasm could not be excluded.
  • In contrast to the atypical cells from benign cysts, cystic papillary carcinomas lacked the repair-like spindled cytomorphology, and showed nuclear crowding (100%), as well as papillary microarchitecture (50%), and rare intranuclear pseudoinclusions (42%).
  • Immunohistochemical staining of a subset of the resected thyroid cysts showed that the cyst-lining cells were positive for keratin and thyroglobulin, consistent with thyroid follicular cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Atypical cyst-lining cells were found to have characteristic features (e.g., distinct cell borders, elongated shape, eosinophilic cytoplasm, and distinct nucleoli) and lacked nuclear crowding, intranuclear pseudoinclusions, and papillary architecture that, in many specimens, allowed them to be recognized as benign.
  • The authors recommended that the subset of cells with the characteristic features described in the current study be reported as "consistent with benign cyst lining cells".
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cysts / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2006 Feb 25;108(1):72; author reply 73 [16400633.001]
  • (PMID = 15662703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Karam M, Feustel PJ, Postal ES, Cheema A, Goldfarb CR: Successful thyroid tissue ablation as defined by a negative whole-body scan or an undetectable thyroglobulin: a comparative study. Nucl Med Commun; 2005 Apr;26(4):331-6
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  • [Title] Successful thyroid tissue ablation as defined by a negative whole-body scan or an undetectable thyroglobulin: a comparative study.
  • BACKGROUND: Successful thyroid tissue ablation of patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer can be defined by a negative whole-body scan (WBS) and/or an undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg).
  • Until it is firmly established that such patients have a benign course both monitoring methods should be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15753792.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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56. Carney JA, Hirokawa M, Lloyd RV, Papotti M, Sebo TJ: Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid gland are almost all benign. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Dec;32(12):1877-89
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid gland are almost all benign.
  • In 1987, Carney et al reported 11 thyroid tumors with the following features: circumscription or encapsulation, trabecular architecture with intratrabecular hyalin and colloid, polygonal and spindle cells, nuclei with frequent grooves and cytoplasmic inclusions, occasional psammoma bodies, and a low mitotic rate.
  • The neoplasms did not recur or metastasize during a follow-up period that averaged 10 years, and they were titled hyalinizing trabecular adenomas.
  • Subsequently, the nuclear features of the neoplasm led to the introduction of 2 modified titles for it, hyalinizing trabecular tumor and hyalinizing trabecular neoplasm.
  • Later, discovery of RET/PTC mutations in the tumor resulted in it being designated as a type of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • We studied 119 neoplasms of the type outlined, collected over a 20-year period, for invasion, recurrence and metastasis, and obtained follow-up in 96% of the cases.
  • One tumor showed vascular and capsular invasion, and pulmonary metastasis.
  • We conclude that the overwhelming majority of hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid behave as benign neoplasms and that, at this time, hyalinizing trabecular adenoma is the most appropriate title for them.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18813121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Krzeslak A, Pomorski L, Lipinska A: Elevation of nucleocytoplasmic beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase) activity in thyroid cancers. Int J Mol Med; 2010 Apr;25(4):643-8
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  • [Title] Elevation of nucleocytoplasmic beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase) activity in thyroid cancers.
  • This study analyzes the activity of the enzyme involved in the removal of these sugar residues, i.e. beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase) as well as the level of O-GlcNAc in benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Our results demonstrate increased activity of the enzyme in thyroid cancers in comparison to non-neoplastic lesions and adenomas.
  • O-GlcNAc-modified proteins in thyroid cells have a predominantly nuclear distribution and are more abundant in non-neoplastic lesions than in tumors.
  • Understanding the aberrant O-GlcNAc metabolism in thyroid cancer cells may be helpful for developing new diagnostic or treatment methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylglucosaminidase / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / enzymology. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20198314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-244X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 3.2.1.52 / Acetylglucosaminidase
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58. Sugitani I, Toda K, Yamada K, Yamamoto N, Ikenaga M, Fujimoto Y: Three distinctly different kinds of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma should be recognized: our treatment strategies and outcomes. World J Surg; 2010 Jun;34(6):1222-31
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  • [Title] Three distinctly different kinds of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma should be recognized: our treatment strategies and outcomes.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) of the thyroid generally follows a benign clinical course.
  • Immediate wider resection followed by radioiodine treatment and suppression of thyroid-stimulating hormone is recommended.
  • Three patients (1%) who developed apparent lymph node metastasis and nine patients (4%) in whom tumor increased in size eventually received surgery after 1-12 years of follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Observation. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Rate. Thyroidectomy / methods. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20066418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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59. Abrosimov AIu, Dvinskikh NIu: [Morphological changes in thyroid tissue after preoperative fine-needle nodule biopsy]. Arkh Patol; 2010 Sep-Oct;72(5):39-42
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  • [Title] [Morphological changes in thyroid tissue after preoperative fine-needle nodule biopsy].
  • The paper considers morphological changes in thyroid tissue after preoperative fine-needle biopsy of benign and malignant tumors at the above site in 5 patients.
  • The found changes made the postoperative histological diagnosis of a tumor process difficult as;.
  • (a) there was total necrosis (2 cases of follicular tumor and papillary cancer from oxyphilic cells according to the data of a preoperative cytological study);.
  • (b) there were signs that mimicked those of invasive tumor growth in the proper fibrous capsules (2 cases of follicular adenomas);.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Preoperative Period. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21313768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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60. Song M, Chen FJ, Fan W, Wei MW, Chen WK: [Roles of single photo emission computed tomography-CT in detecting residual tumor from patients with thyroid carcinoma]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Mar;42(3):211-6
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  • [Title] [Roles of single photo emission computed tomography-CT in detecting residual tumor from patients with thyroid carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: As newly, functional, diagnostic measure-18F-deoxyglucose single photo emission computed tomography (18F-FDG SPECT-CT) has well sensitivity and specialty , it was proved availability in differentiating benign and malignant tumor.
  • In this study, it was compared the efficiency of detecting residual tumor of thyroid cancer between 18F-FDG SPECT-CT and CT-TWIN.
  • METHODS: During May 2004 to August 2004, 56 patients with thyroid disease were divided into two groups, one group was 32 cases suffered thyroid tumor, another was 24 cases suffered improper operation.
  • RESULTS: Forty eight cases had been performed operation, and 8 cases waited and watched because they didn't be found residual tumor by 18F-FDG SPECT-CT and CT-TWIN.
  • The results in detecting thyroid tumor showed that the same rate of diagnostic correction of SPECT-CT was 87.5% (28/32), and the Youden index of SPECT-CT was 0.667, higher than that of CT which was 87.5% (28/32) and 0.633 respectively.
  • The rate of diagnostic correction of SPECT-CT in detecting residual tumor was 84.6%, and its Youden index was 0.675.
  • The rate of diagnostic correction of CT in detecting residual tumor was 75.0%, and its Youden index was 0.492; and the result had statistics signification by being compared two different measures.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SPECT-CT and CT all had higher diagnostic efficacy, and they could promote the diagnostic efficacy when they have the same diagnosis in detecting thyroid tumor.
  • The rate of detecting residual tumor of SPECT-CT was 81.3%, compared with that of CT the diagnostic efficacy has greater raise.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm, Residual / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 17633282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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61. Levenson JN, Santaella I, Wachtel MS, Levenson DI: Discordance between cytologic results in multiple thyroid nodules within the same patient. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5):673-8
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  • [Title] Discordance between cytologic results in multiple thyroid nodules within the same patient.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency of discordant cytologic results between multiple thyroid nodules biopsied in the same patient.
  • STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective chart review of 441 consecutive patients, 326 (73.9%) had 2 or more nodules with colloid and/or thyroid cells recovered.
  • Cytology was classified as (A) colloid only, (B) benign colloid nodule with or without degeneration, (C) Hashimoto's, or (D) follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm, hyperplasia or suspicious for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroiditis, Subacute / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cytodiagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20968154.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Rowe LR, Bentz BG, Bentz JS: Detection of BRAF V600E activating mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma using PCR with allele-specific fluorescent probe melting curve analysis. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Nov;60(11):1211-5
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  • [Title] Detection of BRAF V600E activating mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma using PCR with allele-specific fluorescent probe melting curve analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: A single hotspot mutation at nucleotide 1799 of the BRAF gene has been identified as the most common genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), with a prevalence of 29-83%.
  • AIMS: To use a PCR assay to molecularly characterise the BRAF activating point mutation in a series of PTC and benign thyroid cases and correlate the mutation results with histological findings.
  • RESULTS: 42 (37 PTC; 5 benign) surgical tissue samples were analysed for the BRAF V600E activating point mutation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Alleles. Base Sequence. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Fluorescent Dyes. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17298986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 38
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2095462
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63. Lee KJ, Jung YS, Kim WH, Yoon TI, Joo HJ, Soh EY: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human thyroid disease. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Feb;31(2):111-8
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human thyroid disease.
  • Therefore, the goals of the present study were to determine the possible involvement of COX-2 in human thyroid diseases.
  • METHODS: We used immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis to characterize the expression of COX-2 proteins in thyroid tissues from 64 patients with thyroiditis, benign tumors, and malignant tumors with or without metastasis.
  • RESULTS: COX-2 proteins were not expressed in normal thyroid tissues.
  • However, each type of tumor tissue showed intense bands of COX-2 protein expression in Western blot analyses, and the immunoreactivity scores were 7.67+/-1.17 (SD) for thyroiditis, 7.87+/-0.9 for benign tumors, 7.53+/-1.53 for follicular cancer, 7.63+/-1.11 for papillary cancer without metastasis, and 7.17+/-1.55 for papillary cancer with metastasis.
  • No significant differences were found in the levels of COX-2 expression between different tumor tissue types.
  • CONCLUSION: No significant correlations were observed between clinical and/or pathological characteristics of thyroid tumors and the intensity of COX-2 protein expression.
  • In addition, we found no difference in COX-2 protein expression between thyroiditis and thyroid tumors.
  • Thus, up-regulation of COX-2 protein synthesis in human thyroid diseases does not appear to be of clinical significance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 18362501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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64. Faquin WC, Baloch ZW: Fine-needle aspiration of follicular patterned lesions of the thyroid: Diagnosis, management, and follow-up according to National Cancer Institute (NCI) recommendations. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Oct;38(10):731-9
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of follicular patterned lesions of the thyroid: Diagnosis, management, and follow-up according to National Cancer Institute (NCI) recommendations.
  • The National Cancer Institute (NCI) State of the Science Conference on thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) proposed that follicular patterned lesions can be divided into two diagnostic categories; follicular lesion of undetermined significance/Atypia of undetermined significance (FLUS/AUS) and suspicious for follicular neoplasm/follicular neoplasm (SFON/FON).
  • The former group can benefit from repeat FNA (RFNA) to achieve a more definitive diagnosis and the latter should undergo surgical excision for histologic characterization (adenoma vs. carcinoma).
  • In this study, we report the combined experience from our institutions with thyroid FNA cases that can be placed into NCI-designated thyroid FNA diagnostic categories for follicular patterned lesions.The case cohort comprised of 857 cases in 645 females and 212 males; 509 cases could be classified as FLUS/AUS and 348 as SFON/FON.
  • RFNA diagnoses were: benign (125 cases), FLUS (46 cases), SFON/FON (20 cases), suspicious for papillary carcinoma (7 cases), papillary carcinoma (3 cases) and non-diagnostic (2 cases).
  • The malignancy rate on surgical excision in the FLUS/AUS group was 27 and 15% with and without RFNA, respectively; and 25% in cases diagnosed as SFON/FON.RFNA is effective in managing thyroid nodules diagnosed as FLUS/AUS since the malignancy rates are different in cases with or without RFNA (27% vs. 15%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / classification. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis


65. Woźniak E, Klencki M, Popowicz B, Sporny S, Słowińska-Klencka D: The recurrent goitre unusually located near the hyoid bone. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):448-53
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  • INTRODUCTION: Recurrent goitre is a significant clinical problem among patients who have been operated due to benign lesions.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze if this unusual localization of recurrence is related to any significant differences in the clinical course, and if it significantly increases the risk of thyroid neoplasm.
  • The analysis included the period from the operation to the lesion-revealing US, the lesion's volume, the presence of ultrasound features of malignancy, the volume of residual thyroid tissue in the thyroid bed, the changes in volumes of examined structures, and the outcomes of cytological examinations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Focal lesions near the hyoid bone, revealed in patients operated previously for benign goitre, are not related to increased risk of thyroid neoplasm, and their enlargement does not imply their malignancy.

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  • (PMID = 21049456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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66. Janssen J: [(E)US elastography: current status and perspectives]. Z Gastroenterol; 2008 Jun;46(6):572-9
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  • The relative stiffness of the tissues within this area is described by colours superimposing on the B-mode image.
  • Several studies have demonstrated that real-time elastography is feasible and improves the diagnostic accuracy for tumours of the breast, the prostate, the cervix, and the thyroid gland.
  • For the differentation between benign and malignant lymph nodes, the accuracy is reported to be 85 % to 90 %.
  • Therefore, the early diagnosis of cancer within chronic pancreatitis will probably not be improved by elastography.
  • [MeSH-major] Elasticity Imaging Techniques / methods. Endosonography / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Pancreatitis / pathology. Pancreatitis / ultrasonography. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18537085.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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67. Melck A, Bugis S, Baliski C, Irvine R, Anderson DW, Wilkins G, Zhang H, Wiseman SM: Hemithyroidectomy: the preferred initial surgical approach for management of Hurthle cell neoplasm. Am J Surg; 2006 May;191(5):593-7
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  • [Title] Hemithyroidectomy: the preferred initial surgical approach for management of Hurthle cell neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cancer risk of patient clinicopathologic characteristics to determine the optimal approach for the surgical management of individuals with Hurthle cell neoplasm (HN) diagnosed by cytology.
  • METHODS: Patient clinicopathologic characteristics evaluated included age, sex, tumor size, and ipsilateral thyroid lobe nodularity.
  • The association of these characteristics with a pathologic cancer diagnosis was evaluated using Fisher's exact test and Student t test.
  • RESULTS: Of the 422 patients undergoing thyroidectomy, 27 presented with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of HN, and by pathologic assessment 7 HN patients (25.9%) had a cancer diagnosis.
  • Although none of the clinicopathologic characteristics evaluated were able to reliably differentiate benign from malignant tumors, large tumor size and male sex were significantly associated with a pathologic diagnosis of Hurthle cell carcinoma (P < .05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hemithyroidectomy represents the preferred initial surgical approach for the management of individuals presenting with nodular thyroid disease and a cytologic diagnosis of HN.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16647343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Jesneck JL, Mukherjee S, Yurkovetsky Z, Clyde M, Marks JR, Lokshin AE, Lo JY: Do serum biomarkers really measure breast cancer? BMC Cancer; 2009 May 28;9:164
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  • The classifiers distinguished normal tissue from benign lesions similarly at AUC = 0.80 +/- 0.05.
  • However, the serum proteins of benign and malignant lesions were indistinguishable (AUC = 0.55 +/- 0.06).
  • The classification tasks of normal vs. cancer and normal vs. benign selected the same top feature: MIF, which suggests that the biomarkers indicated inflammatory response rather than cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19476629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 84955; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA-112437-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2696469
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69. Puskas LG, Juhasz F, Zarva A, Hackler L Jr, Farid NR: Gene profiling identifies genes specific for well-differentiated epithelial thyroid tumors. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand); 2005 Sep 5;51(2):177-86
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  • [Title] Gene profiling identifies genes specific for well-differentiated epithelial thyroid tumors.
  • Thyroid nodules are common.
  • Studies done to date have concentrated on single tumor types and thus provide no help in identifying tumor subtype specific markers.
  • To that end we have studied gene profiles of 5 types of benign and malignant thyroid nodular tissue (multinodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary and follicular carcinomas).
  • Despite the differences in the microarray panels used, we confirmed the differential regulation of 12 genes previously reported in thyroid cancer, although we found the expression of several genes to be regulated in other histological tumor subtypes than originally described.
  • SERP1, RNASE 2 and STATA5 were suppressed in papillary thyroid cancer.
  • We have thus identified new potential markers specific to malignant thyroid tumors.
  • It is apparent that a range of nodular thyroid tissue using large tumor sample numbers is necessary to establish robust markers for malignancy and to categorize tumors on the basis of small tumor samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Genes, Neoplasm. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / physiopathology. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / physiopathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / physiopathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Goiter, Nodular / physiopathology. Humans. Microscopy, Confocal. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16171553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1165-158X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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70. Porpora MG, Pallante D, Ferro A, Alò PL, Cosmi EV: Asymptomatic struma ovarii: a case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol; 2005;32(3):197-8
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  • Struma ovarii is a rare ovarian neoplasm.
  • This tumor is generally benign, although malignant transformation has been reported.
  • The preoperative diagnosis is generally difficult.
  • Thyroid hormones may be produced and in a few cases asymptomatic women may develop definitive clinical hypothyroidism after resection of struma ovarii.
  • The pathologic diagnosis was struma ovarii.
  • The postoperative period was uneventful and her thyroid function remained normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis. Struma Ovarii / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16433164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-6663
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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71. Choi YJ, Yun JS, Kim DH: Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm. Endocr J; 2009;56(3):383-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and ultrasound (US) features of malignancy in patients using cytological results of follicular neoplasm (FN) in the thyroid.
  • Patient histopathology, age, sex, tumor size, and US characteristics and the color flow pattern of the lesions were analyzed and compared between benign and carcinomas.
  • Benign included 78 FA, 8 atypical FA, and 3 Hurthle cell adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 19164864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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72. Carlini M, Giovannini C, Castaldi F, Mercadante E, Dell'Avanzato R, Zazza S, Nania A, Santeusanio G, Passeri M, Di Perna P: High risk for microcarcinoma in thyroid benign diseases. Incidence in a one year period of total thyroidectomies. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jun;24(2):231-6
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  • [Title] High risk for microcarcinoma in thyroid benign diseases. Incidence in a one year period of total thyroidectomies.
  • Over the last few years, incidental thyroid microcarcinoma (TMC) has become a frequent disease and its incidence in some reports is considerable.
  • The discovery of new cases depends on the progress of the diagnostics (US scan, fine needle biopsy and cytology, CT, MRI), on the extended indications to thyroidectomy for benign disease and on the attention in pathologic examination of the specimen.
  • The clinical evolution of this disease is not well known: in spite of a high incidence reported in some autoptic series, suggesting that this tumour could have a good prognosis, some authors report an overall incidence of up to 11% of local recurrence, metastasis and mortality.
  • Aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and the clinico-pathological findings of TMC over a one year period of total thyroidectomies for diffuse benign thyroid diseases, and to evaluate, on the basis of the frequency of incidental microcarcinoma, if the surgical procedure of complete removal of the gland should be adopted in any case.
  • In this series no patient had pre-operative diagnosis or tentative diagnosis of carcinoma and the incidence of TMC at the final histologic examination was 27.4%.
  • Total thyroidectomy confirmed to be the treatment of choice for diffuse benign diseases and appeared necessary to obtain both, diagnosis and treatment of incidental TMC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / etiology. Thyroid Diseases / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Recurrence. Risk. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonics

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  • [ErratumIn] J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Mar;26(1):2. Dell'Avanzato [corrected to Dell'Avanzato, R]
  • (PMID = 16110756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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73. Jo VY, Stelow EB, Dustin SM, Hanley KZ: Malignancy risk for fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions according to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. Am J Clin Pathol; 2010 Sep;134(3):450-6
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  • [Title] Malignancy risk for fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions according to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology.
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is an important test for triaging patients with thyroid nodules.
  • The 2007 National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration State-of-the-Science Conference helped instigate the recent publication of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology.
  • We reviewed 3,080 thyroid FNA samples and recorded interpretations according to the proposed standardized 6-tier nomenclature, and pursued follow-up cytology and histology.
  • Of the 3,080 FNAs, 18.6% were nondiagnostic, 59.0% were benign, 3.4% were atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AFLUS), 9.7% were "suspicious" for follicular neoplasm (SFN), 2.3% were suspicious for malignancy (SM), and 7.0% were malignant.
  • Rates of malignancy were as follows: nondiagnostic, 8.9%; benign, 1.1%; AFLUS, 17% (9/53); SFN, 25.4%; SM, 70% (39/56), and malignant, 98.1%.
  • Thus, classification of thyroid FNA samples at the University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, according to The Bethesda System yields similar results for risk of malignancy as reported by others.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis


74. Chuang TC, Chuang AY, Poeta L, Koch WM, Califano JA, Tufano RP: Detectable BRAF mutation in serum DNA samples from patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas. Head Neck; 2010 Feb;32(2):229-34
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  • [Title] Detectable BRAF mutation in serum DNA samples from patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND.: An activating point mutation of the BRAF oncogene results in a V600E amino acid missense mutation found in a majority of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • METHODS.: In this study, 28 matched tumor and serum samples obtained from patients with both benign and malignant thyroid disorders were analyzed for BRAF mutation using a gap-ligase chain reaction technique.
  • RESULTS.: The BRAF mutation was absent in tumor DNA samples obtained from patients with benign adenomas, follicular neoplasms or carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma.
  • Moreover, 3 of 14 patients with PTC were positive for BRAF mutation in serum and tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / blood. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19626635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / 1R01DE015939-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA96784
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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75. Ponikiewska D, Szcześniak-Kłusek B, Stobiecka E, Jaworska M, Lange D: [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:7-11
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  • [Title] [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination].
  • INTRODUCTION: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid nodules generally allows to make the diagnosis and to choose the proper clinical management.
  • In about 10% of cases cytopathologic features do not differentiate unequivocally benign and malignant lesions.
  • In these cases the cytopathologic diagnosis of follicular tumor (FT) or oxyphilic tumor (OT) is most often made.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2001 to 2002 in our Department of Pathology the cytopathologic diagnosis of FT and OT was made in 102 and 25 cases respectively.
  • RESULTS: Histopathological diagnosis of neoplasm was made in 48.7% (19/39) FT and 42% (8/19) OT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show how difficult the diagnostics of follicular lesions in FNAB could be because of the frequent overlapping of the cytological features of benign and malignant lesions.
  • Diagnosis of follicular tumor does not mean carcinoma.
  • The use of follicular/ oxyphilic tumor in cytological diagnostic instead of follicular neoplasm seems more advisable.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17091450.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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76. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms and improve the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ann Surg; 2005 Sep;242(3):353-61; discussion 361-3
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  • [Title] ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms and improve the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether genes that regulate cellular invasion and metastasis are differentially expressed and could serve as diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules.
  • SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: Patients whose thyroid nodules have indeterminate or suspicious cytologic features on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy require thyroidectomy because of a 20% to 30% risk of thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: Differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms were identified by extracellular matrix and adhesion molecule cDNA array analysis and confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • RESULTS: By cDNA array analysis, ADAMTS8, ECM1, MMP8, PLAU, SELP, and TMPRSS4 were upregulated, and by quantitative PCR, ECM1, SELP, and TMPRSS4 mRNA expression was higher in malignant (n = 57) than in benign (n = 38) thyroid neoplasms (P< 0.002).
  • ECM1 and TMPRSS4 mRNA expression levels were independent predictors of a malignant thyroid neoplasm (P < 0.003).
  • The level of ECM1 mRNA expression was higher in TNM stage I differentiated thyroid cancers than in stage II and III tumors (P < or = 0.031).
  • CONCLUSIONS: ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are excellent diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and may be used to improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • ECM1 is also a marker of the extent of disease in differentiated thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Serine Endopeptidases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Gene Expression. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16135921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ECM1 protein, human; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / transmembrane serine protease 2, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1357743
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77. Schmidt D, Szikszai A, Linke R, Bautz W, Kuwert T: Impact of 131I SPECT/spiral CT on nodal staging of differentiated thyroid carcinoma at the first radioablation. J Nucl Med; 2009 Jan;50(1):18-23
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  • [Title] Impact of 131I SPECT/spiral CT on nodal staging of differentiated thyroid carcinoma at the first radioablation.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of 131I SPECT/spiral CT (SPECT/CT) on nodal staging of patients with thyroid carcinoma at the first ablative radioiodine therapy.
  • METHODS: Fifty-seven patients were studied using SPECT/CT 3-4 d after receiving 3.96+/-0.5 GBq of 131I for radioablation of thyroid remnants after a thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: SPECT/CT led to a revision of the original diagnosis in 28 of 143 cervical foci of radioiodine uptake seen on planar imaging.
  • In particular, SPECT/CT reclassified as benign 6 of 11 lesions considered to be lymph node metastases and 11 of 15 lesions considered to be indeterminate.
  • Furthermore, SPECT/CT allowed the identification of 11 lymph node metastases classified as thyroid remnant or as indeterminate on planar imaging.
  • CONCLUSION: SPECT/CT determines lymph node involvement at radioablation performed for thyroid cancer more accurately than does planar imaging.
  • SPECT/CT may alter management in roughly one quarter of patients with thyroid carcinoma by upstaging or downstaging their disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Ablation Techniques. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiography. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radiography. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, Spiral Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • [CommentIn] J Nucl Med. 2009 Aug;50(8):1386; author reply 1386 [19617337.001]
  • (PMID = 19091884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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78. Dwyer RM, Bergert ER, O'Connor MK, Gendler SJ, Morris JC: Sodium iodide symporter-mediated radioiodide imaging and therapy of ovarian tumor xenografts in mice. Gene Ther; 2006 Jan;13(1):60-6
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  • [Title] Sodium iodide symporter-mediated radioiodide imaging and therapy of ovarian tumor xenografts in mice.
  • Radioiodide is routinely and effectively used for the treatment of benign and malignant thyroid disease as a result of native thyroidal expression of NIS, which mediates iodide uptake.
  • In vivo ovarian tumor xenografts were infected with the adenoviral constructs. (123)I imaging revealed a clear image of the CMV/NIS-transduced tumor, with a less intense image apparent following infection with MUC1/NIS.
  • Therapeutic doses of (131)I following CMV/NIS infection caused a mean 53% reduction in tumor volume (P<0.0001).
  • MUC1/NIS-transduced tumors did not regress, although at 8 weeks following therapy, tumor volume was significantly less that of control animals (166 versus 332%, respectively, P<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Therapy / methods. Iodine Radioisotopes. Ovarian Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Symporters / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Blotting, Western / methods. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Genetic Vectors / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Mice. Mucin-1 / genetics. Neoplasm Transplantation. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Transduction, Genetic / methods. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 16121204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-7128
  • [Journal-full-title] Gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gene Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA91956
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter
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79. Mills SC, Haq M, Smellie WJ, Harmer C: Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid: Retrospective review of 62 patients treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1946 and 2003. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Mar;35(3):230-4
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  • [Title] Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid: Retrospective review of 62 patients treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1946 and 2003.
  • INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have included Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) as a variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma in analysis of clinical outcome and others have failed to adequately distinguish between benign and malignant Hürthle cell neoplasms.
  • The aim of this study was to report our experience of histologically confirmed malignant HCC, identifying patient, tumour and treatment factors that predict outcome.
  • Lymph node status (p=0.008), presence of metastases at diagnosis (p=0.005) and tumour stage (p=0.009) were independent predictors of DFS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HCC appears to be a separate entity from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), with a more aggressive disease profile.
  • Lymph node status, tumour stage, and the presence of metastases are independent predictors of DFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18722077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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80. Brown LM, Helmke SM, Hunsucker SW, Netea-Maier RT, Chiang SA, Heinz DE, Shroyer KR, Duncan MW, Haugen BR: Quantitative and qualitative differences in protein expression between papillary thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid tissue. Mol Carcinog; 2006 Aug;45(8):613-26
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  • [Title] Quantitative and qualitative differences in protein expression between papillary thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid tissue.
  • In order to better understand basic mechanisms of tumor development and identify potential new biomarkers, we have performed difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and peptide mass fingerprinting on pooled protein extracts from patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) compared with matched normal thyroid tissue.
  • Image analysis of DIGE gels comparing PTC and matched normal thyroid tissue protein indicated that 25% of the protein spots were differentially expressed at a 2.5-fold cutoff and 35% at two-fold.
  • Comparison between two different pools of protein from normal thyroid tissues revealed differential protein expression of only 4% at 2.5-fold and 6% at two-fold cutoff.
  • We confirmed S100A6 as a potentially useful biomarker using immunohistochemical analysis (85% sensitivity and 69% specificity for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms).

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  • (PMID = 16788983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-1987
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Carcinog.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046934; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA46934-15; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK054383; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK054383
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 105504-00-5 / S100A6 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS20526; NLM/ PMC1899163
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81. Jiang B, Ren T, Dong B, Qu L, Jin G, Li J, Qu H, Meng L, Liu C, Wu J, Shou C: Peptide mimic isolated by autoantibody reveals human arrest defective 1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis for colon cancer patients. Am J Pathol; 2010 Sep;177(3):1095-103
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  • Tumor-associated antigens, which induce the generation of autoantibodies, are useful as cancer biomarkers in early detection and prognostic prediction of cancer.
  • Using ELISA and immunohistochemistry, we found anti-ARD1A antibody levels in serum from patients with colon cancer were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteers (P < 0.001), and ARD1A expression was detected in 84.1% (227/270) of colon cancer tissues compared with 22.7% (55/242) of matched noncancerous tissues (P < 0.001) and 4.8% (2/42) of benign lesions (P < 0.001).
  • These results indicate that ARD1A is a novel tumor-associated antigen and a potential prognostic factor for colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetyltransferases / blood. Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. Autoantibodies / blood. Colonic Neoplasms / blood. Colonic Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / isolation & purification. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease-Free Survival. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Epitopes / isolation & purification. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. N-Terminal Acetyltransferase A. N-Terminal Acetyltransferase E. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models

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  • (PMID = 20639454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Epitopes; EC 2.3.1.- / Acetyltransferases; EC 2.3.1.88 / N-Terminal Acetyltransferase A; EC 2.3.1.88 / N-Terminal Acetyltransferase E; EC 2.3.1.88 / NAA10 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2928944
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82. Kumagai A, Namba H, Akanov Z, Saenko VA, Meirmanov S, Ohtsuru A, Yano H, Maeda S, Anami M, Hayashi T, Ito M, Sagandikova S, Eleubaeva Z, Mussinov D, Espenbetova M, Yamashita S: Clinical implications of pre-operative rapid BRAF analysis for papillary thyroid cancer. Endocr J; 2007 Jun;54(3):399-405
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  • [Title] Clinical implications of pre-operative rapid BRAF analysis for papillary thyroid cancer.
  • The activating point mutation of the BRAF gene, BRAF(T1799A), is the most common and specific genetic alteration in adult papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and a possible marker of malignant potential of PTC.
  • Of these cases, we found mutations in one cytologically "suspicious" case and even in two pathologically "benign" cases (after surgery in Kazakhstan).
  • In summary, our PCR-RFLP method for BRAF(T1799A) detection using FNAB samples is useful not only for preoperative diagnosis of PTC but also as a complementary diagnostic tool for accurate pathological diagnosis, even after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. DNA Mutational Analysis. Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine. Preoperative Care. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Japan. Kazakhstan. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length


83. Kaliszewski K, Łukieńczuk T, Dobosz T, Rzeszutko M, Sadakierska-Chudy A: [Analysis of expression of LGALS3BP gene in thyroid tissues and peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:38-44
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  • [Title] [Analysis of expression of LGALS3BP gene in thyroid tissues and peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer].
  • In the thyroid gland, the high expression of this protein has been described in differentiated carcinomas, especially in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gal-3 protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in benign (27 multinodular goiters) and malignant (30 papillary carcinomas) thyroid tissues and galectin-3 mRNA expression by real-time PCR in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 90 patients with multinodular goiter (n = 27), papillary carcinoma (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 33).
  • 23 of 27 benign thyroid nodular goiters were negative for Gal-3 expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is no difference in Gal-3 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer in relation to nodular goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glycoproteins / genetics. Lymphocytes / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17091455.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / LGALS3BP protein, human; Thyroid cancer, papillary
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84. Fujarewicz K, Jarzab M, Eszlinger M, Krohn K, Paschke R, Oczko-Wojciechowska M, Wiench M, Kukulska A, Jarzab B, Swierniak A: A multi-gene approach to differentiate papillary thyroid carcinoma from benign lesions: gene selection using support vector machines with bootstrapping. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):809-26
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  • [Title] A multi-gene approach to differentiate papillary thyroid carcinoma from benign lesions: gene selection using support vector machines with bootstrapping.
  • The aim of our analysis was to apply the multivariate bioinformatical tools to rank the genes - potential markers of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) according to their diagnostic usefulness.
  • We also assessed the accuracy of benign/malignant classification, based on gene expression profiling, for PTC.
  • We analyzed a 180-array dataset (90 HG-U95A and 90 HG-U133A oligonucleotide arrays), which included a collection of 57 PTCs, 61 benign thyroid tumors, and 62 apparently normal tissues.
  • The accuracy of PTC diagnosis was 98.5% for a 20-gene classifier, its 95% confidence interval (CI) was 95.9-100%, with the lower limit of CI exceeding 95% already for five genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Automatic Data Processing / instrumentation. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17914110.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2216417
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85. Paulino AC, Fowler BZ: Secondary neoplasms after radiotherapy for a childhood solid tumor. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Mar;22(2):89-101
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  • [Title] Secondary neoplasms after radiotherapy for a childhood solid tumor.
  • This study was conducted to determine the outcome of patients who develop a second neoplasm after radiotherapy (RT) for a childhood solid tumor.
  • From 1956 to 1998, 429 children with a malignant solid tumor were treated at a single radiation oncology facility.
  • The medical records and radiotherapy charts were reviewed to determine if the patient developed a secondary neoplasm after treatment for malignancy.
  • Twenty-three (5.4%) patients developed a secondary neoplasm.
  • There were 14 malignant neoplasms in 13 (3.0%) and 14 benign neoplasms in 11 patients (2.6%).
  • The types of initial solid tumors treated with RT were Ewing sarcoma in 6, Wilms tumor in 6, medulloblastoma in 5, neuroblastoma in 3, and other in 3.
  • For the 14 malignant neoplasms, the median time interval from initial tumor to second malignancy was 10.1 years.
  • The 14 second malignant neoplasms (SMN) were osteosarcoma in 3, breast carcinoma in 2, melanoma in 2, malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 1, dermatofibrosarcoma in 1, leiomyosarcoma in 1, mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 1, colon cancer in 1, chronic myelogenous leukemia in 1, and basal cell carcinoma in 1.
  • The 5- and 10-year overall survival rate after diagnosis of an SMN was 69.2%; it was 70% for children with a SMN at the edge or inside the RT field and 66.7% for those outside of the RT field.
  • The 14 benign neoplasms appeared at a median time of 16.9 years and included cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in 3, osteochondroma in 3, thyroid adenoma in 1, duodenal adenoma in 1, lipoma in 1, cherry angioma in 1, uterine leiomyoma in 1, ovarian cystadenofibroma in 1, and giant cell tumor in 1.
  • Only 5 (36%) of the 14 benign tumors occurred in the RT field, with osteochondroma being the most common.
  • More than two-thirds of children with a radiation-induced malignancy are alive 10 years after the diagnosis of a SMN.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects


86. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Yasuoka H, Kakudo K, Inohara H, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Galectin-3 expression in follicular tumours: an immunohistochemical study of its use as a marker of follicular carcinoma. Pathology; 2005 Aug;37(4):296-8
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  • AIMS: Galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside binding family of lectins, has been regarded as a useful tool for discriminating malignant tumours from benign nodules of the thyroid, including the distinction between follicular carcinoma and adenoma.
  • However, there are follicular tumours with unclear vascular or capsular invasion, which makes diagnosis more difficult.
  • METHODS: We immunohistochemically investigated galectin-3 expression in 260 cases of follicular tumour with various degrees of vascular or capsular invasion classified into four categories.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that galectin-3 plays a role in the transformation of follicular tumours from benign to malignant; however, when diagnosing follicular tumours, the presence of this protein should not be required for diagnosing malignant transformation in all cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16194828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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87. Clerici T, Kolb W, Beutner U, Bareck E, Dotzenrath C, Kull C, Niederle B, German Association of Endocrine Surgeons: Diagnosis and treatment of small follicular thyroid carcinomas. Br J Surg; 2010 Jun;97(6):839-44
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of small follicular thyroid carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid microcarcinomas (mFTCs) of 10 mm or less in size rarely manifest clinically and their clinical significance is controversial.
  • Most initial diagnoses had to be revised because of incorrect size assessment or incorrect diagnosis (benign adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular variant of PTC).
  • The diagnosis of mFTC was confirmed in only four patients.
  • As a result of the incorrect histopathological diagnosis, unnecessary completion thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation were performed in 17 and 20 patients respectively.
  • Histopathological re-evaluation by an experienced pathologist is recommended before embarking on further treatments when a diagnosis of mFTC is made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Austria. Female. Germany. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Switzerland. Thyroidectomy. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 20473996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Investigator] Kaserer K; Perren A; Schmid KW; Köberle-Wührer R; Wenzl E; Asari R; Klinge U; Müller G; Kroell KP; Blankenburg C; Voss H; Cupisti K; Witte J; Knoefel WT; Simon D; Lienenlüke RH; Vorländer C; Wacha H; Schabram J; Lorenz K; Dralle H; Wojciechowski B; Kussmann J; Weber Y; Schürmann G; Goretzki PE; Ulitzer H; Eberle A; Mayer M; Stabenow R; Stegmaier C; Bühlmann R; Schlumpf R; Triponez F; Ess SM
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88. Zeng XT, Xu YZ, Zhang XQ, Xu Z, Zhang YF, Wu JG, Zhou XS, Ling XF: [FTIR spectroscopic explorations of freshly resected thyroid malignant tissues]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi; 2007 Dec;27(12):2422-6
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  • [Title] [FTIR spectroscopic explorations of freshly resected thyroid malignant tissues].
  • In the present paper, 17 cases of freshly resected malignant thyroid tissue samples and 23 cases of benign thyroid tissue samples were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy with an ATR probe.
  • Statistic analysis indicated that the FTIR spectra of cancerous tissue were significantly different from those of benign tissue.
  • In comparison with normal tissues, the FTIR spectra of malignant thyroid tissues possess the following features:.
  • The most possible reason for the changes was that the mutation of DNA and the amounts of nucleic acid had increased in malignant neoplasms.
  • Experimental results show that the malignant thyroid tissues can be distinguished from the benign tissues by their infrared spectra.
  • This approach proves that FTIR spectroscopy is a reliable and practicable method for thyroid cancer diagnosis in operations.
  • The authors have expanded their research on detecting the thyroid cancer FTIR spectra via percutaneous and in vivo, and have achieved a positive result which is going to be reported in another paper.
  • [MeSH-major] Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18330276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Guang pu xue yu guang pu fen xi = Guang pu
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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89. Ersoz S, Sert H, Yandi M, Erem C, Mungan S, Ersoz HO, Cobanoglu U, Hacihasanoglu A: The significance of Galectin-3 expression in the immunocytochemical evaluation of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Dec;14(4):457-60
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  • [Title] The significance of Galectin-3 expression in the immunocytochemical evaluation of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of immunohistochemical expression of Galectin-3 in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
  • We studied the fine needle aspiration specimens of 38 patients who had evaluated for nodular goiter and undergone a thyroid surgery between 2004-2005.
  • None of the cases with a benign thyroid pathology had positive staining for Galectin-3.
  • Galectin-3 immunocytochemical staining, had a sensitivity of 61.5%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 83.3% for thyroid malignancies.
  • For the evaluation of follicular neoplasm, Galectin-3 immunocytochemical staining had a sensitivity of 60%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 50%.
  • Galectin-3 expression in thyrocytes is a strong indicator of a malignant proliferative lesion especially for papillary and to an extent in follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • Galectin-3 could be used as a supplementary marker for cytological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18415710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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90. Lee JH, Lee HK, Lee DH, Choi CG, Gong G, Shong YK, Kim SJ: Ultrasonographic findings of a newly detected nodule on the thyroid bed in postoperative patients for thyroid carcinoma: correlation with the results of ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Clin Imaging; 2007 Mar-Apr;31(2):109-13
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  • [Title] Ultrasonographic findings of a newly detected nodule on the thyroid bed in postoperative patients for thyroid carcinoma: correlation with the results of ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • We evaluated the ultrasonographic findings and performed ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of a newly detected nodule in the thyroid bed of 38 patients with postoperative thyroid carcinoma.
  • Detection of a marginal irregularity, microcalcification, or a shape not parallel to the surrounding tissue plane might allow the identification of recurrent thyroid carcinoma from other benign pathologies mimicking local tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17320777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-7071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Mazzaferri EL: Management of low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer. Endocr Pract; 2007 Sep;13(5):498-512
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  • [Title] Management of low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the definitions of and management recommendations for low-risk thyroid cancer made by the American and European Thyroid Associations and synthesize this information with the recent literature, including systematic evaluations of tumor staging systems guiding therapy.
  • METHODS: The American Thyroid Association and European Thyroid Association guidelines were compared and pertinent literature since 2005 was reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC), up to 50% breach the thyroid capsule, 64% have lymph node metastases, up to 43% are multifocal, and as many as 2.8% have distant metastases.
  • As many as 1 in 4 patients with a papillary thyroid carcinoma 1.5 cm or smaller develop persistent disease.
  • Tumor staging systems are too inaccurate to guide therapy.
  • Preoperatively diagnosed PTMC should be treated with total or near-total thyroidectomy, regardless of tumor size.
  • For very low-risk patients with unifocal PTMC smaller than 1 cm that is removed by chance during surgery to treat benign thyroid disease, lobectomy alone without 131I therapy may be sufficient therapy if there are no concerning histologic features and no tumor extension beyond the thyroid, metastases, history of head and neck irradiation, or positive family history--any of which requires total or near-total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation with 30 mCi.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Incidence. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17872353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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92. Alba M, Fintini D, Lovicu RM, Paragliola RM, Papi G, Rota CA, Pontecorvi A, Corsello SM: Levothyroxine therapy in preventing nodular recurrence after hemithyroidectomy: a retrospective study. J Endocrinol Invest; 2009 Apr;32(4):330-4
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  • AIM: To determine the effect of levothyroxine (L-T4) therapy on the recurrence rate of nodular disease in patients previously treated with lobectomy for benign nodular goiter.
  • Overall, 71 out of 233 (30.5%) patients experienced recurrence of thyroid nodular disease: 29 patients (64.4%) in Group 1, 24 (19.5%) patients in Group 2a, and 18 (27.7%) patients in Group 2b.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients who have undergone hemithyroidectomy for benign monolobar nodular disease, L-T4 therapy may prevent recurrence of nodular disease.
  • TSH suppression may not be required for prevention of recurrence in the remnant thyroid tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter, Nodular / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroidectomy. Thyroxine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19636201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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93. Boi F, Maurelli I, Pinna G, Atzeni F, Piga M, Lai ML, Mariotti S: Calcitonin measurement in wash-out fluid from fine needle aspiration of neck masses in patients with primary and metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Jun;92(6):2115-8
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  • [Title] Calcitonin measurement in wash-out fluid from fine needle aspiration of neck masses in patients with primary and metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of calcitonin (CT) assay in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) wash-out fluid alone or combined with cytology in the presurgical study of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) patients with thyroid nodules (TNs) and of suspicious neck MTC recurrences/metastases.
  • Of the 15 negative CT-FNAB suspicious masses (eight TNs, six LNs, and one LR), five displayed a benign lesion at histology.
  • The remaining 10 cases, all with benign cytology, were not operated on, and no evidence of MTC was detected at follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Calcitonin / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Body Fluids / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17405835.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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94. Jaffar R, Mohanty SK, Khan A, Fischer AH: Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms. Cytojournal; 2009;6:3
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  • [Title] Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Published criteria to distinguish benign colloid nodules from follicular neoplasms emphasize only three interdependent features: size of follicles, amount of colloid, and cellularity.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinomas and Hürthle cell neoplasms were excluded from the cohort, because these categories are known to show cystic change and hemosiderin.
  • RESULTS: Hemosiderin within macrophages were seen in 67% (68 of 101) of the goiters and only 6% (four of 64) of follicular neoplasms (P<.0001).
  • All four follicular neoplasms with hemosiderin in macrophages were adenomas.
  • Three of these four had equivocal features of a benign colloid nodule histologically.
  • Macrophages without hemosiderin also strongly distinguished goiters from neoplasms (83% vs 17%) but appears less useful as a criterion since macrophages were present within 3 of 17 follicular carcinomas.
  • Hemosiderin within follicular epithelial cells was present in 18% (18 of 101) of goiters, whereas none of the 64 follicular neoplasms had intraepithelial hemosiderin (P<.0003).
  • CONCLUSIONS: If papillary thyroid carcinoma and Hürthle cell neoplasm are ruled out, our findings indicate that the presence of hemosiderin virtually excludes a clinically significant follicular neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 19495407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2678825
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Benign colloid nodule / follicular cells / hemosiderin laden macrophages / hemosiderin within follicular neoplasms / macrophages
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95. Naing S, Collins BJ, Schneider AB: Clinical behavior of radiation-induced thyroid cancer: factors related to recurrence. Thyroid; 2009 May;19(5):479-85
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  • [Title] Clinical behavior of radiation-induced thyroid cancer: factors related to recurrence.
  • BACKGROUND: Whether thyroid cancer is more aggressive in radiation-exposed patients is not resolved.
  • Our aim was to address this question by re-examining the pattern of risk factors for recurrence of thyroid cancers found in a cohort exposed to external radiation.
  • METHODS: The study population was drawn from a cohort of 4296 people, followed since 1974, who were treated before the age of 16 with conventional external radiation for benign conditions of the head and neck between 1939 and the early 1960s.
  • The study group consisted of 390 patients who had surgically verified thyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: Fifty patients had recurrences an average of 8.7 years after diagnosis while the other 340 patients were followed for an average of 19.7 years.
  • Taking into account the effect of the onset of screening in 1974, the features predictive of recurrence were younger age at the initial diagnosis (hazard ratio, 0.95/year; 95% CI, 0.91-0.99) and the size of the thyroid cancer (hazard ratio, 1.2/cm; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6).
  • CONCLUSION: Although not based on a direct comparison, we conclude that thyroid cancers following external radiation exposure are not, on average, more aggressive than other thyroid cancers.
  • The similarity of risk factors for recurrence suggests that they should be treated and followed in the same way as non-radiation-induced thyroid cancers.

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  • (PMID = 19226197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21518
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2857446
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96. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, McMillan A: Diagnostic and extent of disease multigene assay for malignant thyroid neoplasms. Cancer; 2006 Jun 15;106(12):2592-7
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and extent of disease multigene assay for malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies of thyroid nodules are indeterminate, nondiagnostic, or suspicious.
  • The purpose of the current study was to determine the accuracy of novel candidate diagnostic markers to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms, and to predict the extent of disease.
  • METHODS: A real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of 6 novel candidate diagnostic and extent of disease marker genes (extracellular matrix protein 1 [ECM1]; transmembrane protease, serine 4 [TMPRSS4]; angiopoietin 2 [ANGPT2]; TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 [TIMP1]; ephrin-B2 [EFNB2], and epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]) was used in 126 thyroid tissues.
  • RESULTS: The levels of ECM1, TMPRSS4, ANGPT2, and TIMP1 mRNA expression were found to be independent diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • In 31 thyroid nodule FNA biopsy samples, the scoring model had a sensitivity of 91.0%, a specificity of 95.0%, a positive predictive value of 92.9%, and a negative predictive value of 92.3%.
  • In 11 malignant thyroid nodule FNA samples, the extent of disease scoring model correctly identified 3 of 4 high-risk differentiated thyroid cancers and 7 of 7 low-risk differentiated thyroid cancers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This novel multigene assay is an excellent diagnostic and extent of disease marker for differentiated thyroid cancer and would be a helpful adjunct to FNA biopsy of thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiopoietin-2 / analysis. Angiopoietin-2 / genetics. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Diagnosis, Differential. Ephrin-B2 / analysis. Ephrin-B2 / genetics. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / analysis. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. ROC Curve. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Serine Endopeptidases / analysis. Serine Endopeptidases / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / analysis. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16688775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiopoietin-2; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ECM1 protein, human; 0 / Ephrin-B2; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / transmembrane serine protease 2, human
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97. Theoharis CG, Schofield KM, Hammers L, Udelsman R, Chhieng DC: The Bethesda thyroid fine-needle aspiration classification system: year 1 at an academic institution. Thyroid; 2009 Nov;19(11):1215-23
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  • [Title] The Bethesda thyroid fine-needle aspiration classification system: year 1 at an academic institution.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may be the procedure of choice in the preoperative evaluation of thyroid nodules, yet it suffers as a modality both because of its inherent limitations as well as variability in its diagnostic terminology.
  • The objective of this study was to report our experience in using this new reporting system to review the distribution of diagnosis categories and to evaluate the specificity of the system based on the cytologic-histologic correlation.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 3207 thyroid nodules underwent FNA, that is, 3207 FNAs from 2468 patients were examined at our institution between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2008.
  • All FNAs were classified prospectively into unsatisfactory, benign, indeterminate (cells of undetermined significance), follicular neoplasm (FN), suspicious for malignancy, and positive for malignancy.
  • RESULTS: The distribution of these categories from 3207 evaluated nodules was as follows: 11.1% unsatisfactory, 73.8% benign, 3.0% indeterminate, 5.5% FN, 1.3% suspicious, and 5.2% malignant.
  • The distribution of diagnoses of patients who underwent surgery was as follows: 10% unsatisfactory, 4.6% benign, 30.3% indeterminate, 61.4% FN, 76.9% suspicious, and 77.2% malignant.
  • There was an excellent association between the categories and in predicting benign versus malignant thyroid nodules (p < 0.0001).
  • However, the false-negative rate cannot be calculated because only a small number of patients with benign diagnosis underwent surgery.
  • Given that only 15% of the patients underwent surgery, at this time the sensitivity of thyroid FNA for diagnosing malignant thyroid nodules cannot be calculated, nor can the sensitivity of thyroid FNA as a screening test for all neoplasms be accurately estimated.
  • The specificity for diagnosing malignant thyroid nodules was 93%, whereas the specificity as a screening test for all neoplasms was 68%.
  • The positive predictive values for an FN, suspicious, and positive cytologic diagnosis were 34%, 87%, and 100%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that the recently proposed classification system is excellent for reporting thyroid FNAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Chi-Square Distribution. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19888859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Huber GF, Dziegielewski P, Matthews TW, Warshawski SJ, Kmet LM, Faris P, Khalil M, Dort JC: Intraoperative frozen-section analysis for thyroid nodules: a step toward clarity or confusion? Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Sep;133(9):874-81
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  • [Title] Intraoperative frozen-section analysis for thyroid nodules: a step toward clarity or confusion?
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine accuracy and intertest agreement of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and intraoperative frozen-section analysis (FS) findings in thyroid surgery, and to assess the influence of intraoperative FS findings on decision making and the utility of FS in thyroid surgery.
  • PATIENTS: Two-hundred fifteen patients who underwent primary thyroid surgery.
  • In case of malignant FNAC findings, the FS result did not influence treatment decisions; in case of a malignant FS result on the background of a benign, indeterminate, or nondiagnostic FNAC finding, the FS result influenced treatment decisions in 88% of cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative FS did not give additional information in cases where a malignant neoplasm was predicted by the FNAC finding.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Frozen Sections. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Decision Support Techniques. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17875853.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Carney JA: Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid gland: quadruply described but not by the discoverer. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):622-34
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid gland: quadruply described but not by the discoverer.
  • Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid have been described on 4 occasions, by Carney and colleagues in 1987, by Ward and coworkers in 1982, by Pierre Masson in 1922, and by Rahel Zipkin in 1905.
  • Unaware of the 3 earlier descriptions, Carney and colleagues described 11 circumscribed or encapsulated thyroid tumors with elongated and polygonal cells arranged in trabeculae that contained a hyaline material resembling amyloid.
  • The nuclei of the tumor cells had cytoplasmic invaginations and grooves similar to those of papillary carcinoma.
  • Carney and colleagues labeled the neoplasms hyalinizing trabecular adenomas because of their microscopic appearance, absence of invasion, and benign natural history.
  • Subsequently, the nuclear features of the tumor and the molecular genetic findings led to the introduction of equivocal designations for it, hyalinizing trabecular tumor and hyalinizing trabecular neoplasm, and later to its designation as a variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • Experience has shown that most circumscribed or encapsulated follicular thyroid tumors with intratrabecular hyalin and nuclear features of papillary carcinoma behave as benign neoplasms.
  • Hyalinizing trabecular carcinoma is a very rare tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Hyalin / metabolism. Terminology as Topic. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18367942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Drieschner N, Kerschling S, Soller JT, Rippe V, Belge G, Bullerdiek J, Nimzyk R: A domain of the thyroid adenoma associated gene (THADA) conserved in vertebrates becomes destroyed by chromosomal rearrangements observed in thyroid adenomas. Gene; 2007 Nov 15;403(1-2):110-7
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  • [Title] A domain of the thyroid adenoma associated gene (THADA) conserved in vertebrates becomes destroyed by chromosomal rearrangements observed in thyroid adenomas.
  • THADA, mapping to chromosomal band 2p21 is target gene of specific chromosomal rearrangements observed in thyroid benign tumors.
  • Thus, it is one of the most common gene targets in chromosomal rearrangements in benign epithelial tumors.
  • The truncations observed in human thyroid adenomas disrupt this conserved domain of the protein indicating a loss of function of THADA contributing to the development of the follicular neoplasias of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Gene Rearrangement. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17889454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-1119
  • [Journal-full-title] Gene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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