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1. Winter LM, Sommer G, Bongartz G: High-field magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis: uterus, ovary, and prostate gland. Top Magn Reson Imaging; 2010 Jun;21(3):177-88
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  • [Title] High-field magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis: uterus, ovary, and prostate gland.
  • It has given proof of its usefulness in the diagnosis of several benign and malignant disorders, and it is routinely used for the local staging of different tumors even when confined to specific parts of a pelvic organ.
  • Definition of high field seems fuzzy because of the availability of MRI machines with 3, 7 T, or higher; therefore, the general aspects of MRI of pelvic structures with emphasis on uterus, ovary, and prostate gland and attention to promising newer techniques such as 3 T, dynamic contrast imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging are reviewed in this article.
  • [MeSH-major] Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pelvic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Radiographic Image Enhancement
  • [MeSH-minor] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / trends. Female. Forecasting. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Radiation Effects. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Signal-To-Noise Ratio. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21847037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-1004
  • [Journal-full-title] Topics in magnetic resonance imaging : TMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Top Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Awonuga AO, Rotas M, Imudia AN, Choi C, Khulpateea N: Recurrent benign metastasizing leiomyoma after hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Oct;278(4):373-6
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  • [Title] Recurrent benign metastasizing leiomyoma after hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.
  • BACKGROUND: Benign uterine leiomyomas are sometimes found in association with benign smooth muscle tumors outside the confines of the uterus and are given the name benign metastasizing leiomyomas (BML).
  • PATIENTS: Our patients, presented with multiple abdominal masses 6 years after their initial surgery for benign leiomyoma.
  • At exploratory laparotomy multiple benign leiomyomas were resected, and in one case a 2.2 cm leiomyoma was also resected from the left lower lobe of the lung.
  • RESULTS: Pathology revealed benign leiomyomas with no cytological atypia and a mitotic count of <5 per 10 high power fields (hpf).
  • CONCLUSION: Benign metastasizing leiomyoma rarely follow TAH/BSO in patients with uterine myoma and estrogen replacement therapy may play a role in such occurrence.
  • Despite surgery to remove these tumors, they can still recur; therefore, there is need for prolonged surveillance in such patients after resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyomatosis / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18259767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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3. Lee HJ, Choi J, Kim KR: Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma associated with intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus: clinical behavior and genomic changes supporting a transportation theory. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):340-5
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  • [Title] Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma associated with intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus: clinical behavior and genomic changes supporting a transportation theory.
  • Benign metastasizing leiomyoma is a rare lesion characterized by benign-appearing smooth muscle tumor most frequently involving the lung and usually associated with a benign leiomyoma or intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus.
  • The pathogenetic mechanism of the tumor has not been clarified, but the possibilities including hormone-sensitive in situ proliferations of smooth muscle bundles, mechanical displacement or intravascular spread of preexisting benign uterine tumor tissue, and metastasized very low-grade uterine leiomyosarcoma have been proposed.
  • We described a case of pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma associated with a uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis in a 46-year-old woman with a result of comparative genomic hybridization study.
  • Unresected pulmonary nodules were left untreated for 13 months after the hysterectomy and wedge biopsy of 3 pulmonary nodules to show no further growth, suggesting clinical behavior of nonmalignant tumor in our case.
  • Benign metastasizing leiomyomas may comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors in terms of their malignant potential and pathogenetic mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Leiomyomatosis / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm. Female. Genomics. Humans. Middle Aged. Nucleic Acid Hybridization

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  • (PMID = 18580311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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4. Canis M, Jardon K, Niro J, Rabischong B, Bourdel N, Botchorishvili R, Pouly JL, Mage G: [Endoscopic management of gynecological malignancies: an update. 2007]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2007 Oct;191(7):1357-65; discussion 1365-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Coelioscopie et cancer en gynécologie: le point en 2007.
  • Animal studies suggest that the risk of tumor dissemination in the non traumatized peritoneum may be higher after pneumoperitoneum than after laparotomy, and they also show the importance of the surgeon's experience and technique.
  • By controlling these parameters we may, in future, be able to create a peritoneal environment suitable for oncologic indications and thereby prevent or minimize the risk of peritoneal dissemination and postoperative tumor growth.
  • In endometrial cancer, the laparoscopic approach should be reserved for clinical stage I disease, if the volume of the uterus and local conditions are appropriate for vaginal extraction.
  • Laparoscopy is the gold standard for surgical diagnosis of adnexal masses, but puncture should be avoided whenever possible.
  • In contrast, restaging of early ovarian cancer initially managed as a benign mass is a good indication for the laparoscopic approach.
  • Laparoscopic management of tumors with low malignant potential should include complete staging of the peritoneum.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy / methods. Genital Neoplasms, Female / surgery. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Seeding. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial / adverse effects. Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial / methods. Swine. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18447057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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5. Carranza Lira S: [Relation between hormonal therapy and tibolone with SERMs in postmenopausal women's myomes growth]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2008 Oct;76(10):610-4
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  • [Transliterated title] Relación de la terapia hormonal, la tibolona y los SERMs con el crecimiento de miomas en la mujer posmenopáusica.
  • Myomas (both leiomyomas and fibromas) are the most frequent benign uterine tumors in women, they can be found in 77% of hysterectomy specimens.
  • A study in patients without myomas demonstrated this type tumors production (5%) after receiving transdermical-oral hormonal combination during 24 months, and they were absent in patients with only oral therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Receptor Modulators / adverse effects. Hormone Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Leiomyoma / pathology. Norpregnenes / adverse effects. Postmenopause. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / adverse effects. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19062511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 0 / Norpregnenes; 0 / Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators; FF9X0205V2 / tibolone
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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6. Czernobilsky B: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an update. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Apr;27(2):229-35
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  • [Title] Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an update.
  • Tumors of the uterus resembling ovarian sex cord tumors were reported by Clement and Scully in 1976 and were divided in 2 groups: group 1, endometrial stromal tumors, and group 2, mural uterine tumors-both with elements resembling ovarian sex cord tumors.
  • In the former, the sex cord component constitutes a minor portion of an endometrial stromal neoplasm, whereas in the latter, it is the predominant or exclusive component of a uterine wall lesion composed of a variety of mesenchymal elements.
  • An origin from endometrial stromal cells, adenomyosis, stromal myosis, endometriosis, or multipotential cells within the myometrium was postulated in both groups of tumors.
  • In group 1 tumors, the prognosis depends on the type, grade, and stage of the underlying stromal neoplasm.
  • Group 2 tumors seemed to be benign, although because of the occasional recurrence of these tumors, they should be considered of low-grade malignant potential.
  • In group 1 tumors, the sex cord elements remained limited to cords, trabeculae, nests, and tubules.
  • Eventually, the abbreviation ESTSCLE, or endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, was given to group 1 tumors, whereas UTROSCT, or uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor, was used for group 2 tumors.
  • Positivity for calretinin and at least for 1 of the other above-mentioned markers may thus confirm the diagnosis of UTROSCT.
  • Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, on the other hand, usually express only 1 sex cord marker, mostly calretinin.
  • In conclusion, UTROSCT and, to a lesser degree, ESTSCLE, are polyphenotypic neoplasms, which, according to the evidence available at present, most likely arise from pluripotential uterine mesenchymal cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18317219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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7. Sun C, Wang XM, Liu C, Xv ZD, Wang DP, Sun XL, Deng K: Intravenous leiomyomatosis: diagnosis and follow-up with multislice computed tomography. Am J Surg; 2010 Sep;200(3):e41-3
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  • [Title] Intravenous leiomyomatosis: diagnosis and follow-up with multislice computed tomography.
  • Intravenous leiomyomatosis is a rare disease, which appears histologically benign but is clinically aggressive.
  • Intravenous leiomyomatosis was reported to have originated in the uterus and extended into the right ventricle via the inferior vena cava (IVC).
  • Multislice compute tomography (MSCT) allows an early and accurate preoperative diagnosis, resulting in a higher rate of surgical resection and improved survival.
  • The authors present 3 cases of intravenous leiomyomatosis with a history of uterine leiomyoma and hysterectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Neoplasms / radiography. Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Iliac Vein. Leiomyomatosis / radiography. Leiomyomatosis / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, Spiral Computed. Vena Cava, Inferior
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Collateral Circulation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20409533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Lax S: [Mesenchymal uterine tumors. Stromal tumors and other rare mesenchymal neoplasms]. Pathologe; 2009 Jul;30(4):284-91
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  • [Title] [Mesenchymal uterine tumors. Stromal tumors and other rare mesenchymal neoplasms].
  • Uterine stromal neoplasms are classified into endometrial stromal nodules and stromal sarcomas, as well as undifferentiated sarcomas.
  • Stromal tumors are distinct from stromal nodules by virtue of their myometrial and vascular invasion.
  • Adenosarcomas are mixed neoplasms with a low grade stromal sarcoma component containing benign glands, which are surrounded by condensed neoplastic stroma.
  • Typical uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT Type2) show predominant sex cord differentiation in a well circumscribed nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Arterioles / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology. Muscle, Smooth / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sarcoma / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19495764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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9. Arora R, Abou-Bakr AA, Ahmad MS: Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus. Gulf J Oncolog; 2010 Jan;(7):57-9
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  • [Title] Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus.
  • Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) is a rare neoplasm characterized by nodular masses of histologically benign looking smooth muscle cells growing within uterine or extrauterine venous system.The exact etiology is unclear and benign histological appearance of neoplastic smooth muscles can be deceptive since IVL might behave in a malignant fashion.
  • Total abdominal hysterectomy and excision of any extrauterine tumor if technically feasible is the cornerstone of treatment.
  • We report clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features of a uterine IVL in a 48 year old lady who presented with menorrhagia.
  • We also elaborate etiopathogenesis and conclude that knowledge about IVL is essential as it must be differentiated from malignant tumors to prevent overtreatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyomatosis / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / pathology. Veins / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20164011.001).
  • [ISSN] 2078-2101
  • [Journal-full-title] The Gulf journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gulf J Oncolog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kuwait
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10. Rachinsky I, Driedger A: Iodine-131 uptake in a menstruating uterus: value of SPECT/CT in distinguishing benign and metastatic iodine-positive lesions. Thyroid; 2007 Sep;17(9):901-2
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  • [Title] Iodine-131 uptake in a menstruating uterus: value of SPECT/CT in distinguishing benign and metastatic iodine-positive lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine / metabolism. Iodine Radioisotopes. Menstruation / physiology. Uterus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 17956166.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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11. Thomas EO, Gordon J, Smith-Thomas S, Cramer SF: Diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis with uterine rupture and benign metastatic lesions of the bone. Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Feb;109(2 Pt2):528-30
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  • [Title] Diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis with uterine rupture and benign metastatic lesions of the bone.
  • BACKGROUND: We report a case of diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis in pregnancy complicated by uterine rupture and dissemination to the bone.
  • CASE: A 35-year-old nulliparous woman with a history of uterine leiomyoma presented at term with fetal demise.
  • Failed induction of labor and hemodynamic instability due to uterine rupture resulted in a cesarean hysterectomy.
  • The diagnosis of diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis with metastasis was made on histology of the resected uterus and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the bone.
  • CONCLUSION: Diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis should be considered in pregnant women with a history of uterine fibroids and peripartum hemorrhage.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fetal Death. Leiomyomatosis / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Prenatal Diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cesarean Section. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, First. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Uterine Rupture


12. Manjunatha HK, Ramaswamy AS, Kumar BS, Kumar SP, Krishna L: Lipoleiomyoma of uterus in a postmenopausal woman. J Midlife Health; 2010 Jul;1(2):86-8
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  • [Title] Lipoleiomyoma of uterus in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Lipoleiomyomas are uncommon benign neoplasms of uterus and are considered to be a variant of uterine myomas.
  • These tumors generally occur in asymptomatic obese perimenopausal or menopausal women.
  • We report this case of uterine lipoleiomyoma because of its rarity.

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  • (PMID = 21716761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0976-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of mid-life health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Midlife Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3122497
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Lipoleiomyoma / menopause / smooth muscle / uterus
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13. Deen S, Duncan TJ, Hammond RH: Malignant female adnexal tumors of probable Wolffian origin. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Oct;26(4):383-6
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  • [Title] Malignant female adnexal tumors of probable Wolffian origin.
  • Female adnexal tumors of probable Wolffian origin are rare.
  • Although the histological features of the benign tumors are recognized, features of malignancy are not well defined in published work because these tumors are particularly rare.
  • A pelvic transvaginal ultrasound scan demonstrated a midline, highly vascular, predominantly solid pelvic mass, approximately 14 cm, posterior to the uterus.
  • Immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy supported the diagnosis of female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin.
  • There was significant and widespread nuclear pleomorphism with increased mitotic activity endorsing the diagnosis of a malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17885487.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Takeuchi M, Matsuzaki K, Uehara H, Yoshida S, Nishitani H, Shimazu H: Pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity: usual and unusual manifestations and pitfalls on magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Radiol; 2005 Nov;15(11):2244-55
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  • [Title] Pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity: usual and unusual manifestations and pitfalls on magnetic resonance imaging.
  • The endometrial cavity may demonstrate various imaging manifestations such as normal, reactive, inflammatory, and benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • We evaluated usual and unusual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the uterine endometrial cavity, and described the diagnostic clues to differential diagnoses.
  • Surgically proven pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity were evaluated retrospectively with pathologic correlation.
  • The pathologies included benign endometrial neoplasms such as endometrial hyperplasia and polyp, malignant endometrial neoplasms such as endometrial carcinoma and carcinosarcoma, endometrial-myometrial neoplasm such as endometrial stromal sarcoma, pregnancy-related lesions in the endometrial cavity such as gestational trophoblastic diseases (hydatidiform mole, invasive mole and choriocarcinoma) and placental polyp, myometrial lesions simulating endometrial lesions such as submucosal leiomyoma and some adenomyosis, endometrial neoplasms simulating myometrial lesions such as adenomyomatous polyp and endometrial lesions arising in the hemicavity of a septate/bicornate uterus, and fluid collections in the uterine cavity (hydro/hemato/pyometra).
  • It is important to recognize various imaging findings in these diseases, in order to make a correct preoperative diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrium / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16228215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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15. Plesinac-Karapandzic V, Perisic Z, Milovanovic Z, Vukicevic D, Mileusnic D, Stevanovic J, Rakocevic Z, Saric M: Invasive inflammatory pseudotumor of the pelvis: a case report with review of the literature. J BUON; 2009 Apr-Jun;14(2):301-6
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  • Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) is a rare benign lesion of unknown etiology, which mimics malignant neoplasm and may arise from various organs.
  • On bimanual vaginal and rectal examination, a mass was involving the uterus, parametria and mostly left adnexa, while the cervix appeared normal.
  • Computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed a 13x10.5 cm mass in the pelvis, mostly at the place of the left adnexa, uterus and both parametria, also involving the surrounding tissues and producing bilateral hydroureteronephrosis.
  • The last follow-up CT, 20 months after laparotomy, revealed no evidence of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma, Plasma Cell / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19650182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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16. Loffroy R, Nezzal N, Mejean N, Sagot P, Krausé D: Lipoleiomyoma of the uterus: imaging features. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2008;66(2):73-5
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  • [Title] Lipoleiomyoma of the uterus: imaging features.
  • BACKGROUND: Lipoleiomyoma is an extremely rare, benign, uterine tumor that requires no treatment when asymptomatic.
  • METHODS: A uterine lipoleiomyoma in a 68-year-old asymptomatic woman exhibited highly suggestive features by ultrasound, multislice spiral computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • RESULTS: The ultrasound findings were non-specific.
  • CT scan showed an 8 x 7 cm well-defined fatty mass of the uterine body.
  • On T(2)-weighted MR images, fat content within the tumor was confirmed because of evident chemical shift artifact.To our knowledge, the findings provided by these three modalities used in combination have not been reported previously in the gynecologic literature.
  • CONCLUSION: The data yielded by CT and MRI on the fatty nature of the lesion are valuable in diagnosing this entity.The final pathological examination results confirmed the diagnosis of lipoleiomyoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Lipoma / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18431071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-002X
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic and obstetric investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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17. Dominical VM, Cavellani CL, Rocha LP, Corrêa RR, Pereira Gde A, Teixeira Vde P: Chagas disease and gynecologic neoplasias. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Oct;14(5):337-40
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  • [Title] Chagas disease and gynecologic neoplasias.
  • The objective was to determine the occurrence of gynecologic neoplasia (GN) and demographic characteristics in patients with Chagas disease (CD).
  • The most common benign neoplasm was uterine leiomyoma, and malignant, carcinoma of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Chagas Disease / pathology. Leiomyoma / pathology. Trypanosoma cruzi. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology


18. Cobellis L, Pecori E, Rigatti F, Scaffa C, Rotondi M, Messalli EM: A rare case of female pelvic mass: angioleiomyoma of the broad ligament. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(5):418-20
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  • Angioleiomyoma is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm composed of smooth muscle cells and thick-walled vessels.
  • Angioleiomyoma is a very rare tumor among the ever-expanding repertoire of growth variants described in benign uterine leiomyoma.
  • More rare is a solitary tumor of the broad ligament.
  • Thus angioleiomyoma of the broad ligament is an extremely rare benign tumor of the female pelvis.
  • The site of the benign mass was the left broad ligament of the uterus.
  • On pathologic examination of the specimen, the tumor was diagnosed as angioleiomyoma.
  • We present a case of angioleiomyoma of the broad ligament because of its extreme rarity and the large size of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 17966227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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19. Piekutowski K, Makarewicz R, Zachara BA: The antioxidative role of selenium in pathogenesis of cancer of the female reproductive system. Neoplasma; 2007;54(5):374-8
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  • Therefore, the aim of our present study was to compare the selenium status and GSH-Px activity in the plasma of 22 healthy women, 50 individuals suffering from cancer of uterine cervix, uterine corpus or ovary, and 49 women diagnosed with benign neoplasia of the uterine corpus or ovary.
  • In addition, the selenium concentration was measured in postoperative cancer tissues, benign tumors, and histopatologically healthy surgical margins of the aforementioned patients.
  • An average selenium concentration and GSH-Px activity in blood plasma of cancer patients and benign neoplasia patients was significantly lower than in the plasma of healthy women.
  • Postoperative tissues of patients revealed significantly higher selenium concentrations in cancer tissues of uterine cervix and corpus, and benign tumors of uterine corpus, as compared to corresponding healthy tissue margins.
  • Higher accumulation of selenium in these neoplastic tissues might reflect a compensatory up-regulation of antioxidant defense systems in tumors that often undergo a persistent oxidative stress.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / pharmacology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / physiopathology. Selenium / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17688366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; H6241UJ22B / Selenium
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20. Haberal A, Cil AP, Gunes M, Cavusoglu D: Papillary adenofibroma of the cervix: a case report. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Aug;26(2):186-7
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  • Adenofibroma is an extremely rare benign biphasic neoplasm that is classified into the mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumor group.
  • Preoperative diagnosis of this tumor is usually difficult.
  • This lesion appears to be clinically and histologically benign but must be differentiated from malignant lesions of the uterus, particularly from adenosarcoma, which can be suggestive of adenofibroma.
  • Accurate diagnosis of these benign tumors permits appropriate counseling of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / ultrasonography. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / ultrasonography


21. Sieunarine K, Cowie AS, Bartlett JD, Lindsay I, Smith JR: A novel approach in the management of a recurrent adenomatoid tumor of the uterus utilizing a Strassman technique. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Jul-Aug;15(4):671-5
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  • [Title] A novel approach in the management of a recurrent adenomatoid tumor of the uterus utilizing a Strassman technique.
  • Adenomatoid tumors of the uterus are uncommon benign lesions derived from mesothelium, with a prevalence of 1.2% in one study of 1 000 unselected hysterectomy specimens.
  • They are usually small and near the serosal surface; however, they may be large and diffuse (giant adenomatoid tumors).
  • This transpired to be an adenomatoid tumor, and she underwent three transcervical resections of the tumor (TCRT) over a period of 12 months for tumor recurrence and failure of symptom resolution.
  • The last TCRT was performed with ultrasound guidance and laparoscopic visualization of the uterus to the resection point of blanching of the serosal surface.
  • A specialist opinion on the suitability of vascular embolization of the tumor judged that it would be ineffective for this lesion.
  • She then underwent a Strassman procedure and removal of the adenomatoid tumor.
  • This involved dissection of ureters and pelvic vasculature, selective temporary ligation of uterine arteries, hemisection of the uterus, and excision of the tumor with frozen sections to ensure clear tumor margins and resuturing of the uterine halves.
  • Temporary vascular occlusion of the uterine arteries and ovarian vessels allowed a Strassman procedure, which resulted in successful resection of a recurrent giant adenomatoid tumor of the uterus, with fertility preservation in a young nulliparous woman.
  • Two and a half years on there is no evidence of tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / surgery. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery. Uterus / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 16014122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Poujade O, Genin AS, Dhouha M, Luton D: A benign metastasizing leiomyoma involving a nodule in the pulmonary artery: case and literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(3):329-32
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  • [Title] A benign metastasizing leiomyoma involving a nodule in the pulmonary artery: case and literature review.
  • Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease defined as a primary benign uterine tumor with "metastatic" lesions preferentially occurring in the lung, pelvis and lymph nodes.
  • A 55-year-old woman complaining of abdominal discomfort, heaviness and asthenia was admitted to our hospital for investigation of a voluminous uterine mass with high vascularization and three pulmonary nodules.
  • The resection of the mass by laparotomy was complicated by uncontrolled severe hemorrhage due to vascular proliferation, requiring multiple transfusions, packing the cavity and postoperative uterine artery embolization.
  • The comparison of hysterectomy and lobectomy pieces showed a similar aspect, leading thus to the diagnosis of BML.
  • Awareness of this rare entity should potentially avoid under-diagnosis and difficulties due to hemorrhage during surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pulmonary Artery / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21077481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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23. Hrgović Z, Kulas T, Habek D, Izetbegović S, Hrgović I: [New options in the diagnosis and management of uterine myoma]. Med Arh; 2008;62(4):234-9
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  • [Title] [New options in the diagnosis and management of uterine myoma].
  • Myoma accounts for nearly 95% of all benign tumors of female genital organs and is the most common neoplasm of female genital tract.
  • Along with thorough history and gynecologic examination, ultrasound study is of utmost importance in the diagnosis of myoma; magnetic resonance (MR) study may also be required in rare cases.
  • A number of therapeutic options are available for the management of myoma, ranging from medicamentous therapy through operative procedures (e.g., total or supracervical hysterectomy or myoma enucleation) and novel non-operative procedures (e.g., embolization of uterine artery (EUA) and magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS).
  • Therapeutic choice should rely on the patient's decision for or against treatment, sparing the uterus.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19145810.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicinski arhiv
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Arh
  • [Language] bos
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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24. Newsom-Davis T, Poulter D, Gray R, Ameen M, Lindsay I, Papanikolaou K, Butler-Manuel S, Christmas T, Townsend P, Seckl M: Case report: malignant teratoma of the uterine corpus. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:195
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  • [Title] Case report: malignant teratoma of the uterine corpus.
  • Uterine teratomas are extremely rare with only a few previous case reports, usually involving mature teratomas of the uterine cervix.
  • Initial investigations revealed a benign teratoma of the uterus which was removed.
  • Her symptoms persisted and a recurrent, now malignant, teratoma of the uterine corpus was resected at hysterectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: In this report we discuss the aetiology, diagnosis and management of uterine teratomas, and review previous case studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Teratoma / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymphatic Diseases / etiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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25. Luo X, Chegini N: The expression and potential regulatory function of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of leiomyoma. Semin Reprod Med; 2008 Nov;26(6):500-14
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  • Leiomyomas are benign uterine tumors considered to arise from transformation of myometrial cells.

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  • (PMID = 18951332.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4564
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Reprod. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD037432-08; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD037432; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD37432; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD037432-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Number-of-references] 117
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS121237; NLM/ PMC2710997
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26. Hong R, Choi DY, Choi SJ, Lim SC: Multicentric infarcted leiomyoadenomatoid tumor: a case report. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2009;2(1):99-103
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  • [Title] Multicentric infarcted leiomyoadenomatoid tumor: a case report.
  • Adenomatoid tumor is a benign, usually small lesion that may be found within the wall of fallopian tubes or beneath the uterine serosa near the uterine cornu.
  • It is often accompanied by smooth muscle hypertrophy that may obscure the adenomatoid tumor.
  • We herein report a very unusual case of infarcted leiomyoadenomatoid tumor of the uterus and ovary in a 24-year-old woman who presented with severe lower abdominal pain and masses in the uterus and right ovary.
  • Laparoscopy-assisted transvaginal mass removal was performed under the clinical impression of a uterine leiomyoma and benign ovarian teratoma.
  • The microscopic appearance often suggested the possibility of a malignant neoplasm due to irregular pseudoinfiltration with atypical cuboidal cells and the paucity of a typical adenomatoid tumor due to infarction, and the presence of epithelial-appearing cells in the hypertrophic smooth muscle bundles that mimicked an infiltrating carcinoma for a leiomyoma or myometrium.
  • These unemphasized features of leiomyoadenomatoid tumors may potentially lead to more aggressive therapy than warranted if not correctly interpreted, especially for infarcted cases.

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  • (PMID = 18830386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Leiomyoadenomatoid tumor / infarction / ovary / uterus
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27. Shi Y, Liu Z, Peng Z, Liu H, Yang K, Yao X: The diagnosis and treatment of Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol; 2008 Dec;48(6):596-600
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  • [Title] The diagnosis and treatment of Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus.
  • BACKGROUND: Adenosarcoma of the uterus is one of the rare types of gynaecological malignant tumours.
  • Poor awareness of it among clinicians makes it difficult to diagnose correctly and timely, so it is helpful to enrich and update our knowledge about the tumour with new information of patients.
  • AIM: To improve the level of diagnosis and treatment of Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus.
  • METHODS: The medical data of nine patients with Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus who were treated from May 1995 to March 2006 in our hospital were analysed retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: Patients typically presented with abnormal uterine bleeding, pain in the lower abdomen, enlargement of the uterus, a mass in the uterine cavity and/or a cervical neoplasm.
  • Microscopically, the glands were lined by benign or atypical glandular epithelium, together with sarcomatous stromal cells which showed characteristic structures of 'periglandular cuff' of increased cellularity and 'intraglandular polypoid projections'.
  • The primary diagnostic rate was 33.3% and the average interval from symptom onset to final diagnosis was 13 months and eight weeks for pre- and postmenopausal patients, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most common symptom of adenosarcoma of the uterus is abnormal uterine bleeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / diagnosis. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


28. Rathat G, Blanc PM, Guillon F, Millat B: [Intravascular leiomyomatosis: an original tumor]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2007 Apr;35(4):323-6
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  • [Title] [Intravascular leiomyomatosis: an original tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Léiomyomatose intravasculaire: une tumeur originale.
  • An unusual uterus benign tumor, intravascular leiomyomatosis is also a differential diagnosis of uterine fibromas.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyomatosis / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17336128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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29. Rammeh-Rommani S, Mokni M, Stita W, Trabelsi A, Hamissa S, Sriha B, Tahar-Yacoubi M, Korbi S: [Uterine smooth muscle tumors: retrospective epidemiological and pathological study of 2760 cases]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2005 Oct;34(6):568-71
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  • [Title] [Uterine smooth muscle tumors: retrospective epidemiological and pathological study of 2760 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Les tumeurs musculaires lisses de l'utérus: étude épidémiologique et anatomo-pathologique rétrospective de 2760 cas.
  • INTRODUCTION: Smooth muscle tumors of the uterus are frequent.
  • Most of them are benign.
  • These tumors are: cellular leiomyoma, atypical leiomyoma and mitotically active leiomyoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our work is to study cases of leiomyosarcomas, cellular leiomyoma, atypical leiomyoma and mitotically active leiomyoma among a large series of uterine smooth muscle tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively 2760 uterine smooth muscle tumors.
  • The slides were reviewed and the tumors reclassified according to the criteria of the WHO 2003 classification.
  • RESULTS: Review of the slides demonstrated: 12 mitotically active leiomyomas, 18 cellular leiomyomas, 20 atypical leiomyomas, 16 leiomysarcomas, only one case of smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential.
  • The 2709 remaining tumors were all common leiomyomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Uterine Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Leiomyoma / epidemiology. Leiomyoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16208199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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30. Litovkin KV, Ivanova OV, Bauer A, Hoheisel JD, Bubnov VV, Zaporozhan VN: Microarray study of gene expression in uterine leiomyoma. Exp Oncol; 2008 Jun;30(2):106-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microarray study of gene expression in uterine leiomyoma.
  • Uterine leiomyoma is a most common benign neoplasm in women of reproductive age.
  • It arises from the myometrial compartment of the uterus and may transform in some cases to a malignant phenotype.
  • AIM: To identify the genes involved in pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Newly identified genes may be regarded as potential diagnostic or prognostic markers of uterine leiomyoma and thus may be very useful as new therapeutic candidates.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Leiomyoma / metabolism. Myometrium / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism


31. Tomsová M, Pohnĕtalová D, Spacek J: [Rare tumours of myometrium--intravenous leiomyomatosis and benign metastatic leiomyoma]. Ceska Gynekol; 2007 Apr;72(2):136-9
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  • [Title] [Rare tumours of myometrium--intravenous leiomyomatosis and benign metastatic leiomyoma].
  • Leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine neoplasms of the myometrium.
  • We present a case of intravenous leiomyomatosis in a 52-year-old woman and a case of benign metastasizing leiomyoma in a 45-year-old woman.
  • Intravenous leiomyomatosis is an uncommon condition in which morphologically benign smooth muscle is present within the lumina of the veins.
  • Benign metastasizing leiomyoma is a very rare phenomenon where histologically benign smooth muscle tumours are present at distant sites, particularly in the lungs, in women having histologically benign uterine leiomyoma.


32. Kitajima K, Murakami K, Kaji Y, Sugimura K: Spectrum of FDG PET/CT findings of uterine tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Sep;195(3):737-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spectrum of FDG PET/CT findings of uterine tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review FDG PET/CT and MRI findings in a variety of benign and malignant tumors of the uterus and to become familiar with the wide variety of FDG PET/CT findings of this entity.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign uterine tumors generally have mild FDG uptake, and leiomyoma rarely shows high uptake.
  • Uterine malignant tumors generally have intense FDG uptake, whereas malignant uterine tumors that are small or that have low cellular density often show minimal uptake.
  • [MeSH-major] Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Uterine Neoplasms / radiography. Uterine Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Endometrial Neoplasms / radiography. Endometrial Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Leiomyoma / radiography. Leiomyoma / radionuclide imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Precancerous Conditions / radiography. Precancerous Conditions / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sarcoma / radiography. Sarcoma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 20729454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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33. Varkarakis IM, Pinggera G, Antoniou N, Constantinides K, Chrisofos M, Deliveliotis C: Pathological review of internal genitalia after anterior exenteration for bladder cancer in women. Evaluating risk factors for female organ involvement. Int Urol Nephrol; 2007;39(4):1015-21
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  • The vagina was involved in two cases (3.8%) while the uterus in one (1.9%).
  • In all cases involvement was due to direst extension from bladder tumors of the base and dome respectively.
  • Benign pathology of the female reproductive organs was observed in six patients and involved in all cases the uterus (11.5%).
  • Internal genitalia involvement after radical cystectomy for TCC tumors of the bladder is rare (5.8%).
  • Preoperative risk factors could not be identified although all involved genitalia were seen in tumors of the bladder dome and base.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cystectomy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


34. Koirala K, Shrestha ML, Chalise PR, Shrestha BB, Shrestha R: Leiomyoma of breast: a report of rare case. Nepal Med Coll J; 2008 Sep;10(3):207-8
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  • Leiomyoma is a benign smooth muscle neoplasm.
  • They can occur in any organ, but the most common forms occur in the uterus, small bowel and the esophagus.
  • Leiomyoma of breast is a rare benign non epithelial tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leiomyoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19253869.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nepal Med Coll J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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35. Mayer A, Höckel M, Wree A, Leo C, Horn LC, Vaupel P: Lack of hypoxic response in uterine leiomyomas despite severe tissue hypoxia. Cancer Res; 2008 Jun 15;68(12):4719-26
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  • [Title] Lack of hypoxic response in uterine leiomyomas despite severe tissue hypoxia.
  • Because benign tumors do not exhibit these traits, one might expect these entities to be neither hypoxic nor to induce the genetic hypoxia response program.
  • To test this hypothesis, an investigation of the oxygenation status of 17 leiomyomas and 1 leiomyosarcoma of the uterus using polarographic needle electrodes (Eppendorf pO(2) sensor) and the expression of hypoxia-related markers in biopsy specimens of the same tumors was carried out.
  • Uterine leiomyoma might therefore represent a state of oxygen-limited proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / metabolism. Leiomyoma / metabolism. Leiomyosarcoma / metabolism. Oxygen / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Apoptosis. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism. Carbonic Anhydrases / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Female. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism. Humans. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Middle Aged. Myometrium / metabolism. Myometrium / pathology. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18559518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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36. Ohmaru T, Yamakawa H, Netsu S, Nokubi M, Konno R: Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) with multiple metastases and extremely poor prognosis. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Oct;14(5):452-6
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) with multiple metastases and extremely poor prognosis.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare type of gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • There is a wide clinical spectrum of presentation and behavior ranging from a benign condition to an aggressive disease with a fatal outcome.
  • PSTT limited to the uterus is in a good prognosis group, but PSTT with metastasis is a lethal disease.
  • The mitotic count of the tumor cells was quite high (23/10 high-power fields).
  • It would have been difficult to remove the tumor by surgery because of the tumor size and its invasion, so we suggested chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biopsy. Cell Differentiation. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Failure. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19856056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; EMA-CO protocol
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37. Agdi M, Tulandi T: Minimally invasive approach for myomectomy. Semin Reprod Med; 2010 May;28(3):228-34
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  • Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumor of the uterus in women of reproductive age.
  • In those with abnormal uterine bleeding, one should exclude other causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding including endometrial cancer.
  • Diagnosis of uterine fibroid is established by pelvic ultrasonography with or without saline infusion hysterosonography.
  • Intramural and subserous myomas in women who opt for nonsurgical treatment could be treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), or medical treatment such as selective gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, progesterone receptor modulators, or aromatase inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Thieme Medical Publishers.
  • (PMID = 20414845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4564
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Reprod. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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38. Brown L: Pathology of uterine malignancies. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2008 Aug;20(6):433-47
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  • [Title] Pathology of uterine malignancies.
  • This overview covers epithelial, stromal and mesenchymal malignancies of the body of the uterus, excluding the cervix.
  • The distinction of type I and type II endometrial adenocarcinoma with the morphological variants of this tumour is discussed and some molecular aspects are explored.
  • Some types of mixed epithelial and stromal neoplasm are described and contrasted with carcinosarcoma.
  • The concept of stromal sarcoma and high-grade uterine sarcoma is described and an outline of malignant smooth muscle tumours of the uterus includes a description of smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential and worrying benign smooth muscle lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Female. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18499412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 233
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39. Vilos GA, Hollett-Caines J, Abu-Rafea B, Allen HH, Inculet R, Kirk ME: Leiomyosarcoma diagnosed six years after laparoscopic electromyolysis. J Obstet Gynaecol Can; 2008 Jun;30(6):500-504
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  • BACKGROUND: Making a histologic diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma in the specimen from a hysterectomy performed for suspected benign fibroids is rare.
  • Currently, there are no reliable diagnostic tools to diagnose uterine sarcomas preoperatively.
  • CASE: A 38-year-old woman presented with menorrhagia and a uterine fibroid measuring 6.0 cm x 8.1 cm x 6.2 cm on ultrasonography.
  • Six years after myolysis, the patient presented with right lower quadrant pain and a rapidly enlarging uterus.
  • Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma was histologically confirmed.
  • CONCLUSION: The current trend in treatment for symptomatic fibroids is therapy sparing the uterus.
  • Women considering uterus-sparing treatment should be advised of the potential risk of uterine malignancy, even though that risk is quite minimal (< 0.5%).
  • A delay in the diagnosis of uterine malignancy may ultimately compromise long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Laparoscopy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Myometrium / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18611301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1701-2163
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada : JOGC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynaecol Can
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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40. Biermann K, Heukamp LC, Büttner R, Zhou H: Uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex cord tumor associated with metastasis. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jan;27(1):58-60
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  • [Title] Uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex cord tumor associated with metastasis.
  • Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumors (UTROSCT) are very rare, usually benign uterine tumors, and are probably derived from uterine mesenchymal stem cells.
  • Four years after a diagnosis of UTROSCT of the uterine corpus, the patient developed obstructive ileus due to a large infiltrating tumor within the small bowel with the same morphology and expression pattern as the previously diagnosed UTROSCT.
  • In addition, 2 benign gastrointestinal stromal tumors were detected in the same patient.
  • This case indicates that although the majority of UTROSCT are benign tumors, some of them might undergo malignant transformation and have a metastatic potency.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Obstruction / etiology. Intestine, Small / metabolism. Intestine, Small / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / metabolism. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18156976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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41. Scheer ML, Slebos DJ, Bogchelman DH, Timens W: [Pulmonary densities following a hysterectomy, caused by benign metastatic leiomyoma]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Sep 13;152(37):2027-31
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary densities following a hysterectomy, caused by benign metastatic leiomyoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Pulmonale verdichtingen na een uterusextirpatie, door benigne metastatisch leiomyoom.
  • Histological investigation of a biopsy from one of these lesions revealed a benign metastatic leiomyoma.
  • Benign metastatic leiomyoma is a rare benign clinical entity in women of fertile age who have had a surgical intervention on the uterus because of uterus myomatosus.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / therapeutic use. Leiomyoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 18825892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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42. Mangioni S, Viganò P, Lattuada D, Abbiati A, Vignali M, Di Blasio AM: Overexpression of the Wnt5b gene in leiomyoma cells: implications for a role of the Wnt signaling pathway in the uterine benign tumor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Sep;90(9):5349-55
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  • [Title] Overexpression of the Wnt5b gene in leiomyoma cells: implications for a role of the Wnt signaling pathway in the uterine benign tumor.
  • CONTEXT: Uterine leiomyomas are the most common tumors in the human female pelvis and the leading indication for pelvic surgery.
  • Treatment with 9-cis retinoic acid significantly inhibited Wnt5b expression in myometrial SMC but not in their leiomyoma counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15972578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SFRP1 protein, human; 0 / WNT5B protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins
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43. Mesquita FS, Dyer SN, Heinrich DA, Bulun SE, Marsh EE, Nowak RA: Reactive oxygen species mediate mitogenic growth factor signaling pathways in human leiomyoma smooth muscle cells. Biol Reprod; 2010 Feb;82(2):341-51
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  • Uterine leiomyomas are benign uterine tumors characterized by extracellular matrix remodeling, increased collagen deposition, and increased smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation.
  • The necessity of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS for EGF and PDGF signaling pathways leading to cell proliferation points to another potential therapeutic target for treatment and/or prevention of uterine leiomyomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology. Leiomyoma / metabolism. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / pharmacology. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA / biosynthesis. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Hydrogen Peroxide / pharmacology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Muscle, Smooth / metabolism. NADPH Oxidase / antagonists & inhibitors


44. Giordano G, D'Adda T, Gnetti L, Merisio C, Raboni S: Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium associated with benign ovarian brenner tumor: a case report with immunohistochemistry molecular analysis and a review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jul;26(3):298-304
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  • [Title] Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium associated with benign ovarian brenner tumor: a case report with immunohistochemistry molecular analysis and a review of the literature.
  • This neoplasm is very rare, with only 13 cases reported in the international literature.
  • In this paper, a new case of TCCE associated with benign ovarian Brenner tumor is described.
  • Moreover, immunohistochemical and molecular studies are carried out in the effort to establish the phenotype and etiology of this rare neoplasm.
  • The molecular study, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) failing to reveal the presence of HPV DNA, demonstrates that neither the TCCE nor the ovarian Brenner tumor is caused by an HPV infection.
  • The association of TCCE with benign ovarian Brenner tumor could be a coincidental event.
  • Conversely, this finding could be the manifestation of a multicentric metaplastic process (neometaplasia), involving both the coelomic epithelium of the ovary and the Mullerian epithelium of the uterus, or the evidence of "field effect" that manifests differently at different anatomical sites.
  • In our view, other cases of TCCE associated with ovarian Brenner tumor should be reported to confirm the last 2 hypotheses.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17581415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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45. Chen XD, Shi HY, Zhang XF: [Clinicopathologic analysis of 102 cases of mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumors of the uterus]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Apr;42(4):219-21
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic analysis of 102 cases of mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumors of the uterus].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and pathologic features, histological criteria and pathologic factors contributing to diagnosis of mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumors (mixed müllerian tumors, MMT) of the uterus.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study of 102 cases of MMT of the uterus (74 adenofibromas including 9 recurrent cases, 3 atypical polypoid adenomyomas, 2 carcinofibromas, 10 adenosarcomas and 13 carcinosarcomas) was undertaken.
  • Clinical signs included pelvic mass, uterine polyps, and enlarged uterus.
  • Benign MMT usually presented as exophytic polypoid masses extending into the uterine cavity or protruding through the external os, often broad-based, lobulated and papillary.
  • It was hard to distinguish low-grade malignant MMT from the benign ones by gross appearance.
  • MMT were classified according to whether these elements were benign or malignant.
  • Nine cases of adenofibroma without unique features for the diagnosis of adenosarcoma recurred at postoperative intervals of 3 to 96 months.
  • Recurrent tumors were almost always confined to the original site.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Uterine MMT tumors according to WHO diagnostic criteria are not rare.
  • The differential diagnosis depends on a multifactorial analysis.
  • The recurrent adenofibromas may be a kind of borderline tumors with benign appearances and malignant behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenofibroma / pathology. Adenomyoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17631758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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46. Hakverdi S, Dolapçioğlu K, Güngören A, Yaldiz M, Hakverdi AU: Multiple uterine angioleiomyomas mimicking an ovarian neoplasm: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(5):592-4
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  • [Title] Multiple uterine angioleiomyomas mimicking an ovarian neoplasm: a case report.
  • Angioleiomyoma is a rare benign neoplasm that originates from smooth muscle cells and contains thick-walled blood vessels.
  • At the exploration, a tumoral mass that could not be differentiated as to whether it had its origin from the uterus or ovary was specified.
  • On pathologic examination of the specimen, the tumor was diagnosed as an angioleiomyoma.
  • Here, we present a case of giant-multiple uterine angioleiomyomas mimicking an ovarian neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyoma / diagnosis. Angiomyoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis. Uterine Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Ovariectomy

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  • (PMID = 19899426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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47. Singh AM, Konjengbam R, Devi SS, Devi NP: Leiomyosarcoma of uterus--a case report. J Indian Med Assoc; 2006 Mar;104(3):142, 144, 147
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  • [Title] Leiomyosarcoma of uterus--a case report.
  • Leiomyosarcoma of uterus is a very rare malignant mesenchymal tumour of uterus.
  • It may arise from the uterine myometrium de novo or may be transformed from a pre-existing benign leiomyoma.
  • A 55-year-old female presenting with 20-22 weeks size of uterus and bleeding per vagina was clinically diagnosed as a case of leiomyoma uteri and cervical polyp, was subjected to abdominal hysterectomy.
  • The tumour mass was later confirmed histologically as leiomyosarcoma of uterus presumed to be transformed from pre-existing leiomyoma uteri.
  • [MeSH-major] Hysterectomy. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16910338.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5847
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Indian Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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48. Wang X, Kumar D, Seidman JD: Uterine lipoleiomyomas: a clinicopathologic study of 50 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Jul;25(3):239-42
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  • [Title] Uterine lipoleiomyomas: a clinicopathologic study of 50 cases.
  • Lipoleiomyoma is an uncommon uterine neoplasm and, although presumed to be benign, has been inadequately studied.
  • Confirming the benign nature of this tumor is important because it can closely resemble well-differentiated liposarcoma.
  • We evaluated 50 consecutive lipoleiomyomas diagnosed at the Washington Hospital Center from 1998 to 2004; 2.1% of patients who had uterine leiomyomas during this period had a lipoleiomyoma.
  • The mean and median tumor size was 4.6 and 2.1 cm, respectively.
  • Forty-three (83%) tumors were located in the uterine corpus, and 7 (13%) were in the cervix.
  • One broad ligament tumor and one retroperitoneal tumor were also studied.
  • The mitotic index was zero for all tumors.
  • No tumors displayed cytological atypia, necrosis, calcification, or other degenerative changes.
  • There were no recurrences or fatalities related to tumor.
  • Lipoleiomyoma of the uterus seems to have an uneventful clinical course and can now be confidently regarded as benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology


49. Chalas E, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N, Lewis GC, Bergman C, Runowicz CD: Benign gynecologic conditions among participants in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Apr;192(4):1230-7; discussion 1237-9
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  • [Title] Benign gynecologic conditions among participants in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to report on the benign gynecologic conditions occurring among women with an intact uterus at enrollment in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The incidence rates of several benign gynecologic conditions were determined and risks were compared among women receiving tamoxifen and those receiving placebo, based on risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Genital Diseases, Female / chemically induced. Genital Diseases, Female / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Tamoxifen / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Confidence Intervals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Reference Values. Risk Assessment

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;194(4):1204-5; author reply 1205 [16580343.001]
  • (PMID = 15846210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10-CA-37377; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10-CA-69974
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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50. Ko ML, Lin HW, Chen SC, Pan HS: Should cystoscopy be routinely performed after laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy? Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol; 2008;17(3):195-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • There were eighty patients who underwent LAVH for benign tumors of the uterus (adenomyosis and myoma), uterine prolapse, persistent intraepithelial neoplasm of the cervix (CIN3) and cervical carcinoma in situ (CIS).
  • From among the 80 patients who underwent LAVH, 52 had myoma, 19 had adenomyosis, six patients had uterine prolapse, one had CIS and seven patients were diagnosed to have CIN3.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystoscopy / methods. Hysterectomy, Vaginal / adverse effects. Intraoperative Complications / diagnosis. Laparoscopy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies. Stents. Ureter / injuries. Ureter / surgery. Ureteral Obstruction / diagnosis. Ureteral Obstruction / etiology. Ureteral Obstruction / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18608998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2931
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive therapy & allied technologies : MITAT : official journal of the Society for Minimally Invasive Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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51. Shaco-Levy R, Piura B: Uterine adenolipoleiomyoma: a tumor with potential of aggressive behavior. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Apr;27(2):252-7
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  • [Title] Uterine adenolipoleiomyoma: a tumor with potential of aggressive behavior.
  • An unusual uterine adenolipoleiomyoma forming intramural and subserosal masses and recurring within 16 months in the form of huge coalescent uterine masses is described.
  • Histology showed the mass to be composed of benign-appearing smooth muscle, mature adipose tissue, and bland endocervical-type glands.
  • The recurrent adenolipoleiomyoma contained, in addition, benign-appearing endometrial-type glands and stroma and showed small foci of atypically proliferating endocervical-type epithelium.
  • This is the fourth report of adenolipoleiomyoma within the uterus, the second with an intramural location, and the first with an aggressive behavior in the form of massive local recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18317215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Saeed AS, Hanaa B, Faisal AS, Najla AM: Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma of the uterus: a case report of a benign uterine tumor with sarcomalike gross appearance and review of literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Jul;25(3):262-7
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  • [Title] Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma of the uterus: a case report of a benign uterine tumor with sarcomalike gross appearance and review of literature.
  • Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma (Sternberg tumor) is a very rare variant of uterine smooth muscle tumor with an unusual and alarming gross appearance.
  • A 41-cm fungating rubbery mass with placenta-like appearance adhering to the posterior uterine surface and extending to the left broad ligament and pelvic cavity was observed.
  • An intraoperative frozen section was requested, and a diagnosis of a benign smooth muscle tumor was given.
  • Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed with removal of the pelvic tumor extension.
  • Thorough tumor sampling was performed and showed nodules of interlacing bundles of bland-looking smooth muscle cells, separated by expanded, edematous, and highly vascularized stroma.
  • Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the smooth muscle nature of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adult. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Sarcoma / chemistry. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / pathology. Smooth Muscle Tumor / chemistry. Smooth Muscle Tumor / diagnosis. Smooth Muscle Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16810065.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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53. Onuma K, Dabbs DJ, Bhargava R: Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):418-25
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  • [Title] Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium.
  • Mammaglobin (MGB), a secretory protein belonging to the uteroglobin/Clara cell protein family, is a sensitive marker for breast carcinoma, but is also reported to be expressed in the female genital tract and its neoplasms.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) showed either weak (predominantly) or moderate (occasionally) expression in about 40% of the cases in comparison with strong positivity in benign endocervical glandular epithelium.
  • Reduction of MGB staining was seen in transition from benign epithelium to AIS.
  • Most endocervical adenocarcinomas are negative for MGB, in contrast to mostly positive endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas, however, MGB expression alone is not specific enough to distinguish these 2 tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism. Uteroglobin / biosynthesis. Uterus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammaglobin A. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18580321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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54. Salomir R, Delemazure AS, Palussière J, Rouvière O, Cotton F, Chapelon JY: Image-based control of the magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound thermotherapy. Top Magn Reson Imaging; 2006 Jun;17(3):139-51
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  • (1) a versatile, nonionizing physical agent for therapy and (2) a state-of-the art diagnosis and on-line monitoring tool.
  • A commercially available, Food and Drug Administration-approved device using the MRI-guided FUS exists since 2004 for the ablation of benign tumors (uterine fibroids); however, the ultimate goal of the technological, methodological, and medical research in this field is to provide a clinical-routine tool for fighting localized cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy. Ultrasonic Therapy / methods


55. Pan X, Dib HH, Zhu M, Zhang Y, Fan Y: Absence of appropriate hospitalization cost control for patients with medical insurance: a comparative analysis study. Health Econ; 2009 Oct;18(10):1146-62
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  • OBJECTIVE: Expose the weak loops in the Chinese medical insurance coverage and uncover hospitals' role of over-pricing hospitalized insured patients compared with those non-insured.
  • METHODS: A multi-linear regression method was used to analyze hospitalization expense for insured and uninsured patients with uncomplicated acute appendicitis, cholecystitis, benign uterine tumors, and normal delivery.

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  • (PMID = 18972328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1050
  • [Journal-full-title] Health economics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Health Econ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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56. Stübinger SH, van der Horst Ch, Braun PM: [Pelvic tumors in the eyes of urologists]. Ther Umsch; 2007 Jul;64(7):395-8
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  • [Title] [Pelvic tumors in the eyes of urologists].
  • [Transliterated title] Raumforderungen im kleinen Becken aus Sicht des Urologen.
  • Pelvic tumors originating from outside the urinary tract commonly invade the urogenital organs by direct extension mainly because of the close relationships between the pelvic organs.
  • Benign tumors such as endometrial myoma, ovarian cyst and adenoma of the colon might lead to the development of urogenital symptoms.
  • This is also the case with malignant tumors of the uterus, ovaries, cervix and colon where infiltration of the urogenital organs might be noted.
  • These are the symptoms that lead to the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • It has to be kept in mind that urogenital tumors with such symptoms have to be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • The possibility of eradicating the tumor is then to be discussed after relieving the obstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Pelvic Neoplasms. Prostatic Hyperplasia. Prostatic Neoplasms. Urethral Neoplasms. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Cystectomy. Cystoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prostatectomy. Quality of Life. Urinary Bladder / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17948757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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57. Lazović G, Milićević S, Atanacković J, Milosevic V, Bozanović T, Gojnić M: Leiomyoma of the uterus and retroperitoneal angioleiomyoma: case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol; 2007;34(4):257-8
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  • [Title] Leiomyoma of the uterus and retroperitoneal angioleiomyoma: case report.
  • Retroperitoneal angioleiomyoma is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm that is composed of smooth muscle cells and thick-walled vessels.
  • In a 36-year-old patient a retrouterine and retroperitoneal tumor, 70 x 65 x 50 mm in size, was discovered during a surgical procedure due to uterine myoma.
  • The tumor had a soft consistency and was completely removed.
  • Angioleiomyoma is a rare benign entity; hence a benign course and good prognosis are expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyoma / complications. Leiomyoma / complications. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18225694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-6663
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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58. Mavrelos D, Ben-Nagi J, Holland T, Hoo W, Naftalin J, Jurkovic D: The natural history of fibroids. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Feb;35(2):238-42
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  • OBJECTIVES: Fibroids are common, hormone-dependent, benign uterine tumors.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective longitudinal study of premenopausal women who were diagnosed with uterine fibroids on ultrasound examination.
  • CONCLUSION: The growth of fibroids in premenopausal women is influenced by the tumor's size at presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyomatosis / ultrasonography. Uterine Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Middle Aged. Premenopause. Prognosis. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 20069541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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59. Gallardo A, Prat J: Mullerian adenosarcoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 55 cases challenging the existence of adenofibroma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Feb;33(2):278-88
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  • Mullerian adenosarcomas are rare mixed tumors of low malignant potential that occur mainly in the uterus and also in extrauterine locations.
  • Thirty-seven tumors were of the uterine corpus, 11 of the cervix, 4 of the ovary, and 1 each of the fallopian tube, vagina, and Douglas peritoneum.
  • Of 30 tumors of the uterine corpus, 17 were stage IA, 11 stage IB, 1 stage IC, and 1 stage IIIC.
  • Four cervical tumors were stage IB.
  • Three of the 4 ovarian tumors were stage IA and the other was stage IIIC.
  • The tumor of the fallopian tube was stage IC, and the tumors of the vagina and recto-uterine pouch were confined to their site of origin.
  • Most uterine tumors were polypoid masses ranging from 1 to 20 cm (mean: 6.5 cm).
  • Fourteen of 30 uterine tumors (47%) had myometrial invasion that was minimal in 5, involved one-third of the myometrial thickness in 7, and more than 50% in 2.
  • Of 4 cervical tumors, 2 were endocervical polyps, 1 invaded one-third of the cervical wall, and the other invaded its full thickness.
  • Six developed metastases and 5 of them died of tumor.
  • Four had adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth; however, the other 2 patients had typical low-grade adenosarcomas of the uterine corpus and cervix, respectively, exhibiting only mild nuclear atypia of the stromal component and </=2 mitotic figures/10 high power fields.
  • The finding of such cases, which raises the controversy of whether or not adenofibroma exists as a tumor entity, prompted us to make a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of 23 typical adenosarcomas, 8 adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth, and 29 benign and malignant related lesions, including 7 clinically benign adenofibromas.
  • Adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth showed strong immunoreaction for Ki-67 and p53 and loss of CD10 and progesterone receptors immunostaining; in contrast, the immunoreaction for these tumor markers in typical adenosarcomas without sarcomatous overgrowth was similar to that of adenofibromas associated with favorable outcome and other benign lesions such as endometrial polyps and endometriosis.
  • These findings suggest that some of the tumors currently classified as adenofibromas, on the basis of their low mitotic count and lack of significant nuclear atypia, are, in fact, well-differentiated adenosarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / pathology. Adenosarcoma / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Staging. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18941402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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60. Han XY, Xiang Y, Guo LN, Sheng K, Wan XR, Huang HF, Pan LY: [Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus: A clinicopathologic analysis of 9 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Jan;32(1):44-7
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  • [Title] [Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus: A clinicopathologic analysis of 9 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathologic features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of uterine mullerian adenosarcoma.
  • METHODS: The clinicopathological data of 9 cases of uterine mullerian adenosarcoma in PUMC hospital from January 2003 to February 2009 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • RESULTS: There were 6 uterine endometrial adenosarcomas and 3 cervical adenosarcomas.
  • Physical examination showed cervical/vaginal mass, enlarged uterus or pelvic mass.
  • The adenosarcoma was characterized by benign or atypical-appearing neoplastic glands within a sarcomatous stroma.
  • During the follow-up, 2 cases of uterine endometrial adenosarcoma recurred.
  • The other one recurred 2 years after local excision of the tumor in the uterine cavity and she remained healthy since hysterectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: Uterine mullerian adenosarcoma is a rare tumor without specific clinical symptoms and signs.
  • The diagnosis depends on pathomorphologic examination.
  • The tumors show low malignant potential and the vast majority are at early stage.
  • Surgical excision is the main treatment strategy with a good prognosis in the early stage disease with complete removal of tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosarcoma / drug therapy. Adenosarcoma / pathology. Adenosarcoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20211067.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; Adenosarcoma of the uterus; ICE protocol 1
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61. Grammatikakis I, Ivanov S, Evangelinakis N, Zevoudis S, Tziortzioti V: [Incidence of synchronous primary neoplasms of the female reproductive tract in women with ovarian endometriosis: a retrospective analysis of 811 cases]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2009;48(3):26-30
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  • [Title] [Incidence of synchronous primary neoplasms of the female reproductive tract in women with ovarian endometriosis: a retrospective analysis of 811 cases].
  • PURPOSE: Although endometriosis is a benign disorder recent studies suggest endometriosis could be viewed as a neoplastic process.
  • Objective of this study is to explore the epidemiology of synchronous neoplasms (SPN) in women with severe endometriosis.
  • The medical records and pathology were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis and stage of tumors.
  • All of our patients had a grade-I endometrioid carcinoma of the uterus (Ia in 3, Ib in 2).
  • Median diameter of the ovarian neoplasias was 4.3 cm, in contradiction to 4.5 cm that was the median diameter of all endometrioid cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / epidemiology. Endometriosis / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bulgaria / epidemiology. Female. Greece / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Uterine Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20198760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0324-0959
  • [Journal-full-title] Akusherstvo i ginekologii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Akush Ginekol (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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62. Bodner-Adler B, Bartl M, Wagner G: Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus with pulmonary metastases or a case with benign metastasizing leiomyoma? Anticancer Res; 2009 Feb;29(2):495-6
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  • [Title] Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus with pulmonary metastases or a case with benign metastasizing leiomyoma?
  • BACKGROUND: Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) is defined as an intraluminal growth of benign smooth muscle cells in either venous or lymphatic vessels outside the confines or even in the absence of leiomyomas.
  • Benign metastasizing uterine leiomyoma is defined as a histologically benign uterine smooth muscle tumor that acts in a somewhat malignant fashion and produces benign metastases.
  • We report a case of a patient suffering from IVL of the uterus and pulmonary leiomyomatosis.
  • CASE REPORT: The patient presented with severe hypermenorrhoe and a rapidly growing uterine fibroid.
  • An open lung biopsy led to the diagnosis of pulmonary leiomyomatosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Though intravenous leiomyomatosis imitates a malignant neoplasm concerning the pattern of growth and extension, and benign metastasizing leiomyoma produces benign metastases, they must be differentiated histologically from malignant tumors to prevent overtreatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Leiomyomatosis / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans


63. Ahmed Z, Aftab K, Kayani N: Ovarian primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of non-small cell type: report of an extremely rare neoplasm. J Pak Med Assoc; 2005 Feb;55(2):82-4
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  • [Title] Ovarian primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of non-small cell type: report of an extremely rare neoplasm.
  • Paraffin block sections of a uterus and ovarian mass from a 31 year old female were sent for second opinion to the Pathology Laboratory of Aga Khan University.
  • Histologic examination and immunohistochemical features gave a diagnosis of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of non-small cell type admixed with benign mucinous cystadenoma.
  • This is a rare tumour with only eight being reported in literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15813637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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64. Tatebe S, Oka K, Kuraoka S, Yatabe Y: Benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the lung: potential role of low-grade malignancy. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2009 Apr;57(3):180-3
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  • [Title] Benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the lung: potential role of low-grade malignancy.
  • We report here 2 cases of multiple metastatic lung tumors after hysterectomy for leiomyoma.
  • One patient was diagnosed as having a benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML), while the other patient simultaneously developed a left pelvic tumor and multiple lung tumors, both of which were finally diagnosed as low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs).
  • The metastatic potential of BML is not completely understood, but previously reported cases of BML may include low-grade ESS, which may play a significant role in the metastasis of benign uterine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Leiomyomatosis / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19330762.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-6425
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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65. Canis M, Farina M, Jardon K, Rabischong B, Rivoire C, Nohuz E, Botchorishvili R, Pouly JL, Mage G: [Laparoscopy and gynecologic cancer in 2005]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2006 Apr;35(2):117-35
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  • [Transliterated title] Coelioscopie et cancer en gynécologie: le point en 2005.
  • Animal studies suggested that the risk of tumor dissemination in non traumatized peritoneum is higher after a pneumoperitoneum than after a laparotomy.
  • Changing these parameters we may, in the future, be able to create a peritoneal environment adapted to oncologic patients in order to prevent or to decrease the risks of peritoneal dissemination and/or of postoperative tumor growth.
  • In patients with endometrial cancer, the laparoscopic approach should be reserved to clinical stage I disease, if the vaginal extraction is anticipated to be easy accounting for the volume of the uterus and the local conditions.
  • Laparoscopy is the gold standard for the surgical diagnosis of adnexal masses.
  • In contrast restaging of an early ovarian cancer initially managed as a benign mass, is a good indication of the laparoscopic approach.
  • The laparoscopic management of low malignant potential tumors should include a complete staging of the peritoneum.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Peritoneal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / etiology. Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial / adverse effects. Risk Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16575358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 190
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66. Goufman EI, Moshkovskii SA, Tikhonova OV, Lokhov PG, Zgoda VG, Serebryakova MV, Toropygin IY, Vlasova MA, Safarova MR, Makarov OV, Archakov AI: Two-dimensional electrophoretic proteome study of serum thermostable fraction from patients with various tumor conditions. Biochemistry (Mosc); 2006 Apr;71(4):354-60
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  • [Title] Two-dimensional electrophoretic proteome study of serum thermostable fraction from patients with various tumor conditions.
  • The thermostable fraction of serum samples from patients with ovarian, uterus, and breast cancers and benign ovarian tumor was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF(-TOF)-mass spectrometry.
  • Apolipoprotein A-I forms have decreased spot volumes, while haptoglobin alpha1, in contrast, is elevated in several tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional / methods. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Proteome / analysis. Proteomics / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization. Uterine Neoplasms / blood. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16615854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2979
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochemistry Mosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteome
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67. Folpe AL, Mentzel T, Lehr HA, Fisher C, Balzer BL, Weiss SW: Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms of soft tissue and gynecologic origin: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Dec;29(12):1558-75
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  • [Title] Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms of soft tissue and gynecologic origin: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases and review of the literature.
  • This family of tumors includes angiomyolipoma (AML), clear cell sugar tumor of the lung (CCST), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), and very rare tumors in other locations.
  • Because non-AML/non-LAM PEComas are extremely rare and their natural history and prognostic features undefined, we present our experience with 26 PEComas of soft tissue and the gynecologic tract, the largest series to date.
  • Sites of involvement included the omentum or mesentery (6 cases), uterus (4 cases), pelvic soft tissues (3 cases), abdominal wall (2 cases), uterine cervix (2 cases), and vagina, retroperitoneum, thigh, falciform ligament, scalp, broad ligament, forearm, shoulder, and neck (1 case each).
  • The tumors ranged from 1.6 to 29 cm in size (median, 7.8 cm).
  • Tumors were epithelioid (N = 9), spindled (N = 7), or mixed (N = 10).
  • Recurrence and/or metastasis was strongly associated tumor size > median size (8 cm), mitotic activity greater than 1/50 HPF, and necrosis.
  • We conclude that PEComas of soft tissue and gynecologic origin may be classified as "benign," "of uncertain malignant potential," or "malignant."
  • Small PEComas without any worrisome histologic features are most likely benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 16327428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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68. Rubod C, Mubiayi N, Verhulst P, Robert Y, Vinatier D: [Uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis. A case report]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2005 Dec;33(12):991-3
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  • [Title] [Uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis. A case report].
  • Uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis is a rare benign tumor.
  • We report the case of a 41-year-old woman, with no history, who presented an abdominopelvic mass arising from the uterus.
  • Histological examination revealed uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis.
  • The specificity of this tumor is hormonodependency and potential vascular extension.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyomatosis / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16324869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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69. Dinas K, Daniilidis A, Drizis E, Zaraboukas T, Tzafettas J: Incidental diagnosis of atypical polypoid adenomyoma in a young infertile woman. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(6):701-3
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  • [Title] Incidental diagnosis of atypical polypoid adenomyoma in a young infertile woman.
  • Atypical polypoid adenomyoma (APA) is considered to be a rare, benign form of a polypoid mass that exhibits glandular and squamous epithelial cell proliferation with varying degrees of atypia in association with cellular smooth muscle stroma.
  • The differential diagnosis of APA includes complex endometrial hyperplasia with atypia, invasive adenocarcinoma, adenofibroma, adenosarcoma and carcinosarcoma.
  • The recognition of these unusual benign uterine tumors is very important, because they can easily be misdiagnosed.
  • We present a case of an infertile 39-year-old woman with an incidental diagnosis of APA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoma / diagnosis. Infertility, Female / complications. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20099510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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70. Tiutiuca RC, Eva I, Moscalu M, Constantinoiu S: [Study on the evaluation of complementary imaging methods in rectal neoplasia]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2009 Jul-Aug;104(4):399-407
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  • [Title] [Study on the evaluation of complementary imaging methods in rectal neoplasia].
  • The actual strategies of rectal neoplasia's treatment needs an evaluation closer to the reality of the tumor stadium.
  • Imagistic paraclinical exams must bring data about tumor relation with the rectal wall and the mesorectal fascia, the lymph nodes and other important structures invasion.
  • In this purpose it was used a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (IRM) and computed tomography (CT) comparatively with surgical findings and pathological results on 15 patients with benign and malignant rectal neoplasia, 6 men and 9 females.
  • We apreciate that computed tomography is the choice for imagistic approach of urinary system, mesorectal nodes and uterus and that IRM is best in imagistic evaluation of anterior subperitoneal structures and mesorectal fascia.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19886046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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71. Zhang P, Zhang C, Hao J, Sung CJ, Quddus MR, Steinhoff MM, Lawrence WD: Use of X-chromosome inactivation pattern to determine the clonal origins of uterine leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. Hum Pathol; 2006 Oct;37(10):1350-6
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  • [Title] Use of X-chromosome inactivation pattern to determine the clonal origins of uterine leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • Uterine leiomyomas (LMs) and leiomyosarcomas (LMSs), both of smooth muscle origin, sometimes coexist in the same uterus.
  • Of the 24 patients with LM, 21 had multiple neoplasms; all were clonal and individual LMs derived from separate clones.
  • Of the 20 patients with LMS, 6 exhibited multiple tumors in the uterus, and 4 of these individuals also harbored coexisting uterine LMs.
  • Separate tumors showed identical pattern of X inactivation in 4 patients, and in 2 other individuals, multiple LMSs developed from independent clones.
  • In 2 of the 3 patients, the tumor also exhibited a morphological transition between benign cells in LM and malignant cells in LMS, supporting the possibility of transformation from LM to LMS.
  • (iv) most LMSs are solitary lesions and are most likely de novo, but an individual LM may undergo "malignant transformation" to a LMS; and (v) some LMSs and coexisting LMs are of independent origins.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, X. Leiomyoma / genetics. Leiomyosarcoma / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. X Chromosome Inactivation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Clone Cells. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Receptors, Androgen / genetics


72. Rettenmaier M, Epstein HD, Abaid LN, Bechtol KA, Goldstein BH: Leiomyosarcoma with synchronous clear cell ovarian carcinoma. Onkologie; 2010;33(12):695-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Uterine leiomyomas are typically considered benign lesions.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a case involving a 55-year-old woman who was treated for a uterine leiomyoma at an outside medical institution 20 years ago.
  • Following surgery, the patient was diagnosed with a 16 cm ovarian mass and a synchronous leiomyosarcoma; the latter neoplasm appeared to originate from a previously resected uterine leiomyoma.
  • We suspect that the leiomyosarcoma developed from either the patient's original uterine leiomyoma or leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Leiomyoma / surgery. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Intestinal Neoplasms / secondary. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Omentum / pathology. Omentum / surgery. Ovariectomy. Salpingectomy. Uterus / pathology


73. Tesfaye A, Di Cello F, Hillion J, Ronnett BM, Elbahloul O, Ashfaq R, Dhara S, Prochownik E, Tworkoski K, Reeves R, Roden R, Ellenson LH, Huso DL, Resar LM: The high-mobility group A1 gene up-regulates cyclooxygenase 2 expression in uterine tumorigenesis. Cancer Res; 2007 May 1;67(9):3998-4004
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  • [Title] The high-mobility group A1 gene up-regulates cyclooxygenase 2 expression in uterine tumorigenesis.
  • Uterine cancer is the most common cancer of the female genital tract and is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer death in women in the U.S.
  • Despite the high prevalence of uterine cancers, the molecular events that lead to neoplastic transformation in the uterus are poorly understood.
  • We generated transgenic mice with high-mobility group A1 gene (HMGA1a) expression targeted to uterine tissue and all female mice developed tumors by 9 months of age.
  • Histopathologically, the tumors resemble human uterine adenosarcoma and are transplantable.
  • To determine whether these findings are relevant to human disease, we evaluated primary human uterine neoplasms and found that HMGA1a mRNA and protein levels are increased in most high-grade neoplasms but not in normal uterine tissue, benign tumors, or most low-grade neoplasms.
  • We also found that HMGA1a up-regulates cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression in transgenic tumors.
  • Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, HMGA1a binds directly to the COX-2 promoter in human uterine cancer cells in vivo and activates its expression in transfection experiments.
  • We also show that blocking either HMGA1a or COX-2 in high-grade human uterine cancer cells blocks anchorage-independent cell growth in methylcellulose.
  • These findings show that HMGA1a functions as an oncogene when overexpressed in the uterus and contributes to the pathogenesis of human uterine cancer by activating COX-2 expression.
  • Although a larger study is needed to confirm these results, HMGA1a may be a useful marker for aggressive human uterine cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / genetics. Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis. HMGA1a Protein / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Infertility, Female / genetics. Mice. Mice, Nude. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Transplantation. Transfection. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17483309.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092339; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA60441
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 124544-67-8 / HMGA1a Protein; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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74. Idrees MT, Deligdisch L, Altchek A: Squamous papilloma with hyperpigmentation in the skin graft of the neovagina in Rokitansky syndrome: literature review of benign and malignant lesions of the neovagina. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Oct;22(5):e148-55
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  • [Title] Squamous papilloma with hyperpigmentation in the skin graft of the neovagina in Rokitansky syndrome: literature review of benign and malignant lesions of the neovagina.
  • BACKGROUND: It is rare for a benign or malignant neoplasm to develop in a neovagina.
  • The patient had congenital absence of the vagina and uterus (Rokitansky syndrome, Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome, MRKH syndrome).
  • Despite the dark color of the vaginal lesion, bleeding and rapid appearance our patient had a benign tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Papilloma / pathology. Skin Transplantation / pathology. Surgically-Created Structures. Uterus / abnormalities. Vagina / abnormalities. Vagina / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Hyperpigmentation. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Syndrome. Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19616457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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75. Yasmeen F, Hafeez M, Hameed S, Saeed A, Ibnerasa SN: Symplastic leiomyoma of uterus: a rare histological variant. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2008 May;18(5):308-9
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  • [Title] Symplastic leiomyoma of uterus: a rare histological variant.
  • The patient was managed as for a benign tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Neoplasm Staging. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 18541089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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76. Senay S, Kaya U, Cagil H, Demirkiran F, Alhan C: Surgical management of intravenous leiomyoma with cardiac extension. Do we need total circulatory arrest? Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2007 Aug;55(5):322-3
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  • Intravenous leiomyoma of the uterus is a histologically benign, smooth-muscle tumor and may extend through the inferior vena cava into the right atrium.
  • Surgical treatment is mandatory and single-stage resection of the tumor has gained wide acceptance as a safe and easy procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyoma / pathology. Angiomyoma / surgery. Heart Arrest, Induced. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterus / blood supply. Uterus / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17629864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-6425
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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77. Strissel PL, Swiatek J, Oppelt P, Renner SP, Beckmann MW, Strick R: Transcriptional analysis of steroid hormone receptors in smooth muscle uterine leiomyoma tumors of postmenopausal patients. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2007 Oct;107(1-2):42-7
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  • [Title] Transcriptional analysis of steroid hormone receptors in smooth muscle uterine leiomyoma tumors of postmenopausal patients.
  • Smooth muscle tumors are histologically separated into benign leiomyomas and malignant leiomyosarcomas.
  • Uterine leiomyomas represent benign clonal tumors often arising within the smooth muscle tissue of the human uterus.
  • Uterine leiomyomas develop after the start of the menstrual cycle, become symptomatic during middle age, and in most postmenopausal patients tumor regression occurs.
  • Rarely, leiomyomas progress to leiomyosarcomas, where many sarcomas have markedly reduced or no steroid hormone receptors, thus, evolve to a hormone non-responsive state.
  • Quantitation of steroid hormone receptors from benign uterine tumors may be important for a more tailored therapy.
  • In addition, a role for steroid hormones, specifically ERbeta, is discussed in terms of benign tumor regression or tumor maintenance in postmenopausal leiomyomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Receptor alpha / biosynthesis. Estrogen Receptor beta / biosynthesis. Leiomyoma / metabolism. Postmenopause / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / biosynthesis. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17646097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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78. Yang YP, Zhu YL, Wu WP, Wang ZM, Zhang JM: [Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of uterus: report of 5 cases and literature review]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 May;36(5):302-6
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  • [Title] [Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of uterus: report of 5 cases and literature review].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the pathologic features, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and biologic behavior of uterine perivascular epithelioid tumor.
  • METHODS: Five cases of uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumor were studied by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: All the five tumors were composed by clear or eosinophilic cells arranged in nests and cords, associated with abundant small vessels and hyalinization in the stroma.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for melanocytic markers (HMB45 and/or Melan-A), desmin and smooth muscle actin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor is a rare mesenchymal tumor of uterus, with distinctive histologic and immunohistochemical features.
  • It should be distinguished from clear cell carcinoma and epithelioid leiomyoma of uterus.
  • Positivity for melanocytic markers (especially HMB45) plays an important role in the diagnosis of this tumor.
  • In general, the tumor is categorized as benign, with uncertain malignant potential and malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adult. Desmin / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Immunohistochemistry. Leiomyoma, Epithelioid / pathology. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17706136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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79. Skubitz KM, Manivel JC: Giant cell tumor of the uterus: case report and response to chemotherapy. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:46
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the uterus: case report and response to chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumor (GCT) is usually a benign but locally aggressive primary bone neoplasm in which monocytic macrophage/osteoclast precursor cells and multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells infiltrate the tumor.
  • The etiology of GCT is unknown, however the tumor cells of GCT have been reported to produce chemoattractants that can attract osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of an aggressive GCT of the uterus with rapidly growing lung metastases, and its response to chemotherapy with pegylated-liposomal doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and bevacizumab, along with a review of the literature.
  • CONCLUSION: Aggressive metastasizing GCT may arise in the uterus, and may respond to combination chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Giant Cell Tumors / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Bevacizumab. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17359524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1832205
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80. Horn LC, Dallacker M, Bilek K: [Carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Mullerian tumors) of the uterus. Morphology, pathogenetic aspects and prognostic factors]. Pathologe; 2009 Jul;30(4):292-301
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  • [Title] [Carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Mullerian tumors) of the uterus. Morphology, pathogenetic aspects and prognostic factors].
  • [Transliterated title] Karzinosarkome (maligne Müller-Mischtumoren) des Uterus. Morphologie, molekulare Pathogenese und morphologische Prognosefaktoren.
  • Malignant mixed Mullerian tumors (MMMT; carcinosarcomas) are rare epithelial-mesenchymal tumors.
  • Clinical, morphologic and molecular data suggest that MMMTs are really metaplastic carcinomas in which the mesenchymal part retains epithelial features.
  • The strongest prognostic factor is tumor stage followed by lymph node metastases, deep myometrial infiltration, involvement of the cervix and tumor size.
  • The main differential diagnoses include uterine sarcomas, adenosarcoma and benign metaplastic change within the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Myometrium / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19495763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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