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1. Raparia K, Min SK, Mody DR, Anton R, Amrikachi M: Clinical outcomes for "suspicious" category in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Patient's sex and nodule size are possible predictors of malignancy. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 May;133(5):787-90
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  • [Title] Clinical outcomes for "suspicious" category in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Patient's sex and nodule size are possible predictors of malignancy.
  • CONTEXT: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is recommended as an initial screening tool for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
  • Approximately 10% of thyroid FNA diagnoses are "suspicious for neoplasm," warranting surgical resection.
  • OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of a patient's age, sex, size of nodule, and morphologic features as possible predictors of malignancy in patients with cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious for neoplasm."
  • DESIGN: Cytopathology slides and reports of 402 consecutive thyroid FNAs from 2000-2005 interpreted as "suspicious" were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Of the 108 cases suspicious for follicular neoplasm on cytologic evaluation, histologic follow-up showed malignancy in 26 (24%).
  • Of the 37 cases suspicious for Hürthle cell neoplasm, 15 (41%) had malignancy.
  • Among cases with cytologic diagnoses of "suspicious for follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm," the rate of malignancy in female patients was 22% as compared to 43% in male patients (P = .02).
  • No statistically significant difference was noted between the age of the patient and the rate of benign versus malignant diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant tumors were more frequent in male patients with a cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious for follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm" than in female patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19415954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Carlini M, Giovannini C, Castaldi F, Mercadante E, Dell'Avanzato R, Zazza S, Nania A, Santeusanio G, Passeri M, Di Perna P: High risk for microcarcinoma in thyroid benign diseases. Incidence in a one year period of total thyroidectomies. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jun;24(2):231-6
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  • [Title] High risk for microcarcinoma in thyroid benign diseases. Incidence in a one year period of total thyroidectomies.
  • Over the last few years, incidental thyroid microcarcinoma (TMC) has become a frequent disease and its incidence in some reports is considerable.
  • The discovery of new cases depends on the progress of the diagnostics (US scan, fine needle biopsy and cytology, CT, MRI), on the extended indications to thyroidectomy for benign disease and on the attention in pathologic examination of the specimen.
  • The clinical evolution of this disease is not well known: in spite of a high incidence reported in some autoptic series, suggesting that this tumour could have a good prognosis, some authors report an overall incidence of up to 11% of local recurrence, metastasis and mortality.
  • Aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and the clinico-pathological findings of TMC over a one year period of total thyroidectomies for diffuse benign thyroid diseases, and to evaluate, on the basis of the frequency of incidental microcarcinoma, if the surgical procedure of complete removal of the gland should be adopted in any case.
  • In this series no patient had pre-operative diagnosis or tentative diagnosis of carcinoma and the incidence of TMC at the final histologic examination was 27.4%.
  • Total thyroidectomy confirmed to be the treatment of choice for diffuse benign diseases and appeared necessary to obtain both, diagnosis and treatment of incidental TMC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / etiology. Thyroid Diseases / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Recurrence. Risk. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonics

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  • [ErratumIn] J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Mar;26(1):2. Dell'Avanzato [corrected to Dell'Avanzato, R]
  • (PMID = 16110756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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3. Gonçalves AJ, Carvalho LH, Serdeira K, Nakai MY, Malavasi TR: Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):289-91
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells.
  • In the thyroid, the appearance of cancer has been correlated with deletion of these genes.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the frequencies of these genes in patients with benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional clinical trial carried out in the Head and Neck Surgery Division, Faculdade de Medicina da Santa Casa de São Paulo.
  • METHODS: Samples of thyroid tissue were collected from 32 patients and divided into two groups: benign tumor (A) and malignant tumor (B).
  • RESULTS: The B group presented four cases of positive genotyping for both genes, seven positive for GSTT1 and negative for GSTM1, two negative for GSTT1 and positive for GSTM1, and only one case of double negative.
  • CONCLUSION: In this study, there was no relationship between the presence of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and the benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18094897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1516-3180
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.5.1.- / glutathione S-transferase T1; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; EC 2.5.1.18 / glutathione S-transferase M1
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4. Chiang FY, Lin JC, Lee KW, Wang LF, Tsai KB, Wu CW, Lu SP, Kuo WR: Thyroid tumors with preoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy: clinicopathologic features and treatment outcome. Surgery; 2006 Sep;140(3):413-7
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  • [Title] Thyroid tumors with preoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy: clinicopathologic features and treatment outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this present study is to define the significance of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (RLNP) detected before surgery for thyroid diseases with regard to the incidence of malignancy, histopathologic distribution, extrathyroidal invasion, management, and prognosis.
  • METHODS: Six hundred and twenty-two patients underwent operation for various thyroid disease and were treated by the same surgeon.
  • The study was confined to 16 (3%) patients who suffered from a thyroid tumor with preoperative RLNP.
  • RESULTS: Of these 16 patients, 1 had benign thyroid disease, while the other 15 had malignancy (94%).
  • The recurrent laryngeal nerve could be dissected from the thyroid neoplasm in 3 patients, 2 of whom experienced recovery of this nerve's function postoperatively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid tumor associated with RLNP is strongly suggestive of malignancy.
  • The RLN should be preserved if it has not been invaded by the tumor, because it offers a good chance of functional recovery postoperatively.
  • Well-differentiated thyroid cancer accounts for only half of these patients who tend to present at an older age and feature a much higher incidence of upper aerodigestive tract invasion.
  • Radical excision of a resectable anaplastic or squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland offers the chance, albeit small, of long-term survival in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods. Vocal Cord Paralysis / etiology. Vocal Cord Paralysis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Laryngeal Nerves / pathology. Laryngeal Nerves / physiology. Laryngeal Nerves / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16934603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kobatake S, Satomura S, Maruyama M, Tajiri J, Kato R: Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody. Rinsho Byori; 2007 May;55(5):428-33
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  • [Title] Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody.
  • Thyroglobulin is produced only by thyroid follicular cells, and has a molecular weight of 660,000 and carbohydrate content of approximately 10%.
  • The composition of carbohydrate chains on thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma has been reported to differ from that in normal thyroid tissue.
  • In this study, heterogeneities of carbohydrate chains on thyroglobulin obtained from thyroid tissues were investigated by competitive reaction between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin monoclonal antibody.
  • The ratio of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin to thyroglobulin was significantly lower in thyroid carcinoma than in normal thyroid tissue, Graves' disease and benign thyroid tumor.
  • However, no differences between malignant and benign tissues were observed with the other lectins tested.
  • Differences in carbohydrate chain on thyroglobulin were observed between malignant and benign thyroid tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Lectins / immunology. Thyroglobulin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Humans. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17593687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Lectins; 0 / anti-thyroglobulin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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6. Pallante P, Federico A, Berlingieri MT, Bianco M, Ferraro A, Forzati F, Iaccarino A, Russo M, Pierantoni GM, Leone V, Sacchetti S, Troncone G, Santoro M, Fusco A: Loss of the CBX7 gene expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer. Cancer Res; 2008 Aug 15;68(16):6770-8
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  • [Title] Loss of the CBX7 gene expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer.
  • Using gene expression profiling, we found that the CBX7 gene was drastically down-regulated in six thyroid carcinoma cell lines versus control cells.
  • The aims of this study were to determine whether CBX7 is related to the thyroid cancer phenotype and to try to identify new tools for the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid cancer.
  • We thus evaluated CBX7 expression in various snap-frozen and paraffin-embedded thyroid carcinoma tissues of different degrees of malignancy by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
  • CBX7 expression progressively decreased with malignancy grade and neoplasia stage.
  • Indeed, it decreased in an increasing percentage of cases going from benign adenomas to papillary (PTC), follicular, and anaplastic (ATC) thyroid carcinomas.
  • This finding coincides with results obtained in rat and mouse models of thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • Restoration of CBX7 expression in thyroid cancer cells reduced growth rate, with a retention in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, suggesting that CBX7 can contribute to the proliferation of the transformed thyroid cells.
  • In conclusion, loss of CBX7 expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Repressor Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. Colony-Forming Units Assay. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Mice. Mice, Nude. Polycomb Repressive Complex 1. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18701502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CBX7 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 6.3.2.19 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
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7. Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kobatake S, Satomura S, Maruyama M, Kameko F, Tajiri J, Kato R: The clinical utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum for distinguishing benign from malignant conditions of the thyroid. Clin Chim Acta; 2007 Apr;379(1-2):101-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The clinical utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum for distinguishing benign from malignant conditions of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Traditionally, the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma consists of periodic withdrawal from L-T4-suppressive therapy to allow performance of a highly sensitive serum Tg measurement to detect recurrences.
  • We investigated Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratios in serum to evaluate in usefulness for detection of thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The study was conducted on 93 serum sample from 23 healthy volunteers, 32 patients with benign thyroid tumor, 28 patients with thyroid carcinoma without metastasis, and 10 patients with thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis.
  • RESULTS: The Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratio in patients with thyroid carcinoma was significantly lower than in patients with benign thyroid tumor with serum thyroglobulin concentration >200 ng/ml.
  • Among cases of thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis, Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratios were significantly lower than in patient with thyroid carcinoma without metastasis and those with benign tumor regardless of serum thyroglobulin concentration.
  • CONCLUSION: Measurement of Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum may be useful for distinguishing between thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / pathology. Plant Lectins / immunology. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Binding, Competitive. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoassay. Male

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  • (PMID = 17270168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-8981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Plant Lectins; 0 / lentil lectin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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8. Doganay M, Gungor T, Cavkaytar S, Sirvan L, Mollamahmutoglu L: Malignant struma ovarii with a focus of papillary thyroid cancer: a case report. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Apr;277(4):371-3
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  • [Title] Malignant struma ovarii with a focus of papillary thyroid cancer: a case report.
  • Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm and its malignant transformation is even rarer.
  • Because of its rarity, there is no consensus about its diagnosis and management in the literature.
  • Postoperative thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 0.5-cm solid nodule in the thyroid gland and total thyroidectomy was done.
  • Pathology report was nodular hyperplasia of benign character.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography


9. Zhang YW, Greenblatt DY, Repplinger D, Bargren A, Adler JT, Sippel RS, Chen H: Older age and larger tumor size predict malignancy in hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Oct;15(10):2842-6
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  • [Title] Older age and larger tumor size predict malignancy in hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Hürthle cell neoplasms (HCNs) are rare tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • The definitive treatment for Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) is total thyroidectomy, while thyroid lobectomy is adequate for Hürthle cell adenoma (HCA).
  • METHODS: Between May 1994 and January 2007, 1,199 patients underwent thyroid surgery at an academic medical center.
  • Medical records of 55 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid resections for the preoperative diagnosis of HCN were reviewed.
  • Patients with carcinoma also had significantly larger thyroid nodules (4.5 +/- 0.7 cm versus 2.5 +/- 0.2 cm, P < 0.001).
  • All HCNs less than 2 cm in diameter were benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18665423.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T35 DK062709
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS778770; NLM/ PMC4852735
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10. Chen HC, Jen YM, Wang CH, Lee JC, Lin YS: Etiology of vocal cord paralysis. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2007;69(3):167-71
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  • OBJECTIVE: Vocal cord paralysis (VCP) is a sign of a certain underlying disease, a diagnosis which can be attributed to various causes.
  • In males, neoplasm was the most common cause occurring in 63 of 176 males, whereas surgery was most frequent in 59 of 115 females.
  • The possibility of a neoplasm must be ruled out before VCP is labeled idiopathic.
  • A benign thyroid tumor could also cause VCP.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Laryngeal Neoplasms / complications. Laryngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Radiation Injuries / complications. Radiation Injuries / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17264533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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11. Saggiorato E, De Pompa R, Volante M, Cappia S, Arecco F, Dei Tos AP, Orlandi F, Papotti M: Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):305-17
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  • [Title] Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application.
  • The distinction of benign from malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms remains a difficult task in diagnostic fine-needle aspiration cytology, and some discrepant results have been reported for the individual immunocytochemical markers of malignancy proposed so far.
  • The aim of this study was to test if the combined use of a panel of markers could improve the diagnostic accuracy in the preoperative cytological evaluation of 'follicular neoplasms' in an attempt to reduce the number of thyroidectomies performed for benign lesions.
  • The immunocytochemical expression of galectin-3, HBME-1, thyroperoxidase, cytokeratin-19 and keratan-sulfate was retrospectively analyzed in 125 consecutive fine-needle aspiration samples (cell blocks) of indeterminate diagnoses of 'follicular thyroid neoplasm', and compared with their corresponding surgical specimens, including 33 follicular carcinomas, 42 papillary carcinomas and 50 follicular adenomas.
  • Our data showed that, as compared with the use of single markers, the sequential combination of two markers represents the most accurate immunohistochemical panel in managing patients with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of 'follicular neoplasms', especially in otherwise controversial categories such as oncocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15947105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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12. Cho Mar K, Eimoto T, Tateyama H, Arai Y, Fujiyoshi Y, Hamaguchi M: Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions. Histopathology; 2006 Feb;48(3):286-94
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  • [Title] Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions.
  • AIMS: To examine expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and related proteins in follicular thyroid lesions (FTLs) and to determine their usefulness for differential diagnosis of FTLs, particularly between minimally invasive carcinoma and adenoma.
  • In-situ hybridization of MMP-2 and MMP-7 mRNA in selected cases demonstrated the expression of these enzymes in the tumour cells as well as in some stromal cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / chemistry. Adenoma / chemistry. Matrix Metalloproteinases / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / genetics. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16430475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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13. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms and improve the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ann Surg; 2005 Sep;242(3):353-61; discussion 361-3
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  • [Title] ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms and improve the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether genes that regulate cellular invasion and metastasis are differentially expressed and could serve as diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules.
  • SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: Patients whose thyroid nodules have indeterminate or suspicious cytologic features on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy require thyroidectomy because of a 20% to 30% risk of thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: Differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms were identified by extracellular matrix and adhesion molecule cDNA array analysis and confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • RESULTS: By cDNA array analysis, ADAMTS8, ECM1, MMP8, PLAU, SELP, and TMPRSS4 were upregulated, and by quantitative PCR, ECM1, SELP, and TMPRSS4 mRNA expression was higher in malignant (n = 57) than in benign (n = 38) thyroid neoplasms (P< 0.002).
  • ECM1 and TMPRSS4 mRNA expression levels were independent predictors of a malignant thyroid neoplasm (P < 0.003).
  • The level of ECM1 mRNA expression was higher in TNM stage I differentiated thyroid cancers than in stage II and III tumors (P < or = 0.031).
  • CONCLUSIONS: ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are excellent diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and may be used to improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • ECM1 is also a marker of the extent of disease in differentiated thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Serine Endopeptidases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Gene Expression. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16135921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ECM1 protein, human; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / transmembrane serine protease 2, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1357743
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14. Shi Y, Ding X, Klein M, Sugrue C, Matano S, Edelman M, Wasserman P: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration with atypia of undetermined significance: a necessary or optional category? Cancer; 2009 Oct 25;117(5):298-304
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  • [Title] Thyroid fine-needle aspiration with atypia of undetermined significance: a necessary or optional category?
  • BACKGROUND: Atypia of undetermined significance is a controversial category in thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA), not only for its questioned clinical utility, but also for its very existence as an expression of uncertainty.
  • The current study was performed to investigate the potential impact of eliminating this category on the sensitivity and specificity for detecting thyroid neoplasms by FNA.
  • These cases were reinterpreted blindly by 2 experienced reviewers, who eliminated atypia of undetermined significance as a diagnostic possibility and reclassified these cases as either benign, follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, or malignant.
  • RESULTS: After eliminating the atypia of undetermined significance category, the sensitivity for detecting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was reduced from 100% to 27% (P = .04).
  • In those atypia of undetermined significance cases that were reclassified as benign, 37% had PTC.
  • In those reclassified as follicular neoplasm or suspicious for malignancy, 38% were histologically proven to be benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Eliminating the diagnosis of atypia of undetermined significance substantially decreases the sensitivity of thyroid FNAs and increases both false-positive and false-negative rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 19711470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1102-9; discussion 1109-10
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • We postulated that expression analysis of genes that modulate angiogenesis would identify differentially expressed genes that would help to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms and serve as markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: A complementary DNA (cDNA) array with 96 genes that modulate angiogenesis was used to identify differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm cDNA array expression data in 123 patients (4 normal thyroid, 26 hyperplastic nodules, 27 follicular adenomas, 23 follicular cancers, 18 follicular variant of papillary cancers, 25 papillary cancers).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two genes were upregulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms by cDNA array analysis, but only 13 genes had higher messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (P < or = .04).
  • Of the 13 differentially expressed genes, the combined use of angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) mRNA expression levels was best for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid neoplasms, with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 75%, and negative predictive value of 94%.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 mRNA expression was elevated in higher TNM stage neoplasms and in patients with high-risk AMES (Age, distant Metastasis, Extrathyroidal invasion, and tumor Size) differentiated thyroid cancers (P < or = .005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Angiopoietin 2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and could improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 are markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Angiogenic Proteins / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics


16. Ponikiewska D, Szcześniak-Kłusek B, Stobiecka E, Jaworska M, Lange D: [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:7-11
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  • [Title] [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination].
  • INTRODUCTION: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid nodules generally allows to make the diagnosis and to choose the proper clinical management.
  • In about 10% of cases cytopathologic features do not differentiate unequivocally benign and malignant lesions.
  • In these cases the cytopathologic diagnosis of follicular tumor (FT) or oxyphilic tumor (OT) is most often made.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2001 to 2002 in our Department of Pathology the cytopathologic diagnosis of FT and OT was made in 102 and 25 cases respectively.
  • RESULTS: Histopathological diagnosis of neoplasm was made in 48.7% (19/39) FT and 42% (8/19) OT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show how difficult the diagnostics of follicular lesions in FNAB could be because of the frequent overlapping of the cytological features of benign and malignant lesions.
  • Diagnosis of follicular tumor does not mean carcinoma.
  • The use of follicular/ oxyphilic tumor in cytological diagnostic instead of follicular neoplasm seems more advisable.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17091450.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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17. Kim TY, Kim WB, Ryu JS, Gong G, Hong SJ, Shong YK: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in thyroid from positron emission tomogram (PET) for evaluation in cancer patients: high prevalence of malignancy in thyroid PET incidentaloma. Laryngoscope; 2005 Jun;115(6):1074-8
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  • [Title] 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in thyroid from positron emission tomogram (PET) for evaluation in cancer patients: high prevalence of malignancy in thyroid PET incidentaloma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of incidental thyroid F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomogram (PET) scan for evaluation in cancer patients and the role of standard uptake value (SUV) measurement in differentiation of thyroid malignancy from benign disease.
  • METHODS: Four thousand one hundred thirty-six subjects had been given FDG-PET scan for evaluation of known malignancies not associated with thyroid.
  • The maximum SUVs of the thyroid lesions were recorded and reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-four (2.2%) were identified to have focal (n = 45, 1.1%) or diffuse (n = 45, 1.1%) thyroid FDG uptake.
  • The incidence of focal or diffuse thyroid FDG uptake was higher in women (2.7% or 1.9%) than in men (0.4% or 0.7%).
  • Cytologic diagnosis was available in 32 of 45 focal thyroid FDG uptakes.
  • In 16 (50%) patients, the tumor was found to be malignant; 14 were papillary thyroid carcinoma (surgically confirmed in 7 cases), 2 were metastatic tumor from breast and esophagus.
  • Sixteen were cytologically diagnosed as follicular cell lesions: follicular neoplasm (n = 2), nodular hyperplasia (n = 7), indeterminate follicular lesion (n = 7).
  • There was no significant difference in maximum SUV between benign and malignant nodules.
  • From 45 patients with diffuse thyroid FDG uptake, presumptive diagnosis of chronic thyroiditis was possible in 34 patients by clinical and laboratory findings.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that a cytologic diagnosis of focal thyroid FDG-PET incidentaloma regardless of SUV is mandatory considering the very high prevalence of thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Thyroiditis

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  • (PMID = 15933524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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18. Snarska J, Szajda SD, Knaś M, Mroczko B, Borzym-Kluczyk M, Kamiński F, Zwierz P, Zwierz K: [Usefulness of detecting cancer procoagulant activity and thyrotropic hormone concentration in the differentiation of tumor-like changes in the thyroid]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(5-6):332-5
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of detecting cancer procoagulant activity and thyrotropic hormone concentration in the differentiation of tumor-like changes in the thyroid].
  • Epidemiological studies have shown the increased incidence of malignant cancer of the thyroid gland observed in the last decade.
  • This increase is connected with the elevated number of benign tumor-like/tuberous changes in the thyroid gland.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of detecting cancer procoagulant activity (CP) and thyrotropic hormone concentration (TSH) in the differentiation of tumor-like changes in the thyroid gland.
  • The results of our study indicate that the determination of CP activity can be used in the differential diagnosis of tumor-like changes of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cysteine Endopeptidases / blood. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blood Coagulation Factors / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17017477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Blood Coagulation Factors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.22.26 / cancer procoagulant
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19. Liu Z, Liu D, Bojdani E, El-Naggar AK, Vasko V, Xing M: IQGAP1 plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Dec 15;16(24):6009-18
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  • [Title] IQGAP1 plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to explore the role of IQGAP1 in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer and its potential as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target in this cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined IQGAP1 copy gain and its relationship with clinicopathologic outcomes of thyroid cancer and investigated its role in cell invasion and molecules involved in the process.
  • RESULTS: We found IQGAP1 copy number (CN) gain ≥ 3 in 1 of 30 (3%), 24 of 74 (32%), 44 of 107 (41%), 8 of 16 (50%), and 27 of 41 (66%) of benign thyroid tumor, follicular variant papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC), follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), tall cell papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and anaplastic thyroid cancer, respectively, in the increasing order of invasiveness of these tumors.
  • A similar tumor distribution trend of CN ≥ 4 was also seen.
  • The siRNA knockdown of IQGAP1 dramatically inhibited thyroid cancer cell invasion and colony formation.
  • This provided a mechanism for the invasive role of IQGAP1 in thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IQGAP1, through genetic copy gain, plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer and may represent a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this cancer.

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20959410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113507-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / ras GTPase-Activating Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS242709; NLM/ PMC3005072
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20. Leinung S, Möbius C, Udelnow A, Hauss J, Würl P: Histopathological outcome of 597 isolated soft tissue tumors suspected of soft tissue sarcoma: a single-center 12-year experience. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 May;33(4):508-11
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  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this present report was to analyze the patients referred to us with the presumptive diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma (STS).
  • Open biopsy revealed soft tissue sarcoma in 318 cases, benign mesenchymal tumor in 124 cases and isolated metastases (ISTM) from carcinomas in 98 patients; other pathologies were found in 57 patients.
  • The primary carcinomas were lung cancer in 26 patients, breast cancer in 19 patients, renal carcinoma in 16 patients, carcinoma of the esophagus in 12 patients, colonic carcinoma in 5 patients, thyroid gland cancer in 6 patients, and in 14 patients carcinoma of unknown primary was diagnosed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our collective with soft tissue tumor, 50% of the patients had the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, 20% presented with a metastasis of carcinoma and 20% had a benign tumor.
  • Referring to our results, in patients with the presumptive diagnosis of soft tissue sarcomas, soft tissue metastasis of a primary carcinoma was unexpectedly common, indicating that greater consideration should be given to this differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17081724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Abrosimov AIu, Dvinskikh NIu: [Morphological changes in thyroid tissue after preoperative fine-needle nodule biopsy]. Arkh Patol; 2010 Sep-Oct;72(5):39-42
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  • [Title] [Morphological changes in thyroid tissue after preoperative fine-needle nodule biopsy].
  • The paper considers morphological changes in thyroid tissue after preoperative fine-needle biopsy of benign and malignant tumors at the above site in 5 patients.
  • The found changes made the postoperative histological diagnosis of a tumor process difficult as;.
  • (a) there was total necrosis (2 cases of follicular tumor and papillary cancer from oxyphilic cells according to the data of a preoperative cytological study);.
  • (b) there were signs that mimicked those of invasive tumor growth in the proper fibrous capsules (2 cases of follicular adenomas);.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Preoperative Period. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21313768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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22. Strazisar B, Petric R, Sesek M, Zgajnar J, Hocevar M, Besic N: Predictive factors of carcinoma in 279 patients with Hürthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Jun 1;101(7):582-6
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  • [Title] Predictive factors of carcinoma in 279 patients with Hürthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Estimation of the risk of malignancy in a Hürthle cell (HC) neoplasm is important for optimum extent of thyroid surgical treatment.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to find predictive factors of carcinoma in patients with HC neoplasm.
  • METHODS: A total of 279 patients (241 females, 38 males; median age 55 years, range 15-86 years) with HC neoplasm in whom carcinoma was only suspected and who were surgically treated at our Institute in the period 1990-2007, were included in this study.
  • RESULTS: The histopatological diagnoses were carcinoma, benign goiter and adenoma in 71 (25%), 68 (25%) and 140 (50%) patients, respectively.
  • Predictive factors for carcinoma, shown by chi-square test, were: age of patients, tumor diameter, thyroid volume and T(g) concentration.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The independent predictors of malignancy in HC neoplasm were age of patients and pre-operative T(g) concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20461764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Lappinga PJ, Kip NS, Jin L, Lloyd RV, Henry MR, Zhang J, Nassar A: HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Oct 25;118(5):287-97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of thyroid nodules with an indeterminate diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) (eg, "suspicious for follicular neoplasm") prove to be benign at the time of surgical resection.
  • Ancillary tests in current use are limited in their ability to improve the preoperative detection of malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • Studies using paraffin-embedded tissue have indicated that high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression is present in a high percentage of malignant thyroid neoplasms but not in benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • In the current study, the ability of HMGA2 overexpression analysis to preoperatively distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on suspicious cytologic smears was evaluated.
  • METHODS: Patients who underwent thyroid FNA and subsequent thyroid resection from 2001 through 2007 were identified.
  • A subset of these patients who had a cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious" underwent HMGA2 expression analysis.
  • With an HMGA2 overexpression change of 5.9-fold or greater compared with a thyroid tumor cell line as a positive cutoff, the test was found to have the following overall performance for detecting malignant nodules: sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 97%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 84%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HMGA2 mRNA expression analysis can be performed on cytologic smears and demonstrates a high specificity and positive predictive value and relatively high sensitivity and negative predictive value for detecting malignancy in "suspicious" thyroid aspirate specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. HMGA2 Protein / genetics. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20597139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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24. Sheth S: Role of ultrasonography in thyroid disease. Otolaryngol Clin North Am; 2010 Apr;43(2):239-55, vii
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  • [Title] Role of ultrasonography in thyroid disease.
  • Ultrasonography (US) is the single-most valuable imaging modality in the evaluation of the thyroid gland.
  • This review discusses the US appearances of thyroid nodules, emphasizing sonographic features associated with potentially malignant or, at the other end of the spectrum, likely benign nodules.
  • Diffuse thyroid abnormalities have also been reviewed.
  • The technique of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy and the emerging role of elastography in characterizing thyroid nodules have also been addressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Elasticity Imaging Techniques. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / surgery. Hashimoto Disease / ultrasonography. Humans. Incidental Findings. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Staging. Reference Values. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20510712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8259
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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25. Aïssaoui R, Turki Z, Achiche A, Balti MH, Ben Slama C, Zbiba M: [Adrenal metastasis of a papillary thyroid cancer]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2006 Sep;67(4):364-7
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  • [Title] [Adrenal metastasis of a papillary thyroid cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase surrénalienne d'un cancer papillaire de la thyroïde.
  • Adrenal metastases of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are very rare.
  • A 63-year-old woman had undergone 15 years earlier left lobo-ishmectomy for a papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and 7 years earlier right adrenalectomy for a tumor.
  • Histologic examination showed a benign cortical tumor.
  • According to the hormone evaluation it was a non-functional tumor.
  • Re-reading the histology slide of the first adrenalectomy agreed with the diagnosis.
  • Distant spread may occur to bone or lung, but exceptionally to the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome


26. Lardinois D, Weder W, Roudas M, von Schulthess GK, Tutic M, Moch H, Stahel RA, Steinert HC: Etiology of solitary extrapulmonary positron emission tomography and computed tomography findings in patients with lung cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Oct 1;23(28):6846-53
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  • A diagnosis was obtained in 69 of these patients, including 37 (54%) with solitary metastases and 32 (46%) with lesions unrelated to the lung primary.
  • Histopathologic examinations of these 32 lesions revealed a second clinically unsuspected malignancy or a recurrence of a previous diagnosed carcinoma in six patients (19%) and a benign tumor or inflammatory lesion in 26 patients (81%).
  • Benign tumors and inflammatory lesions included eight colon adenomas, four Warthin's tumors, one granuloma of the lower jaw, one adenoma of the thyroid gland, one compensatory muscle activity due to vocal chord palsy, two occurrences of arthritis, three occurrences of reflux esophagitis, two occurrences of pancreatitis, two occurrences of diverticulitis, one hemorrhoidal inflammation, and one rib fracture.
  • CONCLUSION: Solitary extrapulmonary FDG accumulations in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer should be analyzed critically for correct staging and optimal therapy, given that up to half of the lesions may represent unrelated malignancies or benign disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Inflammation. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16192576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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27. Ruchala M, Skiba A, Gurgul E, Uruski P, Wasko R, Sowinski J: The occurrence of thyroid focal lesions and a need for fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with acromegaly due to an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2009;30(3):382-6
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  • [Title] The occurrence of thyroid focal lesions and a need for fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with acromegaly due to an increased risk of thyroid cancer.
  • Several studies revealed increased frequency of thyroid carcinoma in these patients.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of thyroid lesions, including thyroid cancer in acromegalic patients and to estimate possible factors influencing their occurrence, especially high IGF-1 level.
  • Thyroid gland was evaluated in ultrasound examination.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was performed in every solid or mixed thyroid nodule.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid morphology abnormalities were found in 75 patients (87.2%).
  • There were 5 cases of thyroid carcinoma (5.8%): 3 papillary carcinomas and two follicular variants of papillary cancer.
  • Out of five cancers three were multifocal, one infiltrated thyroid capsule and one was diagnosed at the stage of metastases to four lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed common co-existence of acromegaly and thyroid lesions.
  • Furthermore, it revealed considerably high occurrence of thyroid carcinoma in these patients.
  • In view of this correlation, the potential role of IGF-1 in pathogenesis of benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms should be considered.
  • Due to high frequency of thyroid cancer in acromegalic patients, we suggest to perform fine needle aspiration biopsy in each case of thyroid nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / epidemiology. Acromegaly / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chi-Square Distribution. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / blood. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Incidence. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Thyrotropin / blood. Thyroxine / blood

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  • (PMID = 19855364.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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28. Zeng XT, Xu YZ, Zhang XQ, Xu Z, Zhang YF, Wu JG, Zhou XS, Ling XF: [FTIR spectroscopic explorations of freshly resected thyroid malignant tissues]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi; 2007 Dec;27(12):2422-6
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  • [Title] [FTIR spectroscopic explorations of freshly resected thyroid malignant tissues].
  • In the present paper, 17 cases of freshly resected malignant thyroid tissue samples and 23 cases of benign thyroid tissue samples were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy with an ATR probe.
  • Statistic analysis indicated that the FTIR spectra of cancerous tissue were significantly different from those of benign tissue.
  • In comparison with normal tissues, the FTIR spectra of malignant thyroid tissues possess the following features:.
  • The most possible reason for the changes was that the mutation of DNA and the amounts of nucleic acid had increased in malignant neoplasms.
  • Experimental results show that the malignant thyroid tissues can be distinguished from the benign tissues by their infrared spectra.
  • This approach proves that FTIR spectroscopy is a reliable and practicable method for thyroid cancer diagnosis in operations.
  • The authors have expanded their research on detecting the thyroid cancer FTIR spectra via percutaneous and in vivo, and have achieved a positive result which is going to be reported in another paper.
  • [MeSH-major] Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18330276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Guang pu xue yu guang pu fen xi = Guang pu
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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29. Janssen J: [(E)US elastography: current status and perspectives]. Z Gastroenterol; 2008 Jun;46(6):572-9
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  • The relative stiffness of the tissues within this area is described by colours superimposing on the B-mode image.
  • Several studies have demonstrated that real-time elastography is feasible and improves the diagnostic accuracy for tumours of the breast, the prostate, the cervix, and the thyroid gland.
  • For the differentation between benign and malignant lymph nodes, the accuracy is reported to be 85 % to 90 %.
  • Therefore, the early diagnosis of cancer within chronic pancreatitis will probably not be improved by elastography.
  • [MeSH-major] Elasticity Imaging Techniques / methods. Endosonography / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Pancreatitis / pathology. Pancreatitis / ultrasonography. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18537085.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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30. Gulcelik NE, Gulcelik MA, Kuru B: Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Dec;134(12):1312-5
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  • [Title] Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and ultrasonographic features that may help in predicting malignant tumors in patients with a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on findings from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) because FNAC diagnosis of follicular neoplasm does not differentiate a benign tumor from a malignant tumor.
  • DESIGN: Prospective study of 98 patients having a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on FNAC.
  • PATIENTS: Ninety-eight patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed by FNAC as being a follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 26 patients (27%).
  • Ultrasonographic features (eg, a solid echo structure, microcalcifications, and a hypoechoic pattern) were predictive for malignant neoplasms.
  • Older age, male sex, solitary nodule, and larger nodule size were not predictive for malignant neoplasms in patients with follicular neoplasm cytologic findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19075128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Słonina J, Nienartowicz E, Agrawal AK, Malczewska J, Moroń K: [The usefulness of contrast-enhanced sonography in the differential diagnostic of adrenal tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 May-Jun;57(3):230-6
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  • INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of gland tumors causes significant clinical problem.
  • The application of contrast-enhanced sonography could improve the vessels visualization and point out characteristic features of benign and malignant changes.
  • The authors believe that this new method make possible the differential adrenal tumor diagnostic process more precise and increase the specificity of ultrasonography in the recognition of benign and malignant tumors.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ultrasound examinations were made with the use of digital devise by GE Voluson 740, probe 4-6 mHz with Doppler options and volumetric probe 3D according to the following protocol: 26 patients with recognized adrenal tumor were qualified for the examination.
  • Patients in the first stage of tumor vascularization had Doppler examination with color (CD) and power Doppler (PD).
  • RESULTS: 26 cases of adrenal gland tumours were subjected to analysis.
  • 2. The use of Levovist in Doppler examination improves the visualization of tumor vascularization.
  • However, it is impossible to differentiate benign from malignant tumors unequivocally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Contrast Media. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Polysaccharides
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnostic imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 16832787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Polysaccharides; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508
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32. Moslavac S, Matesa N, Kusić Z: Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology in children and adolescents. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):197-200
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  • [Title] Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology in children and adolescents.
  • Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the most accurate and cost effective method in the evaluation of the thyroid nodule and has been commonly used in adults.
  • Thyroid nodules are uncommon in younger patients (1-2%).
  • Ultrasound-guided thyroid FNACs performed from May 1995 to June 2008 in patients under 18 years of age were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Cytological parameters included cytologic diagnosis and cyto-pathohistological correlation.
  • Total of 236 cases, representing 206 patients under 18 years of age, were retrieved from a total of 11748 thyroid FNAC cases (2.0%).
  • 20 (35.7%) patients did not have any nodules, 20 (35.7%) patients had solitary thyroid nodule and 16 (28.6%) patients had multiple nodules.
  • The cytologic diagnoses were: unsatisfactory (9), cyst fluid (7), benign (204), cellular follicular lesion/follicular neoplasm (9) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (7).
  • 5 patients (23.8%) had thyroid malignancies (all papillary carcinomas).
  • The remainder had benign thyroid lesions; follicular adenomas (8), multinodular goiters (5), diffuse goiters (2) and Hashimoto thyreoiditis (1).
  • The prevalence of thyroid malignancies among cytologic diagnoses was similar to those reported in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / statistics & numerical data. Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Croatia / epidemiology. Female. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Hashimoto Disease / epidemiology. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / surgery. Humans. Male. Prevalence. Reproducibility of Results. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20432751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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33. Camera A, Magri F, Fonte R, Villani L, Della Porta MG, Fregoni V, Manna LL, Chiovato L: Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):1033-6
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  • [Title] Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule.
  • BACKGROUND: Most solitary hyperfunctiong regions on thyroid scan consist of benign tissue.
  • SUMMARY: A 56-year-old man was referred to our Endocrine Unit in May 2009 due to the incidental discovery of a large left thyroid lobe nodule by a computed tomography study.
  • This had been performed to search for a primitive tumor in a patient with bone metastasis.
  • He was clinically and biochemically thyrotoxic with no evidence of humoral thyroid autoimmunity.
  • The nodule had a dyshomogenous appearance at neck ultrasonography, with multiple hypoechogenic areas and calcifications. (99m)-Technetium thyroid scintiscan revealed a hot nodule with suppression of the contralateral lobe.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated the presence of neoplastic cells not of thyroid origin.
  • Histological analysis of the surgical specimen led to a diagnosis of Burkitt-like large B-cell lymphoma harbored within a thyroid adenoma.
  • After further staging, the final diagnosis was stage IV E Burkitt-like lymphoma with the involvement of the bone and the thyroid.
  • This is the first description of an aggressive Burkitt-like lymphoma that infiltrated an hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma, thus presenting as a hot nodule at thyroid scintiscan.
  • In our patient there was no humoral or histological evidence of thyroid autoimmunity, thus suggesting a metastatic seeding of the lymphoma within the hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Involvement of the thyroid gland by Burkitt-like lymphoma is extremely rare as is close localization of malignancy and a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / drug therapy. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Male. Methimazole / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Technetium. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20825299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7440-26-8 / Technetium; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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34. Krause K, Karger S, Sheu SY, Aigner T, Kursawe R, Gimm O, Schmid KW, Dralle H, Fuhrer D: Evidence for a role of the amyloid precursor protein in thyroid carcinogenesis. J Endocrinol; 2008 Aug;198(2):291-9
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  • [Title] Evidence for a role of the amyloid precursor protein in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • We have recently found an increased expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cold thyroid nodules that are difficult to classify as a truly benign thyroid neoplasm or a lesion with the potential for further dedifferentiation.
  • Since differences in APP activity have been found in other human cancers, we asked whether thyroid carcinogenesis might be associated with an altered APP expression and function.
  • APP regulation was studied in vitro in differentiated (FRTL-5) and dedifferentiated follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC-133) thyroid cells after specific inhibition or activation of the cAMP-PKA, the PI3K/AKT or the protein kinase c (PKC) cascades.
  • In vivo analysis of APP expression and downstream signalling was performed in benign and malignant thyroid tissues.
  • We found that upregulation of APP expression and sAPP secretion is induced by TSH in differentiated thyroid cells and by insulin in thyroid cancer cells.
  • Thyroid cancers are characterized by APP upregulation, increased membrane targeting of the APP ectodomain and significantly increased mRNA levels of the APP scaffold proteins JIP1, ShcA and Fe65.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Insulin / pharmacology. Microscopy, Confocal. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Protein Transport / drug effects. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyrotropin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18480379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APBB1 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor; 0 / Insulin; 0 / MAPK8IP1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SHC1 protein, human; 0 / Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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35. Giovanella L, Ceriani L, Ghelfo A, Maffioli M: Circulating cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with benign nodules and carcinomas of the thyroid gland. Int J Biol Markers; 2008 Jan-Mar;23(1):54-7
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  • [Title] Circulating cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with benign nodules and carcinomas of the thyroid gland.
  • Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) is an acidic protein of 40 kDa that is part of the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells and is highly expressed by differentiated thyroid carcinomas, mainly of the papillary subtype.
  • The present study was planned to assess the serum expression of Cyfra 21.1 in patients with benign thyroid nodules and thyroid malignancies.
  • We enrolled 135 patients with histologically proven benign thyroid nodules (n=79) and thyroid carcinomas (n=56).
  • No differences were found in serum Cyfra 21.1 levels between patients with benign nodules and patients with carcinomas.
  • When thyroid malignancies were subdivided according to tumor histology, serum Cyfra 21.1 increased significantly from classical differentiated thyroid carcinomas (papillary or follicular) to less differentiated or undifferentiated carcinomas (poorly differentiated or anaplastic).
  • These pathways characterized anaplastic and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma but not classical forms of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Consequently, Cyfra 21.1 may be regarded as a circulating marker of poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Additionally, a role of Cyfra 21.1 as a dedifferentiation marker in patients with classical differentiated thyroid carcinomas may be postulated and should be explored by further focused studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. Keratin-19 / blood. Keratins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Nodule / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Peptide Fragments / blood

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  • (PMID = 18409152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / antigen CYFRA21.1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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36. Marchevsky AM, Walts AE, Bose S, Gupta R, Fan X, Frishberg D, Scharre K, Zhai J: Evidence-based evaluation of the risks of malignancy predicted by thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Apr;38(4):252-9
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  • [Title] Evidence-based evaluation of the risks of malignancy predicted by thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies.
  • A National Cancer Institute (NCI) "Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) State of the Science Conference" recently proposed standardized nomenclature and "risks of malignancies" associated with various diagnostic categories.
  • We evaluated the evidence levels of the data used by NCI to predict malignancy risks and whether those estimates had clinical validity in our patient population.Eight hundred seventy-nine patients underwent thyroid FNA during 2006.
  • Among our patients, the percentages of malignancies calculated with follow-up data from all patients as the denominator were similar to the "risk estimates" proposed by the NCI, but estimates based on surgical follow-up overestimated the probability of thyroid malignancy for patients with FNA diagnosis of "benign" and "follicular lesions of undetermined significance" (FLUS).
  • Relative risk and 95% CI calculations suggested that the NCI classification could be simplified into three categories: "benign," "FLUS + neoplasm," and "suspicious + malignant. "
  • [MeSH-major] Evidence-Based Medicine. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Academic Medical Centers. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. National Cancer Institute (U.S.). Probability. Risk Factors. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. United States

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  • (PMID = 19813257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Mills LJ, Poller DN, Yiangou C: Galectin-3 is not useful in thyroid FNA. Cytopathology; 2005 Jun;16(3):132-8
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 is not useful in thyroid FNA.
  • INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have suggested that galectin-3 immunohistochemistry may be useful in the fine needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma as it has been reported to selectively stain carcinomas and not adenomas or goitres.
  • METHODS: Fifty-one patients were included in a prospective study of galectin-3 in thyroid FNA; 88.2% were female and 11.8% male, mean age 53 years, range 25-87 years.
  • One benign and one inadequate FNA were negative for galectin-3 staining.
  • Four follicular neoplasm/suspicious of carcinoma cases showed negative staining.
  • CONCLUSION: Galectin-3 immunohistochemistry does not appear to be a useful adjunct to diagnosis in thyroid FNA as it does not reliably distinguish malignant and benign lesions.
  • Many thyroid aspirates are of low cellularity and are not suitable for cell block immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Galectin 3. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15924608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5507
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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38. Lieu D: Cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 May;38(5):327-32
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  • As most cases are caused by parathyroid adenoma, there is a movement toward preoperative localization of the abnormal gland by ultrasound and/or Tc(99)-sestamibi scan and minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • Nonpalpable thyroid nodules are common and cannot be differentiated from parathyroid lesions by imaging alone.
  • This study examines cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (UG-FNA) in diagnosis of parathyroid lesions.
  • Between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008, seven patients with PHPT or other parathyroid lesions with one or more sonographically-visible thyroid masses underwent cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA with immediate cytological evaluation (ICE).
  • Three parathyroid adenomas, two benign colloid nodules, one papillary carcinoma, three parathyroid cysts, and one thyroid cyst were diagnosed.
  • The nodules in three patients with parathyroid adenomas were identified as follicular lesion/neoplasm on ICE.
  • Two of these patients had a separate benign colloid nodule and one had a thyroid cyst diagnosed by UG-FNA.
  • The three patients with thyroid cysts identified by radiology were suspected of being parathyroid cysts on the basis of real-time sonographic features at the biopsy table.
  • Cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA can distinguish between parathyroid and thyroid nodules in patients with suspected parathyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19845029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Lyshchik A, Drozd V, Demidchik Y, Reiners C: Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US. Radiology; 2005 May;235(2):604-13
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively analyze the accuracy of various diagnostic criteria for cancer in solid thyroid nodules in children on the basis of gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasonographic (US) findings.
  • One hundred three consecutive pediatric patients with solid thyroid nodules were included in the study.
  • Thirty-five patients had thyroid cancer (mean age, 14.6 years +/- 2.6 [standard deviation]; range, 10-18 years), and 68 patients had benign thyroid nodules (mean age, 14.2 years +/- 2.9; range 9-18 years).
  • Three-dimensional US was used to determine the volume of thyroid gland and thyroid nodules.
  • Results of nodule cytologic and histologic examination and long-term clinical and US follow-up were used as a proof of final diagnosis.
  • Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of US criteria for thyroid cancer in lesions with diameter of 15 mm and smaller and lesions with diameter larger than 15 mm.
  • RESULTS: In thyroid nodules with diameter of 15 mm and smaller, the most reliable diagnostic criteria for malignancy were an irregular outline (sensitivity, 69.6%; specificity, 86.4%; P < .001), subcapsular location (sensitivity, 65.2%; specificity, 86.4%; P < .001), and increased intranodular vascularization (sensitivity, 69.6%; specificity, 87.9%; P < .01).
  • For thyroid nodules larger than 15 mm in diameter, the accuracy of US diagnosis was much lower than that for smaller nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: Study findings indicate that US is most helpful in diagnosis of thyroid malignancy in thyroid nodules with diameter of 15 mm and smaller, with detection of irregular tumor outline, subcapsular location, and increased intranodular vascularization.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Enhancement. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenoma / blood supply. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood supply. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15770036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Larumbe A, Iglesias ME, Illarramendi JJ, Córdoba A, Gállego M: [Acral keratoses and inverted follicular keratosis presenting Cowden disease]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2007 Jul-Aug;98(6):425-9
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  • [Transliterated title] Queratosis acras y queratosis folicular invertida como manifestación de la enfermedad de Cowden.
  • Cowden disease is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the presence of multiple hamartomas in the skin, thyroid, breast, nervous system and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Breast and thyroid neoplasms (benign and malignant) develop in up to two thirds of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / diagnosis. Keratosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Humans. Lymphangioma / etiology. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17663933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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41. Jung CK, Lee A, Jung ES, Choi YJ, Jung SL, Lee KY: Split sample comparison of a liquid-based method and conventional smears in thyroid fine needle aspiration. Acta Cytol; 2008 May-Jun;52(3):313-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Split sample comparison of a liquid-based method and conventional smears in thyroid fine needle aspiration.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of the SurePath (SP) vs. conventional smears (CS) in fine needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid gland lesions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A total of 193 FNA cases with thyroid nodules were studied.
  • The diagnostic categories of unsatisfactory, benign, atypical and malignant were compared.
  • On SP slides, nuclear detail and nucleoli were more easily detected and nuclear irregularity was very useful for the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma.
  • The overall sensitivity of FNA in diagnosing thyroid neoplasm was 90.9% for CS and 93.9% for SP.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Specimen Handling / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Staining and Labeling. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18540296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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42. Deandrea M, Ragazzoni F, Motta M, Torchio B, Mormile A, Garino F, Magliona G, Gamarra E, Ramunni MJ, Garberoglio R, Limone PP: Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation. Thyroid; 2010 Oct;20(10):1077-83
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has proved to be an effective diagnostic tool in patients with thyroid nodules.
  • To date, however, among lesions showing a follicular pattern, FNAC is still unable to differentiate between benign and malignant ones.
  • METHODS: We report a cohort of 927 consecutive cases who underwent thyroid surgery in our hospital between 2000 and 2008.
  • All the cytologic specimens were divided into five categories (Thy 1: inadequate material, Thy 2: benign, Thy 3: indeterminate, Thy 4: suspicious for malignancy, Thy 5: malignant).
  • Thy3 specimens were further divided into three subcategories (Thy 3a, or "follicular lesions of indeterminate significance": scant colloid, microfollicular pattern, or small clusters of thyrocytes with round nuclei usually without, but sometimes with, minimal cellular pleomorphism; Thy 3b, or "follicular neoplasm": absence of colloid, small clusters, or microfollicles of medium-large sized cell populations arranged in cohesive groups with nuclear overlapping, crowding, and pleomorphisms; and Thy 3c or "Hurthle-cell neoplasm": scant colloid, sheets or clusters of oxyphilic cells).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the National Cancer Institute consensus showing a different risk of malignancy for "follicular lesions of undetermined significance” compared with "follicular neoplasms" and "Hurthle cells neoplasms," which are more suspect for malignancy.
  • This subclassification could improve clinical management of thyroid nodules, helping to better select patients for surgery or follow up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Humans. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20883171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Kajor M, Ziaja J, Lange D, Król R, Ciupińska-Kajor M, Turska-d'Amico M, Maka B, Cierpka L: [Analysis of morphology of adrenal pheochromocytoma as regards their potential malignancy]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):911-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal pheochromocytoma are diagnosed the most often in patients with arterial hypertension or with thyroid medullar cancer and suspicion of MEN II syndromes.
  • The aim of the study is to analyse the morphology of pheochromocytomas on the basis of Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) in order to estimate their potential malignancy.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was establish before surgery in 87.5%.
  • 12.5% of patients were referred to surgery on the basis of tumour diameter (range 70 to 102 mm).
  • RESULTS: In pathological examination benign pheochromo-cytoma was diagnosed in 39 presented patients.
  • Among 35 patients operated on more than 12 months ago 2 patients died: 1 patient with malignant pheochromocytoma (PASS=8 points) and 1 patient with MEN IIA syndrome (due to disseminated thyroid medullar cancer).
  • CONCLUSION: Analysis of pheochromocytoma in PASS is only of rough character and does not allow for clear-cut histological diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16821210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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44. Illouz F, Rodien P, Saint-André JP, Triau S, Laboureau-Soares S, Dubois S, Vielle B, Hamy A, Rohmer V: Usefulness of repeated fine-needle cytology in the follow-up of non-operated thyroid nodules. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Mar;156(3):303-8
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  • [Title] Usefulness of repeated fine-needle cytology in the follow-up of non-operated thyroid nodules.
  • OBJECTIVE: The usefulness of repeated fine-needle cytology (FNC) in thyroid nodules with benign cytology remains unknown.
  • We compared the nodules with at least one suspicious or malignant FNC (S/M nodules) with nodules with repeatedly benign (RB) FNC (RB nodules).
  • RESULTS: Among the nodules with initial benign cytology, we found 35 nodules with one or more later suspicious or malignant results.
  • The probability for a nodule to have a repeated benign FNC decreases with time and with the number of FNC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest to repeat FNC up to three adequate samples in the follow-up of thyroid nodules so as not to miss the presence of malignant neoplasm.

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  • [ErratumIn] Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Jun;156(6):705. Antoine, Hamy [corrected to Hamy, Antoine]
  • (PMID = 17322489.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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45. Mambo E, Chatterjee A, Xing M, Tallini G, Haugen BR, Yeung SC, Sukumar S, Sidransky D: Tumor-specific changes in mtDNA content in human cancer. Int J Cancer; 2005 Oct 10;116(6):920-4
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  • [Title] Tumor-specific changes in mtDNA content in human cancer.
  • We examined mtDNA content in 25 pairs of normal and tumor breast tissue samples, 37 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 21 benign thyroid neoplasms and in 20 paired normal and PTC samples.
  • Our results showed that mtDNA content was reduced in 80% of the breast tumors relative to their corresponding normal. mtDNA was increased in papillary thyroid carcinomas, however, when compared to the corresponding normal DNA taken from the same individual.
  • Our findings indicate that changes in mtDNA content during carcinogenesis may be regulated in a tumor specific manner.
  • Additionally, changes in mtDNA levels did not correlate with tumor grade and metastasis, suggesting that these alterations may occur in the early stages of tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Reference Values. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15856456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U01CA084986-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA077664-07
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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46. Evenson A, Mowschenson P, Wang H, Connolly J, Mendrinos S, Parangi S, Hasselgren PO: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg; 2007 Jun;193(6):707-12
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma (HTA) is an uncommon benign thyroid tumor that can present as a solitary thyroid nodule, a prominent nodule in a multinodular goiter, or as an incidental finding in a thyroidectomy specimen.
  • METHODS: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 7 patients presenting with a solitary thyroid nodule (n = 4) or a multinodular goiter (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although HTA is a rare condition of the thyroid, the surgeon needs to be aware of this entity to be able to better discuss the pathological findings with the patient, particularly since some pathologists and endocrinologists believe that HTA may represent a malignant neoplasm of low metastatic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17512281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Zhao J, Leonard C, Gemsenjäger E, Heitz PU, Moch H, Odermatt B: Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling. Oncol Rep; 2008 Feb;19(2):329-37
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  • [Title] Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling.
  • It is difficult to distinguish benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors by histological or cytological examination.
  • The goal of this study was to reveal gene expression variations between benign and malignant follicular lesions of the thyroid gland.
  • We investigated gene expression profiles from 24 follicular thyroid tumors (12 carcinomas and 12 adenomas) and 13 normal thyroid tissues using high-density human cDNA arrays.
  • The identification of gene expression changes was based on signal intensity ratios of tumor versus normal thyroid parenchyma.
  • Our results demonstrate a potential use of gene expression profiling for differentiating benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • A detailed investigation of the differentially expressed genes could give new insights into molecular pathways of malignant transformation of thyroid follicular neoplasm and may help to develop a molecular tool for the preoperative differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Gene Expression Profiling. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18202778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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48. Guerriero E, Ferraro A, Desiderio D, Pallante P, Berlingieri MT, Iaccarino A, Palmieri E, Palombini L, Fusco A, Troncone G: UbcH10 expression on thyroid fine-needle aspirates. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Jun 25;118(3):157-65
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  • [Title] UbcH10 expression on thyroid fine-needle aspirates.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples belonging to the follicular neoplasm/suspicious for malignancy classes are controversial.
  • The authors identified UbcH10 as a marker useful in the diagnosis of several neoplasms, including thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: A series of 84 follicular neoplasm/suspicious for malignancy FNAs with histological follow-up (30 malignant) was prospectively collected.
  • RESULTS: UbcH10 and Ki-67 shared a similar pattern; although UbcH10 expression was higher in malignant than in benign lesions (P < .001), staining was sporadic, and the cutoff value derived by the ROC analysis was too low (1.25%) for routine application.
  • UbcH10 mRNA levels associated with malignant histology were significantly higher than those associated with benign histology (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: UbcH10 quantitative RT-PCR analysis, rather than immunohistochemistry, is useful to increase the detection of malignancy in thyroid FNAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes / analysis. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20544706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 6.3.2.19 / UBE2C protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes
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49. Mathur A, Weng J, Moses W, Steinberg SM, Rahbari R, Kitano M, Khanafshar E, Ljung BM, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: A prospective study evaluating the accuracy of using combined clinical factors and candidate diagnostic markers to refine the accuracy of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. Surgery; 2010 Dec;148(6):1170-6; discussion 1176-7
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  • [Title] A prospective study evaluating the accuracy of using combined clinical factors and candidate diagnostic markers to refine the accuracy of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of fine needle aspiration biopsies of the thyroid have inconclusive results.
  • We conducted a prospective trial to determine whether clinical and molecular markers could be used in combination to improve the accuracy of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • METHODS: Clinical, tumor genotyping for common somatic mutations (BRAF V600E, NRAS, KRAS, RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and NTRK1), and the gene expression levels of 6 candidate diagnostic markers were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods in 341 patients to determine whether they could distinguish reliably benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms, and a scoring model was derived.
  • The overall accuracy of the scoring model, including these 3 variables, to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid tumors was 91%, including 67% for the indeterminate and 77% for the suspicious FNA subgroups.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Ethnic Groups. Female. Genes, ras / genetics. Humans. Male. Medical History Taking. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Mutation. Prospective Studies. RNA / genetics. RNA / isolation & purification. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Reproducibility of Results. Thyroidectomy / statistics & numerical data

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  • [Copyright] Published by Mosby, Inc.
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  • [ErratumIn] Surgery. 2012 Feb;151(2):343. Rahabari, Reza [corrected to Rahbari, Reza]
  • (PMID = 21134548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 63231-63-0 / RNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS240002; NLM/ PMC3052943
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50. Miseikyte-Kaubriene E, Ulys A, Trakymas M: [The frequency of malignant disease in cytological group of suspected cancer (ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable thyroid nodules)]. Medicina (Kaunas); 2008;44(3):189-94
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  • [Title] [The frequency of malignant disease in cytological group of suspected cancer (ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable thyroid nodules)].
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the most important procedure for differentiating benign thyroid nodules from malignant ones.
  • Traditionally, findings of fine-needle aspiration biopsy are divided into four categories: nondiagnostic, benign lesions, suspected cancer, and malignant lesions.
  • Group suspicious for cancer largely involves follicular neoplasms as well as lesions with cytological features of malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish the value of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of nonpalpable thyroid cancer and to assess the frequency of malignant disease in the group of suspected cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 184 patients with nonpalpable thyroid nodules (less than 1.5 cm in diameter) were examined by means of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • RESULTS. During 1997-2002, 204 ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies of thyroid nodules were performed; findings were nondiagnostic in 5.9% of cases.
  • In 59.8% of cases, cytological examination revealed benign lesions; in 11.8%, suspected cancer; and in 22.5%, malignant lesions.
  • In 45 cases, cytological diagnosis of malignant or suspected thyroid cancer was confirmed by histological examination after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy has a high accuracy in the diagnostic evaluation of nonpalpable thyroid nodule with cytological features of malignancy.
  • However, fine-needle aspiration biopsy is not effective diagnostic method for differentiating benign thyroid nodules from malignant ones in follicular neoplasm group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Palpation. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18413985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] lit
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
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51. Kumar PV, Monabati A, Tabei SZ, Ramzy M, Husseini SV, Khajeh F: Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases. Acta Cytol; 2005 Mar-Apr;49(2):177-80
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  • [Title] Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) usually have a benign clinical course, with an excellent long-term prognosis and a propensity for vascular invasion.
  • CASES: A 68-year-old man presented with a thyroid mass and skin nodule on the scalp.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytologic diagnosis of metastatic FTC has been reported rarely.
  • Marginal (fire-flare) vacuoles aid in making the diagnosis of metastatic FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anemia / etiology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone and Bones / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15839624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Barroeta JE, Wang H, Shiina N, Gupta PK, Livolsi VA, Baloch ZW: Is fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of multiple thyroid nodules justified? Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(1):61-5
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  • [Title] Is fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of multiple thyroid nodules justified?
  • BACKGROUND: The clinical management of patients with solitary thyroid nodule is well established; however, the evaluation of patients with multiple thyroid nodules is controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to assess if there is a correlation between the risk of malignancy and number of thyroid nodules.
  • DESIGN: The study cohort included 2,884 patients (2,410 females and 474 males) with 3,274 thyroid nodules that underwent FNA under ultrasound guidance between November 1997 and April 2004.
  • Multiple thyroid nodules were aspirated in 360 patients; 2 in 332 (291 females, 41 males), 3 nodules in 26 (23 females, 3 males), and 4 nodules in 2 patients (1 female, 1 male).
  • Subsequent information regarding the histological diagnosis was obtained in the cases that underwent surgical excision.
  • The FNA specimens were diagnosed as benign (n = 1,663, 51%), neoplasm (n = 880, 27%), suspicious for neoplasm or papillary carcinoma (n = 234, 7%), malignant (n = 187, 6%), and non-diagnostic (n = 310, 9%).
  • The surgical pathology diagnosis was benign in 656 nodules (52%) and malignant in 596 nodules (48%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The cancer risk is similar for patients with one or two nodules over 1 cm and decreases with three or more thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16760581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Aron M, Kapila K, Verma K: Utility of galectin 3 expression in thyroid aspirates as a diagnostic marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Jul;49(3):376-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Utility of galectin 3 expression in thyroid aspirates as a diagnostic marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Galectin-3 is a 31kD beta-galactoside binding lectin, which is known to be expressed in various neoplasms including thyroid tumors.
  • This study was conducted to study the role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules onfine needle aspirates (FNAC).
  • The cytology diagnosis of these cases was: papillary carcinoma (25), follicular neoplasm (16), adenomatous goiter (20), hyperplastic nodule (5), medullary carcinoma (5) and anaplastic carcinoma (1).
  • Galectin-3 positivity was seen in 80% of papillary carcinomas, 37.5% offollicular neoplasms and in 60% of benign nodules.
  • Three of thefollicular neoplasms that were diagnosed on histology as carcinoma were positive on cytology and one case offollicular adenoma was also positive.
  • However, since it is also expressed in a variety of benign lesions, its role as a pre-surgical markerfor differentiating benignfrom malignant thyroid nodules is limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Academies and Institutes. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. India. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17001889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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54. Wiseman SM, Melck A, Masoudi H, Ghaidi F, Goldstein L, Gown A, Jones SJ, Griffith OL: Molecular phenotyping of thyroid tumors identifies a marker panel for differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Oct;15(10):2811-26
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  • [Title] Molecular phenotyping of thyroid tumors identifies a marker panel for differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosis.
  • The objective of this work was to evaluate the molecular phenotype of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and benign thyroid lesions to identify molecular markers that allow for accurate thyroid cancer diagnosis.
  • METHODS: Tissue microarrays consisting of 100 benign and 105 malignant thyroid lesions, plus 24 lymph node samples, were stained for a panel of 57 molecular markers.
  • Significant associations between marker staining and tumor pathology (DTC versus benign) were determined using contingency table and Mann-Whitney U (MU) tests.
  • RESULTS: Of the 57 diagnostic markers evaluated 35 (61%) were significantly associated with a DTC diagnosis after multiple testing correction.
  • Of these, in DTC compared with benign thyroid tumors, 8 markers were downregulated and 27 upregulated.
  • The most significant markers for DTC diagnosis were: Galectin-3, Cytokeratin 19, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Androgen Receptor, p16, Aurora-A, and HBME-1.
  • Using the entire molecular marker panel, a Random Forests algorithm was able to classify tumors as DTC or benign with an estimated sensitivity of 87.9%, specificity of 94.0%, and an accuracy of 91.0%.
  • CONCLUSION: Evaluation of the DTC and benign thyroid tumor molecular phenotype has allowed for identification of a marker panel, composed of both established and novel markers, useful for thyroid cancer diagnosis.
  • These results suggest that further study of the molecular profile of thyroid tumors is warranted, and a diagnostic molecular marker panel may potentially improve patient selection for thyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Prognosis. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18612701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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55. Rahbari R, Sansano IG, Elaraj DM, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Prior head and neck radiation exposure is not a contraindication to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. J Am Coll Surg; 2010 Jun;210(6):942-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Most patients with primary hyperparathyroidism can have a minimally invasive parathyroidectomy based on localization studies showing single-gland disease.
  • In patients with a history of head and neck irradiation, due to the increased risk of multigland disease and risk of concurrent thyroid cancer, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is considered by some to be a contraindication.
  • There was no significant difference in concurrent benign thyroid neoplasm, thyroid cancer, and type of parathyroid disease (single vs multigland) in the 2 groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Head and neck irradiation should not be a contraindication for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in the setting of preoperative localization studies showing single-gland disease and no concurrent thyroid neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20510803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Maizlin ZV, Wiseman SM, Vora P, Kirby JM, Mason AC, Filipenko D, Brown JA: Hurthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid: sonographic appearance and histologic characteristics. J Ultrasound Med; 2008 May;27(5):751-7; quiz 759
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  • [Title] Hurthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid: sonographic appearance and histologic characteristics.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the sonographic features of Hürthle cell neoplasms (HCNs) of the thyroid.
  • Two tumors (13%) were predominantly hypoechoic with isoechoic areas to thyroid parenchyma.
  • Two (13%) neoplasms were isoechoic to thyroid parenchyma.
  • Three neoplasms contained cystic components.
  • One tumor was avascular on Doppler examination.
  • One neoplasm showed only peripheral blood flow.
  • Twelve HCNs were benign, and 3 were malignant on pathologic examination.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hürthle cell neoplasms show a spectrum of sonographic appearances from predominantly hypoechoic to hyperechoic lesions and from peripheral blood flow with no internal flow to extensively vascularized lesions.
  • Pathologic criteria differentiating benign and malignant HCNs (absence or presence of a capsular breach, vascular or extrathyroidal tissue invasion, nodal involvement, and distant metastasis) are beyond the resolution of sonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy and require removal of the entire lesion.
  • This precludes diagnosis and characterization of HCNs by sonography.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / ultrasonography. Female. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Regional Blood Flow / physiology. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 18424651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Yüksel M, Eziddin S, Wardelmann E, Biersack HJ: 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2006 Sep;25(5):316-9
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  • [Title] 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy.
  • A patient with suspicion of a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas underwent a somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 111In-Pentetreotide.
  • 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy showed discrete uptake of the radiotracer in the head of the pancreas and focal uptake in the right upper thyroid lobe.
  • Normal thyroid tissue and thyroid disorders, such as cancers, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and adenomas often show increased uptake of 111In-pentetreotide resulting in a possible false positive interpretation in patients with neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Adding a 48h planar image might contribute to the differential diagnosis between benign or malignant lesions, as in the present case where the uptake decreased in an adenoma after 48 hours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Indium Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromogranin A / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Serotonin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17173778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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58. Mathur SR, Kapila K, Verma K: Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of goiter. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Apr;48(2):166-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of goiter.
  • Enlargement of the thyroid gland is a common occurrence in most parts of the world especially in the iodine-deficient goiter belt areas.
  • Vast majority of these lesions are benign but they invariably lead to a series of investigations among which FNAC plays a pivotal role.
  • Although many studies have reported diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in detecting neoplasms, there have been few studies where the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of goiter along with their diagnostic pitfalls has been evaluated.
  • The present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of FNAC in diagnosis of goiter and to highlight its limitations and diagnostic pitfalls.
  • They included 733 cases where the cytological diagnosis was goiter or suggestive of goiter along with 38 cases in which the histological diagnosis was goiter while the cytological diagnosis was cystic change or neoplasm.
  • In 34 cases (20.23%) no diagnosis could be offered because of cystic change.
  • A false positive cytologic diagnosis of neoplasm was made in 4 cases.
  • In 24 cases neoplasms were initially missed on FNAC of which 10 cases could be detected on review while 5 cases were considered unsatisfactory.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Humans. India

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  • (PMID = 16758655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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59. Kameyama K, Ito K, Takami H: [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1973-8
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  • [Title] [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor].
  • True benign neoplasm of the thyroid gland is only follicular adenoma, which is a tumor derived from follicular cells.
  • The architectural pattern of follicular adenoma varies from trabecular to macrofollicular, and in most instances more than one architectural pattern is observed in one tumor.
  • Adenomatous goiter, a hyperplastic lesion of follicles, is the most common tumorous lesion of thyroid gland.
  • The gland is distorted with a nodular surface.
  • Mature or immature teratoma is also observed in the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18018557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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60. Al-Shraim MM, Hussein MR, Musalam AO, Al-Ghandi T, Al-Zahramit H, Mahrouz AA, Abu-Eshy SA: Hurthle cell neoplasms of thyroid in south-western region of Saudi Arabia. West Afr J Med; 2010 Nov-Dec;29(6):398-402
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  • [Title] Hurthle cell neoplasms of thyroid in south-western region of Saudi Arabia.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid Hurthle cell neoplasm (THCN) is relatively rare.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of all thyroid Hurthle cell neoplasms diagnosed at Aseer Central Hospital (ACH), Saudi Arabia during the period from October 1998 to April 2007.
  • Hemithyroidectomy was performed in two cases of adenoma in which FNAC showed benign lesion and in one case of carcinoma based on clinical and ultrasonographic impression of benign MNG in the involved lobe and inconclusive FNAC result.
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative diagnosis and management of THCN is still a dilemma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Saudi Arabia. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21465448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0189-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] West African journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] West Afr J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, Hurthle cell
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61. Wu HH, Jones JN, Osman J: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid: ten years experience in a community teaching hospital. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Feb;34(2):93-6
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid: ten years experience in a community teaching hospital.
  • We present our experience of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the thyroid in a community hospital setting and discuss the cancer probability of the indeterminate FNA results.
  • The initial FNA diagnoses of these 401 cases were benign non-neoplastic (BNN) 159, malignant 34, atypical 33, suspicious 19, follicular neoplasm (FN) 88, follicular lesion (FL) 51, and inadequate 17.
  • When compared to the cancer rate (3%) for FNA diagnosis of BNN, the likelihood of finding cancer in the thyroidectomy is 5 times more for a FL, 11 times more for a FN, 16 times more for atypical, and 23 times more for suspicious.
  • [MeSH-major] Hospitals, Community. Hospitals, Teaching. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16514671.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Huber GF, Dziegielewski P, Matthews TW, Warshawski SJ, Kmet LM, Faris P, Khalil M, Dort JC: Intraoperative frozen-section analysis for thyroid nodules: a step toward clarity or confusion? Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Sep;133(9):874-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative frozen-section analysis for thyroid nodules: a step toward clarity or confusion?
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine accuracy and intertest agreement of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and intraoperative frozen-section analysis (FS) findings in thyroid surgery, and to assess the influence of intraoperative FS findings on decision making and the utility of FS in thyroid surgery.
  • PATIENTS: Two-hundred fifteen patients who underwent primary thyroid surgery.
  • In case of malignant FNAC findings, the FS result did not influence treatment decisions; in case of a malignant FS result on the background of a benign, indeterminate, or nondiagnostic FNAC finding, the FS result influenced treatment decisions in 88% of cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative FS did not give additional information in cases where a malignant neoplasm was predicted by the FNAC finding.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Frozen Sections. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Decision Support Techniques. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17875853.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Lee SM, Kwak KH: Risk factors and a predictive model for thyroid cancer in Korean women. Cancer Nurs; 2010 Jul-Aug;33(4):310-9
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  • [Title] Risk factors and a predictive model for thyroid cancer in Korean women.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence in Korean women has increased radically and is the highest in all cancer types.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer and to develop a predictive model based on these risk factors.
  • To construct a predictive model, the participants selected were 260 female outpatients diagnosed with malignant neoplasm of thyroid gland who had undergone thyroid removal surgery.
  • Nine variables, including occupation, live(d) in coastal region, family history of thyroid cancer, history of benign thyroid tumor, menopause status and weight gain, number of full-term deliveries, abortion, exercise intensity, and stress, remained as statistically significant risk factors in the stepwise regression model.
  • CONCLUSION: The predictive power of the model was relatively good, so it can be used to identify individuals at high risk for thyroid cancer.
  • Thus, it will be possible to detect thyroid cancer in its earliest stage, diminish mortality, and improve quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Logistic Models. Risk Assessment / organization & administration. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 20495449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-9804
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Garg K, Soslow RA, Rivera M, Tuttle MR, Ghossein RA: Histologically bland "extremely well differentiated" thyroid carcinomas arising in struma ovarii can recur and metastasize. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 May;28(3):222-30
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  • [Title] Histologically bland "extremely well differentiated" thyroid carcinomas arising in struma ovarii can recur and metastasize.
  • Struma ovarii (SO) infrequently harbor carcinomas that are histologically similar to those arising in the eutopic thyroid.
  • There were 8 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) (2 classic and 6 follicular variant) and 2 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • Two of the 10 thyroid carcinomas relapsed after an initial diagnosis of "benign" struma.
  • The cystectomy from 1 patient showed thyroid follicles with nuclear features of the follicular variant of PTC whereas the cyst from the second patient showed thyroid follicles with subtle nuclear features, suggestive but not diagnostic of PTC.
  • Both patients presented with disseminated PTC 3 and 4 years after the initial diagnosis, involving the pelvis in both cases and also the liver parenchyma in 1 case.
  • The 2 patients received radioactive iodine therapy after thyroidectomy and are both alive with disease 6 years after diagnosis.
  • The criteria separating hyperplastic nodules from well-differentiated follicular variant of PTC in the thyroid gland seem to be applicable to thyroid-type carcinomas arising in SO.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19620939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Isotopes
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65. Uri O, Baron E, Lefel O, Bitterman A: Primary schwannoma of the thyroid gland presenting as an asymptomatic cold nodule. Am J Otolaryngol; 2009 Nov-Dec;30(6):427-9
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  • [Title] Primary schwannoma of the thyroid gland presenting as an asymptomatic cold nodule.
  • Schwannomas are benign neoplasms that may arise from Schwann cells of the nerve sheath all over the body.
  • Although schwannomas of the head and neck region are common, the thyroid gland is a rare site for schwannomas, with little documentation in the literature.
  • Thyroid ultrasound revealed a single prominent nodule, which was cold on technetium Tc 99m thyroid scan.
  • Fine needle aspiration of the nodule had aroused suspicion for malignant thyroid neoplasm.
  • Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical stains supported the diagnosis of a primary thyroid schwannoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurilemmoma / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / radionuclide imaging. Hashimoto Disease / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Organotechnetium Compounds. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 19880034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-818X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds
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66. Camargo RY, Tomimori EK: [Usefulness of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Jul;51(5):783-92
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Uso da ultra-sonografia no diagnóstico e seguimento do carcinoma bem diferenciado da tireóide.
  • Thyroid nodules are found in the vast majority of the population, but only 5 to 10% are malignant.
  • Ultrasonography of the thyroid, by virtue of being a straightforward, non-invasive method presenting strong correlation with macroscopic aspects of the thyroid gland, is being increasingly used to identify nodules that present a higher risk of malignancy.
  • Conversely, nodules presenting benign ultrasonographic characteristics such as hyperechogenicity and a mixed sponge-like aspect, and a concordant cytology, have a negative predictive value of 96.6%.
  • It is, thus, important to examine all nodular lesions and to identify suspicious lesions that need biopsy, especially in multinodular glands.
  • Ultrasonography is also highly sensitive in the identification of suspicious cervical lymph nodes during the follow-up of patients with thyroid carcinoma, even when PCI is negative and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels are undetectable.
  • Tg measurement in the needle wash-out content is recommended as this has proven to be more sensitive than cytology in the diagnosis of cervical metastasis, especially where there is liquid content, and it is not affected by the presence of anti-Tg antibodies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Humans. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Predictive Value of Tests. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17891242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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67. van Roosmalen J, van Hemel B, Suurmeijer A, Groen H, Ruitenbeek T, Links TP, Plukker JT: Diagnostic value and cost considerations of routine fine-needle aspirations in the follow-up of thyroid nodules with benign readings. Thyroid; 2010 Dec;20(12):1359-65
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value and cost considerations of routine fine-needle aspirations in the follow-up of thyroid nodules with benign readings.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is the most accurate tool to identify malignancy in solitary thyroid nodules.
  • Although some recommend routinely repeating FNA for nodules that are initially read as benign, there is no consensus.
  • We evaluated clinical relevancy and considered costs of routine follow-up FNA in nodules initially read as benign.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the records of all 739 patients who underwent FNA of solitary thyroid nodules at our institution from 1988 to 2004.
  • According to their physicians practice, some patients had a "follow-up biopsy" after an initially benign FNA reading as a matter of routine (Group I approach) or if their clinical status changed (Group II approach).
  • RESULTS: The initial FNA was benign in 576 (78%), suspicious for follicular neoplasms in 106 (14.4%), and malignant in 57 patients (7.7%).
  • Follow-up FNA was performed in 292 patients with initially benign lesions, 235 in Group I approach and 57 in Group II approach.
  • The FNA diagnosis according to Group I approach remained benign on follow-up biopsy in 96.2% (226/235), was altered to follicular neoplasm in 3% (7/235), and was suspicious for malignancy in 0.8% (2/235).
  • When following Group II approach, the follow-up FNA was benign in 93% (53/57), undetermined in 1.7% (1/57), and showed follicular neoplasm in 5.3% (3/57).
  • Combining Groups I and II methods, 5 of 292 patients had a malignant nodule on histological examination, a false-negative rate of 1.7% for the initial FNA, but without a difference in prevalence of thyroid malignancy between the groups.
  • Cost-consequence analysis showed no benefit in routine follow-up FNA after initially benign FNA readings.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Routine follow-up FNA in patients whose initial FNA is benign has a low diagnostic upgrading value and is relatively costly.
  • In patients whose initial FNA is benign, we recommend the FNA be repeated only if clinically suspicious signs or complaints develop.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / economics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cost-Benefit Analysis. False Negative Reactions. Humans. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20954810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Bocciolini C, Dall'olio D, Cavazza S, Laudadio P: Schwannoma of cervical sympathetic chain: assessment and management. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2005 Jun;25(3):191-4
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  • Schwannoma arising from the cervical sympathetic chain is an uncommon benign nerve tumour.
  • This tumour most often presents as an asymptomatic solitary neck mass, with slow-growing and rare malignant degeneration.
  • Definitive pre-operative diagnosis may be difficult and investigations are not usually helpful.
  • Diagnosis relies on clinical suspicion and confirmation is often obtained by means of surgical pathology.
  • Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for this tumour, with recurrence being rare.
  • Diagnostic studies included computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound which confirmed a circumscribed mass in the upper left portion of the neck next to the thyroid gland.
  • The pathologic and radiological evaluations, treatment and postoperative complications of this neoplasm are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglia, Sympathetic / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16450776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-100X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2639869
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69. Theoharis CG, Schofield KM, Hammers L, Udelsman R, Chhieng DC: The Bethesda thyroid fine-needle aspiration classification system: year 1 at an academic institution. Thyroid; 2009 Nov;19(11):1215-23
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  • [Title] The Bethesda thyroid fine-needle aspiration classification system: year 1 at an academic institution.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may be the procedure of choice in the preoperative evaluation of thyroid nodules, yet it suffers as a modality both because of its inherent limitations as well as variability in its diagnostic terminology.
  • The objective of this study was to report our experience in using this new reporting system to review the distribution of diagnosis categories and to evaluate the specificity of the system based on the cytologic-histologic correlation.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 3207 thyroid nodules underwent FNA, that is, 3207 FNAs from 2468 patients were examined at our institution between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2008.
  • All FNAs were classified prospectively into unsatisfactory, benign, indeterminate (cells of undetermined significance), follicular neoplasm (FN), suspicious for malignancy, and positive for malignancy.
  • RESULTS: The distribution of these categories from 3207 evaluated nodules was as follows: 11.1% unsatisfactory, 73.8% benign, 3.0% indeterminate, 5.5% FN, 1.3% suspicious, and 5.2% malignant.
  • The distribution of diagnoses of patients who underwent surgery was as follows: 10% unsatisfactory, 4.6% benign, 30.3% indeterminate, 61.4% FN, 76.9% suspicious, and 77.2% malignant.
  • There was an excellent association between the categories and in predicting benign versus malignant thyroid nodules (p < 0.0001).
  • However, the false-negative rate cannot be calculated because only a small number of patients with benign diagnosis underwent surgery.
  • Given that only 15% of the patients underwent surgery, at this time the sensitivity of thyroid FNA for diagnosing malignant thyroid nodules cannot be calculated, nor can the sensitivity of thyroid FNA as a screening test for all neoplasms be accurately estimated.
  • The specificity for diagnosing malignant thyroid nodules was 93%, whereas the specificity as a screening test for all neoplasms was 68%.
  • The positive predictive values for an FN, suspicious, and positive cytologic diagnosis were 34%, 87%, and 100%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that the recently proposed classification system is excellent for reporting thyroid FNAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Chi-Square Distribution. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19888859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Nio Y, Iguchi C, Itakura M, Toga T, Hashimoto K, Koike M, Omori H, Sato Y, Endo S: High incidence of synchronous or metachronous breast cancer in patients with malignant and benign thyroid tumor or tumor-like disorders. Anticancer Res; 2009 May;29(5):1607-10
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  • [Title] High incidence of synchronous or metachronous breast cancer in patients with malignant and benign thyroid tumor or tumor-like disorders.
  • BACKGROUND: Although many reports indicated an association between thyroid diseases and breast cancer, such an association still remains controversial.
  • The present study was aimed to clarify the association of thyroid diseases with the breast cancer incidence.
  • In the patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumor or tumor-like disorders, the incidence of other malignancies was surveyed, and the frequency of thyroid cancer in patients with breast cancer was also surveyed.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1982 and 2005, a total of 201 female patients received surgery for tumor or tumor-like disorders, including 65 carcinoma, 68 adenoma, 61 adenomatous goiter and 7 chronic thyroiditis cases.
  • RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of breast cancer was 16.4% (33/201) in the patients, who received thyroid surgeries and was much higher than other malignancies: 2.0% gastric cancer, 1.0% uterine and colorectal cancer.
  • The incidence rate of breast cancer in each disease was 13.8% for thyroid cancer, 16.2% for adenoma and 21.3% for adenomatous goiter, but no incidence for chronic thyroiditis.
  • On the other hand, in the patients with breast cancer during the same period in our department, the frequency of thyroid cancer was only 2.1% (7/340).
  • CONCLUSION: It appears that thyroid cancer, adenoma and adenomatous goiter were associated with the risk of breast cancer, but chronic thyroiditis was not related.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications


71. Kim E, Bae TS, Kwon Y, Kim TH, Chung KW, Kim SW, Ro J, Lee ES: Primary malignant teratoma with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor component in thyroid gland: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2007 Jun;22(3):568-71
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  • [Title] Primary malignant teratoma with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor component in thyroid gland: a case report.
  • Most teratomas involving the thyroid are benign and occur in children.
  • However, the adult cases reported are mostly malignant and commonly arise in the thyroid.
  • The patient underwent extensive evaluation of the thyroid gland with computed tomography (CT) scan and positron emission tomography (PET) scan, which revealed no evidence of metastatic disease.
  • This is the first case, to our knowledge, of malignant thyroid teratoma with a exuberant primitive neuroectodermal tumor component in Korea.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / complications. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Teratoma / complications. Teratoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2693658
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72. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):767-74
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with thyroid nodules have indeterminate or suspicious fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy results.
  • We hypothesized that genes that regulate cell-cycle progression would be differentially expressed in malignant versus benign thyroid nodules and could serve as diagnostic markers and markers of disease aggressiveness.
  • METHODS: We used a cDNA array with 96 cell-cycle regulatory genes to identify differentially expressed genes in pooled benign versus malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Genes up- or down-regulated by more than 2-fold in malignant thyroid neoplasms were further evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 95 patients with hyperplastic nodules (n = 19), follicular adenoma (n = 19), follicular thyroid cancer (n = 19), the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19), and papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19).
  • RESULTS: cDNA array analysis showed that cyclin B1, MCM5, MCM7, RAD9, ubiquitin C, CDK6, SKP2, and APAF1 were up-regulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative PCR showed that MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 mRNA expression were significantly higher in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms (< or = 0.0012).
  • The level of MCM7 mRNA expression was higher in T4 than in T1, T2, and T3 differentiated thyroid cancers (P < 0.0127).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 are overexpressed in malignant thyroid neoplasms of follicular cell origin.
  • These genes may be useful markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms as an adjunct to FNA biopsy.
  • MCM7 mRNA expression is higher in locally invasive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression. Humans. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16547620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MCM5 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 139691-42-2 / rad9 protein; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM7 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7
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73. Akhtar S, Awan MS: Role of fine needle aspiration and frozen section in determining the extent of thyroidectomy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2007 Sep;264(9):1075-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The routine use of fine needle aspiration (FNA) and frozen section (FS) in the management of a thyroid nodule is controversial and needs to be evaluated on an institution to institution basis.
  • We performed a comparative study of FNA and FS examination of all patients presenting with nodular thyroid disease between September 2002 and December 2005.
  • FNA reported 8 benign, 7 papillary carcinoma, 22 follicular neoplasm, 1 medullary and 6 suspicious lesions.
  • On final pathology there were 16 benign and 28 malignant cases.
  • Both FNA and FS have high specificity for diagnosis of thyroid cancer but lacked sensitivity at our institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17431657.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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74. Tomoda C, Takamura Y, Ito Y, Miya A, Miyauchi A: Transient vocal cord paralysis after fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid tumor. Thyroid; 2006 Jul;16(7):697-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transient vocal cord paralysis after fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: Complications of thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are exceedingly rare.
  • Here we describe patients diagnosed as having transient vocal cord paralysis after FNAB of benign thyroid tumor.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective review of patients with concurrent diagnosis of vocal cord paralysis after FNAB.
  • These patients had solid and/or cystic lesion in the thyroid.
  • Cytologic findings were benign tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the incidence of vocal cord paralysis in patients with thyroid tumor after FNAB is reported to be 0.036%, the true incidence is unknown because asymptomatic subjects are not screened.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Vocal Cord Paralysis / chemically induced. Vocal Cords / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16889495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Troncone G, Cozzolino I, Fedele M, Malapelle U, Palombini L: Preparation of thyroid FNA material for routine cytology and BRAF testing: a validation study. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Mar;38(3):172-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preparation of thyroid FNA material for routine cytology and BRAF testing: a validation study.
  • V600E BRAF mutation is emerging as an independent marker of papillary thyroid carcinoma aggressive behavior.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinomas harboring this mutation should be extensively resected.
  • However, this requires an unquestionable cytological diagnosis of malignancy.
  • Cytological diagnoses were inadequate (2%), benign (85%), follicular lesion of undetermined significance (5%), follicular neoplasms (2%), suspicious for malignancy (2%), and malignant (4%).
  • Whenever necessary BRAF testing may also be performed on the residual samples of thyroid nodules, without interfering with routine cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Specimen Handling / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19693938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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76. Xu F, Liu B, Chen XY, Zhou EX, Fan DF, Ma Y, Tang ZH: [Diagnosis and therapy of childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analysis of 12 cases]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;11(2):120-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analysis of 12 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and therapy of thyroid carcinoma in children.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 12 children under the age of 14 years, diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma between August 1998 and August 2008, were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: A hard thyroid mass was observed in 10 out of 12 children with thyroid carcinoma, but only one out of 15 children with benign thyroid tumor (<0.05).
  • The rate of cervical lymph node metastasis in children with thyroid carcinoma was significantly higher than that in children with benign thyroid tumor (<0.05).
  • There was no significant difference in the final diagnostic rate of thyroid carcinoma between ultrasonography and CT scans (75% vs 83%; >0.05).
  • All of 12 cases were pathologically confirmed as differentiated thyroid carcinoma, including papillary carcinoma (7 cases), follicular carcinoma (3 cases) and papillary-follicular carcinoma (2 cases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood thyroid carcinoma is mostly differentiated and characterized by hard thyroid mass and cervical lymph node metastasis.
  • A combination of ultrasonography and CT is helpful to the diagnosis of childhood thyroid carcinoma.
  • The treatment outcome may be satisfactory by optimal therapy in children with thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19222949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-8830
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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