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1. França SR, Caldas D, Alcebíades V 2nd, de Oliveira CA: [Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid: a case report and literature review]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2006 Oct;50(5):968-76
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  • [Title] [Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid: a case report and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma mucoepidermóide de tireóide: relato de caso e revisão da literatura.
  • The mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a neoplasia that usually occurs at salivary glands, breast, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract.
  • The primary occurrence on thyroid gland is rare and only 33 cases were previously published.
  • Although the majority of cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid (MECT) show a benign evolution, this paper describes a patient with an aggressive tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcitonin / analysis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Mucins / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17160225.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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2. Mills LJ, Poller DN, Yiangou C: Galectin-3 is not useful in thyroid FNA. Cytopathology; 2005 Jun;16(3):132-8
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 is not useful in thyroid FNA.
  • INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have suggested that galectin-3 immunohistochemistry may be useful in the fine needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma as it has been reported to selectively stain carcinomas and not adenomas or goitres.
  • METHODS: Fifty-one patients were included in a prospective study of galectin-3 in thyroid FNA; 88.2% were female and 11.8% male, mean age 53 years, range 25-87 years.
  • One benign and one inadequate FNA were negative for galectin-3 staining.
  • Four follicular neoplasm/suspicious of carcinoma cases showed negative staining.
  • CONCLUSION: Galectin-3 immunohistochemistry does not appear to be a useful adjunct to diagnosis in thyroid FNA as it does not reliably distinguish malignant and benign lesions.
  • Many thyroid aspirates are of low cellularity and are not suitable for cell block immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Galectin 3. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15924608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5507
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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3. Barroeta JE, Wang H, Shiina N, Gupta PK, Livolsi VA, Baloch ZW: Is fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of multiple thyroid nodules justified? Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(1):61-5
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  • [Title] Is fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of multiple thyroid nodules justified?
  • BACKGROUND: The clinical management of patients with solitary thyroid nodule is well established; however, the evaluation of patients with multiple thyroid nodules is controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to assess if there is a correlation between the risk of malignancy and number of thyroid nodules.
  • DESIGN: The study cohort included 2,884 patients (2,410 females and 474 males) with 3,274 thyroid nodules that underwent FNA under ultrasound guidance between November 1997 and April 2004.
  • Multiple thyroid nodules were aspirated in 360 patients; 2 in 332 (291 females, 41 males), 3 nodules in 26 (23 females, 3 males), and 4 nodules in 2 patients (1 female, 1 male).
  • Subsequent information regarding the histological diagnosis was obtained in the cases that underwent surgical excision.
  • The FNA specimens were diagnosed as benign (n = 1,663, 51%), neoplasm (n = 880, 27%), suspicious for neoplasm or papillary carcinoma (n = 234, 7%), malignant (n = 187, 6%), and non-diagnostic (n = 310, 9%).
  • The surgical pathology diagnosis was benign in 656 nodules (52%) and malignant in 596 nodules (48%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The cancer risk is similar for patients with one or two nodules over 1 cm and decreases with three or more thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16760581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Gonçalves AJ, Carvalho LH, Serdeira K, Nakai MY, Malavasi TR: Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):289-91
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells.
  • In the thyroid, the appearance of cancer has been correlated with deletion of these genes.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the frequencies of these genes in patients with benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional clinical trial carried out in the Head and Neck Surgery Division, Faculdade de Medicina da Santa Casa de São Paulo.
  • METHODS: Samples of thyroid tissue were collected from 32 patients and divided into two groups: benign tumor (A) and malignant tumor (B).
  • RESULTS: The B group presented four cases of positive genotyping for both genes, seven positive for GSTT1 and negative for GSTM1, two negative for GSTT1 and positive for GSTM1, and only one case of double negative.
  • CONCLUSION: In this study, there was no relationship between the presence of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and the benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18094897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1516-3180
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.5.1.- / glutathione S-transferase T1; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; EC 2.5.1.18 / glutathione S-transferase M1
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5. Kim TY, Kim WB, Ryu JS, Gong G, Hong SJ, Shong YK: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in thyroid from positron emission tomogram (PET) for evaluation in cancer patients: high prevalence of malignancy in thyroid PET incidentaloma. Laryngoscope; 2005 Jun;115(6):1074-8
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  • [Title] 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in thyroid from positron emission tomogram (PET) for evaluation in cancer patients: high prevalence of malignancy in thyroid PET incidentaloma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of incidental thyroid F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomogram (PET) scan for evaluation in cancer patients and the role of standard uptake value (SUV) measurement in differentiation of thyroid malignancy from benign disease.
  • METHODS: Four thousand one hundred thirty-six subjects had been given FDG-PET scan for evaluation of known malignancies not associated with thyroid.
  • The maximum SUVs of the thyroid lesions were recorded and reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-four (2.2%) were identified to have focal (n = 45, 1.1%) or diffuse (n = 45, 1.1%) thyroid FDG uptake.
  • The incidence of focal or diffuse thyroid FDG uptake was higher in women (2.7% or 1.9%) than in men (0.4% or 0.7%).
  • Cytologic diagnosis was available in 32 of 45 focal thyroid FDG uptakes.
  • In 16 (50%) patients, the tumor was found to be malignant; 14 were papillary thyroid carcinoma (surgically confirmed in 7 cases), 2 were metastatic tumor from breast and esophagus.
  • Sixteen were cytologically diagnosed as follicular cell lesions: follicular neoplasm (n = 2), nodular hyperplasia (n = 7), indeterminate follicular lesion (n = 7).
  • There was no significant difference in maximum SUV between benign and malignant nodules.
  • From 45 patients with diffuse thyroid FDG uptake, presumptive diagnosis of chronic thyroiditis was possible in 34 patients by clinical and laboratory findings.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that a cytologic diagnosis of focal thyroid FDG-PET incidentaloma regardless of SUV is mandatory considering the very high prevalence of thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Thyroiditis

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  • (PMID = 15933524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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6. Papi G, Rossi G, Corsello SM, Corrado S, Fadda G, Di Donato C, Pontecorvi A: Nodular disease and parafollicular C-cell distribution: results from a prospective and retrospective clinico-pathological study on the thyroid isthmus. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jan;162(1):137-43
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  • [Title] Nodular disease and parafollicular C-cell distribution: results from a prospective and retrospective clinico-pathological study on the thyroid isthmus.
  • OBJECTIVE: The isthmus represents a peculiar, as yet partially unexplored, thyroid gland area.
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess i) the prevalence and clinico-pathological features of solitary thyroid isthmic nodules (STIN);.
  • ii) the frequency of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) arising from the isthmus; and iii) the C-cell distribution in the isthmus of patients with MTC and benign nodular thyroid disease (NTD).
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-C(t) antibodies on lateral lobes and isthmi of 50 benign NTD and 50 MTC cases.
  • All patients had the neoplasm located in lateral thyroid lobes, none in the isthmus.
  • C cells were disclosed in lateral thyroid lobes of 100% MTC and 77% benign NTD patients; isthmi were free of C cells in either group.

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  • (PMID = 19793761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kobatake S, Satomura S, Maruyama M, Tajiri J, Kato R: Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody. Rinsho Byori; 2007 May;55(5):428-33
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  • [Title] Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody.
  • Thyroglobulin is produced only by thyroid follicular cells, and has a molecular weight of 660,000 and carbohydrate content of approximately 10%.
  • The composition of carbohydrate chains on thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma has been reported to differ from that in normal thyroid tissue.
  • In this study, heterogeneities of carbohydrate chains on thyroglobulin obtained from thyroid tissues were investigated by competitive reaction between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin monoclonal antibody.
  • The ratio of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin to thyroglobulin was significantly lower in thyroid carcinoma than in normal thyroid tissue, Graves' disease and benign thyroid tumor.
  • However, no differences between malignant and benign tissues were observed with the other lectins tested.
  • Differences in carbohydrate chain on thyroglobulin were observed between malignant and benign thyroid tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Lectins / immunology. Thyroglobulin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Humans. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17593687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Lectins; 0 / anti-thyroglobulin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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8. Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kobatake S, Satomura S, Maruyama M, Kameko F, Tajiri J, Kato R: The clinical utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum for distinguishing benign from malignant conditions of the thyroid. Clin Chim Acta; 2007 Apr;379(1-2):101-4
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  • [Title] The clinical utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum for distinguishing benign from malignant conditions of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Traditionally, the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma consists of periodic withdrawal from L-T4-suppressive therapy to allow performance of a highly sensitive serum Tg measurement to detect recurrences.
  • We investigated Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratios in serum to evaluate in usefulness for detection of thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The study was conducted on 93 serum sample from 23 healthy volunteers, 32 patients with benign thyroid tumor, 28 patients with thyroid carcinoma without metastasis, and 10 patients with thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis.
  • RESULTS: The Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratio in patients with thyroid carcinoma was significantly lower than in patients with benign thyroid tumor with serum thyroglobulin concentration >200 ng/ml.
  • Among cases of thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis, Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratios were significantly lower than in patient with thyroid carcinoma without metastasis and those with benign tumor regardless of serum thyroglobulin concentration.
  • CONCLUSION: Measurement of Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum may be useful for distinguishing between thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / pathology. Plant Lectins / immunology. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Binding, Competitive. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoassay. Male

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  • (PMID = 17270168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-8981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Plant Lectins; 0 / lentil lectin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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9. Gerhard R, Nonogaki S, Fregnani JH, Soares FA, Nagai MA: NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010 Jun;65(8):757-62
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  • [Title] NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry.
  • Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined.
  • METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant), follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody.
  • RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P < 0.001).
  • A combined analysis showed higher immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 in malignant lesions (classical pattern and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas, follicular carcinomas, and metastases of thyroid carcinomas) compared to benign thyroid lesions (goiter and follicular adenomas) (P = 0.043).
  • In thyroid carcinomas, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression was significantly correlated with a more advanced TNM stage (P = 0.007) and age, metastasis, tumor extent, and size (AMES) high-risk group (P = 0.012).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid carcinomas showed increased immunohistochemical N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression compared to normal and benign thyroid lesions and is correlated with more advanced tumor stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20835551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; Thyroid cancer, papillary
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2933120
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Immunohistochemistry / NDRG1 / Thyroid Carcinoma / Thyroid Gland / Tissue Microarray
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10. Al-Shraim MM, Hussein MR, Musalam AO, Al-Ghandi T, Al-Zahramit H, Mahrouz AA, Abu-Eshy SA: Hurthle cell neoplasms of thyroid in south-western region of Saudi Arabia. West Afr J Med; 2010 Nov-Dec;29(6):398-402
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  • [Title] Hurthle cell neoplasms of thyroid in south-western region of Saudi Arabia.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid Hurthle cell neoplasm (THCN) is relatively rare.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of all thyroid Hurthle cell neoplasms diagnosed at Aseer Central Hospital (ACH), Saudi Arabia during the period from October 1998 to April 2007.
  • Hemithyroidectomy was performed in two cases of adenoma in which FNAC showed benign lesion and in one case of carcinoma based on clinical and ultrasonographic impression of benign MNG in the involved lobe and inconclusive FNAC result.
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative diagnosis and management of THCN is still a dilemma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Saudi Arabia. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21465448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0189-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] West African journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] West Afr J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, Hurthle cell
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11. Guarino V, Faviana P, Salvatore G, Castellone MD, Cirafici AM, De Falco V, Celetti A, Giannini R, Basolo F, Melillo RM, Santoro M: Osteopontin is overexpressed in human papillary thyroid carcinomas and enhances thyroid carcinoma cell invasiveness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Sep;90(9):5270-8
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  • [Title] Osteopontin is overexpressed in human papillary thyroid carcinomas and enhances thyroid carcinoma cell invasiveness.
  • The transmembrane glycoprotein CD44v6 is overexpressed in most papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • Furthermore, we wanted to establish the functional role of the CD44-OPN axis in thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • DESIGN: Thyroid samples from 117 patients who had undergone surgical resection of the thyroid gland for benign or malignant lesions were collected.
  • RESULTS: In this study we show that OPN is overexpressed in human PTCs with respect to normal thyroid tissue, follicular adenomas, and multinodular goiters (P < 0.05).
  • The prevalence and intensity of OPN staining were significantly correlated with the presence of lymph node metastases (P = 0.0091) and tumor size (P = 0.0001).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Sialoglycoproteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cells, Cultured. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry. Intracellular Membranes / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Osteopontin. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction


12. Chen HC, Jen YM, Wang CH, Lee JC, Lin YS: Etiology of vocal cord paralysis. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2007;69(3):167-71
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  • OBJECTIVE: Vocal cord paralysis (VCP) is a sign of a certain underlying disease, a diagnosis which can be attributed to various causes.
  • In males, neoplasm was the most common cause occurring in 63 of 176 males, whereas surgery was most frequent in 59 of 115 females.
  • The possibility of a neoplasm must be ruled out before VCP is labeled idiopathic.
  • A benign thyroid tumor could also cause VCP.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Laryngeal Neoplasms / complications. Laryngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Radiation Injuries / complications. Radiation Injuries / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17264533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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13. Krause K, Karger S, Sheu SY, Aigner T, Kursawe R, Gimm O, Schmid KW, Dralle H, Fuhrer D: Evidence for a role of the amyloid precursor protein in thyroid carcinogenesis. J Endocrinol; 2008 Aug;198(2):291-9
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  • [Title] Evidence for a role of the amyloid precursor protein in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • We have recently found an increased expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cold thyroid nodules that are difficult to classify as a truly benign thyroid neoplasm or a lesion with the potential for further dedifferentiation.
  • Since differences in APP activity have been found in other human cancers, we asked whether thyroid carcinogenesis might be associated with an altered APP expression and function.
  • APP regulation was studied in vitro in differentiated (FRTL-5) and dedifferentiated follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC-133) thyroid cells after specific inhibition or activation of the cAMP-PKA, the PI3K/AKT or the protein kinase c (PKC) cascades.
  • In vivo analysis of APP expression and downstream signalling was performed in benign and malignant thyroid tissues.
  • We found that upregulation of APP expression and sAPP secretion is induced by TSH in differentiated thyroid cells and by insulin in thyroid cancer cells.
  • Thyroid cancers are characterized by APP upregulation, increased membrane targeting of the APP ectodomain and significantly increased mRNA levels of the APP scaffold proteins JIP1, ShcA and Fe65.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Insulin / pharmacology. Microscopy, Confocal. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Protein Transport / drug effects. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyrotropin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18480379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APBB1 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor; 0 / Insulin; 0 / MAPK8IP1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SHC1 protein, human; 0 / Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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14. Lacroix L, Michiels S, Mian C, Arturi F, Caillou B, Filetti S, Schlumberger M, Bidart JM: HEX, PAX-8 and TTF-1 gene expression in human thyroid tissues: a comparative analysis with other genes involved in iodide metabolism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Apr;64(4):398-404
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  • [Title] HEX, PAX-8 and TTF-1 gene expression in human thyroid tissues: a comparative analysis with other genes involved in iodide metabolism.
  • OBJECTIVE: Benign and malignant thyroid tumours are characterized by alterations of the expression level of thyroid-specific genes involved in the iodide metabolism.
  • Imbalance in the levels of transcription factors has been recognized as a critical molecular event in the development of neoplasm.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined the expression levels of transcription factors involved in thyroid development [thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), paired box gene 8 (PAX-8) and haematopoietically expressed homeobox (HEX)] in 101 thyroid tissues, including 14 normal thyroid tissues, 13 hyperfunctioning tissues, 27 benign adenomas and 47 follicular or papillary carcinomas.
  • Then, we compared their expression levels with those of thyroid-specific genes involved in iodide metabolism.
  • RESULTS: In benign tumours, PAX-8 and TTF-1 gene expression levels were not significantly different from the expression levels in normal tissues.
  • Interestingly, HEX gene expression was significantly decreased in both hyper- and hypofunctioning benign tissues and also in carcinomas.
  • Expression levels of Pendred syndrome (PDS), natrium iodine symporter (NIS), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and dual oxidase 1 or 2 (DUOX2) genes were significantly correlated with the expression of PAX-8 and with that of HEX.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodides / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16584511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HHEX protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Iodides; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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15. Raparia K, Min SK, Mody DR, Anton R, Amrikachi M: Clinical outcomes for "suspicious" category in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Patient's sex and nodule size are possible predictors of malignancy. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 May;133(5):787-90
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  • [Title] Clinical outcomes for "suspicious" category in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Patient's sex and nodule size are possible predictors of malignancy.
  • CONTEXT: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is recommended as an initial screening tool for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
  • Approximately 10% of thyroid FNA diagnoses are "suspicious for neoplasm," warranting surgical resection.
  • OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of a patient's age, sex, size of nodule, and morphologic features as possible predictors of malignancy in patients with cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious for neoplasm."
  • DESIGN: Cytopathology slides and reports of 402 consecutive thyroid FNAs from 2000-2005 interpreted as "suspicious" were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Of the 108 cases suspicious for follicular neoplasm on cytologic evaluation, histologic follow-up showed malignancy in 26 (24%).
  • Of the 37 cases suspicious for Hürthle cell neoplasm, 15 (41%) had malignancy.
  • Among cases with cytologic diagnoses of "suspicious for follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm," the rate of malignancy in female patients was 22% as compared to 43% in male patients (P = .02).
  • No statistically significant difference was noted between the age of the patient and the rate of benign versus malignant diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant tumors were more frequent in male patients with a cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious for follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm" than in female patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19415954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms and improve the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ann Surg; 2005 Sep;242(3):353-61; discussion 361-3
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  • [Title] ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms and improve the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether genes that regulate cellular invasion and metastasis are differentially expressed and could serve as diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules.
  • SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: Patients whose thyroid nodules have indeterminate or suspicious cytologic features on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy require thyroidectomy because of a 20% to 30% risk of thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: Differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms were identified by extracellular matrix and adhesion molecule cDNA array analysis and confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • RESULTS: By cDNA array analysis, ADAMTS8, ECM1, MMP8, PLAU, SELP, and TMPRSS4 were upregulated, and by quantitative PCR, ECM1, SELP, and TMPRSS4 mRNA expression was higher in malignant (n = 57) than in benign (n = 38) thyroid neoplasms (P< 0.002).
  • ECM1 and TMPRSS4 mRNA expression levels were independent predictors of a malignant thyroid neoplasm (P < 0.003).
  • The level of ECM1 mRNA expression was higher in TNM stage I differentiated thyroid cancers than in stage II and III tumors (P < or = 0.031).
  • CONCLUSIONS: ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are excellent diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and may be used to improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • ECM1 is also a marker of the extent of disease in differentiated thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Serine Endopeptidases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Gene Expression. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16135921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ECM1 protein, human; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / transmembrane serine protease 2, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1357743
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17. Wu HH, Jones JN, Osman J: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid: ten years experience in a community teaching hospital. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Feb;34(2):93-6
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid: ten years experience in a community teaching hospital.
  • We present our experience of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the thyroid in a community hospital setting and discuss the cancer probability of the indeterminate FNA results.
  • The initial FNA diagnoses of these 401 cases were benign non-neoplastic (BNN) 159, malignant 34, atypical 33, suspicious 19, follicular neoplasm (FN) 88, follicular lesion (FL) 51, and inadequate 17.
  • When compared to the cancer rate (3%) for FNA diagnosis of BNN, the likelihood of finding cancer in the thyroidectomy is 5 times more for a FL, 11 times more for a FN, 16 times more for atypical, and 23 times more for suspicious.
  • [MeSH-major] Hospitals, Community. Hospitals, Teaching. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16514671.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Romanchishen AF, Kuz'michev AS, Bogatikov AA: [Results of surgical treatment of nodular diseases of the thyroid gland in senile patients]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2008;167(3):63-6
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  • [Title] [Results of surgical treatment of nodular diseases of the thyroid gland in senile patients].
  • The article presents an analysis of results of surgical treatment of 90 patients aged older than 75 years (mean age 78.0+/-2.8 years) with nodular diseases of the thyroid gland.
  • The influence of a concomitant pathology in other organs on the course of diseases of the thyroid gland was established.
  • It was noted that in senile patients malignant tumors appeared three times more often against the background of a benign pathology of the thyroid gland than in young patients.
  • Main indications for surgical treatment were compression syndrome and cancer of the thyroid gland.
  • The results of treatment of malignant tumors of the thyroid gland in senile patients and causes of postoperative complications were studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Hypothyroidism / epidemiology. Hypothyroidism / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18652217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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19. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1102-9; discussion 1109-10
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • We postulated that expression analysis of genes that modulate angiogenesis would identify differentially expressed genes that would help to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms and serve as markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: A complementary DNA (cDNA) array with 96 genes that modulate angiogenesis was used to identify differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm cDNA array expression data in 123 patients (4 normal thyroid, 26 hyperplastic nodules, 27 follicular adenomas, 23 follicular cancers, 18 follicular variant of papillary cancers, 25 papillary cancers).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two genes were upregulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms by cDNA array analysis, but only 13 genes had higher messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (P < or = .04).
  • Of the 13 differentially expressed genes, the combined use of angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) mRNA expression levels was best for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid neoplasms, with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 75%, and negative predictive value of 94%.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 mRNA expression was elevated in higher TNM stage neoplasms and in patients with high-risk AMES (Age, distant Metastasis, Extrathyroidal invasion, and tumor Size) differentiated thyroid cancers (P < or = .005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Angiopoietin 2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and could improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 are markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Angiogenic Proteins / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics


20. Rahbari R, Sansano IG, Elaraj DM, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Prior head and neck radiation exposure is not a contraindication to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. J Am Coll Surg; 2010 Jun;210(6):942-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Most patients with primary hyperparathyroidism can have a minimally invasive parathyroidectomy based on localization studies showing single-gland disease.
  • In patients with a history of head and neck irradiation, due to the increased risk of multigland disease and risk of concurrent thyroid cancer, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is considered by some to be a contraindication.
  • There was no significant difference in concurrent benign thyroid neoplasm, thyroid cancer, and type of parathyroid disease (single vs multigland) in the 2 groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Head and neck irradiation should not be a contraindication for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in the setting of preoperative localization studies showing single-gland disease and no concurrent thyroid neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20510803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Liu Z, Liu D, Bojdani E, El-Naggar AK, Vasko V, Xing M: IQGAP1 plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Dec 15;16(24):6009-18
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  • [Title] IQGAP1 plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to explore the role of IQGAP1 in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer and its potential as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target in this cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined IQGAP1 copy gain and its relationship with clinicopathologic outcomes of thyroid cancer and investigated its role in cell invasion and molecules involved in the process.
  • RESULTS: We found IQGAP1 copy number (CN) gain ≥ 3 in 1 of 30 (3%), 24 of 74 (32%), 44 of 107 (41%), 8 of 16 (50%), and 27 of 41 (66%) of benign thyroid tumor, follicular variant papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC), follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), tall cell papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and anaplastic thyroid cancer, respectively, in the increasing order of invasiveness of these tumors.
  • A similar tumor distribution trend of CN ≥ 4 was also seen.
  • The siRNA knockdown of IQGAP1 dramatically inhibited thyroid cancer cell invasion and colony formation.
  • This provided a mechanism for the invasive role of IQGAP1 in thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IQGAP1, through genetic copy gain, plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer and may represent a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this cancer.

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20959410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113507-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / ras GTPase-Activating Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS242709; NLM/ PMC3005072
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22. Ruschenburg I, Vollheim B, Stachura J, Cordon-Cardo C, Korabiowska M: Analysis of DNA mismatch repair gene expression and mutations in thyroid tumours. Anticancer Res; 2006 May-Jun;26(3A):2107-12
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  • [Title] Analysis of DNA mismatch repair gene expression and mutations in thyroid tumours.
  • In this study, the expression and mutations of MLH1, MSH2, PMS1 and PMS2 in a panel of thyroid tumours, including nodular hyperplasia, follicular adenomas and carcinomas, were investigated.
  • The expressions of MLH1, MSH2 and PMS1 were generally higher in malignant tumours than in benign lesions (p < 0.01).
  • This observation can find potential diagnostic application in the differentiation of follicular adenomas from follicullar carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Base Pair Mismatch. DNA Repair / genetics. Mutation. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenosine Triphosphatases / biosynthesis. Adenosine Triphosphatases / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Base Sequence. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Carrier Proteins / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / biosynthesis. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / biosynthesis. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16827152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / PMS1 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / PMS2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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23. Chang T, Husain AN, Colby T, Taxy JB, Welch WR, Cheung OY, Early A, Travis W, Krausz T: Pneumocytic adenomyoepithelioma: a distinctive lung tumor with epithelial, myoepithelial, and pneumocytic differentiation. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):562-8
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  • [Title] Pneumocytic adenomyoepithelioma: a distinctive lung tumor with epithelial, myoepithelial, and pneumocytic differentiation.
  • Pulmonary tumors with epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation are rare, thought to be of bronchial minor salivary gland origin and classified similarly to salivary gland neoplasms.
  • Some glands were filled with colloidlike secretion and had an inner, cuboidal epithelial cell layer (pankeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and thyroid transcription factor-1 positive), surrounded by an outer layer of myoepithelial cells merging with foci of spindled myoepithelial cells (high molecular weight keratin, S100, smooth muscle actin, calponin, caldesmon, and p63 positive).
  • There were also some glands lined by a single layer of plump cells that were positive for surfactant protein-A in addition to the other epithelial cell markers.
  • The biologic behavior to date has been benign.
  • This is the first reported series of a distinctive lung tumor with epithelial, myoepithelial, and pneumocytic differentiation that differs histologically from all previously recognized pulmonary salivary gland-type and pneumocytic tumors.
  • It is a unique benign appearing neoplasm for which the designation pneumocytic adenomyoepithelioma is suggested.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17414103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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24. Janssen J: [(E)US elastography: current status and perspectives]. Z Gastroenterol; 2008 Jun;46(6):572-9
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  • The relative stiffness of the tissues within this area is described by colours superimposing on the B-mode image.
  • Several studies have demonstrated that real-time elastography is feasible and improves the diagnostic accuracy for tumours of the breast, the prostate, the cervix, and the thyroid gland.
  • For the differentation between benign and malignant lymph nodes, the accuracy is reported to be 85 % to 90 %.
  • Therefore, the early diagnosis of cancer within chronic pancreatitis will probably not be improved by elastography.
  • [MeSH-major] Elasticity Imaging Techniques / methods. Endosonography / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Pancreatitis / pathology. Pancreatitis / ultrasonography. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18537085.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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25. Gulcelik NE, Gulcelik MA, Kuru B: Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Dec;134(12):1312-5
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  • [Title] Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and ultrasonographic features that may help in predicting malignant tumors in patients with a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on findings from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) because FNAC diagnosis of follicular neoplasm does not differentiate a benign tumor from a malignant tumor.
  • DESIGN: Prospective study of 98 patients having a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on FNAC.
  • PATIENTS: Ninety-eight patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed by FNAC as being a follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 26 patients (27%).
  • Ultrasonographic features (eg, a solid echo structure, microcalcifications, and a hypoechoic pattern) were predictive for malignant neoplasms.
  • Older age, male sex, solitary nodule, and larger nodule size were not predictive for malignant neoplasms in patients with follicular neoplasm cytologic findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19075128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Cai Q, Huang XM, Sun W, Zheng YQ, Lu X, Guo MM, Chen B, Liang FY, Han P: [Comparison of endoscopic monolateral anterior chest approach and conventional approach on thyroid bilateral gland lobe disease.]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Nov;44(11):926-9
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  • [Title] [Comparison of endoscopic monolateral anterior chest approach and conventional approach on thyroid bilateral gland lobe disease.].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study on thyroid bilateral gland lobe disease with endoscopic monolateral anterior chest approach.
  • METHODS: Twenty patients experienced thyroid bilateral gland lobe surgery with endoscopic monolateral anterior chest approach; 24 experienced conventional surgery simultaneously and were enrolled in control group.
  • Criteria of patients selected for thyroid bilateral gland lobe surgery with endoscopic monolateralanterior chest approach:with no surgical history of thyroid or other neck-related diseases and no chemotherapy; diagnosed with benign tumor according to presurgery CT result and thyroid functional examination.
  • Diameter of tumor on both sides should be smaller than 4 cm, one side smaller than 2 cm, located at lower middle part of gland lobe and near to gland surface.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gasless endoscopic monolateral anterior chest approach can well treat selected thyroid bilateral gland lobe disease and with a better cosmetic result than conventional surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Thyroid Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20079075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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27. Kumar PV, Monabati A, Tabei SZ, Ramzy M, Husseini SV, Khajeh F: Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases. Acta Cytol; 2005 Mar-Apr;49(2):177-80
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  • [Title] Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) usually have a benign clinical course, with an excellent long-term prognosis and a propensity for vascular invasion.
  • CASES: A 68-year-old man presented with a thyroid mass and skin nodule on the scalp.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytologic diagnosis of metastatic FTC has been reported rarely.
  • Marginal (fire-flare) vacuoles aid in making the diagnosis of metastatic FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anemia / etiology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone and Bones / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15839624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Chin C, Franklin J, Sowerby L, Fung K, Yoo J: Stratification of intermediate-risk fine-needle aspiration biopsies. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Aug;39(4):393-6
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  • METHODS: A database of 665 patients who had received thyroid surgery between 2001 and 2007 was created.
  • RESULTS: Intermediate-risk patients were significantly more likely to have a benign nodule if the width to length (W/L) ratio of their nodule was < 0.6.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Risk Assessment / methods. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20643004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1916-0216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of otolaryngology - head & neck surgery = Le Journal d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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29. Ahmed M, Bin Yousef H, Greer W, Faraz H, Al Sobhi S, Al Zahrani A, Raef H, Al Ghamdi A, Al Kadhi Y, Al Dayel F: Hurthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland. ANZ J Surg; 2008 Mar;78(3):139-43
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  • [Title] Hurthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: A clinicopathological analysis and long-term follow up of 32 patients with Hurthle cell neoplasm (HCN) was undertaken to contrast the clinical and histological features between benign versus malignant HCN of thyroid and to examine the effect of treatment on the outcome.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 32 patients with HCN who were identified out of an archival clinical/pathological/imaging database of 3752 thyroid cancer patients seen between 1976 and June 2006.
  • All patients underwent thyroid surgery.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients were classified as malignant HCN (MHCN) and 15 as benign HCN (BHCN).
  • The mean tumour size was 4.43 +/- 0.66 cm for MHCN, and 2.57 +/- 0.32 cm for BHCN (P = 0.03).
  • Multicentric tumour foci were evident in five cases (29%) of MHCN but none among the BHCN (P = 0.03).
  • At neck exploration cervical lymph node dissection was carried out in nine MHCN patients with findings of tumour metastases in 33%.
  • Postoperatively, three MHCN patients had no thyroid remnant on ultrasound and computed tomography of neck and undetectable serum thyroglobulin; these were considered to be in remission.
  • Fourteen other MHCN patients with postoperative thyroid remnant and/or distant metastases received 131I treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Features of MHCN consisted of a large tumour size, unequivocal capsular and vascular invasion, multicentric tumour foci, metastatic lymph node deposits in one-third of patients and presence of distant metastasis in a few.
  • Findings of dominant Hurthle cell cytology in a fine-needle aspiration biopsy from a thyroid nodule should prompt surgical resection of the lesion to assess malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] ANZ J Surg. 2008 Mar;78(3):115 [18269467.001]
  • (PMID = 18269475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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30. Tysome JR, Chandra A, Chang F, Puwanarajah P, Elliott M, Caroll P, Powrie J, Hubbard JG, Clarke SE, Jeannon JP, Simo R: Improving prediction of malignancy of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Br J Surg; 2009 Dec;96(12):1400-5
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  • [Title] Improving prediction of malignancy of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is essential in the investigation of thyroid nodules.
  • The British Thyroid Association guidelines recommend clarification of whether follicular nodules are probable follicular neoplasms that require surgical excision.
  • This study assessed the value of the subclassification of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules into either follicular neoplasms or other pathology.
  • METHODS: The cytology reports of all thyroid FNAs performed between November 2005 and December 2007 at a single institution reported as Thy 3 (follicular lesions) were reviewed.
  • They were reclassified as Thy 3A (probable follicular neoplasm) or Thy 3B (probable non-neoplastic lesion), and subsequently correlated with final clinical outcome to determine the predictive value of this subclassification.
  • If Thy 3A were to predict malignancy and Thy 3B benign disease, the sensitivity of the classification was 88 per cent, with a specificity of 55 per cent and negative predictive value of 91 per cent.
  • CONCLUSION: Subclassification of Thy 3 nodules into Thy 3A and Thy 3B improves the assessment of risk for thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19918854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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31. Carney JA, Hirokawa M, Lloyd RV, Papotti M, Sebo TJ: Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid gland are almost all benign. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Dec;32(12):1877-89
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid gland are almost all benign.
  • In 1987, Carney et al reported 11 thyroid tumors with the following features: circumscription or encapsulation, trabecular architecture with intratrabecular hyalin and colloid, polygonal and spindle cells, nuclei with frequent grooves and cytoplasmic inclusions, occasional psammoma bodies, and a low mitotic rate.
  • The neoplasms did not recur or metastasize during a follow-up period that averaged 10 years, and they were titled hyalinizing trabecular adenomas.
  • Subsequently, the nuclear features of the neoplasm led to the introduction of 2 modified titles for it, hyalinizing trabecular tumor and hyalinizing trabecular neoplasm.
  • Later, discovery of RET/PTC mutations in the tumor resulted in it being designated as a type of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • We studied 119 neoplasms of the type outlined, collected over a 20-year period, for invasion, recurrence and metastasis, and obtained follow-up in 96% of the cases.
  • One tumor showed vascular and capsular invasion, and pulmonary metastasis.
  • We conclude that the overwhelming majority of hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid behave as benign neoplasms and that, at this time, hyalinizing trabecular adenoma is the most appropriate title for them.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18813121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Kung B, Aftab S, Wood M, Rosen D: Malignant melanoma metastatic to the thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature. Ear Nose Throat J; 2009 Jan;88(1):E7
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma metastatic to the thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature.
  • The thyroid gland is a relatively uncommon site for a secondary malignancy; even less common is a case of malignant melanoma metastatic to the thyroid.
  • Eighteen months later, he returned with a diffusely enlarged thyroid.
  • Patients who present with a thyroid nodule and who have a history of malignancy present a diagnostic dilemma: Is the nodule benign, a new primary, or a distant metastasis?
  • The findings of this case and a review of the literature strengthen the argument that any patient with a thyroid mass and a history of malignancy should be considered to have a metastasis until proven otherwise.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19172560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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33. Jung CK, Lee A, Jung ES, Choi YJ, Jung SL, Lee KY: Split sample comparison of a liquid-based method and conventional smears in thyroid fine needle aspiration. Acta Cytol; 2008 May-Jun;52(3):313-9
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  • [Title] Split sample comparison of a liquid-based method and conventional smears in thyroid fine needle aspiration.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of the SurePath (SP) vs. conventional smears (CS) in fine needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid gland lesions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A total of 193 FNA cases with thyroid nodules were studied.
  • The diagnostic categories of unsatisfactory, benign, atypical and malignant were compared.
  • On SP slides, nuclear detail and nucleoli were more easily detected and nuclear irregularity was very useful for the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma.
  • The overall sensitivity of FNA in diagnosing thyroid neoplasm was 90.9% for CS and 93.9% for SP.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Specimen Handling / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Staining and Labeling. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18540296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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34. Lyshchik A, Drozd V, Demidchik Y, Reiners C: Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US. Radiology; 2005 May;235(2):604-13
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively analyze the accuracy of various diagnostic criteria for cancer in solid thyroid nodules in children on the basis of gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasonographic (US) findings.
  • One hundred three consecutive pediatric patients with solid thyroid nodules were included in the study.
  • Thirty-five patients had thyroid cancer (mean age, 14.6 years +/- 2.6 [standard deviation]; range, 10-18 years), and 68 patients had benign thyroid nodules (mean age, 14.2 years +/- 2.9; range 9-18 years).
  • Three-dimensional US was used to determine the volume of thyroid gland and thyroid nodules.
  • Results of nodule cytologic and histologic examination and long-term clinical and US follow-up were used as a proof of final diagnosis.
  • Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of US criteria for thyroid cancer in lesions with diameter of 15 mm and smaller and lesions with diameter larger than 15 mm.
  • RESULTS: In thyroid nodules with diameter of 15 mm and smaller, the most reliable diagnostic criteria for malignancy were an irregular outline (sensitivity, 69.6%; specificity, 86.4%; P < .001), subcapsular location (sensitivity, 65.2%; specificity, 86.4%; P < .001), and increased intranodular vascularization (sensitivity, 69.6%; specificity, 87.9%; P < .01).
  • For thyroid nodules larger than 15 mm in diameter, the accuracy of US diagnosis was much lower than that for smaller nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: Study findings indicate that US is most helpful in diagnosis of thyroid malignancy in thyroid nodules with diameter of 15 mm and smaller, with detection of irregular tumor outline, subcapsular location, and increased intranodular vascularization.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Enhancement. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenoma / blood supply. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood supply. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15770036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Troncone G, Cozzolino I, Fedele M, Malapelle U, Palombini L: Preparation of thyroid FNA material for routine cytology and BRAF testing: a validation study. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Mar;38(3):172-6
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  • [Title] Preparation of thyroid FNA material for routine cytology and BRAF testing: a validation study.
  • V600E BRAF mutation is emerging as an independent marker of papillary thyroid carcinoma aggressive behavior.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinomas harboring this mutation should be extensively resected.
  • However, this requires an unquestionable cytological diagnosis of malignancy.
  • Cytological diagnoses were inadequate (2%), benign (85%), follicular lesion of undetermined significance (5%), follicular neoplasms (2%), suspicious for malignancy (2%), and malignant (4%).
  • Whenever necessary BRAF testing may also be performed on the residual samples of thyroid nodules, without interfering with routine cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Specimen Handling / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19693938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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36. Ruchala M, Skiba A, Gurgul E, Uruski P, Wasko R, Sowinski J: The occurrence of thyroid focal lesions and a need for fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with acromegaly due to an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2009;30(3):382-6
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  • [Title] The occurrence of thyroid focal lesions and a need for fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with acromegaly due to an increased risk of thyroid cancer.
  • Several studies revealed increased frequency of thyroid carcinoma in these patients.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of thyroid lesions, including thyroid cancer in acromegalic patients and to estimate possible factors influencing their occurrence, especially high IGF-1 level.
  • Thyroid gland was evaluated in ultrasound examination.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was performed in every solid or mixed thyroid nodule.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid morphology abnormalities were found in 75 patients (87.2%).
  • There were 5 cases of thyroid carcinoma (5.8%): 3 papillary carcinomas and two follicular variants of papillary cancer.
  • Out of five cancers three were multifocal, one infiltrated thyroid capsule and one was diagnosed at the stage of metastases to four lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed common co-existence of acromegaly and thyroid lesions.
  • Furthermore, it revealed considerably high occurrence of thyroid carcinoma in these patients.
  • In view of this correlation, the potential role of IGF-1 in pathogenesis of benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms should be considered.
  • Due to high frequency of thyroid cancer in acromegalic patients, we suggest to perform fine needle aspiration biopsy in each case of thyroid nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / epidemiology. Acromegaly / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chi-Square Distribution. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / blood. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Incidence. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Thyrotropin / blood. Thyroxine / blood

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  • (PMID = 19855364.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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37. Layfield LJ, Abrams J, Cochand-Priollet B, Evans D, Gharib H, Greenspan F, Henry M, LiVolsi V, Merino M, Michael CW, Wang H, Wells SA: Post-thyroid FNA testing and treatment options: a synopsis of the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Jun;36(6):442-8
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  • [Title] Post-thyroid FNA testing and treatment options: a synopsis of the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference.
  • The National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored the NCI Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) State of the Science Conference on October 22-23, 2007 in Bethesda, MD.
  • Follow-up options for "nondiagnostic" and "benign" thyroid aspirates are given.
  • The value of ultrasound examination in the follow-up of "nondiagnostic" and "benign" thyroid aspirates is discussed.
  • Ultrasound findings requiring reaspiration or surgical resection are described as are the timing and length of clinical and ultrasonographic surveillance for cytologically "benign" nodules.
  • Options for surgical intervention are given for the diagnostic categories of "atypical/borderline," "follicular neoplasm," "suspicious for malignancy" and "malignant" (http://thyroidfna.cancer.gov/pages/info/agenda/).
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Protocols. Humans. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18478610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Nayar R, Ivanovic M: The indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspiration: experience from an academic center using terminology similar to that proposed in the 2007 National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference. Cancer; 2009 Jun 25;117(3):195-202
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  • [Title] The indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspiration: experience from an academic center using terminology similar to that proposed in the 2007 National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference.
  • BACKGROUND: To date, thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has been used by clinicians as the screening test of choice to determine whether surgery is required and this is what the pathology report should communicate.
  • Standard terminology for reporting thyroid FNA has not been implemented yet, and pathologists have used various reporting systems to communicate results.
  • On the basis of an analysis of 1150 thyroid FNAs in 2000, this institution modified the reporting of thyroid biopsy results into 6 categories, including unsatisfactory.
  • 1) indeterminate for neoplasia (IND), 2) follicular neoplasm (FN), and 3) suspicious for malignancy (SUSP).
  • The IND category was used for 2 subsets of cases: (a) those that morphologically fall into the gray zone between adenomatoid nodule (AN) and FN, for Hurthle cell nodule (hyperplasia vs neoplasm), and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis with concern for neoplasia; and (b) for suboptimal specimens due to low epithelial cellularity or collection artifacts.
  • RESULTS: Among 5194 thyroid nodules, the IND category comprised 18%.
  • FNA follow-up was done in 21% of IND cases: 58% were benign/negative and did not require surgery based on cytology alone.
  • Surgical follow-up in 46% of IND showed 52% were benign/negative, and 42% were follicular/Hurthle cell adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A 6-tier reporting system for thyroid FNA was effective for determining which patients needed surgery versus follow-up FNA and also guided the clinician on the extent of surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 19382174.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Chiang FY, Lin JC, Lee KW, Wang LF, Tsai KB, Wu CW, Lu SP, Kuo WR: Thyroid tumors with preoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy: clinicopathologic features and treatment outcome. Surgery; 2006 Sep;140(3):413-7
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  • [Title] Thyroid tumors with preoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy: clinicopathologic features and treatment outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this present study is to define the significance of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (RLNP) detected before surgery for thyroid diseases with regard to the incidence of malignancy, histopathologic distribution, extrathyroidal invasion, management, and prognosis.
  • METHODS: Six hundred and twenty-two patients underwent operation for various thyroid disease and were treated by the same surgeon.
  • The study was confined to 16 (3%) patients who suffered from a thyroid tumor with preoperative RLNP.
  • RESULTS: Of these 16 patients, 1 had benign thyroid disease, while the other 15 had malignancy (94%).
  • The recurrent laryngeal nerve could be dissected from the thyroid neoplasm in 3 patients, 2 of whom experienced recovery of this nerve's function postoperatively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid tumor associated with RLNP is strongly suggestive of malignancy.
  • The RLN should be preserved if it has not been invaded by the tumor, because it offers a good chance of functional recovery postoperatively.
  • Well-differentiated thyroid cancer accounts for only half of these patients who tend to present at an older age and feature a much higher incidence of upper aerodigestive tract invasion.
  • Radical excision of a resectable anaplastic or squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland offers the chance, albeit small, of long-term survival in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods. Vocal Cord Paralysis / etiology. Vocal Cord Paralysis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Laryngeal Nerves / pathology. Laryngeal Nerves / physiology. Laryngeal Nerves / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16934603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Kajor M, Ziaja J, Lange D, Król R, Ciupińska-Kajor M, Turska-d'Amico M, Maka B, Cierpka L: [Analysis of morphology of adrenal pheochromocytoma as regards their potential malignancy]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):911-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal pheochromocytoma are diagnosed the most often in patients with arterial hypertension or with thyroid medullar cancer and suspicion of MEN II syndromes.
  • The aim of the study is to analyse the morphology of pheochromocytomas on the basis of Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) in order to estimate their potential malignancy.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was establish before surgery in 87.5%.
  • 12.5% of patients were referred to surgery on the basis of tumour diameter (range 70 to 102 mm).
  • RESULTS: In pathological examination benign pheochromo-cytoma was diagnosed in 39 presented patients.
  • Among 35 patients operated on more than 12 months ago 2 patients died: 1 patient with malignant pheochromocytoma (PASS=8 points) and 1 patient with MEN IIA syndrome (due to disseminated thyroid medullar cancer).
  • CONCLUSION: Analysis of pheochromocytoma in PASS is only of rough character and does not allow for clear-cut histological diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16821210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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41. Sheth S: Role of ultrasonography in thyroid disease. Otolaryngol Clin North Am; 2010 Apr;43(2):239-55, vii
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  • [Title] Role of ultrasonography in thyroid disease.
  • Ultrasonography (US) is the single-most valuable imaging modality in the evaluation of the thyroid gland.
  • This review discusses the US appearances of thyroid nodules, emphasizing sonographic features associated with potentially malignant or, at the other end of the spectrum, likely benign nodules.
  • Diffuse thyroid abnormalities have also been reviewed.
  • The technique of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy and the emerging role of elastography in characterizing thyroid nodules have also been addressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Elasticity Imaging Techniques. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / surgery. Hashimoto Disease / ultrasonography. Humans. Incidental Findings. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Staging. Reference Values. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20510712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8259
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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42. Pavelić K, Dedivitis RA, Kapitanović S, Cacev T, Guirado CR, Danić D, Radosević S, Brkić K, Pegan B, Krizanac S, Kusić Z, Spaventi S, Bura M: Molecular genetic alterations of FHIT and p53 genes in benign and malignant thyroid gland lesions. Mutat Res; 2006 Jul 25;599(1-2):45-57
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  • [Title] Molecular genetic alterations of FHIT and p53 genes in benign and malignant thyroid gland lesions.
  • Several oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes are involved either as early or late event in thyroid gland carcinogenesis.
  • We undertook this study to analyze FHIT and p53 gene status in different benignant and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • Status of these genes as well as intensity of apoptosis was analyzed in tumor tissues by molecular genetic methods, immunohistochemistry, and FACS-scan analysis.
  • The majority of the malignant thyroid cancers displayed aberrant expression of FHIT gene, concominant with p53 gene inactivation.
  • This is followed by low rate of apoptosis, which may be important in the development and/or progression of thyroid cancer.
  • Concomitant aberration of FHIT gene and p53 could be responsible for development of highly malignant types of thyroid cancer and may be considered as a prognostic marker for these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid Anhydride Hydrolases / genetics. Genes, p53. Mutation. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Animals. Apoptosis. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Molecular Biology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 16698048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / fragile histidine triad protein; EC 3.6.- / Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
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43. Akhtar S, Awan MS: Role of fine needle aspiration and frozen section in determining the extent of thyroidectomy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2007 Sep;264(9):1075-9
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  • The routine use of fine needle aspiration (FNA) and frozen section (FS) in the management of a thyroid nodule is controversial and needs to be evaluated on an institution to institution basis.
  • We performed a comparative study of FNA and FS examination of all patients presenting with nodular thyroid disease between September 2002 and December 2005.
  • FNA reported 8 benign, 7 papillary carcinoma, 22 follicular neoplasm, 1 medullary and 6 suspicious lesions.
  • On final pathology there were 16 benign and 28 malignant cases.
  • Both FNA and FS have high specificity for diagnosis of thyroid cancer but lacked sensitivity at our institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17431657.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
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  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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44. Bocciolini C, Dall'olio D, Cavazza S, Laudadio P: Schwannoma of cervical sympathetic chain: assessment and management. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2005 Jun;25(3):191-4
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  • Schwannoma arising from the cervical sympathetic chain is an uncommon benign nerve tumour.
  • This tumour most often presents as an asymptomatic solitary neck mass, with slow-growing and rare malignant degeneration.
  • Definitive pre-operative diagnosis may be difficult and investigations are not usually helpful.
  • Diagnosis relies on clinical suspicion and confirmation is often obtained by means of surgical pathology.
  • Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for this tumour, with recurrence being rare.
  • Diagnostic studies included computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound which confirmed a circumscribed mass in the upper left portion of the neck next to the thyroid gland.
  • The pathologic and radiological evaluations, treatment and postoperative complications of this neoplasm are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglia, Sympathetic / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16450776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-100X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2639869
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45. Kim E, Bae TS, Kwon Y, Kim TH, Chung KW, Kim SW, Ro J, Lee ES: Primary malignant teratoma with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor component in thyroid gland: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2007 Jun;22(3):568-71
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  • [Title] Primary malignant teratoma with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor component in thyroid gland: a case report.
  • Most teratomas involving the thyroid are benign and occur in children.
  • However, the adult cases reported are mostly malignant and commonly arise in the thyroid.
  • The patient underwent extensive evaluation of the thyroid gland with computed tomography (CT) scan and positron emission tomography (PET) scan, which revealed no evidence of metastatic disease.
  • This is the first case, to our knowledge, of malignant thyroid teratoma with a exuberant primitive neuroectodermal tumor component in Korea.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / complications. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Teratoma / complications. Teratoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17596674.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2693658
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46. Leinung S, Möbius C, Udelnow A, Hauss J, Würl P: Histopathological outcome of 597 isolated soft tissue tumors suspected of soft tissue sarcoma: a single-center 12-year experience. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 May;33(4):508-11
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  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this present report was to analyze the patients referred to us with the presumptive diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma (STS).
  • Open biopsy revealed soft tissue sarcoma in 318 cases, benign mesenchymal tumor in 124 cases and isolated metastases (ISTM) from carcinomas in 98 patients; other pathologies were found in 57 patients.
  • The primary carcinomas were lung cancer in 26 patients, breast cancer in 19 patients, renal carcinoma in 16 patients, carcinoma of the esophagus in 12 patients, colonic carcinoma in 5 patients, thyroid gland cancer in 6 patients, and in 14 patients carcinoma of unknown primary was diagnosed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our collective with soft tissue tumor, 50% of the patients had the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, 20% presented with a metastasis of carcinoma and 20% had a benign tumor.
  • Referring to our results, in patients with the presumptive diagnosis of soft tissue sarcomas, soft tissue metastasis of a primary carcinoma was unexpectedly common, indicating that greater consideration should be given to this differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17081724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Hindié E, Zanotti-Fregonara P, Duron F, Keller I, Bouchard P, Devaux JY: Should 'low-risk' thyroid cancer patients with residual thyroglobulin be re-treated with iodine 131? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Mar;66(3):329-34
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  • [Title] Should 'low-risk' thyroid cancer patients with residual thyroglobulin be re-treated with iodine 131?
  • OBJECTIVE: The American consensus statement on patients with low-risk thyroid cancer, published in 2003, suggests repeat (131)I therapy if the thyroglobulin value is elevated at first follow-up.
  • METHODS: Among 407 patients with thyroid cancer who had total thyroidectomy and (131)I ablation between January 2000 and December 2003, 12 patients with stage I thyroid cancer (any tumour (T), any node (N), metastasis (M)0 if < 45 years or T1, N0, M0 if > 45 years), were re-treated on the basis of their thyroglobulin level at first follow-up.
  • None of them had a T4 tumour.
  • Thyroglobulin levels after thyroid hormone withdrawal 'off-T4' ranged between 4.5 and 251 ng/ml (median 8).
  • Two patients had slight residual uptake only in the thyroid bed and negative ultrasound examination.
  • This finding was interpreted as benign (131)I thymic uptake.
  • The last three patients also had mediastinal thymic uptake associated with a slight thyroid bed uptake.
  • CONCLUSIONS: No distant lesions were found in a group of young 'low-risk' thyroid cancer patients given empirical (131)I therapy for residual thyroglobulin.
  • The authors also briefly discuss the hypothesis that enhanced thymus might be a source of benign thyroglobulin secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Patient Selection. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Retreatment. Risk Assessment / methods. Thymus Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Gland / secretion. Thyroidectomy. Whole-Body Counting

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  • (PMID = 17302864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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48. Yüksel M, Eziddin S, Wardelmann E, Biersack HJ: 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2006 Sep;25(5):316-9
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  • [Title] 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy.
  • A patient with suspicion of a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas underwent a somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 111In-Pentetreotide.
  • 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy showed discrete uptake of the radiotracer in the head of the pancreas and focal uptake in the right upper thyroid lobe.
  • Normal thyroid tissue and thyroid disorders, such as cancers, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and adenomas often show increased uptake of 111In-pentetreotide resulting in a possible false positive interpretation in patients with neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Adding a 48h planar image might contribute to the differential diagnosis between benign or malignant lesions, as in the present case where the uptake decreased in an adenoma after 48 hours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Indium Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromogranin A / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Serotonin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17173778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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49. Zhang YW, Greenblatt DY, Repplinger D, Bargren A, Adler JT, Sippel RS, Chen H: Older age and larger tumor size predict malignancy in hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Oct;15(10):2842-6
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  • [Title] Older age and larger tumor size predict malignancy in hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Hürthle cell neoplasms (HCNs) are rare tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • The definitive treatment for Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) is total thyroidectomy, while thyroid lobectomy is adequate for Hürthle cell adenoma (HCA).
  • METHODS: Between May 1994 and January 2007, 1,199 patients underwent thyroid surgery at an academic medical center.
  • Medical records of 55 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid resections for the preoperative diagnosis of HCN were reviewed.
  • Patients with carcinoma also had significantly larger thyroid nodules (4.5 +/- 0.7 cm versus 2.5 +/- 0.2 cm, P < 0.001).
  • All HCNs less than 2 cm in diameter were benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18665423.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T35 DK062709
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS778770; NLM/ PMC4852735
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50. Yi JG, Marom EM, Munden RF, Truong MT, Macapinlac HA, Gladish GW, Sabloff BS, Podoloff DA: Focal uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose by the thyroid in patients undergoing initial disease staging with combined PET/CT for non-small cell lung cancer. Radiology; 2005 Jul;236(1):271-5
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  • [Title] Focal uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose by the thyroid in patients undergoing initial disease staging with combined PET/CT for non-small cell lung cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of focal fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by the thyroid gland on combined positron emission tomographic (PET) and computed tomographic (CT) scans in patients undergoing staging of newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated for FDG-avid thyroid foci.
  • Corresponding thyroid CT findings were recorded in patients with focal increased FDG thyroid uptake.
  • RESULTS: PET results showed that six patients (4.3%) had seven foci of increased FDG uptake in the thyroid.
  • Five of the seven foci (in four patients) corresponded to a low-attenuation thyroid lesion on the non-enhanced CT scan.
  • Four of the lesions were found to be papillary thyroid cancers at fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • The fifth lesion was found to be benign at thyroidectomy.
  • The remaining two patients did not have histologic confirmation of their thyroid lesion because no specific biopsy site was visualized on CT or sonographic images and lesions were considered benign.
  • Maximum SUV of the thyroid cancers ranged from 3.0 to 32.9 (mean, 13.7).
  • Maximum SUV of benign thyroid lesions ranged from 4.6 to 6.2 (mean, 5.4).
  • CONCLUSION: Focal thyroid FDG uptake found during the initial staging of NSCLC at PET/CT indicates a high likelihood of primary thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiography. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies


51. Lappinga PJ, Kip NS, Jin L, Lloyd RV, Henry MR, Zhang J, Nassar A: HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Oct 25;118(5):287-97
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  • [Title] HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of thyroid nodules with an indeterminate diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) (eg, "suspicious for follicular neoplasm") prove to be benign at the time of surgical resection.
  • Ancillary tests in current use are limited in their ability to improve the preoperative detection of malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • Studies using paraffin-embedded tissue have indicated that high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression is present in a high percentage of malignant thyroid neoplasms but not in benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • In the current study, the ability of HMGA2 overexpression analysis to preoperatively distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on suspicious cytologic smears was evaluated.
  • METHODS: Patients who underwent thyroid FNA and subsequent thyroid resection from 2001 through 2007 were identified.
  • A subset of these patients who had a cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious" underwent HMGA2 expression analysis.
  • With an HMGA2 overexpression change of 5.9-fold or greater compared with a thyroid tumor cell line as a positive cutoff, the test was found to have the following overall performance for detecting malignant nodules: sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 97%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 84%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HMGA2 mRNA expression analysis can be performed on cytologic smears and demonstrates a high specificity and positive predictive value and relatively high sensitivity and negative predictive value for detecting malignancy in "suspicious" thyroid aspirate specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. HMGA2 Protein / genetics. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20597139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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52. Kim HS, Han BK, Shin JH, Ko EY, Sung CO, Oh YL, Song SY: Papillary thyroid carcinoma of a diffuse sclerosing variant: ultrasonographic monitoring from a normal thyroid gland to mass formation. Korean J Radiol; 2010 Sep-Oct;11(5):579-82
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  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma of a diffuse sclerosing variant: ultrasonographic monitoring from a normal thyroid gland to mass formation.
  • A diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and has a tendency for rapid growth and a higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastases.
  • We experienced a case of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 48-year-old man.
  • This case showed benign features on initial ultrasonography and positron emission tomography (PET) scan.
  • We herein describe the initial and follow-up ultrasonographic findings of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Disease Progression. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • [Cites] Semin Diagn Pathol. 1985 May;2(2):90-100 [3843693.001]
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  • (PMID = 20808705.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2930170
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Diffuse sclerosing variant / Papillary thyroid carcinoma / Ultrasonography
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53. Karger S, Berger K, Eszlinger M, Tannapfel A, Dralle H, Paschke R, Führer D: Evaluation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in benign and malignant thyroid pathologies. Thyroid; 2005 Sep;15(9):997-1003
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  • [Title] Evaluation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in benign and malignant thyroid pathologies.
  • Impairment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) function through a dominant negative PAX-8/PPAR-gamma fusion gene or other events resulting in wild-type PPAR-gamma downregulation has been implicated in malignant thyroid cell transformation.
  • The aim of our study was to perform a systematic evaluation of PPAR-gamma mRNA and protein expression in normal thyroid tissue as opposed to benign thyroid pathologies of different functional status and thyroid malignancy, to gain further insights into a putative physiological role of PPAR-gamma in the thyroid and to define whether PPAR-gamma could serve as a marker of thyroid cell differentiation.
  • Ten cold benign (CTN) and 10 toxic (TTN) thyroid nodules and corresponding normal thyroid tissues, 10 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), 10 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) and 8 Graves' disease (GD) thyroids were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR (PAX-8/PPAR-gamma fusion gene).
  • When comparing benign nodular and normal thyroid tissue of the same patient no significant difference in PPAR-gamma mRNA expression was observed.
  • In contrast, PPAR-gamma mRNA expression was downregulated in 9 of 10 PTC and all GD samples, whereby at least 4 fold downregulation (compared with normal and benign nodular thyroid tissues) was observed in the latter.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed an increased, patchy PPAR-gamma nuclear staining in CTNs and TTNs and only faint staining in the corresponding normal thyroid tissues.
  • No PAX-8/PPAR-gamma rearrangements were detected in any of the 68 thyroid tissue samples.
  • In conclusion PPAR-gamma mRNA and protein expression levels are not concordant in benign thyroid nodular disease.
  • Furthermore there is no clear-cut association of PPAR-gamma mRNA expression with follicular thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Absence of a PAX-8/PPAR-gamma fusion gene in the series of 68 thyroid samples is in agreement with the suggestion of PAX-8/PPAR-gamma rearrangement being restricted to a subset of follicular thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] PPAR gamma / biosynthesis. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Apoptosis / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Graves Disease / genetics. Graves Disease / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16187907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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54. Strazisar B, Petric R, Sesek M, Zgajnar J, Hocevar M, Besic N: Predictive factors of carcinoma in 279 patients with Hürthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Jun 1;101(7):582-6
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  • [Title] Predictive factors of carcinoma in 279 patients with Hürthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Estimation of the risk of malignancy in a Hürthle cell (HC) neoplasm is important for optimum extent of thyroid surgical treatment.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to find predictive factors of carcinoma in patients with HC neoplasm.
  • METHODS: A total of 279 patients (241 females, 38 males; median age 55 years, range 15-86 years) with HC neoplasm in whom carcinoma was only suspected and who were surgically treated at our Institute in the period 1990-2007, were included in this study.
  • RESULTS: The histopatological diagnoses were carcinoma, benign goiter and adenoma in 71 (25%), 68 (25%) and 140 (50%) patients, respectively.
  • Predictive factors for carcinoma, shown by chi-square test, were: age of patients, tumor diameter, thyroid volume and T(g) concentration.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The independent predictors of malignancy in HC neoplasm were age of patients and pre-operative T(g) concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20461764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Pérez-Mies B, Regojo Zapata RM, García-Fernández E, Serrano MN: Malignant teratoma of the thyroid in a pregnant woman. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Aug;14(4):264-7
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  • [Title] Malignant teratoma of the thyroid in a pregnant woman.
  • Most teratomas involving the thyroid gland are benign and occur in children.
  • Many of the cases previously described in the medical literature have fatal outcome because of spread of the tumor refractory to treatment.
  • We report a case of primary malignant teratoma of the thyroid in a 38-year-old pregnant black woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin. Cisplatin. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pregnancy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20637432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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56. Jo YS, Huang S, Kim YJ, Lee IS, Kim SS, Kim JR, Oh T, Moon Y, An S, Ro HK, Kim JM, Shong M: Diagnostic value of pyrosequencing for the BRAF V600E mutation in ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy samples of thyroid incidentalomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Jan;70(1):139-44
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of pyrosequencing for the BRAF V600E mutation in ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy samples of thyroid incidentalomas.
  • CONTEXT: Dideoxy sequencing is the most commonly used method for detecting the BRAF(V600E) mutation in thyroid cancer and melanoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic efficiency of pyrosequencing for the mutant BRAF allele in ultrasound (US)-guided fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) of thyroid incidentalomas.
  • DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS: A total of 101 thyroid incidentaloma cases were included prospectively.
  • Cytological diagnoses of the FNAB samples were made according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines, 2006.
  • RESULTS: On the basis of cytological analysis, the thyroid incidentalomas were classified into benign (n = 43), malignant (n = 30), indeterminate or suspicious neoplasm (n = 24), and nondiagnostic (n = 4) categories.
  • Histopathological analysis ascertained that all BRAF(V600E)-positive cases were papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pyrosequencing may be suitable for detecting the BRAF(V600E) mutation in thyroid incidentaloma and may be superior to dideoxy sequencing when low amounts of the mutant template are present in the biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18462259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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57. Larumbe A, Iglesias ME, Illarramendi JJ, Córdoba A, Gállego M: [Acral keratoses and inverted follicular keratosis presenting Cowden disease]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2007 Jul-Aug;98(6):425-9
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  • [Transliterated title] Queratosis acras y queratosis folicular invertida como manifestación de la enfermedad de Cowden.
  • Cowden disease is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the presence of multiple hamartomas in the skin, thyroid, breast, nervous system and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Breast and thyroid neoplasms (benign and malignant) develop in up to two thirds of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / diagnosis. Keratosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Humans. Lymphangioma / etiology. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17663933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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58. Shi Y, Ding X, Klein M, Sugrue C, Matano S, Edelman M, Wasserman P: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration with atypia of undetermined significance: a necessary or optional category? Cancer; 2009 Oct 25;117(5):298-304
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  • [Title] Thyroid fine-needle aspiration with atypia of undetermined significance: a necessary or optional category?
  • BACKGROUND: Atypia of undetermined significance is a controversial category in thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA), not only for its questioned clinical utility, but also for its very existence as an expression of uncertainty.
  • The current study was performed to investigate the potential impact of eliminating this category on the sensitivity and specificity for detecting thyroid neoplasms by FNA.
  • These cases were reinterpreted blindly by 2 experienced reviewers, who eliminated atypia of undetermined significance as a diagnostic possibility and reclassified these cases as either benign, follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, or malignant.
  • RESULTS: After eliminating the atypia of undetermined significance category, the sensitivity for detecting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was reduced from 100% to 27% (P = .04).
  • In those atypia of undetermined significance cases that were reclassified as benign, 37% had PTC.
  • In those reclassified as follicular neoplasm or suspicious for malignancy, 38% were histologically proven to be benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Eliminating the diagnosis of atypia of undetermined significance substantially decreases the sensitivity of thyroid FNAs and increases both false-positive and false-negative rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 19711470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Ponikiewska D, Szcześniak-Kłusek B, Stobiecka E, Jaworska M, Lange D: [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:7-11
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  • [Title] [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination].
  • INTRODUCTION: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid nodules generally allows to make the diagnosis and to choose the proper clinical management.
  • In about 10% of cases cytopathologic features do not differentiate unequivocally benign and malignant lesions.
  • In these cases the cytopathologic diagnosis of follicular tumor (FT) or oxyphilic tumor (OT) is most often made.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2001 to 2002 in our Department of Pathology the cytopathologic diagnosis of FT and OT was made in 102 and 25 cases respectively.
  • RESULTS: Histopathological diagnosis of neoplasm was made in 48.7% (19/39) FT and 42% (8/19) OT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show how difficult the diagnostics of follicular lesions in FNAB could be because of the frequent overlapping of the cytological features of benign and malignant lesions.
  • Diagnosis of follicular tumor does not mean carcinoma.
  • The use of follicular/ oxyphilic tumor in cytological diagnostic instead of follicular neoplasm seems more advisable.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17091450.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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60. Moslavac S, Matesa N, Kusić Z: Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology in children and adolescents. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):197-200
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  • [Title] Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology in children and adolescents.
  • Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the most accurate and cost effective method in the evaluation of the thyroid nodule and has been commonly used in adults.
  • Thyroid nodules are uncommon in younger patients (1-2%).
  • Ultrasound-guided thyroid FNACs performed from May 1995 to June 2008 in patients under 18 years of age were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Cytological parameters included cytologic diagnosis and cyto-pathohistological correlation.
  • Total of 236 cases, representing 206 patients under 18 years of age, were retrieved from a total of 11748 thyroid FNAC cases (2.0%).
  • 20 (35.7%) patients did not have any nodules, 20 (35.7%) patients had solitary thyroid nodule and 16 (28.6%) patients had multiple nodules.
  • The cytologic diagnoses were: unsatisfactory (9), cyst fluid (7), benign (204), cellular follicular lesion/follicular neoplasm (9) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (7).
  • 5 patients (23.8%) had thyroid malignancies (all papillary carcinomas).
  • The remainder had benign thyroid lesions; follicular adenomas (8), multinodular goiters (5), diffuse goiters (2) and Hashimoto thyreoiditis (1).
  • The prevalence of thyroid malignancies among cytologic diagnoses was similar to those reported in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / statistics & numerical data. Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Croatia / epidemiology. Female. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Hashimoto Disease / epidemiology. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / surgery. Humans. Male. Prevalence. Reproducibility of Results. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20432751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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61. Saggiorato E, De Pompa R, Volante M, Cappia S, Arecco F, Dei Tos AP, Orlandi F, Papotti M: Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):305-17
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  • [Title] Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application.
  • The distinction of benign from malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms remains a difficult task in diagnostic fine-needle aspiration cytology, and some discrepant results have been reported for the individual immunocytochemical markers of malignancy proposed so far.
  • The aim of this study was to test if the combined use of a panel of markers could improve the diagnostic accuracy in the preoperative cytological evaluation of 'follicular neoplasms' in an attempt to reduce the number of thyroidectomies performed for benign lesions.
  • The immunocytochemical expression of galectin-3, HBME-1, thyroperoxidase, cytokeratin-19 and keratan-sulfate was retrospectively analyzed in 125 consecutive fine-needle aspiration samples (cell blocks) of indeterminate diagnoses of 'follicular thyroid neoplasm', and compared with their corresponding surgical specimens, including 33 follicular carcinomas, 42 papillary carcinomas and 50 follicular adenomas.
  • Our data showed that, as compared with the use of single markers, the sequential combination of two markers represents the most accurate immunohistochemical panel in managing patients with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of 'follicular neoplasms', especially in otherwise controversial categories such as oncocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15947105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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62. Mathur SR, Kapila K, Verma K: Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of goiter. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Apr;48(2):166-9
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  • [Title] Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of goiter.
  • Enlargement of the thyroid gland is a common occurrence in most parts of the world especially in the iodine-deficient goiter belt areas.
  • Vast majority of these lesions are benign but they invariably lead to a series of investigations among which FNAC plays a pivotal role.
  • Although many studies have reported diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in detecting neoplasms, there have been few studies where the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of goiter along with their diagnostic pitfalls has been evaluated.
  • The present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of FNAC in diagnosis of goiter and to highlight its limitations and diagnostic pitfalls.
  • They included 733 cases where the cytological diagnosis was goiter or suggestive of goiter along with 38 cases in which the histological diagnosis was goiter while the cytological diagnosis was cystic change or neoplasm.
  • In 34 cases (20.23%) no diagnosis could be offered because of cystic change.
  • A false positive cytologic diagnosis of neoplasm was made in 4 cases.
  • In 24 cases neoplasms were initially missed on FNAC of which 10 cases could be detected on review while 5 cases were considered unsatisfactory.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Humans. India

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  • (PMID = 16758655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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63. Carney JA: Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid gland: quadruply described but not by the discoverer. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):622-34
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid gland: quadruply described but not by the discoverer.
  • Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid have been described on 4 occasions, by Carney and colleagues in 1987, by Ward and coworkers in 1982, by Pierre Masson in 1922, and by Rahel Zipkin in 1905.
  • Unaware of the 3 earlier descriptions, Carney and colleagues described 11 circumscribed or encapsulated thyroid tumors with elongated and polygonal cells arranged in trabeculae that contained a hyaline material resembling amyloid.
  • The nuclei of the tumor cells had cytoplasmic invaginations and grooves similar to those of papillary carcinoma.
  • Carney and colleagues labeled the neoplasms hyalinizing trabecular adenomas because of their microscopic appearance, absence of invasion, and benign natural history.
  • Subsequently, the nuclear features of the tumor and the molecular genetic findings led to the introduction of equivocal designations for it, hyalinizing trabecular tumor and hyalinizing trabecular neoplasm, and later to its designation as a variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • Experience has shown that most circumscribed or encapsulated follicular thyroid tumors with intratrabecular hyalin and nuclear features of papillary carcinoma behave as benign neoplasms.
  • Hyalinizing trabecular carcinoma is a very rare tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Hyalin / metabolism. Terminology as Topic. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18367942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Mambo E, Chatterjee A, Xing M, Tallini G, Haugen BR, Yeung SC, Sukumar S, Sidransky D: Tumor-specific changes in mtDNA content in human cancer. Int J Cancer; 2005 Oct 10;116(6):920-4
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  • [Title] Tumor-specific changes in mtDNA content in human cancer.
  • We examined mtDNA content in 25 pairs of normal and tumor breast tissue samples, 37 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 21 benign thyroid neoplasms and in 20 paired normal and PTC samples.
  • Our results showed that mtDNA content was reduced in 80% of the breast tumors relative to their corresponding normal. mtDNA was increased in papillary thyroid carcinomas, however, when compared to the corresponding normal DNA taken from the same individual.
  • Our findings indicate that changes in mtDNA content during carcinogenesis may be regulated in a tumor specific manner.
  • Additionally, changes in mtDNA levels did not correlate with tumor grade and metastasis, suggesting that these alterations may occur in the early stages of tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Reference Values. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15856456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U01CA084986-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA077664-07
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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65. Faggiano A, Caillou B, Lacroix L, Talbot M, Filetti S, Bidart JM, Schlumberger M: Functional characterization of human thyroid tissue with immunohistochemistry. Thyroid; 2007 Mar;17(3):203-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Functional characterization of human thyroid tissue with immunohistochemistry.
  • Immunohistochemistry provides insights in the expression of functional proteins and of their localization in normal thyroid tissue and in thyroid diseases.
  • In hyperfunctional thyroid tissues, staining for sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), pendrin, thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyroglobulin (Tg) is increased.
  • In hypofunctioning thyroid tissues, NIS staining is markedly decreased; in benign hypofunctioning adenomas, the expression of the other functional proteins is unmodified or slightly decreased, whereas their expression is profoundly decreased or absent in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunohistochemistry / methods. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Membrane Transport Proteins / metabolism. Symporters / metabolism. Thyroglobulin / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / chemistry. Carcinoma / metabolism. Epitopes / chemistry. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17381352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Epitopes; 0 / Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / SLC26A4 protein, human; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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66. Yavuz AA, Cobanoglu U, Genc M, Yavuz MN, Kosucu P, Aslan MK: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the thyroid gland: recurrence treated by radiotherapy. J Otolaryngol; 2005 Jun;34(3):216-20
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  • [Title] Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the thyroid gland: recurrence treated by radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / radiotherapy. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16089231.001).
  • [ISSN] 0381-6605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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67. Evenson A, Mowschenson P, Wang H, Connolly J, Mendrinos S, Parangi S, Hasselgren PO: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg; 2007 Jun;193(6):707-12
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma (HTA) is an uncommon benign thyroid tumor that can present as a solitary thyroid nodule, a prominent nodule in a multinodular goiter, or as an incidental finding in a thyroidectomy specimen.
  • METHODS: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 7 patients presenting with a solitary thyroid nodule (n = 4) or a multinodular goiter (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although HTA is a rare condition of the thyroid, the surgeon needs to be aware of this entity to be able to better discuss the pathological findings with the patient, particularly since some pathologists and endocrinologists believe that HTA may represent a malignant neoplasm of low metastatic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17512281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Zeng XT, Xu YZ, Zhang XQ, Xu Z, Zhang YF, Wu JG, Zhou XS, Ling XF: [FTIR spectroscopic explorations of freshly resected thyroid malignant tissues]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi; 2007 Dec;27(12):2422-6
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  • [Title] [FTIR spectroscopic explorations of freshly resected thyroid malignant tissues].
  • In the present paper, 17 cases of freshly resected malignant thyroid tissue samples and 23 cases of benign thyroid tissue samples were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy with an ATR probe.
  • Statistic analysis indicated that the FTIR spectra of cancerous tissue were significantly different from those of benign tissue.
  • In comparison with normal tissues, the FTIR spectra of malignant thyroid tissues possess the following features:.
  • The most possible reason for the changes was that the mutation of DNA and the amounts of nucleic acid had increased in malignant neoplasms.
  • Experimental results show that the malignant thyroid tissues can be distinguished from the benign tissues by their infrared spectra.
  • This approach proves that FTIR spectroscopy is a reliable and practicable method for thyroid cancer diagnosis in operations.
  • The authors have expanded their research on detecting the thyroid cancer FTIR spectra via percutaneous and in vivo, and have achieved a positive result which is going to be reported in another paper.
  • [MeSH-major] Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18330276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Guang pu xue yu guang pu fen xi = Guang pu
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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69. Zhao J, Leonard C, Gemsenjäger E, Heitz PU, Moch H, Odermatt B: Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling. Oncol Rep; 2008 Feb;19(2):329-37
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  • [Title] Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling.
  • It is difficult to distinguish benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors by histological or cytological examination.
  • The goal of this study was to reveal gene expression variations between benign and malignant follicular lesions of the thyroid gland.
  • We investigated gene expression profiles from 24 follicular thyroid tumors (12 carcinomas and 12 adenomas) and 13 normal thyroid tissues using high-density human cDNA arrays.
  • The identification of gene expression changes was based on signal intensity ratios of tumor versus normal thyroid parenchyma.
  • Our results demonstrate a potential use of gene expression profiling for differentiating benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • A detailed investigation of the differentially expressed genes could give new insights into molecular pathways of malignant transformation of thyroid follicular neoplasm and may help to develop a molecular tool for the preoperative differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Gene Expression Profiling. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18202778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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70. Cheema Y, Olson S, Elson D, Chen H: What is the biology and optimal treatment for papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid? J Surg Res; 2006 Aug;134(2):160-2
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  • [Title] What is the biology and optimal treatment for papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid?
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid, defined as tumors measuring < or =10 mm, are believed to be a less aggressive subset of papillary cancers that behave more like benign lesions and are often more conservatively treated.
  • METHODS: From May 1994 to October 2004, 184 patients underwent thyroid surgery at the University of Wisconsin and had papillary thyroid cancer present in the resected gland.
  • Of these patients, 10 were excluded because there was no record of tumor size.
  • The mean tumor size was 5.7 +/- 0.38 mm.
  • CONCLUSION: Papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid are quite common, comprising almost half of all papillary cancers.
  • Thus, papillary microcarcinomas appear to have a similar biology to other low risk papillary thyroid cancers and, in our opinion, may warrant similar treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16780882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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71. Mathur A, Weng J, Moses W, Steinberg SM, Rahbari R, Kitano M, Khanafshar E, Ljung BM, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: A prospective study evaluating the accuracy of using combined clinical factors and candidate diagnostic markers to refine the accuracy of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. Surgery; 2010 Dec;148(6):1170-6; discussion 1176-7
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  • [Title] A prospective study evaluating the accuracy of using combined clinical factors and candidate diagnostic markers to refine the accuracy of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of fine needle aspiration biopsies of the thyroid have inconclusive results.
  • We conducted a prospective trial to determine whether clinical and molecular markers could be used in combination to improve the accuracy of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • METHODS: Clinical, tumor genotyping for common somatic mutations (BRAF V600E, NRAS, KRAS, RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and NTRK1), and the gene expression levels of 6 candidate diagnostic markers were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods in 341 patients to determine whether they could distinguish reliably benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms, and a scoring model was derived.
  • The overall accuracy of the scoring model, including these 3 variables, to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid tumors was 91%, including 67% for the indeterminate and 77% for the suspicious FNA subgroups.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Ethnic Groups. Female. Genes, ras / genetics. Humans. Male. Medical History Taking. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Mutation. Prospective Studies. RNA / genetics. RNA / isolation & purification. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Reproducibility of Results. Thyroidectomy / statistics & numerical data

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  • [Copyright] Published by Mosby, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 21134548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 63231-63-0 / RNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS240002; NLM/ PMC3052943
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72. Pallante P, Federico A, Berlingieri MT, Bianco M, Ferraro A, Forzati F, Iaccarino A, Russo M, Pierantoni GM, Leone V, Sacchetti S, Troncone G, Santoro M, Fusco A: Loss of the CBX7 gene expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer. Cancer Res; 2008 Aug 15;68(16):6770-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Loss of the CBX7 gene expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer.
  • Using gene expression profiling, we found that the CBX7 gene was drastically down-regulated in six thyroid carcinoma cell lines versus control cells.
  • The aims of this study were to determine whether CBX7 is related to the thyroid cancer phenotype and to try to identify new tools for the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid cancer.
  • We thus evaluated CBX7 expression in various snap-frozen and paraffin-embedded thyroid carcinoma tissues of different degrees of malignancy by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
  • CBX7 expression progressively decreased with malignancy grade and neoplasia stage.
  • Indeed, it decreased in an increasing percentage of cases going from benign adenomas to papillary (PTC), follicular, and anaplastic (ATC) thyroid carcinomas.
  • This finding coincides with results obtained in rat and mouse models of thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • Restoration of CBX7 expression in thyroid cancer cells reduced growth rate, with a retention in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, suggesting that CBX7 can contribute to the proliferation of the transformed thyroid cells.
  • In conclusion, loss of CBX7 expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Repressor Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. Colony-Forming Units Assay. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Mice. Mice, Nude. Polycomb Repressive Complex 1. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18701502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CBX7 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 6.3.2.19 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
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73. Lardinois D, Weder W, Roudas M, von Schulthess GK, Tutic M, Moch H, Stahel RA, Steinert HC: Etiology of solitary extrapulmonary positron emission tomography and computed tomography findings in patients with lung cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Oct 1;23(28):6846-53
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  • A diagnosis was obtained in 69 of these patients, including 37 (54%) with solitary metastases and 32 (46%) with lesions unrelated to the lung primary.
  • Histopathologic examinations of these 32 lesions revealed a second clinically unsuspected malignancy or a recurrence of a previous diagnosed carcinoma in six patients (19%) and a benign tumor or inflammatory lesion in 26 patients (81%).
  • Benign tumors and inflammatory lesions included eight colon adenomas, four Warthin's tumors, one granuloma of the lower jaw, one adenoma of the thyroid gland, one compensatory muscle activity due to vocal chord palsy, two occurrences of arthritis, three occurrences of reflux esophagitis, two occurrences of pancreatitis, two occurrences of diverticulitis, one hemorrhoidal inflammation, and one rib fracture.
  • CONCLUSION: Solitary extrapulmonary FDG accumulations in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer should be analyzed critically for correct staging and optimal therapy, given that up to half of the lesions may represent unrelated malignancies or benign disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Inflammation. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16192576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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74. Reschini E, Ferrari C, Castellani M, Matheoud R, Paracchi A, Marotta G, Gerundini P: The trapping-only nodules of the thyroid gland: prevalence study. Thyroid; 2006 Aug;16(8):757-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The trapping-only nodules of the thyroid gland: prevalence study.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of trapping-only nodules of the thyroid gland.
  • The study was prospectively performed in patients bearing hot or warm thyroid nodules at pertechnetate scan in the presence of circulating thyrotropin (TSH) within the normal range.
  • Five had benign thyroid nodules, one follicular carcinoma, and one extrathyroid metastases of papillary-follicular carcinoma.
  • Despite controversy on this issue, trapping-only nodules of thyroid should be searched because they have risk of malignancy and must be differentiated from autonomous adenomas at the compensated stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / epidemiology. Thyroid Nodule / therapy. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prospective Studies. Radionuclide Imaging / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m


75. Aron M, Kapila K, Verma K: Utility of galectin 3 expression in thyroid aspirates as a diagnostic marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Jul;49(3):376-80
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  • [Title] Utility of galectin 3 expression in thyroid aspirates as a diagnostic marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Galectin-3 is a 31kD beta-galactoside binding lectin, which is known to be expressed in various neoplasms including thyroid tumors.
  • This study was conducted to study the role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules onfine needle aspirates (FNAC).
  • The cytology diagnosis of these cases was: papillary carcinoma (25), follicular neoplasm (16), adenomatous goiter (20), hyperplastic nodule (5), medullary carcinoma (5) and anaplastic carcinoma (1).
  • Galectin-3 positivity was seen in 80% of papillary carcinomas, 37.5% offollicular neoplasms and in 60% of benign nodules.
  • Three of thefollicular neoplasms that were diagnosed on histology as carcinoma were positive on cytology and one case offollicular adenoma was also positive.
  • However, since it is also expressed in a variety of benign lesions, its role as a pre-surgical markerfor differentiating benignfrom malignant thyroid nodules is limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Academies and Institutes. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. India. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17001889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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76. Choi YJ, Yun JS, Kim DH: Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm. Endocr J; 2009;56(3):383-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and ultrasound (US) features of malignancy in patients using cytological results of follicular neoplasm (FN) in the thyroid.
  • Patient histopathology, age, sex, tumor size, and US characteristics and the color flow pattern of the lesions were analyzed and compared between benign and carcinomas.
  • Benign included 78 FA, 8 atypical FA, and 3 Hurthle cell adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 19164864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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77. Camargo RY, Tomimori EK: [Usefulness of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Jul;51(5):783-92
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Uso da ultra-sonografia no diagnóstico e seguimento do carcinoma bem diferenciado da tireóide.
  • Thyroid nodules are found in the vast majority of the population, but only 5 to 10% are malignant.
  • Ultrasonography of the thyroid, by virtue of being a straightforward, non-invasive method presenting strong correlation with macroscopic aspects of the thyroid gland, is being increasingly used to identify nodules that present a higher risk of malignancy.
  • Conversely, nodules presenting benign ultrasonographic characteristics such as hyperechogenicity and a mixed sponge-like aspect, and a concordant cytology, have a negative predictive value of 96.6%.
  • It is, thus, important to examine all nodular lesions and to identify suspicious lesions that need biopsy, especially in multinodular glands.
  • Ultrasonography is also highly sensitive in the identification of suspicious cervical lymph nodes during the follow-up of patients with thyroid carcinoma, even when PCI is negative and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels are undetectable.
  • Tg measurement in the needle wash-out content is recommended as this has proven to be more sensitive than cytology in the diagnosis of cervical metastasis, especially where there is liquid content, and it is not affected by the presence of anti-Tg antibodies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Humans. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Predictive Value of Tests. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17891242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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78. Miseikyte-Kaubriene E, Ulys A, Trakymas M: [The frequency of malignant disease in cytological group of suspected cancer (ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable thyroid nodules)]. Medicina (Kaunas); 2008;44(3):189-94
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  • [Title] [The frequency of malignant disease in cytological group of suspected cancer (ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable thyroid nodules)].
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the most important procedure for differentiating benign thyroid nodules from malignant ones.
  • Traditionally, findings of fine-needle aspiration biopsy are divided into four categories: nondiagnostic, benign lesions, suspected cancer, and malignant lesions.
  • Group suspicious for cancer largely involves follicular neoplasms as well as lesions with cytological features of malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish the value of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of nonpalpable thyroid cancer and to assess the frequency of malignant disease in the group of suspected cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 184 patients with nonpalpable thyroid nodules (less than 1.5 cm in diameter) were examined by means of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • RESULTS. During 1997-2002, 204 ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies of thyroid nodules were performed; findings were nondiagnostic in 5.9% of cases.
  • In 59.8% of cases, cytological examination revealed benign lesions; in 11.8%, suspected cancer; and in 22.5%, malignant lesions.
  • In 45 cases, cytological diagnosis of malignant or suspected thyroid cancer was confirmed by histological examination after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy has a high accuracy in the diagnostic evaluation of nonpalpable thyroid nodule with cytological features of malignancy.
  • However, fine-needle aspiration biopsy is not effective diagnostic method for differentiating benign thyroid nodules from malignant ones in follicular neoplasm group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Palpation. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18413985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] lit
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
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79. Jo VY, Stelow EB, Dustin SM, Hanley KZ: Malignancy risk for fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions according to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. Am J Clin Pathol; 2010 Sep;134(3):450-6
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  • [Title] Malignancy risk for fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions according to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology.
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is an important test for triaging patients with thyroid nodules.
  • The 2007 National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration State-of-the-Science Conference helped instigate the recent publication of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology.
  • We reviewed 3,080 thyroid FNA samples and recorded interpretations according to the proposed standardized 6-tier nomenclature, and pursued follow-up cytology and histology.
  • Of the 3,080 FNAs, 18.6% were nondiagnostic, 59.0% were benign, 3.4% were atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AFLUS), 9.7% were "suspicious" for follicular neoplasm (SFN), 2.3% were suspicious for malignancy (SM), and 7.0% were malignant.
  • Rates of malignancy were as follows: nondiagnostic, 8.9%; benign, 1.1%; AFLUS, 17% (9/53); SFN, 25.4%; SM, 70% (39/56), and malignant, 98.1%.
  • Thus, classification of thyroid FNA samples at the University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, according to The Bethesda System yields similar results for risk of malignancy as reported by others.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis


80. Wiseman SM, Melck A, Masoudi H, Ghaidi F, Goldstein L, Gown A, Jones SJ, Griffith OL: Molecular phenotyping of thyroid tumors identifies a marker panel for differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Oct;15(10):2811-26
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  • [Title] Molecular phenotyping of thyroid tumors identifies a marker panel for differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosis.
  • The objective of this work was to evaluate the molecular phenotype of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and benign thyroid lesions to identify molecular markers that allow for accurate thyroid cancer diagnosis.
  • METHODS: Tissue microarrays consisting of 100 benign and 105 malignant thyroid lesions, plus 24 lymph node samples, were stained for a panel of 57 molecular markers.
  • Significant associations between marker staining and tumor pathology (DTC versus benign) were determined using contingency table and Mann-Whitney U (MU) tests.
  • RESULTS: Of the 57 diagnostic markers evaluated 35 (61%) were significantly associated with a DTC diagnosis after multiple testing correction.
  • Of these, in DTC compared with benign thyroid tumors, 8 markers were downregulated and 27 upregulated.
  • The most significant markers for DTC diagnosis were: Galectin-3, Cytokeratin 19, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Androgen Receptor, p16, Aurora-A, and HBME-1.
  • Using the entire molecular marker panel, a Random Forests algorithm was able to classify tumors as DTC or benign with an estimated sensitivity of 87.9%, specificity of 94.0%, and an accuracy of 91.0%.
  • CONCLUSION: Evaluation of the DTC and benign thyroid tumor molecular phenotype has allowed for identification of a marker panel, composed of both established and novel markers, useful for thyroid cancer diagnosis.
  • These results suggest that further study of the molecular profile of thyroid tumors is warranted, and a diagnostic molecular marker panel may potentially improve patient selection for thyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Prognosis. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18612701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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81. Garg K, Soslow RA, Rivera M, Tuttle MR, Ghossein RA: Histologically bland "extremely well differentiated" thyroid carcinomas arising in struma ovarii can recur and metastasize. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 May;28(3):222-30
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  • [Title] Histologically bland "extremely well differentiated" thyroid carcinomas arising in struma ovarii can recur and metastasize.
  • Struma ovarii (SO) infrequently harbor carcinomas that are histologically similar to those arising in the eutopic thyroid.
  • There were 8 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) (2 classic and 6 follicular variant) and 2 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • Two of the 10 thyroid carcinomas relapsed after an initial diagnosis of "benign" struma.
  • The cystectomy from 1 patient showed thyroid follicles with nuclear features of the follicular variant of PTC whereas the cyst from the second patient showed thyroid follicles with subtle nuclear features, suggestive but not diagnostic of PTC.
  • Both patients presented with disseminated PTC 3 and 4 years after the initial diagnosis, involving the pelvis in both cases and also the liver parenchyma in 1 case.
  • The 2 patients received radioactive iodine therapy after thyroidectomy and are both alive with disease 6 years after diagnosis.
  • The criteria separating hyperplastic nodules from well-differentiated follicular variant of PTC in the thyroid gland seem to be applicable to thyroid-type carcinomas arising in SO.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19620939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Isotopes
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82. Vorburger SA, Ubersax L, Schmid SW, Balli M, Candinas D, Seiler CA: Long-term follow-up after complete resection of well-differentiated cancer confined to the thyroid gland. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Oct;16(10):2862-74
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  • [Title] Long-term follow-up after complete resection of well-differentiated cancer confined to the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas exhibit a relatively benign course.
  • METHODS: Patients who underwent complete resection of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) confined to the thyroid gland between 1972 and 1990 identified from a prospective database were assessed.
  • Review of histology was performed and extent of thyroid resection, postoperative therapy, and recognized prognostic factors but not lymphadenectomy were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Of 2,867 patients, 213 had complete resection of WDTC confined to the thyroid gland.
  • DSS at 10 and 20 years was 81 and 69%, respectively, and correlated with age, histology, tumor size, radio-iodide ablation (RIA), and external beam irradiation (EBR) treatment.
  • Age, histology and postoperative therapy but not extent of thyroid resection determined DSS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Cell Differentiation. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2011 Feb;18(2):600 [20607419.001]
  • (PMID = 19655202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Giovanella L, Ceriani L, Ghelfo A, Maffioli M: Circulating cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with benign nodules and carcinomas of the thyroid gland. Int J Biol Markers; 2008 Jan-Mar;23(1):54-7
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  • [Title] Circulating cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with benign nodules and carcinomas of the thyroid gland.
  • Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) is an acidic protein of 40 kDa that is part of the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells and is highly expressed by differentiated thyroid carcinomas, mainly of the papillary subtype.
  • The present study was planned to assess the serum expression of Cyfra 21.1 in patients with benign thyroid nodules and thyroid malignancies.
  • We enrolled 135 patients with histologically proven benign thyroid nodules (n=79) and thyroid carcinomas (n=56).
  • No differences were found in serum Cyfra 21.1 levels between patients with benign nodules and patients with carcinomas.
  • When thyroid malignancies were subdivided according to tumor histology, serum Cyfra 21.1 increased significantly from classical differentiated thyroid carcinomas (papillary or follicular) to less differentiated or undifferentiated carcinomas (poorly differentiated or anaplastic).
  • These pathways characterized anaplastic and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma but not classical forms of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Consequently, Cyfra 21.1 may be regarded as a circulating marker of poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Additionally, a role of Cyfra 21.1 as a dedifferentiation marker in patients with classical differentiated thyroid carcinomas may be postulated and should be explored by further focused studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. Keratin-19 / blood. Keratins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Nodule / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Peptide Fragments / blood

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  • (PMID = 18409152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / antigen CYFRA21.1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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84. Brown LM, Helmke SM, Hunsucker SW, Netea-Maier RT, Chiang SA, Heinz DE, Shroyer KR, Duncan MW, Haugen BR: Quantitative and qualitative differences in protein expression between papillary thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid tissue. Mol Carcinog; 2006 Aug;45(8):613-26
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  • [Title] Quantitative and qualitative differences in protein expression between papillary thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid tissue.
  • In order to better understand basic mechanisms of tumor development and identify potential new biomarkers, we have performed difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and peptide mass fingerprinting on pooled protein extracts from patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) compared with matched normal thyroid tissue.
  • Image analysis of DIGE gels comparing PTC and matched normal thyroid tissue protein indicated that 25% of the protein spots were differentially expressed at a 2.5-fold cutoff and 35% at two-fold.
  • Comparison between two different pools of protein from normal thyroid tissues revealed differential protein expression of only 4% at 2.5-fold and 6% at two-fold cutoff.
  • We confirmed S100A6 as a potentially useful biomarker using immunohistochemical analysis (85% sensitivity and 69% specificity for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms).

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  • (PMID = 16788983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-1987
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Carcinog.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046934; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA46934-15; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK054383; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK054383
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 105504-00-5 / S100A6 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS20526; NLM/ PMC1899163
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85. Lew JI, Solorzano CC: Use of ultrasound in the management of thyroid cancer. Oncologist; 2010;15(3):253-8
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  • [Title] Use of ultrasound in the management of thyroid cancer.
  • The use of ultrasound for thyroid cancer has evolved dramatically over the last few decades.
  • Since the late 1960s, ultrasound has become essential in the examination of the thyroid gland with the increased availability of high-frequency linear array transducers and computer-enhanced imaging capabilities of modern day portable ultrasound equipment in a clinic- or office-based setting.
  • As a noninvasive, rapid, and easily reproducible imaging study, ultrasound has been demonstrated to have a broadened utility beyond the simple confirmation of thyroid nodules and their sizes.
  • Recently, office-based ultrasound has become an integral part of clinical practice, where it has demonstrated overwhelming benefits to patients being evaluated and treated for thyroid cancer.
  • Ultrasound has become useful in the qualitative characterization of thyroid nodules based on benign or malignant features.
  • On the basis of such classifications and the relative risk for thyroid malignancy, the need for ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, preoperative and intraoperative staging, lymph node mapping, and the extent of surgery can subsequently be determined.
  • Furthermore, ultrasound has additional value in the surveillance of patients treated for thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 20215358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3227957
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86. Camera A, Magri F, Fonte R, Villani L, Della Porta MG, Fregoni V, Manna LL, Chiovato L: Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):1033-6
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  • [Title] Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule.
  • BACKGROUND: Most solitary hyperfunctiong regions on thyroid scan consist of benign tissue.
  • SUMMARY: A 56-year-old man was referred to our Endocrine Unit in May 2009 due to the incidental discovery of a large left thyroid lobe nodule by a computed tomography study.
  • This had been performed to search for a primitive tumor in a patient with bone metastasis.
  • He was clinically and biochemically thyrotoxic with no evidence of humoral thyroid autoimmunity.
  • The nodule had a dyshomogenous appearance at neck ultrasonography, with multiple hypoechogenic areas and calcifications. (99m)-Technetium thyroid scintiscan revealed a hot nodule with suppression of the contralateral lobe.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated the presence of neoplastic cells not of thyroid origin.
  • Histological analysis of the surgical specimen led to a diagnosis of Burkitt-like large B-cell lymphoma harbored within a thyroid adenoma.
  • After further staging, the final diagnosis was stage IV E Burkitt-like lymphoma with the involvement of the bone and the thyroid.
  • This is the first description of an aggressive Burkitt-like lymphoma that infiltrated an hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma, thus presenting as a hot nodule at thyroid scintiscan.
  • In our patient there was no humoral or histological evidence of thyroid autoimmunity, thus suggesting a metastatic seeding of the lymphoma within the hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Involvement of the thyroid gland by Burkitt-like lymphoma is extremely rare as is close localization of malignancy and a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / drug therapy. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Male. Methimazole / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Technetium. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20825299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7440-26-8 / Technetium; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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87. Pettorini BL, Narducci A, de Carlo A, Abet F, Caldarelli M, Massimi L, Tamburrini G, Di Rocco C: Thyroid neoplasm after central nervous system irradiation for medulloblastoma in childhood: report of two cases. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 May;25(5):631-4
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  • [Title] Thyroid neoplasm after central nervous system irradiation for medulloblastoma in childhood: report of two cases.
  • Irradiation is the well-known risk factor for development of benign and malignant thyroid tumours.
  • Children are more exposed to this risk because of their thyroid gland is more sensitive to carcinogenic effect of ionising radiation.
  • At the age of 20 and 23, both of them underwent the surgical excision of a papillary thyroid carcinoma, 20 and 17 years after the radiotherapeutic treatment, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radioinduced thyroid tumours are a well-recognised nosographic entities due to the particular sensitivity of this gland to ionising radiations.
  • However, only a few papers on radioinduced thyroid neoplasms after CNS irradiation have been published in the literature.
  • We report on two additional cases of thyroid neoplasms following childhood CNS irradiation for the treatment of a posterior fossa medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19225785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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88. Miguel-Pérez P, Herrera-Hernández M, Padilla-Rodríguez A, Martínez-Consuegra N: [Thyroid oncocytic adenoma. A review of the morphological spectrum in four cases]. Gac Med Mex; 2007 Nov-Dec;143(6):517-22
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  • [Title] [Thyroid oncocytic adenoma. A review of the morphological spectrum in four cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma oncocítico de tiroides (adenoma de células de Hürthle). Revisión del espectro morfológico a propósito de cuatro casos.
  • In the thyroid gland, this change is a metaplastic phenomenon that takes place under different circumstances that promote cellular stress, and could even produce a true neoplasm, both benign or malignant.
  • The oncocytic adenoma, a malignant tumor will be described.
  • Tumor characteristics in all cases included: massive ischemic necrosis short after a fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed, unexpected large size, coexistence with a malignant independent neoplasm and cytological features similar to those observed in papillary carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18269084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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89. Snarska J, Szajda SD, Knaś M, Mroczko B, Borzym-Kluczyk M, Kamiński F, Zwierz P, Zwierz K: [Usefulness of detecting cancer procoagulant activity and thyrotropic hormone concentration in the differentiation of tumor-like changes in the thyroid]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(5-6):332-5
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of detecting cancer procoagulant activity and thyrotropic hormone concentration in the differentiation of tumor-like changes in the thyroid].
  • Epidemiological studies have shown the increased incidence of malignant cancer of the thyroid gland observed in the last decade.
  • This increase is connected with the elevated number of benign tumor-like/tuberous changes in the thyroid gland.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of detecting cancer procoagulant activity (CP) and thyrotropic hormone concentration (TSH) in the differentiation of tumor-like changes in the thyroid gland.
  • The results of our study indicate that the determination of CP activity can be used in the differential diagnosis of tumor-like changes of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cysteine Endopeptidases / blood. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blood Coagulation Factors / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17017477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Blood Coagulation Factors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.22.26 / cancer procoagulant
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90. Słonina J, Nienartowicz E, Agrawal AK, Malczewska J, Moroń K: [The usefulness of contrast-enhanced sonography in the differential diagnostic of adrenal tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 May-Jun;57(3):230-6
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  • INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of gland tumors causes significant clinical problem.
  • The application of contrast-enhanced sonography could improve the vessels visualization and point out characteristic features of benign and malignant changes.
  • The authors believe that this new method make possible the differential adrenal tumor diagnostic process more precise and increase the specificity of ultrasonography in the recognition of benign and malignant tumors.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ultrasound examinations were made with the use of digital devise by GE Voluson 740, probe 4-6 mHz with Doppler options and volumetric probe 3D according to the following protocol: 26 patients with recognized adrenal tumor were qualified for the examination.
  • Patients in the first stage of tumor vascularization had Doppler examination with color (CD) and power Doppler (PD).
  • RESULTS: 26 cases of adrenal gland tumours were subjected to analysis.
  • 2. The use of Levovist in Doppler examination improves the visualization of tumor vascularization.
  • However, it is impossible to differentiate benign from malignant tumors unequivocally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Contrast Media. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Polysaccharides
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnostic imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 16832787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Polysaccharides; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508
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91. Deandrea M, Ragazzoni F, Motta M, Torchio B, Mormile A, Garino F, Magliona G, Gamarra E, Ramunni MJ, Garberoglio R, Limone PP: Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation. Thyroid; 2010 Oct;20(10):1077-83
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has proved to be an effective diagnostic tool in patients with thyroid nodules.
  • To date, however, among lesions showing a follicular pattern, FNAC is still unable to differentiate between benign and malignant ones.
  • METHODS: We report a cohort of 927 consecutive cases who underwent thyroid surgery in our hospital between 2000 and 2008.
  • All the cytologic specimens were divided into five categories (Thy 1: inadequate material, Thy 2: benign, Thy 3: indeterminate, Thy 4: suspicious for malignancy, Thy 5: malignant).
  • Thy3 specimens were further divided into three subcategories (Thy 3a, or "follicular lesions of indeterminate significance": scant colloid, microfollicular pattern, or small clusters of thyrocytes with round nuclei usually without, but sometimes with, minimal cellular pleomorphism; Thy 3b, or "follicular neoplasm": absence of colloid, small clusters, or microfollicles of medium-large sized cell populations arranged in cohesive groups with nuclear overlapping, crowding, and pleomorphisms; and Thy 3c or "Hurthle-cell neoplasm": scant colloid, sheets or clusters of oxyphilic cells).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the National Cancer Institute consensus showing a different risk of malignancy for "follicular lesions of undetermined significance” compared with "follicular neoplasms" and "Hurthle cells neoplasms," which are more suspect for malignancy.
  • This subclassification could improve clinical management of thyroid nodules, helping to better select patients for surgery or follow up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Humans. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20883171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Lieu D: Cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 May;38(5):327-32
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  • As most cases are caused by parathyroid adenoma, there is a movement toward preoperative localization of the abnormal gland by ultrasound and/or Tc(99)-sestamibi scan and minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • Nonpalpable thyroid nodules are common and cannot be differentiated from parathyroid lesions by imaging alone.
  • This study examines cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (UG-FNA) in diagnosis of parathyroid lesions.
  • Between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008, seven patients with PHPT or other parathyroid lesions with one or more sonographically-visible thyroid masses underwent cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA with immediate cytological evaluation (ICE).
  • Three parathyroid adenomas, two benign colloid nodules, one papillary carcinoma, three parathyroid cysts, and one thyroid cyst were diagnosed.
  • The nodules in three patients with parathyroid adenomas were identified as follicular lesion/neoplasm on ICE.
  • Two of these patients had a separate benign colloid nodule and one had a thyroid cyst diagnosed by UG-FNA.
  • The three patients with thyroid cysts identified by radiology were suspected of being parathyroid cysts on the basis of real-time sonographic features at the biopsy table.
  • Cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA can distinguish between parathyroid and thyroid nodules in patients with suspected parathyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19845029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Aïssaoui R, Turki Z, Achiche A, Balti MH, Ben Slama C, Zbiba M: [Adrenal metastasis of a papillary thyroid cancer]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2006 Sep;67(4):364-7
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  • [Title] [Adrenal metastasis of a papillary thyroid cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase surrénalienne d'un cancer papillaire de la thyroïde.
  • Adrenal metastases of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are very rare.
  • A 63-year-old woman had undergone 15 years earlier left lobo-ishmectomy for a papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and 7 years earlier right adrenalectomy for a tumor.
  • Histologic examination showed a benign cortical tumor.
  • According to the hormone evaluation it was a non-functional tumor.
  • Re-reading the histology slide of the first adrenalectomy agreed with the diagnosis.
  • Distant spread may occur to bone or lung, but exceptionally to the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome


94. Haas SN: Management of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid. S D Med; 2006 Oct;59(10):425-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is usually an indolent tumor with a good survival prognosis especially when small and limited to the thyroid gland.
  • The prevalence of this tumor in younger patients with long life expectancies, however, magnifies the problem of late recurrences.
  • Current published guidelines recommend near total thyroidectomy for all differentiated thyroid cancers with the exception of small papillary carcinomas (< 1.0 cm) found coincidentally after surgery for benign disease, providing there are no other risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Life Expectancy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17124919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-3317
  • [Journal-full-title] South Dakota medicine : the journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] S D Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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95. Uri O, Baron E, Lefel O, Bitterman A: Primary schwannoma of the thyroid gland presenting as an asymptomatic cold nodule. Am J Otolaryngol; 2009 Nov-Dec;30(6):427-9
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  • [Title] Primary schwannoma of the thyroid gland presenting as an asymptomatic cold nodule.
  • Schwannomas are benign neoplasms that may arise from Schwann cells of the nerve sheath all over the body.
  • Although schwannomas of the head and neck region are common, the thyroid gland is a rare site for schwannomas, with little documentation in the literature.
  • Thyroid ultrasound revealed a single prominent nodule, which was cold on technetium Tc 99m thyroid scan.
  • Fine needle aspiration of the nodule had aroused suspicion for malignant thyroid neoplasm.
  • Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical stains supported the diagnosis of a primary thyroid schwannoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurilemmoma / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / radionuclide imaging. Hashimoto Disease / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Organotechnetium Compounds. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 19880034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-818X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds
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96. Owston MA, Ramsay EC, Rotstein DS: Neoplasia in felids at the Knoxville Zoological Gardens, 1979-2003. J Zoo Wildl Med; 2008 Dec;39(4):608-13
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  • [Title] Neoplasia in felids at the Knoxville Zoological Gardens, 1979-2003.
  • A review of medical records and necropsy reports from 1979-2003 found 40 neoplasms in 26 zoo felids, including five lions (Panthera leo, two males and three females), three leopards (Panthera pardus, two males and one female), one jaguar (Panthera onca, female), 11 tigers (Panthera tigris, three males and eight females), two snow leopards (Panthera uncia, one male and one female), two cougars (Felis concolor, one male and one female), one bobcat (Felis rufus, male), and one cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, female).
  • Neoplasia rate at necropsy was 51% (24/47), and overall incidence of felid neoplasia during the study period was 25% (26/103).
  • Neoplasia was identified as the cause of death or reason for euthanasia in 28% (13/47) of those necropsied.
  • Neoplasms were observed in the integumentary-mammary (n=11), endocrine (n=10), reproductive (n=8), hematopoietic-lymphoreticular (n=5), digestive (n=3), and hepatobiliary (n=2) systems.
  • One neoplasm was unclassified by system.
  • Multiple neoplasms were observed in 11 animals.
  • Both benign and malignant neoplasms were observed in all systems except for the hematopoietic-lymphoreticular systems where all processes were malignant.
  • Of the endocrine neoplasms, those involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands predominated (n=8) over other endocrine organs and included adenomas and carcinomas.
  • In the integumentary system, 63% (7/11) of neoplasms involved the mammary gland, with mammary carcinoma representing 83% (6/7) of the neoplasms.
  • The rates of neoplasia at this institution, during the given time period, appears to be greater than rates found in the one other published survey of captive felids.
  • [MeSH-major] Felidae. Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19110704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-7260
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Marchevsky AM, Walts AE, Bose S, Gupta R, Fan X, Frishberg D, Scharre K, Zhai J: Evidence-based evaluation of the risks of malignancy predicted by thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Apr;38(4):252-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evidence-based evaluation of the risks of malignancy predicted by thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies.
  • A National Cancer Institute (NCI) "Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) State of the Science Conference" recently proposed standardized nomenclature and "risks of malignancies" associated with various diagnostic categories.
  • We evaluated the evidence levels of the data used by NCI to predict malignancy risks and whether those estimates had clinical validity in our patient population.Eight hundred seventy-nine patients underwent thyroid FNA during 2006.
  • Among our patients, the percentages of malignancies calculated with follow-up data from all patients as the denominator were similar to the "risk estimates" proposed by the NCI, but estimates based on surgical follow-up overestimated the probability of thyroid malignancy for patients with FNA diagnosis of "benign" and "follicular lesions of undetermined significance" (FLUS).
  • Relative risk and 95% CI calculations suggested that the NCI classification could be simplified into three categories: "benign," "FLUS + neoplasm," and "suspicious + malignant. "
  • [MeSH-major] Evidence-Based Medicine. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Academic Medical Centers. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. National Cancer Institute (U.S.). Probability. Risk Factors. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. United States

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  • (PMID = 19813257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Doganay M, Gungor T, Cavkaytar S, Sirvan L, Mollamahmutoglu L: Malignant struma ovarii with a focus of papillary thyroid cancer: a case report. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Apr;277(4):371-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant struma ovarii with a focus of papillary thyroid cancer: a case report.
  • Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm and its malignant transformation is even rarer.
  • Because of its rarity, there is no consensus about its diagnosis and management in the literature.
  • Postoperative thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 0.5-cm solid nodule in the thyroid gland and total thyroidectomy was done.
  • Pathology report was nodular hyperplasia of benign character.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography


99. Illouz F, Rodien P, Saint-André JP, Triau S, Laboureau-Soares S, Dubois S, Vielle B, Hamy A, Rohmer V: Usefulness of repeated fine-needle cytology in the follow-up of non-operated thyroid nodules. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Mar;156(3):303-8
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  • [Title] Usefulness of repeated fine-needle cytology in the follow-up of non-operated thyroid nodules.
  • OBJECTIVE: The usefulness of repeated fine-needle cytology (FNC) in thyroid nodules with benign cytology remains unknown.
  • We compared the nodules with at least one suspicious or malignant FNC (S/M nodules) with nodules with repeatedly benign (RB) FNC (RB nodules).
  • RESULTS: Among the nodules with initial benign cytology, we found 35 nodules with one or more later suspicious or malignant results.
  • The probability for a nodule to have a repeated benign FNC decreases with time and with the number of FNC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest to repeat FNC up to three adequate samples in the follow-up of thyroid nodules so as not to miss the presence of malignant neoplasm.

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  • [ErratumIn] Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Jun;156(6):705. Antoine, Hamy [corrected to Hamy, Antoine]
  • (PMID = 17322489.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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100. Theoharis CG, Schofield KM, Hammers L, Udelsman R, Chhieng DC: The Bethesda thyroid fine-needle aspiration classification system: year 1 at an academic institution. Thyroid; 2009 Nov;19(11):1215-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Bethesda thyroid fine-needle aspiration classification system: year 1 at an academic institution.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may be the procedure of choice in the preoperative evaluation of thyroid nodules, yet it suffers as a modality both because of its inherent limitations as well as variability in its diagnostic terminology.
  • The objective of this study was to report our experience in using this new reporting system to review the distribution of diagnosis categories and to evaluate the specificity of the system based on the cytologic-histologic correlation.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 3207 thyroid nodules underwent FNA, that is, 3207 FNAs from 2468 patients were examined at our institution between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2008.
  • All FNAs were classified prospectively into unsatisfactory, benign, indeterminate (cells of undetermined significance), follicular neoplasm (FN), suspicious for malignancy, and positive for malignancy.
  • RESULTS: The distribution of these categories from 3207 evaluated nodules was as follows: 11.1% unsatisfactory, 73.8% benign, 3.0% indeterminate, 5.5% FN, 1.3% suspicious, and 5.2% malignant.
  • The distribution of diagnoses of patients who underwent surgery was as follows: 10% unsatisfactory, 4.6% benign, 30.3% indeterminate, 61.4% FN, 76.9% suspicious, and 77.2% malignant.
  • There was an excellent association between the categories and in predicting benign versus malignant thyroid nodules (p < 0.0001).
  • However, the false-negative rate cannot be calculated because only a small number of patients with benign diagnosis underwent surgery.
  • Given that only 15% of the patients underwent surgery, at this time the sensitivity of thyroid FNA for diagnosing malignant thyroid nodules cannot be calculated, nor can the sensitivity of thyroid FNA as a screening test for all neoplasms be accurately estimated.
  • The specificity for diagnosing malignant thyroid nodules was 93%, whereas the specificity as a screening test for all neoplasms was 68%.
  • The positive predictive values for an FN, suspicious, and positive cytologic diagnosis were 34%, 87%, and 100%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that the recently proposed classification system is excellent for reporting thyroid FNAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Chi-Square Distribution. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19888859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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