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1. Heller J, Roche N, Hameed M: Trichoepithelioma of the vulva: report of a case and review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2009 Jul;13(3):186-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Trichoepithelioma of the vulva: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Trichoepithelioma is a rare benign skin lesion arising from hair follicles.
  • It is exceptionally rare on the vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Hair Follicle / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19550218.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Tiufekchieva E, Borisov S: [Endometrial cysts of the vagina and the vulva (case reports and a literature review)]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2006;45(7):55-8
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  • [Title] [Endometrial cysts of the vagina and the vulva (case reports and a literature review)].
  • In each case the final diagnosis was determined after the hystopathologial examination.
  • Endometriotic cysts of the vagina and vulva are rare.
  • Not always they have the typical symptoms of endometriosis and there diagnosis is rare determined before the surgical procedure and hystopathological examination.
  • A detailed anamnesis, thorough clinical examination and additional methods (cystoscopic. imaging, sonographic) are needed for the diagnosis.
  • Management consists of a surgical removal of the lesions, hormonal suppression of the ovarian function and, by all means, following up the patients for appearance of a recurrence or of a lesion de novo.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysts / diagnosis. Endometriosis / diagnosis. Vaginal Diseases / diagnosis. Vulvar Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17489170.001).
  • [ISSN] 0324-0959
  • [Journal-full-title] Akusherstvo i ginekologii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Akush Ginekol (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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3. Wassila S, Leila S, Noureddine H, Sihem H, Adel E, Nejla D, Habib E, Mohamed B, Noureddine B, Hedi K: [Pronostic factors in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. About 35 cases]. Tunis Med; 2005 Oct;83(10):612-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Pronostic factors in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. About 35 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Les facteurs pronostiques du carcinome epidermoide de la vulve. A propos de 35 cas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pronostic factors of the vulvar cancer.
  • STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective study, of 35 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva diagnosed and treated at Farhat Hached Hospital (Sousse) between January 1991 and December 2002.
  • CONCLUSION: Early detection fo vulvar concer by regular gynecologic examinations and a biopsy of all suspect lesions, allows an early treatment consequently a better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16370212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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4. Ljubojević S: The human papillomavirus vaccines. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2006;14(3):208
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  • HPV-16 and -18 account for about 70% of cancers of the cervix, vagina and anus, and for about 30%-40% of cancers of the vulva, penis and orophaynx.
  • Therapeutic vaccines are being developed to protect HPV-positive persons against tumor development.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18. Humans. United States

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  • (PMID = 17010274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-027X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] News
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
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5. Gerszten K, Selvaraj RN, Kelley J, Faul C: Preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Dec;99(3):640-4
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  • [Title] Preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced carcinoma of the vulva.
  • OBJECTIVE: A twice daily (BID) radiation treatment schedule (interval of 4-6 h) delivered concurrent with chemotherapy for advanced or critically located carcinoma of the vulva was modeled on the schema developed by the Gynecology Oncology Group (GOG).
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of the records of 18 patients with vulvar cancer.
  • The regional nodes and primary tumor were prescribed 44.6 Gy.
  • Resection of the primary tumor bed and inguinal dissection was planned at 4-6 weeks post-treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Preoperative Care. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16169579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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6. Hwang BJ, Meruelo AD, Sternberg PW: C. elegans EVI1 proto-oncogene, EGL-43, is necessary for Notch-mediated cell fate specification and regulates cell invasion. Development; 2007 Feb;134(4):669-79
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  • Once specified, the AC induces patterned proliferation of vulva via expression of LIN-3 (EGF) and then invades into the vulval epithelium.
  • Although these cellular processes are essential for the proper organogenesis of vulva and appear to be temporally regulated, the mechanisms that coordinate the processes are not well understood.

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  • (PMID = 17215301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-1991
  • [Journal-full-title] Development (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Development
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / K22HG02907-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 0 / Egl-43 protein, C elegans; 0 / HLH-2 protein, C elegans; 0 / Lin-12 protein, C elegans; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Notch; 0 / Transcription Factors; 148412-70-8 / Lin-3 protein, C elegans; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor
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7. Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei F, Saifzadeh S, Mazaheri R, Behfar M: First report of vaginal prolapse in a bitch treated with oestrogen. Anim Reprod Sci; 2008 Jun;106(1-2):194-9
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  • Vaginal prolapse is the protrusion of edematous vaginal tissue into and through the opening of the vulva occurring during the pro-oestrus and oestrus stages of the sexual cycle.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Female. Hysterectomy / veterinary. Ovariectomy / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18282671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-4320
  • [Journal-full-title] Animal reproduction science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anim. Reprod. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1S4CJB5ZGN / estradiol 3-benzoate; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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8. Ruan L, Xie Z, Wang H, Jiang J, Shi H, Xu J: High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment for non-neoplastic epithelial disorders of the vulva. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 2010 May;109(2):167-70
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  • [Title] High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment for non-neoplastic epithelial disorders of the vulva.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment in patients with non-neoplastic epithelial disorders of the vulva.
  • RESULTS: Pruritus and signs of vulvar lesions were dramatically improved following HIFU treatment, without severe complications, and 90.23% of the patients were cured or had their symptoms improved 6months after treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment with HIFU may be safe and effective in cases of vulvar dystrophy.
  • [MeSH-major] High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation. Pruritus / therapy. Vulva / pathology. Vulvar Diseases / therapy. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / therapy. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20153858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3479
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gynaecol Obstet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Renckens CN: [Women with pelvic complaints and atypical varicose veins, varicose veins of the vulva and insufficiency of the pelvic veins; treatment with embolisation]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 Jun 11;149(24):1364-5
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  • [Title] [Women with pelvic complaints and atypical varicose veins, varicose veins of the vulva and insufficiency of the pelvic veins; treatment with embolisation].
  • [MeSH-major] Embolization, Therapeutic. Pelvic Pain / diagnosis. Pelvis / blood supply. Varicose Veins / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • [CommentOn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 Mar 12;149(11):557-60 [15799637.001]
  • (PMID = 16008043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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10. Agrawal A, Yau A, Magliocco A, Chu P: Cutaneous metastatic disease in cervical cancer: a case report. J Obstet Gynaecol Can; 2010 May;32(5):467-472
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CASE: A 66-year-old postmenopausal woman with a diagnosis of stage IVa cervical carcinoma was treated with radical concurrent chemotherapy and radiation.
  • The cutaneous metastases progressed rapidly to involve the inguinal regions, vulva, and perineum.
  • In the majority of these cases, patients presented within 10 years of initial diagnosis and died within a mean of 8.5 months from cutaneous metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans


11. Tiwari P, Pal DK, Moulik D, Choudhury MK: Hypertrophic tuberculosis of vulva--a rare presentation of tuberculosis. Indian J Tuberc; 2010 Apr;57(2):95-7
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  • [Title] Hypertrophic tuberculosis of vulva--a rare presentation of tuberculosis.
  • The authors report a rare case of hypertrophic vulval tuberculosis of primary origin in a 26-year-old female patient.
  • The diagnosis was mainly based on histopathological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Tuberculosis, Female Genital / diagnosis. Vulvar Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 21114177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5707
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of tuberculosis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Tuberc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents
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12. Izumikawa T, Kitagawa H: Mice deficient in glucuronyltransferase-I. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci; 2010;93:19-34
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  • In fact, a defect in the squashed vulva 8 (sqv-8) gene which encodes GlcAT-I in Caenorhabditis elegans eliminates the expression of GAGs and the mutant worms show not only a perturbation in vulval invagination but also a defect in the cytokinesis in fertilized eggs, resulting in alternating cell division and cell fusion.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20807639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1877-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in molecular biology and translational science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycosaminoglycans; EC 2.4.1.135 / galactosylgalactoylxylosylprotein 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase; EC 2.4.1.17 / Glucuronosyltransferase
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13. Chatel A, Hemming R, Hobert J, Natowicz MR, Triggs-Raine B, Merz DC: The C. elegans hyaluronidase: a developmentally significant enzyme with chondroitin-degrading activity at both acidic and neutral pH. Matrix Biol; 2010 Jul;29(6):494-502
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  • Mutant animals are viable and grossly normal, but exhibit defects in vulval morphogenesis and egg-laying and showed increased staining with alcian blue, consistent with an accumulation of glycosaminoglycan.
  • A hya-1::GFP reporter was expressed in a restricted pattern in somatic tissues of the animal with strongest expression in the intestine, the PLM sensory neurons and the vulva.
  • We also evaluated the function of oga-1, which encodes the C. elegans orthologue of MGEA-5, a protein with hyaluronan-degrading activity in vitro. oga-1 is expressed in muscles, vulval cells and the scavenger-like coelomocytes.
  • An oga-1 mutant strain exhibited egg-laying and vulval defects similar to those of hya-1; chondroitinase activity was unaffected in this mutant.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Caenorhabditis elegans / genetics. Caenorhabditis elegans / metabolism. Caenorhabditis elegans / physiology. Female. Genes, Reporter. Glycosaminoglycans / genetics. Glycosaminoglycans / metabolism. Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. In Vitro Techniques. Morphogenesis / genetics. Muscles / metabolism. Muscles / physiology. Mutation. Oviposition / genetics. Oviposition / physiology. Sensory Receptor Cells / metabolism. Transgenes. Vulva / metabolism. Vulva / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20576486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-1802
  • [Journal-full-title] Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Matrix Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycosaminoglycans; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; 9007-27-6 / Chondroitin; EC 3.2.1.35 / Hyaluronoglucosaminidase
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14. Woelber L, Mahner S, Voelker K, Eulenburg CZ, Gieseking F, Choschzick M, Jaenicke F, Schwarz J: Clinicopathological prognostic factors and patterns of recurrence in vulvar cancer. Anticancer Res; 2009 Feb;29(2):545-52
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological prognostic factors and patterns of recurrence in vulvar cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Vulvar cancer is a rare disease and knowledge on prognostic factors is therefore limited and inconsistent.
  • The aim of this study was to determine prognostic variables for recurrence and survival and to identify patterns of recurrence in patients with vulvar cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients (n = 103) with primary vulvar cancer treated at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf between 1996 and 2003 were retrospectively analysed regarding the prognostic relevance of different clinicopathological variables.
  • RESULTS: Age, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, depth of invasion and involvement of resection margins predicted poor disease-free and overall survival in univariate analysis.
  • Regardless of initial nodal involvement, recurrences occurred primarily in the vulvar region.
  • CONCLUSION: Inguinofemoral lymph node status at initial diagnosis is of critical prognostic importance for patients with vulvar cancer.
  • Further tumour biological characteristics need to be identified to stratify patients with nodal involvement for adjuvant radiotherapy of the vulva to prevent local recurrences.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19331201.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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15. Tsvetkov Ch, Gorchev G: [Surgical treatment of vulva cancer--current approach and tendencies in lymph nodes dissection]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2008;47(2):49-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of vulva cancer--current approach and tendencies in lymph nodes dissection].
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18642587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0324-0959
  • [Journal-full-title] Akusherstvo i ginekologii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Akush Ginekol (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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16. Black D, Tornos C, Soslow RA, Awtrey CS, Barakat RR, Chi DS: The outcomes of patients with positive margins after excision for intraepithelial Paget's disease of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Mar;104(3):547-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The outcomes of patients with positive margins after excision for intraepithelial Paget's disease of the vulva.
  • OBJECTIVES: Vulvar Paget's disease is a rare neoplasm that usually occurs in postmenopausal women.
  • The objective or our study was to analyze the outcomes of patients with primary vulvar intraepithelial Paget's disease who had positive microscopic margins after primary excision.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the records of all patients with Paget's disease of the vulva treated at our institution from 1/80 to 9/02.
  • RESULTS: The medical records and histopathologic specimens of 28 women with intraepithelial Paget's disease of the vulva were evaluated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Microscopically positive margins following surgical excision of vulvar intraepithelial Paget's disease is a frequent finding, and disease recurrence is common regardless of surgical margin status.
  • [MeSH-major] Paget Disease, Extramammary / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17067662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Gonzalez Bosquet J, Magrina JF, Magtibay PM, Gaffey TA, Cha SS, Jones MB, Podratz KC, Cliby WA: Patterns of inguinal groin metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Jun;105(3):742-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Patterns of inguinal groin metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva.
  • OBJECTIVES: Assess the pattern of groin node metastases in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the vulva in relation to the site of the primary lesion.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study of surgically staged patients with primary SCC of the vulva between 1955 and 1990 was conducted.
  • All clinical and pathological data were reviewed and updated to the 1988 TNM vulvar classification.
  • Of the 163 patients presenting with only unilateral vulvar lesions, 48 had inguinofemoral node involvement: 37 with ipsilateral-only nodal metastases, 8 with bilateral LN invasion, and only 3 (1.8%) had isolated contralateral nodal metastases.
  • None of these patients with unilateral vulvar lesion that was either < or = 2 cm in biggest diameter or with invasion < or = 5 mm had bilateral groin LN involvement at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


18. Sachdev PS: Concurrent fibroadenoma of breast and fibromatosis of vulva and thigh. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2005 Oct;15(10):661-2
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  • [Title] Concurrent fibroadenoma of breast and fibromatosis of vulva and thigh.
  • Fibromatosis is a rare locally aggressive fibroproliferative neoplasm.
  • Vulvar fibromatosis is extremely rare tumor.
  • A case of a young woman is reported who presented with large vulvar, thigh and breast masses and was surgically treated.
  • The pathological examination showed fibromatosis of vulvar and thigh masses and fibroadenoma of breast lump.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Fibroma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Fibroadenoma. Humans. Thigh

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  • (PMID = 19810314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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19. Vaupel P, Mayer A, Höckel M: Impact of hemoglobin levels on tumor oxygenation: the higher, the better? Strahlenther Onkol; 2006 Feb;182(2):63-71
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  • [Title] Impact of hemoglobin levels on tumor oxygenation: the higher, the better?
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tumor hypoxia has been linked to tumor progression, the development of treatment resistance, and thus poor prognosis.
  • Since anemia is a major factor causing tumor hypoxia, the association between blood hemoglobin concentration (cHb) and tumor oxygenation status has been examined.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Published data on the relationship between pretreatment cHb values and tumor oxygenation (in terms of median pO(2) values, hypoxic fractions) have been summarized.
  • Pretreatment O(2) tension measurements were performed in histologically proven experimental tumors, human breast cancers, squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, and cancers of the uterine cervix and of the vulva.
  • RESULTS: Based on current information from experimental and clinical studies there is increasing evidence that anemia is associated with a detrimental tumor oxygenation status.
  • Maximum tumor oxygenation in squamous cell carcinomas is observed at normal (gender-specific) cHb values (approximately 14 g/dl in women and approximately 15 g/dl in men).
  • In anemic patients, tumor oxygenation is compromised due to a decreased O(2) transport capacity of the blood.
  • At the upper edge of the Hb scale, a substantial increase in the blood's viscous resistance to flow in "chaotic" tumor microvessels is thought to be mainly responsible for the observed restriction of O(2) supply.
  • Considering the "optimal" cHb range with regard to tumor oxygenation, the concept of "the higher, the better" is therefore no longer valid.
  • This finding has potentially far-reaching implications in the clinical setting (e. g., inappropriate erythropoietin treatment of nonanemic tumor patients).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood supply. Cell Hypoxia / physiology. Hemoglobinometry. Neoplasms, Experimental / blood supply. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / blood supply. Oxygen / blood. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / blood supply. Vulvar Neoplasms / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anemia / blood. Animals. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood supply. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cell Survival. Female. Hematocrit. Humans. Male. Oxygen Consumption

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  • (PMID = 16447012.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] S88TT14065 / Oxygen
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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20. Kondi-Pafiti A, Kairi-Vassilatou E, Liapis A, Bakalianou K, Iavazzo Ch, Hasiakos D: Granular cell tumor of the female genital system. Clinical and pathologic characteristics of five cases and literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(2):222-4
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  • [Title] Granular cell tumor of the female genital system. Clinical and pathologic characteristics of five cases and literature review.
  • The clinical and pathological characteristics of a rare granular cell tumor that developed in the vulva (4 cases) and the breast (1 case) offive women aged 35-52 years are reported.
  • The differential diagnosis from skin carcinomas, melanoma and various soft tissue tumors is emphasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20527248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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21. Denschlag D, Kontny U, Tempfer C, Orlowska-Volk M, Niemeyer C, Gitsch G: Low-grade myxofibrosarcoma of the vulva in a 15-year-old adolescent: a case report. Int J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jan;13(1):117-9
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  • [Title] Low-grade myxofibrosarcoma of the vulva in a 15-year-old adolescent: a case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15735866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Arora R, Abou-Bakr AA, Ahmad MS: Angiomyofibroblastoma of the vulva: report of a rare distinct entity. Gulf J Oncolog; 2010 Jul;(8):35-8
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  • [Title] Angiomyofibroblastoma of the vulva: report of a rare distinct entity.
  • Angiomyofibroblastoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of lower female genital tract.
  • We stress the need to recognize this tumor on clinicopathologic basis to avoid any potential therapeutic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiofibroma / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20601337.001).
  • [ISSN] 2078-2101
  • [Journal-full-title] The Gulf journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gulf J Oncolog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kuwait
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23. Fay DS, Yochem J: The SynMuv genes of Caenorhabditis elegans in vulval development and beyond. Dev Biol; 2007 Jun 1;306(1):1-9
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  • [Title] The SynMuv genes of Caenorhabditis elegans in vulval development and beyond.
  • For a nonessential diminutive organ comprised of only 22 nuclei, the Caenorhabditis elegans vulva has done very well for itself.
  • The status of the vulva as an overachiever is in part due to its inherent structural simplicity as well as to the intricate regulation of its induction and development.
  • Studies over the past twenty years have shown the vulva to be a microcosm for organogenesis and a model for the integration of complex signaling pathways.
  • This review focuses on what is perhaps the most intriguing and complex story to emerge from these studies thus far, the role of the Synthetic Multivulval (SynMuv) genes in controlling vulval cell-fate adoption.
  • Recent advances have led to a greater mechanistic understanding of how these genes function during vulval development and have also identified roles for these genes in diverse developmental processes.

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  • (PMID = 17434473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-1606
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM066868-03; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM066868; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM066868-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 75
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS25409; NLM/ PMC1955466
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24. Franceschi S, De Vuyst H: Human papillomavirus vaccines and anal carcinoma. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):57-63
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  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the possible role of current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) in the prevention of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • In addition, more than 90% prevalence of HPV was found in anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Trials of the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines against HPV16/18 have shown nearly 100% efficacy against high-grade lesions of the cervix, vulva and vagina in uninfected women under 26 years of age.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Homosexuality, Male. Human papillomavirus 16 / immunology. Humans. Male. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19339940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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25. Gencoglan G, Gerceker-Turk B, Kilinc-Karaarslan I, Akalin T, Ozdemir F: Dermoscopic findings in Laugier-Hunziker syndrome. Arch Dermatol; 2007 May;143(5):631-3
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  • The clinical behavior of mucocutaneous pigmented lesions ranges from benign to highly malignant.
  • Therefore, in most cases, the clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by further diagnostic methods.
  • Dermoscopic examination of mucosal lesions on the patient's lips and vulva revealed a parallel pattern.
  • A skin biopsy sample taken from the labial lesion was compatible with a diagnosis of mucosal melanosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: By means of this case report, the dermoscopic features of the pigmented lesions in LHS are described for the first time, which facilitates diagnosis with a noninvasive technique.
  • Future reports highlighting the dermoscopic features of this syndrome may simplify the diagnosis of LHS, which is thought to be underdiagnosed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Syndrome. Vulva / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17515514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Horn LC, Purz S, Krumpe C, Bilek K: COX-2 and Her-2/neu are overexpressed in Paget's disease of the vulva and the breast: results of a preliminary study. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Feb;277(2):135-8
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  • [Title] COX-2 and Her-2/neu are overexpressed in Paget's disease of the vulva and the breast: results of a preliminary study.
  • PURPOSE: Paget's disease (PD) of the breast as well as the vulva is a rare condition that accounts for about 4% of breast neoplasms and 1% of vulvar malignancies.
  • Recurrent disease after breast and vulvar surgery might be a challenge.
  • To evaluate relevant molecules therapeutically, tissue from mammary and vulvar PD lesions was investigated immunohistochemically.
  • METHODS: Histopathologic samples from 11 patients with mammary PD and eight patients with vulvar PD were stained with antibodies against estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2/neu and COX-2 followed by semiquantitative evaluation of the staining results.
  • RESULTS: All tested mammary lesions as well as seven out of eight vulvar PD were negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors.
  • Six out of 8 vulvar and 10 out of 11 mammary PD showed COX-2 overexpression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PD of the breast and vulva are negative for estrogens and progesterons, therefore, anti-hormonal therapy is not indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Paget's Disease, Mammary / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17701193.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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27. Shaco-Levy R, Bean SM, Vollmer RT, Jewell E, Jones EL, Valdes CL, Bentley RC, Selim MA, Robboy SJ: Paget disease of the vulva: a study of 56 cases. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2010 Mar;149(1):86-91
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  • [Title] Paget disease of the vulva: a study of 56 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To resolve controversial issues regarding vulvar Paget disease through analysis of a substantial number of cases.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The medical records and pathology slides of 56 patients with a diagnosis of vulvar Paget disease were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Most patients were Caucasian and their mean age at diagnosis was 69 years.
  • Substantial delay between appearance of symptoms and diagnosis was observed in many patients, and was significantly associated with larger lesions.
  • On the last day of follow-up 24 patients (43%) had no evidence of disease, 24 patients (43%) were dead of other causes, 5 patients (9%) were alive with disease, 2 patients (3%) were lost to follow-up, and 1 (2%) died due to vulvar Paget disease with invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Vulvar Paget disease only rarely results in a patient's death, but long term follow-up is required, as recurrences are common and can be noted many years after the initial treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Vulva / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Regression Analysis. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19969410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7654
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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28. Li B, Wu LY, Liu L, Zhang R, Zhang GY, Yu GZ: [An initial experience of the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in squamous cell cancer of the vulva]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2009 May;44(5):364-8
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  • [Title] [An initial experience of the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in squamous cell cancer of the vulva].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with vulvar cancer.
  • METHODS: Twenty-one patients with vulvar squamous cancer undergoing radical surgery admitted in Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from Oct.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SLNB procedure in vulvar cancer is feasible and safe.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Coloring Agents. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 19573313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents
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29. Spiryda LB, Fuller AF, Goodman A: Aggressive locally recurrent vulvar cancer: review of cases presented to Massachusetts General Hospital 1990 to present. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Sep-Oct;15(5):884-9
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  • [Title] Aggressive locally recurrent vulvar cancer: review of cases presented to Massachusetts General Hospital 1990 to present.
  • Isolated recurrences of squamous cell vulvar carcinoma treated by surgical re-excision have excellent outcomes.
  • We reviewed women presenting with vulvar cancer (200 patients) to Massachusetts General Hospital from 1990 to present and identified 12 women with aggressive, locally recurrent squamous cell carcinomas of the vulva.
  • Eight had a history of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or persistent carcinoma in situ.
  • One died of recurrent vulvar cancer 10 months after her initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hospitals. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Massachusetts. Middle Aged. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16174240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Tanaka H, Umekawa T, Nagao K, Ishihara A, Toyoda N: Adenocarcinoma of mammary-like glands in the vulva successfully treated by weekly paclitaxel. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 May-Jun;15(3):568-71
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma of mammary-like glands in the vulva successfully treated by weekly paclitaxel.
  • The tumor appeared as cell clusters with linear arrangements.
  • This disease was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma arising in mammary-like glands of the vulva.
  • In our case, the fine-needle aspiration cytology was a rapid and minimally invasive method of diagnosis, and the findings were extremely similar to those of the scirrhus type of primary breast carcinoma.
  • Rapid and accurate diagnosis made with this technique might contribute to a good prognosis in the early-staged cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Humans. Mammary Glands, Human

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  • (PMID = 15882189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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31. Lucas EW Jr, Branton P, Mecklenburg FE, Moawad GN: Ectopic breast fibroadenoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol; 2009 Aug;114(2 Pt 2):460-2
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  • [Title] Ectopic breast fibroadenoma of the vulva.
  • BACKGROUND: Ectopic breast (extramammary) fibroadenomas of the vulva are rare, cosmetically disfiguring, and very difficult to distinguish from other labial masses on physical examination.
  • Extramammary tissue is susceptible to similar benign and malignant changes seen in the breast.
  • CASE: We report a case of a young woman who presented with an unknown progressively enlarging mass in the vulva.
  • CONCLUSION: Clinicians should include extramammary lesions in their preoperative differential diagnosis of vulvar masses since some may become neoplastic.
  • Treatment is complete excision and renal imaging should be considered after a confirmed histopathologic diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast. Choristoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19622961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Diaz ML: Prevention of cervical, vaginal, and vulval cancers: role of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine. Int J Womens Health; 2010;1:119-29
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  • [Title] Prevention of cervical, vaginal, and vulval cancers: role of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine.
  • The relationship between the human papillomavirus (HPV) and malignancies of the uterine cervix, vagina, and vulva has been established.
  • The prevalence of oncogenic HPV subtypes in cervical cancers has been the most studied, but prevalence has also been established for vaginal and vulvar cancers.

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  • (PMID = 21072282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-1411
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of women's health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Womens Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2971720
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cervical cancer / human papillomavirus / quadrivalent vaccine / vaginal cancer / vulvar cancer
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33. Mannan AA, Kahvic M, Aziz AH: Phyllodes tumor of the vulva: Report of a rare case and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jun;32(4):384-6
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the vulva: Report of a rare case and review of the literature.
  • Phyllodes tumor occurring in the vulva is extremely rare; only 6 cases have been previously reported in the literature.
  • The histogenetic origin of this tumor is controversial as it is being debated whether such lesions evolve from ectopic breast tissue, cutaneous apocrine glands, and most recently, anogenital mammary-like gland.
  • Microscopic examination revealed morphologic pattern characteristic of benign phyllodes tumor.
  • We also discuss the histogenesis of phyllodes tumor and related lesions occurring in the anogenital region in light of the current literature along with a brief review of the previously reported cases of vulvar phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Progesterone / biosynthesis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20514681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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34. Moravec F, Scholz T, Dyková I, Kuchta R, Fiala I, Kohn A: Redescription of Alinema amazonicum (Travassos, 1960) n. comb., a philometrid nematode with unusual morphology. J Parasitol; 2006 Feb;92(1):138-44
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  • Because of some marked morphological peculiarities of this species (presence of minute peribuccal sclerotized formations, a functional vagina and vulva in gravid female, and structure of the male tail), the validity of an independent genus, Alinema Rasheed, 1963, is confirmed, to which this species is transferred as Alinema amazonicum (Travassos, 1960) n. comb.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning / veterinary. Peru

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  • (PMID = 16629327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3395
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Pouryazdanparast P, Yu L, Dalton VK, Haefner HK, Brincat C, Mandell SH, Cho KR, Fullen DR: Intravascular histiocytosis presenting with extensive vulvar necrosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36 Suppl 1:1-7
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  • [Title] Intravascular histiocytosis presenting with extensive vulvar necrosis.
  • We report the first case of IVH presenting with florid vulvar necrosis in an 87-year-old patient without a history of rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Physical examination revealed an edematous, exudative and diffusely necrotic vulva with erythema surrounding the areas of necrosis, extending out to the thighs.
  • A diagnosis of IVH is important and may necessitate further clinical evaluation to exclude the possibility of co-existent systemic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytosis / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology. Vulvar Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Alzheimer Disease. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Anticardiolipin / blood. Bacterial Infections / complications. Bacterial Infections / drug therapy. Debridement. Female. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Immunohistochemistry. Myocardial Infarction. Thrombophilia / complications

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  • (PMID = 19790297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Anticardiolipin
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36. Val-Bernal JF, Val D, Garijo MF: Clinically unapparent melanocytic nevi on the prepuce. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Apr;36(4):444-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Melanocytic nevi from the genitalia are uncommon.
  • Nevi on the vulva are much better described than nevi on male genitalia.
  • There were no cytologic atypia, mitotic figures, architectural disorder or inflammatory infiltrate.
  • [MeSH-major] Foreskin / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19278430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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37. Iovine A, Fimiani F, Vassallo P, Alessio M, Magli A: Ocular manifestations in a case of childhood cicatricial pemphigoid. Eur J Ophthalmol; 2008 Jul-Aug;18(4):636-8
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  • A complete anamnesis, ophthalmologic examination, and systemic evaluation, including serum antibody levels evaluation and biopsies of mouth, vulva, parotid, and intestine mucosa, were performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Given the serious clinical picture, possibly due to a late diagnosis, it was not possible to avoid relapse and appearance of new cicatricial adherences for which we considered wait and see the most appropriate approach, protecting the anterior segment of both eyes, sacrificing their function.
  • An early diagnosis would have had a significant influence on the clinical course and on the response to therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Blepharospasm / diagnosis. Conjunctivitis / diagnosis. Corneal Opacity / diagnosis. Dry Eye Syndromes / diagnosis. Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Antinuclear / blood. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA / immunology. Eyelashes / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Prednisone / therapeutic use


38. Vecchio GM, Miano AE, Belfiore G, Giurato E, Amico P, Magro G: Fibrous hamartoma of infancy of the labium majus: a typical lesion in an unusual site. Pathologica; 2010 Apr;102(2):71-4
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  • Fibrous hamartoma of infancy is a soft tissue subdermal fibromatous tumour that characteristically occurs in the first years of life.
  • We report a rare case of fibrous hamartoma of infancy in the labium majus of a 1-year old female child.
  • We emphasize that fibrous hamartoma of infancy should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumour-like and tumour lesions of the vulva in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infant

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  • (PMID = 23596761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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39. Watrowski R, Friebe Z: [Synchronous squamous vulvar and cervical cancer--a case report with literature review and analysis of therapeutic strategies]. Przegl Lek; 2008;65(3):153-6
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  • [Title] [Synchronous squamous vulvar and cervical cancer--a case report with literature review and analysis of therapeutic strategies].
  • We report on a suboptimal surgical treated cancer of the vulva with the accidental diagnosis of a second cancer within the completion of the surgery three weeks later.
  • The patient was 48 years old, presenting with a central, multifocal, exophytic tumor of the clitoris.
  • However, the pathological examination revealed an unsatisfactory surgical result--on the one site (laterally) the tumor reached the resection edge, and on the other site (dorsally) the tumor-free margin was only 1-2 mm.
  • We discuss two problems in light of the current literature: the preoperative therapy planning of advanced vulvar cancer (exenteration vs. neoadjuvant chemotherapy with subsequent radical vulvectomy, triple incision vs. en bloc resection, pelvic lymphadenectomy) and the importance of a careful evaluation of the cervix in each case of vulvar cancer--the coincidence of both tumor localizations is up to 7-10%.
  • The diagnosis of the second cancer probably remains in many cases delayed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged


40. Sharma R, Sharma CL: Quadrivalent human papillomavirus recombinant vaccine: the first vaccine for cervical cancers. J Cancer Res Ther; 2007 Apr-Jun;3(2):92-5
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  • Gardasil is currently approved by FDA for prevention of genital warts, cancers and precancerous conditions of cervix and vulva in 9-26 year old females.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18. Humans. Prevalence. Vaccines, Synthetic / adverse effects. Vaccines, Synthetic / pharmacology. Vaccines, Synthetic / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17998730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines; 0 / Vaccines, Synthetic
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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41. Amezcua CA, Begley SJ, Mata N, Felix JC, Ballard CA: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the female genital tract: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Jan-Feb;15(1):140-5
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  • [Title] Aggressive angiomyxoma of the female genital tract: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases.
  • Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) is a distinctive neoplasm seen in the female genital tract.
  • We present the clinicopathological findings of 12 female patients with AAM.
  • Eight tumors arose in the vulva, two in the suburethral area, and two in the perirectal area.
  • Three were pedunculated (two vulvar and one suburethral).
  • Recurrence occurred in one patient 48 months after tumor resection from perirectum and abdomen.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed tumor positivity for vimentin (11/11), desmin (8/11), CD44 (8/11), ER (10/12), PR (11/12), and SMA (3/11).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Myxoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15670309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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42. Kim HS, Kim GY, Lim SJ, Ki KD, Kim HC: Giant superficial angiomyxoma of the vulva: a case report and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Jun;37(6):672-7
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  • [Title] Giant superficial angiomyxoma of the vulva: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Superficial angiomyxomas (SAMs) are rare, benign cutaneous tumors frequently involving the subcutis.
  • Only 15 cases of SAM involving the vulva have been reported, ranging from 0.9 to 4 cm in diameter.
  • Each lobule consisted of scattered spindle-shaped or stellate tumor cells set in an abundant myxoid stroma.
  • The tumor cells constantly expressed vimentin, CD34, CD44 and S-100, but none expressed estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs), desmin or cytokeratin.
  • Giant SAMs of the vulva can mimic aggressive angiomyxomas (AAMs) and angiomyofibroblastomas (AMB), as well as soft tissue sarcomas.
  • Giant SAMs should be included in the differential diagnosis of vulvar soft tissue tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Myxoma / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19615026.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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43. Pipkin C: Erosive diseases of the vulva. Dermatol Clin; 2010 Oct;28(4):737-51
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  • [Title] Erosive diseases of the vulva.
  • Vesicobullous and inflammatory diseases produce vulvar erosions that may exhibit nonspecific morphology and represent a diagnostic challenge.
  • An approach to arriving at the correct diagnosis is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Vulvar Diseases / diagnosis. Vulvar Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal / diagnosis. Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Dermatitis / diagnosis. Dermatitis / therapy. Female. Herpesviridae Infections / diagnosis. Herpesviridae Infections / therapy. Humans. Impetigo / diagnosis. Impetigo / therapy. Lichen Planus / diagnosis. Lichen Planus / etiology. Lichen Planus / therapy. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / diagnosis. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / therapy. Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous / diagnosis. Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous / therapy. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / diagnosis. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / etiology. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20883917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0520
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Gaudens DA, Moh-Ello N, Fiogbe M, Bandre E, Ossoh BM, Yaokreh JB, Tembely S, Gouly JC, Odéhouri T, Ouattara O, da-Silva-Anoma S, Kobenan RD: [Labial fusion in the paediatric surgery department of Yopougon University hospital (Côte d'Ivoire): 108 cases]. Sante; 2008 Jan-Mar;18(1):35-8
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  • [Transliterated title] La coalescence des nymphes au service de chirurgie pédiatrique du CHU de Yopougon : à propos de 108 cas.
  • INTRODUCTION: Labial fusion is a benign genital disorder in girls.
  • After asepsis of the vulva, a curved Halsted mosquito forceps was inserted into the opening for partial adhesions or across the medial transparent membrane for complete fusion.
  • DISCUSSION: This benign disorder is rare and generally isolated in our regions, unlike in Western countries where it is often associated with hormonal deficits.
  • Vulvar hygiene is essential to prevent recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: This benign disorder can be treated by any physician, but the psychological impact of the site and the necessary speed suggest the choice of management in paediatric units.
  • [MeSH-major] Vulva / abnormalities. Vulva / surgery. Vulvar Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Antisepsis. Child, Preschool. Cote d'Ivoire. Estrogens / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Ointments. Outpatients. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18684689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1157-5999
  • [Journal-full-title] Santé (Montrouge, France)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sante
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Ointments
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45. McMahon CJ, Rofsky NM, Pedrosa I: Lymphatic metastases from pelvic tumors: anatomic classification, characterization, and staging. Radiology; 2010 Jan;254(1):31-46
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  • The spread of pelvic tumors to lymph nodes is an important means of tumor dissemination.
  • Pelvic tumors usually metastasize first to regional lymph nodes, which are specific groups of nodes for each tumor, and are classified according to the TNM system as N-stage disease.
  • If a pelvic tumor spreads to a lymph node outside of the defined regional nodes, this is considered M-stage disease, which usually results in upstaging of the disease to overall stage IV cancer and may potentially affect the patient's treatment options.
  • Knowledge of the regional nodal spread of each tumor is essential in formulating effective search strategies for cross-sectional imaging studies performed for staging.
  • In this review, the patterns of regional nodal spread and N-stage classification are presented for carcinomas of the anus, bladder, cervix, endometrium, ovary, penis, prostate, rectum, testis, vagina, and vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Lymph Nodes / anatomy & histology. Neoplasm Staging. Pelvis / anatomy & histology. Prognosis. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 20032141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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46. Lagoo AS, Robboy SJ: Lymphoma of the female genital tract: current status. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Jan;25(1):1-21
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  • [Title] Lymphoma of the female genital tract: current status.
  • SUMMARY: : Primary lymphomas affecting the female reproductive system are uncommon but often pose a diagnostic challenge if their existence is not suspected.
  • This article reviews the pathological and clinical features of lymphomas occurring in various sites in the female genital tract including the vulva, vagina, cervix, endometrium, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / classification. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 16306779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 150
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47. Gore GA, Dandekar LM: Aggressive angiomyxoma of female vulva. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Jul-Sep;47(3):352-4
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  • [Title] Aggressive angiomyxoma of female vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Liposarcoma, Myxoid / diagnosis. Myxoma / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Humans. Middle Aged. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20587922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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48. Hou JL, Wu LY, Zhang HT, Lv NN, Huang Y, Yu GZ: Clinicopathologic characteristics of 12 patients with vulvar sweat gland carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Jul;20(5):874-8
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic characteristics of 12 patients with vulvar sweat gland carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to evaluate the clinical and pathologic characteristics, therapy, and prognostic factors of vulvar sweat gland carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS: Clinical and pathologic data for 12 patients with vulvar sweat gland carcinoma treated at our institution from January 1958 to April 2009 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Of the 12 cases, 7 cases were vulvar sweat gland carcinoma, 3 cases were vulvar Paget disease with underlying sweat gland adenocarcinoma, 1 case was vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma, and 1 case was adenoid cystic carcinoma of the vulvar sweat gland.
  • Two patients were treated with simple vulvar tumor excision at other medical institutions without adjuvant therapy.
  • Among the other 10 patients, 6 underwent radical vulvectomy; 3, wide local excision of the vulva; and 1, a simple vulvectomy.
  • For 1 patient with bulky inguinal lymph nodes, only a biopsy was performed, and the patient received radiotherapy after vulvar surgery.
  • Five of 11 patients died, 1 of whom died of irrelevant disease and 4 of tumor progression.
  • The total survival periods of the 4 patients who died of tumor progression were 24, 36, 44, and 203 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Vulvar sweat gland carcinoma is a very rare entity.
  • The vulvar tumor size and inguinal lymph nodes metastasis will influence the prognosis, with pathologic differentiation and surgical margin status being the probable prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Vulva

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  • (PMID = 20606537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Amita M, Darshit D, Rekha W, Hemant T: Giant neurofibroma of the vulva. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol; 2005 Feb;45(1):84-5
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  • [Title] Giant neurofibroma of the vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurofibroma / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15730375.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8666
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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50. Ferizi M, Gercari A, Pajaziti L, Blyta Y, Kocinaj A, Dobruna S: Condyloma acuminata in child end laser therapy: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2(1):123
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  • The changes had started to appear in the sixth month of life, light purple in color, smooth and combined in a tumorous mass, in the vulva and anal areas.

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  • [Cites] Genitourin Med. 1985 Feb;61(1):59-61 [3936774.001]
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  • (PMID = 19193210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2642790
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51. Hanprasertpong J, Chichareon S, Wootipoom V, Buhachat R, Tocharoenvanich S, Geater A: Clinico-pathological profile of vulva cancer in southern Thailand: analysis of 66 cases. J Med Assoc Thai; 2005 May;88(5):575-81
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  • [Title] Clinico-pathological profile of vulva cancer in southern Thailand: analysis of 66 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinico-pathologic findings and treatment outcome of women with vulva cancer in Southern Thailand.
  • Two most common presentations were vulva mass (89.4%) and pruritus (57.6%).
  • [MeSH-major] Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thailand. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16149671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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52. Taguti Irie MM, Lopes Consolaro ME, Aparecida Guedes T, Donatti L, Valéria Patussi E, Estivalet Svidzinski TI: A simplified technique for evaluating the adherence of yeasts to human vaginal epithelial cells. J Clin Lab Anal; 2006;20(5):195-203
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  • Thousands of women all over the world annually suffer of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), an infection caused by yeasts, which mainly affect the mucosa of the vulva and vagina.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Adhesion / physiology. Female. Humans. Papanicolaou Test. Reproducibility of Results. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 16960895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-8013
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical laboratory analysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Grant LA, Sala E, Griffin N: Congenital and acquired conditions of the vulva and vagina on magnetic resonance imaging: a pictorial review. Semin Ultrasound CT MR; 2010 Oct;31(5):347-62
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  • [Title] Congenital and acquired conditions of the vulva and vagina on magnetic resonance imaging: a pictorial review.
  • In recent years, MRI has been used to stage vulval and vaginal malignancies and assist detection of recurrence.
  • We review the typical imaging characteristics on MRI of congenital and acquired conditions involving the vulva and vagina.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Vaginal Diseases / diagnosis. Vulvar Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Mullerian Ducts / pathology. Vagina / pathology. Vulva / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20974355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-2171
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in ultrasound, CT, and MR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Ultrasound CT MR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Ding DC, Hsu S, Hsu YS, Chen HT: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva in a young female: a brief case report. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Sep;140(1):128-9
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  • [Title] Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva in a young female: a brief case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Myxoma / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 / genetics. Female. Humans. Translocation, Genetic / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16844280.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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55. Han X, Shen T, Rojas-Espaillat LA, Hernandez E: Giant cell fibroblastoma of the vulva at the site of a previous fibroepithelial stromal polyp: a case report. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2007 Apr;11(2):112-7
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  • [Title] Giant cell fibroblastoma of the vulva at the site of a previous fibroepithelial stromal polyp: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell fibroblastoma (GCF) is an unusual soft tissue tumor, occurring predominantly in infants and children, and rarely in adults.
  • Giant cell fibroblastoma develops de novo in the dermis or subcutis with a predilection for the extremities, the abdominal and chest walls, umbilical and inguinal regions.
  • CASE: A GCF arose at the same site (labium majus of vulva) as a previous cellular fibroepithelial stromal polyp in a 28-year-old woman.
  • CONCLUSION: We report a case of GCF of the vulva, an unreported site.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatofibrosarcoma / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Polyps / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17415117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-2591
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Ayhan A, Celik H, Dursun P: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in gynecological cancers: a critical review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:53
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  • Although it does not have a long history of sentinel node evaluation (SLN) in female genital system cancers, there is a growing number of promising study results, despite the presence of some aspects that need to be considered and developed.
  • It has been most commonly used in vulvar and uterine cervivcal cancer in gynecological oncology.
  • In the studies on cervical cancer, sentinel node detection rates have been reported around 80-86%, a little lower than those in vulva cancer, and negative predictive value has been reported about 99%.
  • Studies about vulvar melanoma and vaginal cancers are generally case reports.
  • Although it has not been supported with multicenter randomized and controlled studies including larger case series, study results reported by various centers around the world are harmonious and mutually supportive particularly in vulva cancer, and cervix cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18492253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 82
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2409335
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57. Haag ES, True JR: Evolution and development: anchors away! Curr Biol; 2007 Mar 6;17(5):R172-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Developmental mechanisms can evolve even when the trait they produce does not, and the nematode vulva has become a model organ for detecting such "developmental system drift".
  • A new study reveals what may be the very earliest stages of this process by experimentally modifying key vulval signaling pathways in different species of Caenorhabditis, and carefully quantifying the results.
  • [MeSH-major] Biological Evolution. Caenorhabditis elegans / genetics. Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Signal Transduction. Vulva / embryology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Patterning. Embryonic Induction. Female

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  • [CommentOn] Curr Biol. 2007 Jan 23;17(2):103-14 [17240335.001]
  • (PMID = 17339017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9822
  • [Journal-full-title] Current biology : CB
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins
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58. Félix MA: Cryptic quantitative evolution of the vulva intercellular signaling network in Caenorhabditis. Curr Biol; 2007 Jan 23;17(2):103-14
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  • [Title] Cryptic quantitative evolution of the vulva intercellular signaling network in Caenorhabditis.
  • BACKGROUND: The Caenorhabditis vulva is formed from a row of Pn.p precursor cells, which adopt a spatial cell-fate pattern-3 degrees 3 degrees 2 degrees 1 degrees 2 degrees 3 degrees -centered on the gonadal anchor cell.
  • Direct induction of the 1 degrees fate as in C. elegans appeared within the genus. C. briggsae displays a graded induction of 1 degrees and 2 degrees fates, with 1 degrees fate induction requiring a longer time than in C. elegans, and a reduced lateral inhibition of adjacent 1 degrees fates. C. remanei displays a strong lateral induction of 2 degrees fates relative to vulval-fate activation in the central cell.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative evolution in the roles of graded induction by LIN-3/EGF and Notch signaling is demonstrated for the Caenorhabditis vulva signaling network.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / physiology. Epidermal Growth Factor / physiology. Female. Gene Expression. Receptors, Notch / physiology. Vulva / embryology. ras Proteins / physiology


59. Dordević M, Jovanović B, Mitrović S, Dordević G: Ectopic mammary tissue in vulva. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2008 May;65(5):407-9
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  • [Title] Ectopic mammary tissue in vulva.
  • CASE REPORT: A woman, 27-year old, admitted to Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic Kragujevac for surgery, of goose-egg size, vulva tumor, of elastic consistency.
  • Excision of the tumor was completely done in the total endotracheal anesthesia.
  • CONCLUSION: Ectopic mammary tissue in vulva in adult period is very rarely seen, and can be changed pathologically as well as normally positioned breast tissue into benign cystic changes, benign tumors, adenomas and fibroadenomas and tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human. Vulvar Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18630137.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8450
  • [Journal-full-title] Vojnosanitetski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vojnosanit Pregl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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60. Hillemanns P, Wang X, Staehle S, Michels W, Dannecker C: Evaluation of different treatment modalities for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN): CO(2) laser vaporization, photodynamic therapy, excision and vulvectomy. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Feb;100(2):271-5
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  • [Title] Evaluation of different treatment modalities for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN): CO(2) laser vaporization, photodynamic therapy, excision and vulvectomy.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate various treatment modalities for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) in relation to possible risk factors for recurrence.
  • The risk for recurrence significantly increased with VIN grade (P = 0.02), multifocal VIN disease (P = 0.01), multicentric intraepithelial neoplasia (P = 0.05) and high-risk HPV infection (P < 0.001).
  • There was one (1%) case of progression to vulvar cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Vulva preserving treatment methods for VIN have high recurrence rates, especially in patients with HPV infection and multifocal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Laser Therapy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16169064.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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61. Zhu XH, Ou-Yang L, Li B, Ma NY: [Vulva superficial angiomyxoma: a case report]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2010 Jan;39(1):109-10
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  • [Title] [Vulva superficial angiomyxoma: a case report].
  • [MeSH-major] Myxoma / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20175246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-9292
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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62. Kazakov DV, Stewart CJ, Kacerovska D, Leake R, Kreuzberg B, Chudacek Z, Hora M, Michal M: Prostatic-type tissue in the lower female genital tract: a morphologic spectrum, including vaginal tubulosquamous polyp, adenomyomatous hyperplasia of paraurethral Skene glands (female prostate), and ectopic lesion in the vulva. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jul;34(7):950-5
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  • [Title] Prostatic-type tissue in the lower female genital tract: a morphologic spectrum, including vaginal tubulosquamous polyp, adenomyomatous hyperplasia of paraurethral Skene glands (female prostate), and ectopic lesion in the vulva.
  • The investigators report a series of prostatic-type lesions occurring in the lower female genital tract.
  • The cases included a 4.5-cm mass representing hyperplasia of the glandular and stromal tissue of paraurethral Skene gland, a small ectopic prostatic lesion in the vulva, and 4 tubulosquamous vaginal polyps.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Polyps / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Urethra / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Phosphatase. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20505502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / prostatic acid phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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63. Yi B, Sommer RJ: The pax-3 gene is involved in vulva formation in Pristionchus pacificus and is a target of the Hox gene lin-39. Development; 2007 Sep;134(17):3111-9
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  • [Title] The pax-3 gene is involved in vulva formation in Pristionchus pacificus and is a target of the Hox gene lin-39.
  • The Hox gene lin-39 plays a crucial role in the establishment of the nematode vulva equivalence group.
  • Mutations in lin-39 in Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus result in a vulvaless phenotype because presumptive vulva precursor cells adopt non-vulval fates.
  • Interestingly, the non-vulval fate of anterior and posterior epidermal cells differs between Caenorhabditis and Pristionchus; in C. elegans, non-vulval cells fuse with the hypodermis, whereas, in P. pacificus, they die as a result of programmed cell death. C. elegans lin-39 (Cel-lin-39) indirectly controls the cell fusion gene eff-1 by regulating the GATA transcription factors egl-18 and elt-6.
  • Whereas Ppa-pax-3 regulates cell survival of the presumptive vulval precursor cells, it controls cell death of posterior epidermal cells.
  • Thus, we describe the first specific developmental defect of a nematode pax-3 gene and our data reveal different regulatory networks for the specification of the vulva equivalence group.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Genes, Homeobox. Nematoda / embryology. Paired Box Transcription Factors / physiology. Vulva / embryology
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Animals, Genetically Modified. Apoptosis / genetics. Base Sequence. Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / genetics. Embryo, Nonmammalian. Female. Genes, Helminth. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Male. Models, Biological. Molecular Sequence Data. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. Sex Differentiation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17652349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-1991
  • [Journal-full-title] Development (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Development
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / lin-39 protein, C elegans
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64. Mayor P, Guimaraes DA, Lopez-Gatius F, Lopez-Bejar M: First postpartum estrus and pregnancy in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the amazon. Theriogenology; 2006 Nov;66(8):2001-7
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  • [Title] First postpartum estrus and pregnancy in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the amazon.
  • Serum progesterone and 17beta-estradiol profiles, vaginal smears and external genitalia were analyzed in 20 animals housed with their piglets during the first postpartum month.
  • The appearance of external genitalia showed no variation in any of the females: a shallow, reddish vulva, and vaginal mucus were constant features throughout the study.
  • These findings indicate that the lactating collared peccary female can become cycling and fertile during the early postpartum period, and that a predominance of superficial plus intermediate vaginal cells can be taken as the first sign of estrus.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Genitalia, Female / pathology. Periodicity. Postpartum Period / blood. Postpartum Period / physiology. Pregnancy. Time Factors. Vaginal Smears / veterinary

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ESTRADIOL .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PROGESTERONE .
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  • (PMID = 16837033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] Theriogenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Theriogenology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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65. Goldberg GL, Sukumvanich P, Einstein MH, Smith HO, Anderson PS, Fields AL: Total pelvic exenteration: the Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center Experience (1987 to 2003). Gynecol Oncol; 2006 May;101(2):261-8
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  • Indications for TPE were recurrent cancers of the cervix (95), endometrium (2), colon and rectum (5), vulva (1).
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Genital Neoplasms, Female / surgery. Pelvic Exenteration / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anastomosis, Surgical. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Rectum / surgery. Urinary Diversion. Vagina / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16426668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Dereli T, Turk BG, Kazandi AC: Syringomas of the vulva. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 2007 Oct;99(1):65-6
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  • [Title] Syringomas of the vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Syringoma / pathology. Vulva / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17588575.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gynaecol Obstet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Mourton SM, Sonoda Y, Abu-Rustum NR, Bochner BH, Barakat RR, Chi DS: Resection of recurrent cervical cancer after total pelvic exenteration. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Jan-Feb;17(1):137-40
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  • Recurrence sites included pelvic (12), inguinal (5), retroperitoneal (5), hepatic (4), vulva (2), perineum (1), transposed ovary (1), and lung (1).
  • Surgically resected recurrences were isolated to the groin (2), vulva (2), perineum (1), transposed ovary (1), and psoas muscle (1).
  • The four patients who underwent ovarian, perineal, and vulvar resections succumbed to their disease in a median time of 13 months (range 2-21 months).
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pelvic Exenteration. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies


68. van der Plas LG, van Vliet A, Bousema MT, Sanders CJ, Mali WP: [Women with pelvic complaints and atypical varicose veins, varicose veins of the vulva and insufficiency of the pelvic veins; treatment with embolisation]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 Mar 12;149(11):557-60
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  • [Title] [Women with pelvic complaints and atypical varicose veins, varicose veins of the vulva and insufficiency of the pelvic veins; treatment with embolisation].
  • In three women, aged 34, 52 and 30 years, respectively, who suffered from chronic pelvic symptoms such as a heavy feeling and abdominal pain, atypical varicose veins were observed on the medial side of the upper thighs together with varicose veins of the vulva; these are indicators of insufficiency of the pelvic veins.
  • When patients complain of chronic pelvic pain of unknown aetiology, one should look for atypical varices and vulval varices and consider pelvic-vein insufficiency as a possible cause.
  • [MeSH-major] Embolization, Therapeutic. Pelvic Pain / therapy. Pelvis / blood supply. Varicose Veins / therapy. Venous Insufficiency / therapy. Vulva / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 Jun 11;149(24):1364-5 [16008043.001]
  • (PMID = 15799637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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69. Hoekstra HJ, Wobbes T: [Surgical treatment of early-stage vulva carcinoma and the complications of the operation]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 May 14;149(20):1133; author reply 1133-4
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of early-stage vulva carcinoma and the complications of the operation].
  • [Transliterated title] Chirurgische behandeling van vulvacarcinoom in een vroeg stadium en de complicaties van de ingreep.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Surgical Procedures, Operative / methods. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Wound Healing

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  • [CommentOn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 Feb 12;149(7):336-42 [15751805.001]
  • (PMID = 15932146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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70. Alvarado Gay FJ, Ramirez Arredondo Mdel C, de la Peña Gutiérrez M: [Sclerosing fibrous hemangiomas in vulva]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2009 Feb;77(2):110-3
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  • [Title] [Sclerosing fibrous hemangiomas in vulva].
  • [Transliterated title] Hemangioma fibroso esclerosante en la vulva.
  • We present a case report of a patient that went to consultation for tumoración presence at level vulvar of a year of evolution, with size of 8 x 6 cm, accompanied by pain with the deambulación and manipulation, the out taking of tumoración biopsy, later on resection by means of vulvectomia simple left and the result anatomohistopatológico was corroborated that reported hemangioma fibrous esclerosante.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous. Vulvar Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19365953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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71. Pekka N, Anttila A, Bützow R, Heikkilä E, Hiltunen-Back E, Mäenpää J, Puistola U, Rantanen V, Rintala M, Räisänen I, Santalahti A, Talvensaari-Mattila A, Vartiainen J, Vuento M, Yliskoski M, Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin ja Suomen Kolposkopiayhdistyksen Asettama Työryhmä: [Update on current care guidelines. Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of cytological changes in the cervix, vagina and vulva]. Duodecim; 2010;126(16):1965-6
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  • [Title] [Update on current care guidelines. Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of cytological changes in the cervix, vagina and vulva].
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy. Vagina / pathology. Vulva / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Finland / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Mass Screening. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / therapy. Quality Control. Vaginal Smears


72. Tran TA, Carlson JA: Plasmacytoid squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Oct;27(4):601-5
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  • [Title] Plasmacytoid squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva.
  • Although neoplastic cells with a plasmacytoid appearance have been reported in a variety of tumors, to the best of our knowledge, a plasmacytoid squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the vulva or skin has heretofore not been described.
  • We document the case of a 92-year-old female patient with a history of multiple excisions for vulvar verrucous and SCCs, who presented with a 3-cm, symptomatic, polypoid mass of the left upper vulva.
  • Based on the tumor location, morphology, and immunohistochemical results, the diagnosis of plasmacytoid SCC of the vulva was rendered.
  • Like other plasmacytoid malignancies, vulvar plasmacytoid SCC is a rare and likely aggressive variant of SCC, which can pose significant diagnostic challenges.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of neoplasms with plasmacytoid cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry


73. Martinez-Palones JM, Perez-Benavente A, Diaz-Feijoo B, Gil-Moreno A, Roca I, García-Jimenez A, Aguilar-Martinez I, Xercavins J: Sentinel lymph node identification in a primary ductal carcinoma arising in the vulva. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Mar-Apr;17(2):471-7
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node identification in a primary ductal carcinoma arising in the vulva.
  • Primary or metastatic breast-like carcinoma of the vulva is a rare event.
  • We report a 49-old-year postmenopausal woman who was referred to our institution after small biopsy of a 3.5- x 3-cm right vulvar tumor.
  • Histopathologically, infiltration of the vulvar dermis by a ductal carcinoma of mammary gland type was reported.
  • Although these nodes proved negative for malignancy, the patient underwent wide local excision of tumor and complete ipsilateral inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy.
  • This report represents the first case in the world literature of primary breast carcinoma arising in the vulva in which sentinel lymph node identification has been possible.
  • Because of the rarity of this condition, the pathologic similarity of this tumor along with currently accepted guidelines for the management of breast cancer supports the possibility of local excision and sentinel lymph node identification as a possible alternative to inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Vulvar Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17362321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Utz-Billing I, Kentenich H: Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol; 2008 Dec;29(4):225-9
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  • [Title] Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm.
  • This article gives an overview over the huge topic of 'female genital mutilation' (FGM).
  • FGM means non-therapeutic, partial or complete removal or injury of each of the external female genitals.
  • Other types like pricking, piercing of clitoris or vulva, scraping of the vagina, etc. were defined as type IV of FGM.
  • [MeSH-major] Circumcision, Female / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Human Rights. Humans. Mental Disorders / etiology. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19065392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-482X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of psychosomatic obstetrics and gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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75. Almeida Mdo S, Carvalho LL, Arcoverde JC, Capucho Lde F, Monteiro CT, Fontenelle GE: [Dystrophic calcinosis of the vulva in a patient with CREST syndrome]. Acta Reumatol Port; 2010 Apr-Jun;35(2):264-6
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  • [Title] [Dystrophic calcinosis of the vulva in a patient with CREST syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Calcinose distrófica de vulva em paciente com síndrome Crest.
  • [MeSH-major] CREST Syndrome / complications. Calcinosis / etiology. Vulvar Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20734547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-464X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta reumatológica portuguesa
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Reumatol Port
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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76. Nordenvall C, Chang ET, Adami HO, Ye W: Cancer risk among patients with condylomata acuminata. Int J Cancer; 2006 Aug 15;119(4):888-93
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  • Risks were elevated for cancers of the vulva (N = 13, SIR = 10.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.4-17.4), vagina (N = 4, SIR = 12.0, 95% CI = 3.3-30.7) and penis (N = 5, SIR = 21.9, 95% CI = 7.1-51.2).
  • In conclusion, condylomata acuminata are strongly associated with increased risk of cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis and anus, as well as some nonanogenital malignancies, but not invasive cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Condylomata Acuminata / complications. Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Papillomaviridae / physiology. Risk Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16557590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Nola M, Blazanovic A, Dotlic S, Morovic A, Tomicic I, Jukic S: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of vulva: prognostic significance of clinicopathologic parameters. Croat Med J; 2005 Jun;46(3):436-42
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  • [Title] Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of vulva: prognostic significance of clinicopathologic parameters.
  • AIM: To investigate the prognostic significance of several clinicopathologic parameters in patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively studied 43 patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva treated with radical vulvectomy at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Zagreb University School of Medicine, Croatia, in the period from 1978-1996.
  • Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to examine the prognostic significance of age, menstrual status, clinical stage, diameter and localization of the tumor, histological grade, nuclear grade, depth of tumor invasion, presence of vascular space invasion, tumor growth pattern, presence of lymph node metastasis, DNA ploidy, proliferative activity, and mode of therapy.
  • The results of univariate statistical analysis confirmed that statistically significant prognostic parameters included the age of patients (P=0.038), clinical stage (P=0.001), nuclear grade (P=0.002), the depth of tumor invasion (P<0.001), and presence of lymph node metastasis (P=0.001).
  • On the other hand, the results of multivariate statistical analysis showed that only the depth of tumor invasion (P<0.001) can be considered independent, statistically significant prognostic parameter.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the depth of tumor invasion represents the most important prognostic parameter in the group of patients with invasive squamous vulvar carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / mortality. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Croatia / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15861524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0353-9504
  • [Journal-full-title] Croatian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Croat. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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78. Bianco MK, Vasef MA: HER-2 gene amplification in Paget disease of the nipple and extramammary site: a chromogenic in situ hybridization study. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2006 Sep;15(3):131-5
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  • However, inconsistent results have been reported in the rate of HER-2/neu protein overexpression in other malignant neoplasms.
  • We investigated the HER-2 gene and protein status in several cases of Paget disease of the nipple and vulva by using a chromogenic in situ hybridization assay and immunohistochemistry.
  • In addition, our results show a good correlation between HER-2/neu protein overexpression and HER-2 gene amplification in Paget disease of the nipple, but we were unable to confirm this correlation in HER-2/neu protein overexpressing Paget disease of the vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gene Amplification. Nipples. Paget Disease, Extramammary / diagnosis. Paget's Disease, Mammary / diagnosis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Immunochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism


79. Saini R, Sarnoff DS: Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva presenting as unilateral pruritus. J Drugs Dermatol; 2008 Mar;7(3):288-90
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva presenting as unilateral pruritus.
  • A delay in diagnosis can result in wider surgical margins and potential recurrences.
  • We present a case of BCC of the vulva with involvement of the clitoris presenting with unilateral pruritus and treated as an allergic contact dermatitis with topical corticosteroids.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Pruritus / etiology. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Dermatitis, Allergic Contact / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Vulva / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18380212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Weidner K, Richter J, Bittner A, Winter UM, Stöbel-Richter Y, Brähler E: [A German survey of subjective gynaecological complaints]. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol; 2009 Sep-Oct;59(9-10):345-53
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  • [Transliterated title] Frauenspezifische Beschwerden in der deutschen Allgemeinbevölkerung: Eine repräsentative Umfrage.
  • This questionnaire measures specific gynaecological complaints of several body areas (excretion, pelvic pain, breast, vulva, menses).
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Diseases, Female / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Health Surveys. Humans. Menstruation Disturbances / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Surveys and Questionnaires. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.
  • (PMID = 18792881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-2032
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, medizinische Psychologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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81. Fischer F, Kuhl M, Feek U, Rominger M, Schipper ML, Hadji P, Wagner U, Jackisch C: Bone metastases in vulvar cancer: a rare metastatic pattern. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Nov-Dec;15(6):1173-6
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  • [Title] Bone metastases in vulvar cancer: a rare metastatic pattern.
  • Bone metastases from a vulvar carcinoma are exceptionally rare with only five reported cases in the literature.
  • We report on a patient who was initially treated with radical vulvectomy and bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy for a vulvar cancer (pT2, pN2 (6/37), M0; G2).
  • Due to a positive nodal status, adjuvant radiation of the vulva and the pelvis was performed additionally.
  • During osteosynthetic stabilization histologic and immunohistochemical stain gave evidence of a metastasis of the known vulvar carcinoma.
  • In conclusion, bone metastases should be considered in the differential diagnoses of unclear osseous pain in women with a history of vulvar cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant


82. Niwa K, Onogi K, Wu Y, Mori H, Tamaya T: Primary endodermal sinus tumor of the vulva in a 52-year-old woman with long-term survival: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(6):506-8
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  • [Title] Primary endodermal sinus tumor of the vulva in a 52-year-old woman with long-term survival: a case report.
  • A postmenopausal 52-year-old Japanese woman with a 5-month history of a right labial tumor was referred to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
  • The resected tumor had been diagnosed as a primary endodermal sinus tumor of the vulva with pT2N0M0 in 2001.
  • [MeSH-major] Survivors. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18179148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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83. Poulin GB, Ahringer J: The Caenorhabditis elegans CDT-2 ubiquitin ligase is required for attenuation of EGFR signalling in vulva precursor cells. BMC Dev Biol; 2010 Oct 26;10:109
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  • [Title] The Caenorhabditis elegans CDT-2 ubiquitin ligase is required for attenuation of EGFR signalling in vulva precursor cells.
  • RESULTS: We have characterised CDT-2's role during vulva development and found that it is a novel attenuator of LET-23 signalling.
  • CDT-2 acts redundantly with negative modulators of LET-23 signalling and CDT-2 or CUL-4 downregulation causes persistent expression of the egl-17::cfp transgene, a marker of LET-23 signalling during vulva development.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have shown that CDT-2 and CUL-4, members of the CUL-4/DDB-1/CDT-2 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex attenuate LET-23 signalling in vulval precursor cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Genetically Modified. Endocytosis / physiology. Epistasis, Genetic. Female. Gene Deletion. Humans. Ligases / genetics. Ligases / metabolism. RNA Interference. Receptors, Notch / genetics. Receptors, Notch / metabolism. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes. Vulva / anatomy & histology. Vulva / physiology


84. Ginel PJ, Blanco B, Lucena R, Jiménez CR, Peinado-Guitart C, Mozos E: Steroid-sparing effect of mycophenolate mofetil in the treatment of a subepidermal blistering autoimmune disease in a dog. J S Afr Vet Assoc; 2010 Dec;81(4):253-7
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  • A 7-year-old female Cocker spaniel-cross was referred with an 8-month history of mucocutaneous erosive dermatitis.
  • On physical examination, skin lesions affected the eyelids and periocular area, lips and vulva.
  • A diagnosis of autoimmune subepidermal blistering dermatosis was made.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Female. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 21526742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-9128
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J S Afr Vet Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] South Africa
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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85. Hurcombe SD, Slovis NM, Kohn CW, Oglesbee M: Poorly differentiated leiomyosarcoma of the urogenital tract in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2008 Dec 15;233(12):1908-12
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  • CASE DESCRIPTION: A 2-year-old Thoroughbred filly was evaluated because of hemorrhage from the vulva and suspected hematuria of 5 days' duration.
  • Histologic examination of endoscopic and surgical biopsy specimens revealed a poorly differentiated neoplasia likely of mesenchymal origin.
  • TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: The tumor continued to grow despite treatment with doxorubicin and, within 45 days, was causing substantial discomfort and stranguria.
  • At necropsy, the tumor was found to have caused widespread destruction of the urinary bladder and to have invaded the broad ligament of the uterus.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that leiomyosarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis when examining horses with urogenital bleeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Horse Diseases / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / veterinary. Uterine Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Horses. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19072607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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86. Tholpady A, Lonergan CL, Wick MR: Proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma of the vulva: relationship to malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Nov;29(6):600-4
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  • [Title] Proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma of the vulva: relationship to malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor.
  • Proximal epithelioid sarcoma is an extremely uncommon lesion of the vulva, with the potential for aggressive behavior.
  • We report a case of this entity and discuss its relationship to the epithelial-type "malignant rhabdoid tumor" (MRT) of the soft tissue.
  • On the basis of a review of the pertinent information on both these entities, it is concluded that they likely represent biologically different but morphologically and immunohistochemically similar neoplasms.
  • Nevertheless, the literature suggests that other selected genetic differences between the 2 lesions, and the more rapid and aggressive course of MRT distinguish these tumor types as separate clinicopathologic entities.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20881848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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87. Milloz J, Duveau F, Nuez I, Félix MA: Intraspecific evolution of the intercellular signaling network underlying a robust developmental system. Genes Dev; 2008 Nov 1;22(21):3064-75
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  • We studied variation of cell fate patterning of Caenorhabditis elegans vulva precursors, a developmental system that relies on a simple intercellular signaling network and yields an invariant output of cell fates and lineages among C. elegans wild isolates.
  • In addition, our results suggest that the vulva genetic screens would have yielded a different mutation spectrum, especially for Wnt pathway mutations, had they been performed in another C. elegans genetic background.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Mutation. Organ Specificity. Signal Transduction. Vulva / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18981482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9369
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes & development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2577794
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88. Fracchioli S, Puopolo M, De La Longrais IA, Scozzafava M, Bogliatto F, Arisio R, Micheletti L, Katsaros D: Primary "breast-like" cancer of the vulva: a case report and critical review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:423-8
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  • [Title] Primary "breast-like" cancer of the vulva: a case report and critical review of the literature.
  • Ectopic mammary gland tissue in the vulva is an uncommon clinical or pathologic finding.
  • We here report the 16th case of primary "breast-like" cancer arising in the vulva, together with a critical review of the literature, in order to highlight the dilemmas of a clinical approach to this neoplasm.
  • Clear guidelines for diagnosis and therapy are still unavailable.
  • In our opinion, when diagnosis of breast-like vulvar cancer is finally confirmed, treatment and follow-up should be the same as that would be chosen in a case of orthotopic breast neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16515638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; CAF protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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89. Kiontke K, Barrière A, Kolotuev I, Podbilewicz B, Sommer R, Fitch DH, Félix MA: Trends, stasis, and drift in the evolution of nematode vulva development. Curr Biol; 2007 Nov 20;17(22):1925-37
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  • [Title] Trends, stasis, and drift in the evolution of nematode vulva development.
  • As a model, we used the nematode vulva, a highly conserved, essential organ, the development of which has been intensively studied in the model systems Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus.
  • RESULTS: For 51 rhabditid species, we analyzed more than 40 characteristics of vulva development, including cell fates, fate induction, cell competence, division patterns, morphogenesis, and related aspects of gonad development.
  • This taxon-dense phylogeny provides for the first time a highly resolved picture of rhabditid evolution and allows the reconstruction of the number and directionality of changes in the vulva development characters.
  • [MeSH-major] Biological Evolution. Caenorhabditis elegans / embryology. Genetic Drift. Vulva / embryology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Phylogeny


90. Unzeitig V, Bucek R, Al Awad H: [Vaginal bacteriology in women with use of sanitary towels and tampons during menstruation]. Ceska Gynekol; 2007 Dec;72(6):416-9
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  • A selected group of the females was also subject to culture examination of samples taken from the vulva 0.5 cm under the posterior comisure.

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  • (PMID = 18236900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7832
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceska gynekologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Gynekol
  • [Language] CZE
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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91. Karam A, Berek JS, Stenson A, Rao J, Dorigo O: HER-2/neu targeting for recurrent vulvar Paget's disease A case report and literature review. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Dec;111(3):568-71
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  • [Title] HER-2/neu targeting for recurrent vulvar Paget's disease A case report and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: The treatment of Paget's disease of the vulva particularly for recurrences can be challenging.
  • Overexpression of the HER-2/neu protein has been found in about 30% of vulvar Paget's cases therefore presenting a potential therapeutic target.
  • CASE: We report the case of a 52-year-old patient with persistent Paget's disease of the vulva despite eight surgical excisions over a 15-year period.
  • Immunohistochemistry demonstrated overexpression of the HER-2/neu protein in the vulva resection specimen.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on our case report, therapeutic targeting of HER-2/neu for patients with Paget's disease of the vulva using for example Trastuzumab is a potentially effective, alternative approach, and warrants further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / enzymology. Paget Disease, Extramammary / drug therapy. Paget Disease, Extramammary / enzymology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Drug Delivery Systems. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Trastuzumab

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  • (PMID = 18252264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
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92. Mangino M, Schena FP: [Skin cancer in renal transplant recipients]. G Ital Nefrol; 2010 Sep-Oct;27 Suppl 50:S75-80
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  • [Transliterated title] Le neoplasie della cute nel paziente trapiantato.
  • Twenty years after transplantation, approximately 70% of patients on continuous immunosuppressive therapy present one or more tumor types.
  • Examples are herpes virus 8 (HHV8), implicated in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), human papillomavirus (HPV), involved in squamous cell cancer of the skin, vulva, vagina and cervix, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), responsible for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD).
  • Sirolimus inhibits not only cell proliferation but also tumor neovascularization by reducing VEGF production and inhibiting VEGF receptor signaling in endothelial cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Kidney Neoplasms. Postoperative Complications / chemically induced. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 20922700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-5590
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di nefrologia : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Nefrol
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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93. Gleason BC, Hirsch MS, Nucci MR, Schmidt BA, Zembowicz A, Mihm MC Jr, McKee PH, Brenn T: Atypical genital nevi. A clinicopathologic analysis of 56 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jan;32(1):51-7
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  • Atypical genital nevi are rare melanocytic lesions that most commonly arise on the vulva of young women.
  • They are currently regarded as nevi of special sites, in that despite histologically worrisome features, their clinical behavior is reportedly benign.
  • To better characterize the clinical presentation and behavior of these lesions and to further delineate their histologic features, we retrieved 56 atypical genital nevi arising in the lower female genital tract from our departmental and consultation files.
  • The 56 lesions arose in 55 female patients with a median age of 26 years (range, 6 to 54 y).
  • Our data support the hypothesis that atypical genital nevi have a benign clinical course despite their occasionally striking cytologic and architectural atypia.
  • Awareness and recognition of this group of melanocytic lesions is important to avoid over diagnosis as melanoma with subsequent wide excision and possibly sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged


94. Alsaad KO, Obaidat N, Dube V, Chapman W, Ghazarian D: Vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma: a case with nodal metastasis and intranodal mucinous differentiation. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(2):131-5
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  • [Title] Vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma: a case with nodal metastasis and intranodal mucinous differentiation.
  • Primary vulvar adenocarcinomas are rare tumors, and their histogenesis is not fully understood.
  • They are classified into extramammary Paget's disease, sweat gland carcinomas, and "breast-like" adenocarcinomas of the vulva.
  • Rare cases of adenocarcinoma with apocrine features have been reported, and whether these neoplasms originate from the "native apocrine" sweat glands or from "anogenital mammary-like" glands are still debatable.
  • The presence of normal mammary-like glands in the vicinity of the tumor, the transitional malignant morphological features from normal mammary-like glands and the tumor, the breast-like histological features of the tumor, and the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors generally suggest an origin from anogenital mammary-like glands.
  • Absence of these features points toward native apocrine sweat glands as the source of these neoplasms.
  • In this report, we present a patient who was initially diagnosed with Paget's disease of the right vulva, which was treated by hemi-vulvectomy, and who later presented with primary vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the inguinal lymph nodes and intranodal mucinous/colloidal differentiation: a feature, to the best of our knowledge, not reported before.
  • We also reviewed the histogenesis of the vulvar adenocarcinomas, with emphasis on the morphological features that separate the tumors arising from the anogenital mammary-like glands in the vulva from those arising from the native vulvar sweat glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Aged, 80 and over. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / complications. Cell Differentiation. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Osteoporosis / complications. Paget Disease, Extramammary / complications

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  • (PMID = 18842349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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95. Gupta BP, Liu J, Hwang BJ, Moghal N, Sternberg PW: sli-3 negatively regulates the LET-23/epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated vulval induction pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics; 2006 Nov;174(3):1315-26
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  • [Title] sli-3 negatively regulates the LET-23/epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated vulval induction pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans.
  • The LIN-3-LET-23-mediated inductive signaling pathway plays a major role during vulval development in C. elegans.
  • However, in the absence of any other mutation sli-3 mutant animals display wild-type vulval induction and morphology.
  • We propose that sli-3 functions as a negative regulator of vulval induction and defines a branch of the inductive signaling pathway.
  • We provide evidence that sli-3 interacts with the EGF signaling pathway components during vulval induction but not during viability and ovulation processes.
  • Thus, sli-3 helps define specificity of the EGF signaling to induce the vulva.

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  • (PMID = 16980384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6731
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genetics
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM073184; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM007616; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD23690
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Helminth Proteins; 0 / Mutagens; 9H154DI0UP / Ethyl Methanesulfonate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / let-23 protein, C elegans
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1667086
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96. Park MS, Kim Y, Kang MS, Oh SY, Cho DY, Shin NS, Kim DY: Disseminated transmissible venereal tumor in a dog. J Vet Diagn Invest; 2006 Jan;18(1):130-3
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  • [Title] Disseminated transmissible venereal tumor in a dog.
  • Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a well-documented transplantable tumor in dogs, with no breed or sex predilection and a low metastatic rate.
  • In this report, a 2-year-old intact female Mastiff that had numerous, rapidly growing masses throughout the subcutis mainly at the dorsal body plane, the caudal half of the ventral abdomen, and around the vulva was euthanized due to poor prognosis.
  • The diagnosis of the TVT was further supported by the identification and analysis of long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE) from paraffin-embedded tumor tissue.
  • In this case, the polymerase chain reaction technique was useful in differential diagnosis of canine round cell tumors because this technique can be applied in retrospective as well as future study.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Venereal Tumors, Veterinary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Fatal Outcome. Female. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Muramidase / analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction / veterinary. Prognosis. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16566273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-6387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vimentin; EC 3.2.1.17 / Muramidase
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97. Spiliopoulos D, Spiliopoulos M, Dandolu V, Mastrogiannis D: Vulvar and breast Paget's disease with synchronous underlying cancer: a unique association. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Aug;280(2):313-5
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  • [Title] Vulvar and breast Paget's disease with synchronous underlying cancer: a unique association.
  • BACKGROUND: We report a unique case of Paget's disease of vulva and breast.
  • Sequentially the patient had invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, 5 years later was diagnosed with vulvar Paget's with underlying adenocarcinoma and after another 2 years was diagnosed with Paget's disease of the breast.
  • Five years later and after complaints of longstanding vulvar pruritus, the patient was diagnosed with vulvar Paget's disease and treated with simple vulvectomy, which revealed a concurrent underlying adenocarcinoma.
  • Subsequently there was recurrence of vulvar malignancy and wide local excision was performed.
  • Seven years after the initial diagnosis of the breast cancer, a biopsy of a left areolar red, ulcerated lesion revealed Paget's disease of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


98. Grin A, Colgan T, Laframboise S, Shaw P, Ghazarian D: "Pagetoid" eccrine carcinoma of the vulva: report of an unusual case with review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2008 Apr;12(2):134-9
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  • [Title] "Pagetoid" eccrine carcinoma of the vulva: report of an unusual case with review of the literature.
  • Sweat gland carcinoma of the vulva is rare and may be classified as being of eccrine, apocrine, or mixed origin.
  • Most reported cases of vulvar sweat gland carcinomas associated with extramammary Paget disease describe a tumor of apocrine origin.
  • We report a case of a vulvar sweat gland carcinoma of eccrine origin associated with Pagetoid extension.
  • A review of the literature and the differential diagnosis are also presented.
  • To our knowledge, this is the second case of vulvar sweat gland carcinoma of eccrine origin associated with extramammary Paget disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Paget Disease, Extramammary / diagnosis. Pelvis

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  • (PMID = 18369309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Whittaker AJ, Sternberg PW: Coordination of opposing sex-specific and core muscle groups regulates male tail posture during Caenorhabditis elegans male mating behavior. BMC Biol; 2009 Jun 22;7:33
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  • We studied a complex behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans, male mating behavior, which provided a model for understanding motor behaviors at the genetic, molecular as well as circuit level. C. elegans male mating behavior consists of a series of six sub-steps: response to contact, backing, turning, vulva location, spicule insertion, and sperm transfer.

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  • (PMID = 19545405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1741-7007
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / F32 NS042497; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS042497; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 0 / Cholinesterase Inhibitors; 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 0 / Receptors, GABA; 0 / Receptors, Nicotinic; 2880D3468G / Levamisole; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 56-12-2 / gamma-Aminobutyric Acid; 8V071SH05P / Aldicarb; N9YNS0M02X / Acetylcholine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2715377
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100. Park SI, Shin SS: Concurrent Capillaria and Heterakis infections in zoo rock partridges, Alectoris graeca. Korean J Parasitol; 2010 Sep;48(3):253-7
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  • Female Capillaria had a vulva that was slightly prominent and slightly posterior to the union of the esophagus and intestine.
  • The esophagus of the adult Capillaria was more than a half as long as the body in the male, but was much shorter in the female.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Zoo / parasitology. Female. Male

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  • (PMID = 20877506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1738-0006
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2945802
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Capillaria obsignata / Heterakis gallinarium / dual infection / rock partridge
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