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1. Kapur U, Wojcik EM: Follicular neoplasm of the thyroid--vanishing cytologic diagnosis? Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Aug;35(8):525-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Follicular neoplasm of the thyroid--vanishing cytologic diagnosis?
  • The significance of making a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy remains a controversial issue, considering that the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma is based on histological criteria and the significantly decreasing incidence of follicular carcinoma in the general population.
  • On FNA the main differential diagnoses of follicular neoplasm includes follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC), follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and benign solitary nodule occurring in a goiter.
  • Several studies have looked at immunohistochemical and molecular markers to distinguish benign from malignant lesions but none of them have proved to be infallible.
  • Although, FVPC is a distinct entity from the follicular neoplasm group, it is not always possible to separate it from the other follicular lesions because of overlapping cytologic features and often-sporadic presence of nuclear features, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma remains the main pitfall in a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm.
  • Since a significant number of cases that are malignant on follow-up are usually FVPC, consequently, follicular neoplasm is an essential diagnostic consideration on FNA.
  • Therefore, it is essential that follicular neoplasm continue to be part of our diagnostic repertoire.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17636488.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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2. Allen M, Sapinho I, Raposo L, Torrinha J: [Cyto-histological correlation of malignant thyroid nodules: clinical factors as predictors of malignancy]. Acta Med Port; 2008 Mar-Apr;21(2):135-40
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  • [Title] [Cyto-histological correlation of malignant thyroid nodules: clinical factors as predictors of malignancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Correlação cito-histológica de nódulos da tiróide: características clínicas de malignidade.
  • INTRODUCTION: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is routinely used to distinguish benign from malignant tumors in thyroid nodules.
  • Most benign or malignant diagnosis are confirmed by histology, but for suspected malignancies (Follicular neoplasm and Hürthle-cell neoplasm histology is always required.
  • AIM: To determine the correlation between FNA and histological diagnosis in malignant tumors at Hospital de Egas Moniz.
  • Identify factors that may influence the risk of malignancy in patients with suspected malignancies (Tumor size, gender and age group).
  • All patients were subsequently diagnosed by histology and age, sex and tumor dimension were also recorded.
  • Only in one case didn't the histology confirm the cytological diagnosis of malignancy.
  • Among the suspicious FNA 25 were benign (23 female and 2 male, mean age of 54,3 +/-17 yo and mean nodule size of 2,8 +/- 1,8 cm) and nine (26,5%) were malignant (all female, mean age 68,3 +/- 13 yo and mean nodule size 2,67 +/- 1,5 cm).
  • Age and tumor size were strong predictors of malignancy in patients with suspected malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18625092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1646-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta médica portuguesa
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Port
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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3. Slosar M, Vohra P, Prasad M, Fischer A, Quinlan R, Khan A: Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):149-57
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors.
  • The purpose of our study was to evaluate IMP3 expression in thyroid follicular lesions, to determine whether it has a role in differentiating among these lesions, and to understand their biological relationships.
  • We immunostained 219 thyroid lesions selected from our surgical pathology archives including 14 hyperplastic colloid nodules (CN), 19 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), two Graves disease (GD), ten Hürthle cell adenoma (HCA), 20 follicular adenoma (FA), 37 conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 60 follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC), 19 Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC), 32 follicular carcinoma (FC), and six poorly differentiated/anaplastic carcinoma.
  • In all cases, residual thyroid tissue, CN, HT, GD, HCA, and FA were completely negative for IMP3 staining.
  • No significant correlation was found between pathologic tumor characteristics and IMP3 expression in differentiated follicular pattern thyroid carcinoma.
  • With 100% specificity and 69% sensitivity for FC as compared to FA and 100% specificity for FVPC, again compared to FA, IMP3 has the potential to be diagnostically useful in differentiating malignant and benign follicular pattern thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19449140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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4. Kim MJ, Kim HJ, Hong SJ, Shong YK, Gong G: Diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in aspirates of thyroid follicular lesions. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):28-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in aspirates of thyroid follicular lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of galectin-3 in various thyroid follicular lesions, including diffuse hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, and benign and malignant follicular neoplasms, to clarify the diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in aspirates of follicular lesions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A total of 146 follicular lesions diagnosed cytologically, obtained from patients who had undergone thyroidectomy for either benign or malignant nodules, were evaluated using Papanicolaou-stained slides and cell blocks with galectin-3 immunostaining.
  • We primarily categorized the aspirated specimens as benign, indeterminate or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm based on cellularity, architectural arrangement of the follicular cells and presence or absence of colloid.
  • Cytologic diagnoses were correlated with the results of galectin-3 and categorized into 3 groups (benign, indeterminate for malignancy, suspicious for malignancy) and compared with the corresponding histologic diagnoses.
  • RESULTS: When the histologic diagnoses were compared with the cytologic diagnoses, the accuracy in the distinction between benign and malignant cases was 79.5% except for 8 cytologically and 3 histologically indeterminate cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Galectin-3 could be used as a useful supplementary marker for cytologic diagnosis, although it was not an absolute marker in determining whether a lesion was benign or malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16514837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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5. Drieschner N, Belge G, Rippe V, Meiboom M, Loeschke S, Bullerdiek J: Evidence for a 3p25 breakpoint hot spot region in thyroid tumors of follicular origin. Thyroid; 2006 Nov;16(11):1091-6
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  • [Title] Evidence for a 3p25 breakpoint hot spot region in thyroid tumors of follicular origin.
  • Epithelial tumors of the thyroid are cytogenetically well-investigated tumors.
  • Recently, we have been able to describe the involvement of a novel gene called THADA in benign thyroid lesions with 2p21 rearrangements.
  • Other fusion genes found in thyroid lesions are RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR(gamma).
  • The latter occurs in follicular thyroid carcinomas with a t(2;3)(q13;p25).
  • Here we present molecular-cytogenetic and cytogenetic investigations on a follicular thyroid adenoma with a t(2;20;3)(p21;q11.2; p25).
  • Our findings suggest that the close surrounding of PPAR(gamma) is a breakpoint hot spot region, leading to recurrent alterations of this gene in thyroid tumors of follicular origin including carcinomas as well as adenomas with or without involvement of PAX8.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Chromosome Breakage. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. PPAR gamma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17123335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / THADA protein, human
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6. Yavuz AA, Cobanoglu U, Genc M, Yavuz MN, Kosucu P, Aslan MK: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the thyroid gland: recurrence treated by radiotherapy. J Otolaryngol; 2005 Jun;34(3):216-20
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  • [Title] Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the thyroid gland: recurrence treated by radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / radiotherapy. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16089231.001).
  • [ISSN] 0381-6605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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7. Paramo JC, Mesko T: Age, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid. Endocr Pract; 2008 May-Jun;14(4):447-51
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  • [Title] Age, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical predictors of malignancy in patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of 71 patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm who underwent thyroidectomy between January 1992 and December 2000.
  • Age, sex, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography characteristics of the lesions were assessed.
  • These clinical factors were compared between cases that had benign definitive pathologic findings and those that were found to be carcinomas on permanent sections.
  • RESULTS: Nine (13%) of the 71 follicular neoplasms were found to be carcinomas after definitive pathologic evaluation.
  • When the in-office ultrasonography findings were interpreted as benign, only 7% (3/46) of cases were malignant compared with 40% (4/10) when the ultrasonography findings were suspicious (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age and tumor size are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • Total thyroidectomy is reasonable in patients with follicular neoplasm on frozen section if they are young (<45 years old), with large (>4 cm) tumors or if there are suspicious findings on in-office ultrasonography.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18558598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Türköz HK, Oksüz H, Yurdakul Z, Ozcan D: Galectin-3 expression in tumor progression and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):92-6
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 expression in tumor progression and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Galectin-3 expression has been evaluated in various malignant neoplasms to determine its effectiveness in differential diagnosis from benign lesions and its effects on carcinogenesis.
  • There are few and somewhat controversial results regarding its changes through cancer progression in thyroid malignancies.
  • We studied the presence of galectin-3 expression immunohistochemically and its relation with tumor invasiveness and lymph node metastasis in 89 cases of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Galectin-3 overexpression is more profound in early stages of papillary carcinoma, and its expression intensity decreases during tumor progression.
  • This finding is consistent with roles for galectin-3 in cell adhesion to other tumor cells and the matrix.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aging / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Paraffin Embedding. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18581271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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9. Vriens MR, Schreinemakers JM, Suh I, Guerrero MA, Clark OH: Diagnostic markers and prognostic factors in thyroid cancer. Future Oncol; 2009 Oct;5(8):1283-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic markers and prognostic factors in thyroid cancer.
  • There has been considerable progress identifying biomarkers in thyroid tumors that improve the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy and also help predict tumor aggressiveness or behavior.
  • We describe the current best clinical staging systems and the common somatic mutations in thyroid cancer.
  • The BRAF mutation is the most common mutation in papillary thyroid cancer and has recently been reported to be associated with disease aggressiveness; it is also an independent predictor of tumor behavior.
  • Gene-expression profiling studies have identified a variety of potential molecular markers to help distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Expression analysis of differentially expressed microRNAs also appears to be a promising diagnostic approach for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19852742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8301
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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10. Reschini E, Ferrari C, Castellani M, Matheoud R, Paracchi A, Marotta G, Gerundini P: The trapping-only nodules of the thyroid gland: prevalence study. Thyroid; 2006 Aug;16(8):757-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The trapping-only nodules of the thyroid gland: prevalence study.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of trapping-only nodules of the thyroid gland.
  • The study was prospectively performed in patients bearing hot or warm thyroid nodules at pertechnetate scan in the presence of circulating thyrotropin (TSH) within the normal range.
  • Five had benign thyroid nodules, one follicular carcinoma, and one extrathyroid metastases of papillary-follicular carcinoma.
  • Despite controversy on this issue, trapping-only nodules of thyroid should be searched because they have risk of malignancy and must be differentiated from autonomous adenomas at the compensated stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / epidemiology. Thyroid Nodule / therapy. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prospective Studies. Radionuclide Imaging / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m


11. Gonçalves AJ, Carvalho LH, Serdeira K, Nakai MY, Malavasi TR: Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):289-91
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells.
  • In the thyroid, the appearance of cancer has been correlated with deletion of these genes.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the frequencies of these genes in patients with benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional clinical trial carried out in the Head and Neck Surgery Division, Faculdade de Medicina da Santa Casa de São Paulo.
  • METHODS: Samples of thyroid tissue were collected from 32 patients and divided into two groups: benign tumor (A) and malignant tumor (B).
  • RESULTS: The B group presented four cases of positive genotyping for both genes, seven positive for GSTT1 and negative for GSTM1, two negative for GSTT1 and positive for GSTM1, and only one case of double negative.
  • CONCLUSION: In this study, there was no relationship between the presence of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and the benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18094897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1516-3180
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.5.1.- / glutathione S-transferase T1; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; EC 2.5.1.18 / glutathione S-transferase M1
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12. de Melo Martins PC, Parise Junior O, Pereira Hors C, Villela Miguel RE, da Costa Andrade VC, Garicochea B: C8orf4/TC-1 (thyroid cancer-1) gene expression in thyroid cancer and goiter. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2007;69(2):127-30
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  • [Title] C8orf4/TC-1 (thyroid cancer-1) gene expression in thyroid cancer and goiter.
  • BACKGROUND: The expression of the thyroid cancer-1(TC-1) gene seems to be related with malignant transformation in the thyroid tissue.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the potential use of TC-1 gene expression as a marker of malignancy in thyroid nodules.
  • METHODS: A total of 92 frozen thyroid samples were studied, including 46 samples from thyroid nodules (19 papillary carcinomas, 1 follicular carcinoma, 24 adenomatous goiters, and 2 follicular adenomas) and 46 samples from normal surrounding thyroid tissue.
  • There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) between TC-1 gene expression in benign thyroid lesions (1.07 +/- 0.10) and carcinomas (2.73 +/- 0.51).
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that TC-1 gene expression may be useful in the differential diagnosis of goiters and thyroid papillary carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17167272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / C8orf4 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Antisense; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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13. Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kobatake S, Satomura S, Maruyama M, Tajiri J, Kato R: Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody. Rinsho Byori; 2007 May;55(5):428-33
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  • [Title] Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody.
  • Thyroglobulin is produced only by thyroid follicular cells, and has a molecular weight of 660,000 and carbohydrate content of approximately 10%.
  • The composition of carbohydrate chains on thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma has been reported to differ from that in normal thyroid tissue.
  • In this study, heterogeneities of carbohydrate chains on thyroglobulin obtained from thyroid tissues were investigated by competitive reaction between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin monoclonal antibody.
  • The ratio of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin to thyroglobulin was significantly lower in thyroid carcinoma than in normal thyroid tissue, Graves' disease and benign thyroid tumor.
  • However, no differences between malignant and benign tissues were observed with the other lectins tested.
  • Differences in carbohydrate chain on thyroglobulin were observed between malignant and benign thyroid tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Lectins / immunology. Thyroglobulin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Humans. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17593687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Lectins; 0 / anti-thyroglobulin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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14. Vorburger SA, Ubersax L, Schmid SW, Balli M, Candinas D, Seiler CA: Long-term follow-up after complete resection of well-differentiated cancer confined to the thyroid gland. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Oct;16(10):2862-74
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  • [Title] Long-term follow-up after complete resection of well-differentiated cancer confined to the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas exhibit a relatively benign course.
  • METHODS: Patients who underwent complete resection of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) confined to the thyroid gland between 1972 and 1990 identified from a prospective database were assessed.
  • Review of histology was performed and extent of thyroid resection, postoperative therapy, and recognized prognostic factors but not lymphadenectomy were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Of 2,867 patients, 213 had complete resection of WDTC confined to the thyroid gland.
  • DSS at 10 and 20 years was 81 and 69%, respectively, and correlated with age, histology, tumor size, radio-iodide ablation (RIA), and external beam irradiation (EBR) treatment.
  • Age, histology and postoperative therapy but not extent of thyroid resection determined DSS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Cell Differentiation. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2011 Feb;18(2):600 [20607419.001]
  • (PMID = 19655202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kobatake S, Satomura S, Maruyama M, Kameko F, Tajiri J, Kato R: The clinical utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum for distinguishing benign from malignant conditions of the thyroid. Clin Chim Acta; 2007 Apr;379(1-2):101-4
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  • [Title] The clinical utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum for distinguishing benign from malignant conditions of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Traditionally, the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma consists of periodic withdrawal from L-T4-suppressive therapy to allow performance of a highly sensitive serum Tg measurement to detect recurrences.
  • We investigated Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratios in serum to evaluate in usefulness for detection of thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The study was conducted on 93 serum sample from 23 healthy volunteers, 32 patients with benign thyroid tumor, 28 patients with thyroid carcinoma without metastasis, and 10 patients with thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis.
  • RESULTS: The Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratio in patients with thyroid carcinoma was significantly lower than in patients with benign thyroid tumor with serum thyroglobulin concentration >200 ng/ml.
  • Among cases of thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis, Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratios were significantly lower than in patient with thyroid carcinoma without metastasis and those with benign tumor regardless of serum thyroglobulin concentration.
  • CONCLUSION: Measurement of Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum may be useful for distinguishing between thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / pathology. Plant Lectins / immunology. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Binding, Competitive. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoassay. Male

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  • (PMID = 17270168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-8981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Plant Lectins; 0 / lentil lectin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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16. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):767-74
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with thyroid nodules have indeterminate or suspicious fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy results.
  • We hypothesized that genes that regulate cell-cycle progression would be differentially expressed in malignant versus benign thyroid nodules and could serve as diagnostic markers and markers of disease aggressiveness.
  • METHODS: We used a cDNA array with 96 cell-cycle regulatory genes to identify differentially expressed genes in pooled benign versus malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Genes up- or down-regulated by more than 2-fold in malignant thyroid neoplasms were further evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 95 patients with hyperplastic nodules (n = 19), follicular adenoma (n = 19), follicular thyroid cancer (n = 19), the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19), and papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19).
  • RESULTS: cDNA array analysis showed that cyclin B1, MCM5, MCM7, RAD9, ubiquitin C, CDK6, SKP2, and APAF1 were up-regulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative PCR showed that MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 mRNA expression were significantly higher in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms (< or = 0.0012).
  • The level of MCM7 mRNA expression was higher in T4 than in T1, T2, and T3 differentiated thyroid cancers (P < 0.0127).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 are overexpressed in malignant thyroid neoplasms of follicular cell origin.
  • These genes may be useful markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms as an adjunct to FNA biopsy.
  • MCM7 mRNA expression is higher in locally invasive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression. Humans. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16547620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MCM5 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 139691-42-2 / rad9 protein; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM7 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7
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17. Yu XM, Lo CY, Lam AK, Lang BH, Leung P, Luk JM: The potential clinical relevance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF-C in recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma. Surgery; 2008 Dec;144(6):934-40; discussion 940-1
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  • [Title] The potential clinical relevance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF-C in recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes tumor angioinvasion while VEGF-C is a potent lymphangiogenic factor.
  • This study aims at evaluating serum VEGF (sVEGF) and sVEGF-C levels in recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients.
  • METHODS: Serum samples were collected preoperatively from 85 patients with primary PTC, 44 with benign thyroid diseases, and 19 with recurrent PTC. sVEGF and sVEGF-C levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
  • Patients with recurrent PTC had significantly higher sVEGF (432 vs 263 pg/mL, P = .004) and sVEGF-C (6,433 vs 5,289 pg/mL, P = .006) levels than benign controls. sVEGF level was significantly elevated in patients with distant metastases compared with those of local recurrences only (580 vs 345 pg/mL, P = .037) while there was no significant difference of sVEGF-C level in both subgroup of patients. sVEGF, but not VEGF-C, showed a linear correlation with thyroglobulin levels in recurrent PTC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19041000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
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18. Choi YJ, Yun JS, Kim DH: Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm. Endocr J; 2009;56(3):383-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and ultrasound (US) features of malignancy in patients using cytological results of follicular neoplasm (FN) in the thyroid.
  • Patient histopathology, age, sex, tumor size, and US characteristics and the color flow pattern of the lesions were analyzed and compared between benign and carcinomas.
  • Benign included 78 FA, 8 atypical FA, and 3 Hurthle cell adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 19164864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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19. Murata S, Herman P, Iwashina M, Mochizuki K, Nakazawa T, Kondo T, Nakamura N, Lakowicz JR, Katoh R: Application of microscopic Forster resonance energy transfer to cytological diagnosis of the thyroid tumors. J Biomed Opt; 2005 May-Jun;10(3):034008
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  • [Title] Application of microscopic Forster resonance energy transfer to cytological diagnosis of the thyroid tumors.
  • We propose a novel application of microscopic Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to clinical cytological diagnosis based on sensitive measurements of distance changes between fluorescently labeled deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) molecules.
  • We have employed the microscopic FRET imaging for investigation of six papillary carcinomas and eight benign cases.
  • We have not found significant difference of the mean FRET efficiency between the benign and malignant groups.
  • On the other hand, the texture analysis revealed a significant difference of the intranuclear spatial distribution of FRET efficiencies between the benign and malignant groups.
  • The results indicate that despite the similar average distance between the AT- and the GC-rich DNA segments in the papillary carcinomas and the benign cases, the former has more heterogeneous distribution of the AT- and the GC-rich DNA segments in nuclei compared to the benign groups.
  • We have demonstrated that the FRET imaging is a helpful tool for the medical cytological diagnosis of human tumors by giving information on the chromatin topology on the scale below the resolution of conventional optical microscopes. (c) 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Neoplasm / ultrastructure. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
  • (PMID = 16229652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-3668
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical optics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Opt
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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20. Hamady ZZ, Mather N, Lansdown MR, Davidson L, Maclennan KA: Surgical pathological second opinion in thyroid malignancy: impact on patients' management and prognosis. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2005 Feb;31(1):74-7
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  • [Title] Surgical pathological second opinion in thyroid malignancy: impact on patients' management and prognosis.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of inter-institutional surgical pathology review of thyroid cancer on patients' treatment and prognosis.
  • METHODS: All cases referred to the Institute of Pathology at Leeds for thyroid pathology review between January 2001 and March 2003 were included.
  • RESULTS: Of the 66 patients reviewed, 12 (18%) had a different pathological diagnosis (kappa=0.33).
  • Two had their diagnosis changed from malignant to benign and a further two from benign to malignant.
  • Five patients had their management affected by the new pathological diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: A second opinion of surgical pathology for thyroid tumours can result in major therapeutic and prognostic modifications.
  • All cases of suspected thyroid cancers should be reviewed in a multidisciplinary meeting supported by pathologist with experience in thyroid pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors. Pathology, Surgical. Referral and Consultation. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15642429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Ezon I, Zilbert N, Pinkney L, Wei JJ, Malik R, Nadler EP: A large struma ovarii tumor removed via laparoscopy in a 16-year-old adolescent. J Pediatr Surg; 2007 Aug;42(8):E19-22
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  • [Title] A large struma ovarii tumor removed via laparoscopy in a 16-year-old adolescent.
  • Struma ovarii is rare ovarian tumor that is characterized by the presence of at least 50% thyroid tissue on histologic examination.
  • This usually benign neoplasm is predominantly found in women between the ages of 40 and 60 years and infrequently in the pediatric age group.
  • We conclude that the diagnosis of struma ovarii should be considered in adolescent girls presenting with large cystic ovarian masses and that a laparoscopic approach to management is the treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovariectomy / methods. Struma Ovarii / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17706482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Carling T, Udelsman R: Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: what to recommend. Thyroid; 2005 Jun;15(6):583-7
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  • [Title] Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: what to recommend.
  • Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid are usually diagnosed following fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of a dominant thyroid nodule.
  • An FNA diagnosis of a follicular neoplasm represents a heterogeneous group of lesions including benign follicular hyperplasia, follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas, and the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • Hürthle cell neoplasms are also often included in this group.
  • Because the criteria for malignancy in both follicular and Hürthle cell neoplasms requires vascular or capsular invasion seen on permanent histology, the majority of these patients undergo surgical resection.
  • Intraoperative frozen section analysis of follicular neoplasms rarely renders informative information.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16029125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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23. Ersoz S, Sert H, Yandi M, Erem C, Mungan S, Ersoz HO, Cobanoglu U, Hacihasanoglu A: The significance of Galectin-3 expression in the immunocytochemical evaluation of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Dec;14(4):457-60
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  • [Title] The significance of Galectin-3 expression in the immunocytochemical evaluation of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of immunohistochemical expression of Galectin-3 in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
  • We studied the fine needle aspiration specimens of 38 patients who had evaluated for nodular goiter and undergone a thyroid surgery between 2004-2005.
  • None of the cases with a benign thyroid pathology had positive staining for Galectin-3.
  • Galectin-3 immunocytochemical staining, had a sensitivity of 61.5%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 83.3% for thyroid malignancies.
  • For the evaluation of follicular neoplasm, Galectin-3 immunocytochemical staining had a sensitivity of 60%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 50%.
  • Galectin-3 expression in thyrocytes is a strong indicator of a malignant proliferative lesion especially for papillary and to an extent in follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • Galectin-3 could be used as a supplementary marker for cytological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18415710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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24. Bartolazzi A, D'Alessandria C, Parisella MG, Signore A, Del Prete F, Lavra L, Braesch-Andersen S, Massari R, Trotta C, Soluri A, Sciacchitano S, Scopinaro F: Thyroid cancer imaging in vivo by targeting the anti-apoptotic molecule galectin-3. PLoS One; 2008;3(11):e3768
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  • [Title] Thyroid cancer imaging in vivo by targeting the anti-apoptotic molecule galectin-3.
  • BACKGROUND: The prevalence of thyroid nodules increases with age, average 4-7% for the U.S.A. adult population, but it is much higher (19-67%) when sub-clinical nodules are considered.
  • About 90% of these lesions are benign and a reliable approach to their preoperative characterization is necessary.
  • Unfortunately conventional thyroid scintigraphy does not allow the distinction among benign and malignant thyroid proliferations but it provides only functional information (cold or hot nodules).
  • We show here the possibility to obtain thyroid cancer imaging in vivo by targeting galectin-3.
  • METHODS: The galectin-3 based thyroid immuno-scintigraphy uses as radiotracer a specific (99m)Tc-radiolabeled mAb.
  • Human galectin-3 positive thyroid cancer xenografts (ARO) and galectin-3 knockout tumors were used as targets in different experiments in vivo.
  • 38 mice with tumor mass of about 1 gm were injected in the tail vein with 100 microCi of (99m)Tc-labeled mAb to galectin-3 (30 microg protein/in 100 microl saline solution).
  • Tumor images were acquired at 1 hr, 3 hrs, 6 hrs, 9 hrs and 24 hrs post injection by using the mini-gamma camera.
  • FINDINGS: Results from different consecutive experiments show an optimal visualization of thyroid cancer xenografts between 6 and 9 hours from injection of the radiotracer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the possibility to distinguish preoperatively benign from malignant thyroid nodules by using a specific galectin-3 radio-immunotargeting.
  • In vivo imaging of thyroid cancer may allow a better selection of patients referred to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / chemistry. Diagnostic Imaging / instrumentation. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Gamma Cameras. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. RNA Interference. Radionuclide Imaging

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  • (PMID = 19020658.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Galectin 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2582451
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25. Amini K, Frank DK: True vocal fold immobility in the setting of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma: unusual illustrative cases and recommendations for operative strategy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2007 May;116(5):324-8
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  • [Title] True vocal fold immobility in the setting of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma: unusual illustrative cases and recommendations for operative strategy.
  • OBJECTIVES: We present cases of transient true vocal fold (TVF) immobility caused by well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC), and review the literature concerning management of WDTC invading the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN).
  • RESULTS: Both patients had papillary thyroid carcinoma with ipsilateral TVF paralysis that resolved completely before operation.
  • During the operation, the RLN was found to be grossly involved with disease and inseparable from the tumor, necessitating resection.
  • Review of the literature revealed the following points that should be considered when confronting an RLN invaded by WDTC. (1) Benign disease can mimic invasive WDTC and must be ruled out. (2) RLN invasion does not carry the same prognostic implications as other categories of extrathyroidal extension of WDTC. (3) RLN sacrifice does not increase the overall survival rate. (4) There is no evidence that a paralyzed RLN will regain function when preserved. (5) The majority of RLNs that function before operation can be expected to function after the operation if preserved.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Vocal Cord Paralysis / etiology. Vocal Cord Paralysis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Hoarseness / etiology. Hoarseness / surgery. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve / pathology. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17561759.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms and improve the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ann Surg; 2005 Sep;242(3):353-61; discussion 361-3
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  • [Title] ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms and improve the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether genes that regulate cellular invasion and metastasis are differentially expressed and could serve as diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules.
  • SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: Patients whose thyroid nodules have indeterminate or suspicious cytologic features on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy require thyroidectomy because of a 20% to 30% risk of thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: Differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms were identified by extracellular matrix and adhesion molecule cDNA array analysis and confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • RESULTS: By cDNA array analysis, ADAMTS8, ECM1, MMP8, PLAU, SELP, and TMPRSS4 were upregulated, and by quantitative PCR, ECM1, SELP, and TMPRSS4 mRNA expression was higher in malignant (n = 57) than in benign (n = 38) thyroid neoplasms (P< 0.002).
  • ECM1 and TMPRSS4 mRNA expression levels were independent predictors of a malignant thyroid neoplasm (P < 0.003).
  • The level of ECM1 mRNA expression was higher in TNM stage I differentiated thyroid cancers than in stage II and III tumors (P < or = 0.031).
  • CONCLUSIONS: ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are excellent diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and may be used to improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • ECM1 is also a marker of the extent of disease in differentiated thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Serine Endopeptidases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Gene Expression. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16135921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ECM1 protein, human; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / transmembrane serine protease 2, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1357743
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27. Almeida JP, Couto Netto SD, Rocha RP, Pfuetzenreiter EG Jr, Dedivitis RA: The role of intraoperative frozen sections for thyroid nodules. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol; 2009 Mar-Apr;75(2):256-60
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  • [Title] The role of intraoperative frozen sections for thyroid nodules.
  • AIM: to evaluate the role of FS for thyroid nodules management.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who had thyroid surgery for nodular disease and previous USG-guided FNAB in 2006 were prospectively analyzed.
  • They underwent intraoperative FS evaluation, and the biopsy material was classified as benign, malignant or follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Under the FS, 54% of the nodules were benign, 30% were follicular neoplasms, and 16% were malignant.
  • All cases considered benign and malignant under the FS evaluation were confirmed through the histological 'paraffin' analysis.
  • Since it is not considered a definitive indication for total thyroidectomy, if the follicular neoplasms were classified as 'benign' under the FS, their sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and global diagnostic accuracy were 69%, 100%, 100%, 91,5% e 77%, respectively.
  • Among the 42 cases classified as 'follicular neoplasm' under the FNAB, in 1 case the FS conclusion was for papillary carcinoma, in 3 cases as benign (all confirmed through the 'paraffin'); and 38 cases continued as 'follicular pattern', being 29 follicular adenomas and 9 carcinomas through the 'paraffin'.
  • CONCLUSION: The FS is only indicated when the FNAB reports 'follicular neoplasm'.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Frozen Sections. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19575113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1808-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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28. Braunschweig T, Kaserer K, Chung JY, Bilke S, Krizman D, Knezevic V, Hewitt SM: Proteomic expression profiling of thyroid neoplasms. Proteomics Clin Appl; 2007 Mar;1(3):264-71
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  • [Title] Proteomic expression profiling of thyroid neoplasms.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm with multiple histologic subtypes, each associated with different treatments and outcomes.
  • Differentiating benign neoplasms such as follicular adenomas from malignant entities such as follicular carcinomas and papillary carcinoma can be challenging.
  • To define the proteomic profile of different thyroid tumors, we screened an antibody array of 330 features against five thyroid neoplasms: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and medullary carcinoma as well as normal thyroid epithelium.
  • Eight candidate biomarkers; c-erbB-2, Stat5a, Annexin IV, IL-11, RARα, FGF7, Caspase 9, and phospho-c-myc were identified as differentially expressed on the antibody array, and validated with immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, with a total of 144 samples of the same variety of thyroid neoplasms.
  • By using an antibody array as a discovery platform and a tissue microarray as a first step in validation on a large number of specimens, we have identified new markers that have potential utility in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
  • (PMID = 21136677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1862-8346
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteomics. Clinical applications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteomics Clin Appl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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29. Moon HJ, Kwak JY, Kim EK, Choi JR, Hong SW, Kim MJ, Son EJ: The role of BRAFV600E mutation and ultrasonography for the surgical management of a thyroid nodule suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma on cytology. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Nov;16(11):3125-31
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  • [Title] The role of BRAFV600E mutation and ultrasonography for the surgical management of a thyroid nodule suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma on cytology.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was designed to investigate the role of BRAFV600E mutation status in cytology specimens and ultrasonography (US) when planning surgery for thyroid nodules with cytologic results suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • Before surgery, all patients received US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) solely for the purpose of BRAFV600E mutation analysis of thyroid nodules suspicious for PTC on cytology.
  • We investigated the role of BRAFV600E mutation and US in planning the thyroid surgery.
  • Two of seven (28.6%) benign lesions showed probably benign features.
  • The sensitivity, positive predictive value, and accuracy of US in thyroid nodules without BRAFV600E mutations was 92.9% (39/42), 88.6% (39/44), and 83.7% (41/49), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The BRAFV600E mutation is a useful molecular marker for preoperative diagnosis of PTC and an indicator for therapeutic thyroid surgery in the nodule with cytologic results suspicious for PTC.
  • In thyroid nodules without the BRAFV600E mutation, suspicious malignant features on US may help in planning the extent of thyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. DNA Primers / chemistry. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19644722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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30. Jo YS, Huang S, Kim YJ, Lee IS, Kim SS, Kim JR, Oh T, Moon Y, An S, Ro HK, Kim JM, Shong M: Diagnostic value of pyrosequencing for the BRAF V600E mutation in ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy samples of thyroid incidentalomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Jan;70(1):139-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic value of pyrosequencing for the BRAF V600E mutation in ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy samples of thyroid incidentalomas.
  • CONTEXT: Dideoxy sequencing is the most commonly used method for detecting the BRAF(V600E) mutation in thyroid cancer and melanoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic efficiency of pyrosequencing for the mutant BRAF allele in ultrasound (US)-guided fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) of thyroid incidentalomas.
  • DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS: A total of 101 thyroid incidentaloma cases were included prospectively.
  • Cytological diagnoses of the FNAB samples were made according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines, 2006.
  • RESULTS: On the basis of cytological analysis, the thyroid incidentalomas were classified into benign (n = 43), malignant (n = 30), indeterminate or suspicious neoplasm (n = 24), and nondiagnostic (n = 4) categories.
  • Histopathological analysis ascertained that all BRAF(V600E)-positive cases were papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pyrosequencing may be suitable for detecting the BRAF(V600E) mutation in thyroid incidentaloma and may be superior to dideoxy sequencing when low amounts of the mutant template are present in the biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18462259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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31. Owston MA, Ramsay EC, Rotstein DS: Neoplasia in felids at the Knoxville Zoological Gardens, 1979-2003. J Zoo Wildl Med; 2008 Dec;39(4):608-13
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  • [Title] Neoplasia in felids at the Knoxville Zoological Gardens, 1979-2003.
  • A review of medical records and necropsy reports from 1979-2003 found 40 neoplasms in 26 zoo felids, including five lions (Panthera leo, two males and three females), three leopards (Panthera pardus, two males and one female), one jaguar (Panthera onca, female), 11 tigers (Panthera tigris, three males and eight females), two snow leopards (Panthera uncia, one male and one female), two cougars (Felis concolor, one male and one female), one bobcat (Felis rufus, male), and one cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, female).
  • Neoplasia rate at necropsy was 51% (24/47), and overall incidence of felid neoplasia during the study period was 25% (26/103).
  • Neoplasia was identified as the cause of death or reason for euthanasia in 28% (13/47) of those necropsied.
  • Neoplasms were observed in the integumentary-mammary (n=11), endocrine (n=10), reproductive (n=8), hematopoietic-lymphoreticular (n=5), digestive (n=3), and hepatobiliary (n=2) systems.
  • One neoplasm was unclassified by system.
  • Multiple neoplasms were observed in 11 animals.
  • Both benign and malignant neoplasms were observed in all systems except for the hematopoietic-lymphoreticular systems where all processes were malignant.
  • Of the endocrine neoplasms, those involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands predominated (n=8) over other endocrine organs and included adenomas and carcinomas.
  • In the integumentary system, 63% (7/11) of neoplasms involved the mammary gland, with mammary carcinoma representing 83% (6/7) of the neoplasms.
  • The rates of neoplasia at this institution, during the given time period, appears to be greater than rates found in the one other published survey of captive felids.
  • [MeSH-major] Felidae. Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19110704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-7260
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Chin C, Franklin J, Sowerby L, Fung K, Yoo J: Stratification of intermediate-risk fine-needle aspiration biopsies. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Aug;39(4):393-6
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  • METHODS: A database of 665 patients who had received thyroid surgery between 2001 and 2007 was created.
  • RESULTS: Intermediate-risk patients were significantly more likely to have a benign nodule if the width to length (W/L) ratio of their nodule was < 0.6.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Risk Assessment / methods. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20643004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1916-0216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of otolaryngology - head & neck surgery = Le Journal d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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33. Layfield LJ, Abrams J, Cochand-Priollet B, Evans D, Gharib H, Greenspan F, Henry M, LiVolsi V, Merino M, Michael CW, Wang H, Wells SA: Post-thyroid FNA testing and treatment options: a synopsis of the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Jun;36(6):442-8
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  • [Title] Post-thyroid FNA testing and treatment options: a synopsis of the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference.
  • The National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored the NCI Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) State of the Science Conference on October 22-23, 2007 in Bethesda, MD.
  • Follow-up options for "nondiagnostic" and "benign" thyroid aspirates are given.
  • The value of ultrasound examination in the follow-up of "nondiagnostic" and "benign" thyroid aspirates is discussed.
  • Ultrasound findings requiring reaspiration or surgical resection are described as are the timing and length of clinical and ultrasonographic surveillance for cytologically "benign" nodules.
  • Options for surgical intervention are given for the diagnostic categories of "atypical/borderline," "follicular neoplasm," "suspicious for malignancy" and "malignant" (http://thyroidfna.cancer.gov/pages/info/agenda/).
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Protocols. Humans. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18478610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Ito Y, Higashiyama T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Prognosis of patients with benign thyroid diseases accompanied by incidental papillary carcinoma undetectable on preoperative imaging tests. World J Surg; 2007 Aug;31(8):1672-6
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  • [Title] Prognosis of patients with benign thyroid diseases accompanied by incidental papillary carcinoma undetectable on preoperative imaging tests.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite the recent wide availability of ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy, endocrine surgeons often encounter incidental papillary carcinoma (IPC), that is a papillary carcinoma that had gone undetected by preoperative imaging studies but was identified by pathological examination of surgical specimens resected for benign thyroid diseases.
  • METHODS: The present study was developed to investigate the prognoses of 317 patients who underwent surgery for benign diseases involving IPC in comparison with the prognoses of 1,674 patients with clinically apparent papillary carcinoma detected preoperatively and diagnosed.
  • RESULTS: None of the patients underwent further surgery such as completion total thyroidectomy and node dissection immediately after the diagnosis of IPC.
  • None of the patients have died of thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because IPC is associated with good prognosis, further surgery, such as completion total thyroidectomy or lymph node dissection immediately after the diagnosis of IPC is not necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome. Unnecessary Procedures

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  • (PMID = 17571205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
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35. Leinung S, Möbius C, Udelnow A, Hauss J, Würl P: Histopathological outcome of 597 isolated soft tissue tumors suspected of soft tissue sarcoma: a single-center 12-year experience. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 May;33(4):508-11
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  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this present report was to analyze the patients referred to us with the presumptive diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma (STS).
  • Open biopsy revealed soft tissue sarcoma in 318 cases, benign mesenchymal tumor in 124 cases and isolated metastases (ISTM) from carcinomas in 98 patients; other pathologies were found in 57 patients.
  • The primary carcinomas were lung cancer in 26 patients, breast cancer in 19 patients, renal carcinoma in 16 patients, carcinoma of the esophagus in 12 patients, colonic carcinoma in 5 patients, thyroid gland cancer in 6 patients, and in 14 patients carcinoma of unknown primary was diagnosed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our collective with soft tissue tumor, 50% of the patients had the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, 20% presented with a metastasis of carcinoma and 20% had a benign tumor.
  • Referring to our results, in patients with the presumptive diagnosis of soft tissue sarcomas, soft tissue metastasis of a primary carcinoma was unexpectedly common, indicating that greater consideration should be given to this differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17081724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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36. Nosé V, Volante M, Papotti M: Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: an update. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(1):1-8
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: an update.
  • Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT) is a rare thyroid tumor of follicular cell origin with a trabecular pattern of growth and marked intratrabecular hyalinization.
  • This tumor is known to share morphological and architectural similarities with paraganglioma and medullary thyroid carcinoma, as well as the nuclear features and RET/PTC1 translocations of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Whether the presence of RET alterations in HTT are sufficient molecular proof of its relationship with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is still to be defined.
  • Of great interest is the characteristic strong peripheral cytoplasmic and membranous staining of the tumor cells with MIB1 immunostain, not seen in any other thyroid neoplasm.
  • Although cases of malignant HTT have been recorded, HTT should be considered a benign neoplasm or, at most, a neoplasm of extremely low malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calcitonin / analysis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Chromogranin A / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Paraganglioma / pathology. Sex Characteristics

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  • (PMID = 17960500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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37. Sheth S, Hamper UM: Role of sonography after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. Ultrasound Q; 2008 Sep;24(3):147-54
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  • [Title] Role of sonography after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer.
  • High-resolution neck ultrasound plays a vital role in the evaluation and management of patients after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer.
  • It is also invaluable as guidance for fine-needle aspiration of suspicious lesions.Thorough knowledge of the compartments of the neck and meticulous scanning technique are essential for success.The purpose of this article is to review the common pattern of recurrences of differentiated thyroid cancer, describe our scanning protocol, and depict the characteristics of benign, indeterminate, and suspicious lesions in the postthyroidectomy neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 18776787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0253
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound quarterly
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Q
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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38. Garg K, Soslow RA, Rivera M, Tuttle MR, Ghossein RA: Histologically bland "extremely well differentiated" thyroid carcinomas arising in struma ovarii can recur and metastasize. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 May;28(3):222-30
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  • [Title] Histologically bland "extremely well differentiated" thyroid carcinomas arising in struma ovarii can recur and metastasize.
  • Struma ovarii (SO) infrequently harbor carcinomas that are histologically similar to those arising in the eutopic thyroid.
  • There were 8 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) (2 classic and 6 follicular variant) and 2 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • Two of the 10 thyroid carcinomas relapsed after an initial diagnosis of "benign" struma.
  • The cystectomy from 1 patient showed thyroid follicles with nuclear features of the follicular variant of PTC whereas the cyst from the second patient showed thyroid follicles with subtle nuclear features, suggestive but not diagnostic of PTC.
  • Both patients presented with disseminated PTC 3 and 4 years after the initial diagnosis, involving the pelvis in both cases and also the liver parenchyma in 1 case.
  • The 2 patients received radioactive iodine therapy after thyroidectomy and are both alive with disease 6 years after diagnosis.
  • The criteria separating hyperplastic nodules from well-differentiated follicular variant of PTC in the thyroid gland seem to be applicable to thyroid-type carcinomas arising in SO.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19620939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Isotopes
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39. Sáez C, Martínez-Brocca MA, Castilla C, Soto A, Navarro E, Tortolero M, Pintor-Toro JA, Japón MA: Prognostic significance of human pituitary tumor-transforming gene immunohistochemical expression in differentiated thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;91(4):1404-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of human pituitary tumor-transforming gene immunohistochemical expression in differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • CONTEXT: Human securin pituitary tumor-transforming gene (hPTTG) is overexpressed in a variety of primary neoplasias, including differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • PATIENTS: Ninety-five patients undergoing surgical resection for DTC (n = 60) or benign nodular thyroid disease (n = 35) were studied.
  • Adjacent nonneoplastic thyroid tissue was largely unstained.
  • Among benign nodular thyroid disease cases, immunostaining was detected focally in eight (22.8%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical analysis of hPTTG is of potential value in the determination of tumor aggressiveness in DTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16418208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodides; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human
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40. Hosler GA, Clark I, Zakowski MF, Westra WH, Ali SZ: Cytopathologic analysis of thyroid lesions in the pediatric population. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Feb;34(2):101-5
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  • [Title] Cytopathologic analysis of thyroid lesions in the pediatric population.
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid is seldom performed in the pediatric population.
  • Therefore, the clinical utility of thyroid FNA in this patient group has not been adequately addressed.
  • A 15 yr retrospective review of the cytopathology archives at the participating institutions was performed to identify cases of thyroid FNA performed in pediatric patients.
  • Of these, 40 had a cytopathologic diagnosis of carcinoma, "suspicious" for carcinoma, neoplasm, or atypia, 48 were benign, and 13 were unsatisfactory.
  • Twenty-two (49%) of these were found to harbor a malignant neoplasm (18 papillary carcinomas).
  • We conclude that FNA is a useful adjunct to the management of thyroid lesions in the pediatric population, with good diagnostic accuracy.
  • Although thyroid neoplasms are relatively rare in children, our experience demonstrated that 40% of thyroid masses referred for FNA had an interpretation that caused concern, ranging from "atypical" to carcinoma.
  • Additionally, a benign diagnosis by FNA may avoid unnecessary surgery with its potential complications, a significant consideration for this age group.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16514673.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Zou M, Al-Baradie RS, Al-Hindi H, Farid NR, Shi Y: S100A4 (Mts1) gene overexpression is associated with invasion and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Br J Cancer; 2005 Nov 28;93(11):1277-84
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  • [Title] S100A4 (Mts1) gene overexpression is associated with invasion and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Tumour cell invasion and metastasis are the hallmark of malignant neoplasm.
  • We previously identified S100A4 as a candidate gene involved in anaplastic thyroid cancer metastasis by microarray analysis.
  • To further determine whether S100A4 overexpression is associated with thyroid tumour invasion and metastasis, in the present study, we examined S100A4 gene expression in six benign multinodular goitres (MNG) and 28 matched samples of adjacent normal thyroid tissue (N), primary (T) and metastatic (M) papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis.
  • No S100A4 staining was observed in normal thyroid tissues and simple MNG.
  • These data suggest that overexpression of S100A4 is associated with thyroid tumour invasion and metastasis and it may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
  • [MeSH-minor] Case-Control Studies. Gene Expression Profiling. Goiter / genetics. Goiter / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16265347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins; 142662-27-9 / S100A4 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361511
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42. Subramanian M, Pilli T, Bhattacharya P, Pacini F, Nikiforov YE, Kanteti PV, Prabhakar BS: Knockdown of IG20 gene expression renders thyroid cancer cells susceptible to apoptosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;94(4):1467-71
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  • [Title] Knockdown of IG20 gene expression renders thyroid cancer cells susceptible to apoptosis.
  • AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the expression and function of the IG20 gene in thyroid cancer cell survival, proliferation, and apoptosis.
  • METHODS: We determined the expression levels of the major isoforms of IG20 by quantitative RT-PCR in normal and thyroid tumor tissues/cell lines.
  • We evaluated the functional consequence of IG20 knockdown in WRO (follicular carcinoma) and FRO (anaplastic carcinoma) thyroid cancer cell lines by measuring spontaneous, TNFalpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and TNFalpha-induced apoptosis.
  • RESULTS: The IG20 gene expression levels were higher in benign and malignant thyroid tumors and in WRO and FRO cells relative to normal tissues.
  • CONCLUSION: IG20 knockdown renders WRO cells more susceptible to spontaneous, TRAIL-, and TNFalpha-induced apoptosis and thus demonstrates the prosurvival function of the IG20 gene in thyroid cancer.
  • These observations, combined with overexpression of IG20 noted in thyroid tumor tissues, may suggest a potential role in thyroid cancer survival and growth and indicate that IG20 may be targeted either alone or in conjunction with TRAIL or TNFalpha treatment in certain thyroid cancers.

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  • (PMID = 19190106.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107506; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01CA107506
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2682475
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43. Gilfillan CP: Review of the genetics of thyroid tumours: diagnostic and prognostic implications. ANZ J Surg; 2010 Jan;80(1-2):33-40
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  • [Title] Review of the genetics of thyroid tumours: diagnostic and prognostic implications.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are common, but only a small proportion harbour malignancy.
  • Despite this, the frequency of thyroid cancer is on the increase and thyroid malignancy is the most common endocrine malignancy.
  • Preoperative diagnosis is based on ultrasound and radionucleotide imaging as well as the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).
  • These biopsies yield a large proportion of indeterminate results due to inadequate material for cytological diagnosis, or due to the cytological similarity of FAs and follicular carcinomas.
  • Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid malignancy have led to the detection of characteristic genetic alterations in FNABs.
  • This technology has the potential to increase the specificity of this test, combining cytological with genetic testing to reduce the number of indeterminate results, thereby reducing the number of thyroidectomies performed for benign disease.
  • METHODS: This review examines the evidence for the presence of the common genetic alterations in thyroid cancer and outlines the pathological and clinical correlations of these mutations.
  • The practicality and utility of measuring these genetic alterations in FNAB specimens is also outlined as well as the potential for these tests to alter primary management and follow-up of patients with nodular thyroid disease.
  • CONCLUSION: It is likely that a combination of molecular testing and cytological examination of FNAB specimens will prove to be the most efficient and specific method of diagnosing thyroid cancer preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Mutation. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / pathology. Proto-Oncogenes / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20575878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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44. Jesneck JL, Mukherjee S, Yurkovetsky Z, Clyde M, Marks JR, Lokshin AE, Lo JY: Do serum biomarkers really measure breast cancer? BMC Cancer; 2009 May 28;9:164
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  • The classifiers distinguished normal tissue from benign lesions similarly at AUC = 0.80 +/- 0.05.
  • However, the serum proteins of benign and malignant lesions were indistinguishable (AUC = 0.55 +/- 0.06).
  • The classification tasks of normal vs. cancer and normal vs. benign selected the same top feature: MIF, which suggests that the biomarkers indicated inflammatory response rather than cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19476629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 84955; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA-112437-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2696469
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45. Butros R, Boyvat F, Ozyer U, Bilezikci B, Arat Z, Aytekin C, Güvener N, Demirhan B: Management of infracentimetric thyroid nodules with respect to ultrasonographic features. Eur Radiol; 2007 May;17(5):1358-64
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  • [Title] Management of infracentimetric thyroid nodules with respect to ultrasonographic features.
  • An assumed indolent course of thyroid microcarcinomas and concerns about the cost-effectiveness of treatment raise management issues.
  • Of these, 473 (94%) were benign, 13 (2.6%) were suspicious for malignancy, 13 (2.6%) were malignant, and 4 (0.8%) were follicular neoplasms.
  • When the postoperative histological results of ten patients with a final diagnosis of papillary carcinoma were evaluated for extent of disease, seven (70%) had one or more of the findings of multifocality, metastatic lymph nodes, or extracapsular involvement, thus proving their clinical significance.
  • Our results indicate that thyroid microcarcinomas should be taken seriously if there are possible signs of malignancy on US.
  • With respect to the high benign nature of the micronodules (94%), the number of interventional procedures should be lowered by making assessments based on a combination of US features including lymphadenopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 17021705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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46. Layfield LJ, Morton MJ, Cramer HM, Hirschowitz S: Implications of the proposed thyroid fine-needle aspiration category of "follicular lesion of undetermined significance": A five-year multi-institutional analysis. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Oct;37(10):710-4
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  • [Title] Implications of the proposed thyroid fine-needle aspiration category of "follicular lesion of undetermined significance": A five-year multi-institutional analysis.
  • National Cancer Institute State of the Science Conference on thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) summarized diagnostic terminology.
  • FLUS was defined as findings neither convincingly benign nor sufficiently atypical for a diagnosis of "follicular neoplasm" or "suspicious for malignancy."
  • It was proposed that this category represent less than 7% of thyroid FNAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / classification. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Pathology, Surgical / standards. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19373907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Mitmaker E, Alvarado C, Bégin LR, Trifiro M: Microsatellite instability in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms. J Surg Res; 2008 Nov;150(1):40-8
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  • [Title] Microsatellite instability in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a form of genomic instability that has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer.
  • The purpose of this study was to further define the distribution of MSI in both normal and neoplastic thyroid follicular epithelium.
  • DESIGN: Using laser capture microdissection, cells from both normal and tumor tissue were individually collected.
  • RESULTS: Forty benign and malignant thyroid tumors were compared with their adjacent normal thyroid follicular tissue and were analyzed for MSI.
  • Nine of 14 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 10/16 of follicular thyroid carcinomas demonstrated MSI at > or =30-40% of loci tested.
  • For benign follicular adenomas, 9/10 demonstrated microsatellite stability or low-frequency MSI.
  • CONCLUSION: MSI appears to play a role in thyroid pathogenesis as evidenced by the high frequency of MSI in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • More importantly, the technique of laser capture microdissection allows for more accurate selection of benign, malignant, and normal DNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. DNA Mismatch Repair. DNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. Microsatellite Instability. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18243241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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48. Faquin WC: Diagnosis and reporting of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions by fine needle aspiration. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Mar;3(1):82-5
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and reporting of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions by fine needle aspiration.
  • Over the past 3 decades, fine needle aspiration (FNA) has developed as the most accurate and cost-effective initial method for guiding the clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules.
  • Thyroid FNA specimens containing follicular-patterned lesions are the most commonly encountered and include various forms of benign thyroid nodules, follicular carcinomas, and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Based primarily upon the cytoarchitectural pattern, FNA is used as a screening test for follicular-patterned lesions to identify the majority of patients with benign nodules who can be managed without surgical intervention.
  • The terminology and reporting of thyroid FNA results have been problematic due to significant variation between laboratories, but the recent multidisciplinary NCI Thyroid FNA State of the Science Conference has provided a seven-tiered diagnostic solution.
  • A key element of this approach is the category "atypical cells of undetermined significance" (ACUS) which is used for those aspirates which cannot be easily classified as benign, suspicious, or malignant.
  • Lesions in this category represent approximately 3-6% of thyroid FNAs and have a risk of malignancy intermediate between the "benign" category and the "suspicious for a follicular neoplasm" category.
  • The recommended follow-up for an ACUS diagnosis is clinical correlation and in most cases, repeat FNA sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20596996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807535
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Bethesda / FNA / Follicular / Thyroid
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49. Krause K, Karger S, Sheu SY, Aigner T, Kursawe R, Gimm O, Schmid KW, Dralle H, Fuhrer D: Evidence for a role of the amyloid precursor protein in thyroid carcinogenesis. J Endocrinol; 2008 Aug;198(2):291-9
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  • [Title] Evidence for a role of the amyloid precursor protein in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • We have recently found an increased expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cold thyroid nodules that are difficult to classify as a truly benign thyroid neoplasm or a lesion with the potential for further dedifferentiation.
  • Since differences in APP activity have been found in other human cancers, we asked whether thyroid carcinogenesis might be associated with an altered APP expression and function.
  • APP regulation was studied in vitro in differentiated (FRTL-5) and dedifferentiated follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC-133) thyroid cells after specific inhibition or activation of the cAMP-PKA, the PI3K/AKT or the protein kinase c (PKC) cascades.
  • In vivo analysis of APP expression and downstream signalling was performed in benign and malignant thyroid tissues.
  • We found that upregulation of APP expression and sAPP secretion is induced by TSH in differentiated thyroid cells and by insulin in thyroid cancer cells.
  • Thyroid cancers are characterized by APP upregulation, increased membrane targeting of the APP ectodomain and significantly increased mRNA levels of the APP scaffold proteins JIP1, ShcA and Fe65.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Insulin / pharmacology. Microscopy, Confocal. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Protein Transport / drug effects. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyrotropin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18480379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APBB1 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor; 0 / Insulin; 0 / MAPK8IP1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SHC1 protein, human; 0 / Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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50. Doganay M, Gungor T, Cavkaytar S, Sirvan L, Mollamahmutoglu L: Malignant struma ovarii with a focus of papillary thyroid cancer: a case report. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Apr;277(4):371-3
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  • [Title] Malignant struma ovarii with a focus of papillary thyroid cancer: a case report.
  • Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm and its malignant transformation is even rarer.
  • Because of its rarity, there is no consensus about its diagnosis and management in the literature.
  • Postoperative thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 0.5-cm solid nodule in the thyroid gland and total thyroidectomy was done.
  • Pathology report was nodular hyperplasia of benign character.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography


51. Novosel T, Ritter HE, Gupta M, Harvey A, Mitchell J, Berber E, Siperstein A, Milas M: Detection of circulating thyroid cancer cells in patients with thyroid microcarcinomas. Surgery; 2009 Dec;146(6):1081-9
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  • [Title] Detection of circulating thyroid cancer cells in patients with thyroid microcarcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Circulating thyroid cancer cells detected by peripheral blood thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) mRNA have demonstrated usefulness for thyroid cancer diagnosis and long-term surveillance.
  • METHODS: We compared clinical characteristics of 37 patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC; tumor size </=1 cm) having undetectable (-) versus detectable (+)TSHR mRNA.
  • RESULTS: 59 Of the PTMC patients, 59% had (+)TSHR mRNA levels, similar to those with tumors >1 cm (72%; P = NS) and distinctly higher than false (+) rates in benign goiters (15%; P < .001).
  • Mean tumor size (5 mm) and multifocality rates (45%) were similar in both mRNA groups.
  • CONCLUSION: This study is the first to demonstrate that TSHR mRNA, reflecting circulating thyroid cancer cells, is detectable even with thyroid microcarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / genetics. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. RNA, Messenger / blood. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / blood. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Young Adult


52. Gulcelik NE, Gulcelik MA, Kuru B: Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Dec;134(12):1312-5
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  • [Title] Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and ultrasonographic features that may help in predicting malignant tumors in patients with a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on findings from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) because FNAC diagnosis of follicular neoplasm does not differentiate a benign tumor from a malignant tumor.
  • DESIGN: Prospective study of 98 patients having a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on FNAC.
  • PATIENTS: Ninety-eight patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed by FNAC as being a follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 26 patients (27%).
  • Ultrasonographic features (eg, a solid echo structure, microcalcifications, and a hypoechoic pattern) were predictive for malignant neoplasms.
  • Older age, male sex, solitary nodule, and larger nodule size were not predictive for malignant neoplasms in patients with follicular neoplasm cytologic findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19075128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Shin JH, Han BK, Ko EY, Kang SS: Sonographic findings in the surgical bed after thyroidectomy: comparison of recurrent tumors and nonrecurrent lesions. J Ultrasound Med; 2007 Oct;26(10):1359-66
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  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the sonographic findings of recurrent tumors and nonrecurrent lesions mimicking recurrent tumors in the surgical bed after thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: For lesions located in the surgical bed in patients after thyroidectomy, the distinction between recurrent thyroid cancer and nonrecurrent benign lesions cannot be made on the basis of the sonographic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chi-Square Distribution. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17901139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Strazisar B, Petric R, Sesek M, Zgajnar J, Hocevar M, Besic N: Predictive factors of carcinoma in 279 patients with Hürthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Jun 1;101(7):582-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predictive factors of carcinoma in 279 patients with Hürthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Estimation of the risk of malignancy in a Hürthle cell (HC) neoplasm is important for optimum extent of thyroid surgical treatment.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to find predictive factors of carcinoma in patients with HC neoplasm.
  • METHODS: A total of 279 patients (241 females, 38 males; median age 55 years, range 15-86 years) with HC neoplasm in whom carcinoma was only suspected and who were surgically treated at our Institute in the period 1990-2007, were included in this study.
  • RESULTS: The histopatological diagnoses were carcinoma, benign goiter and adenoma in 71 (25%), 68 (25%) and 140 (50%) patients, respectively.
  • Predictive factors for carcinoma, shown by chi-square test, were: age of patients, tumor diameter, thyroid volume and T(g) concentration.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The independent predictors of malignancy in HC neoplasm were age of patients and pre-operative T(g) concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20461764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Melck A, Bugis S, Baliski C, Irvine R, Anderson DW, Wilkins G, Zhang H, Wiseman SM: Hemithyroidectomy: the preferred initial surgical approach for management of Hurthle cell neoplasm. Am J Surg; 2006 May;191(5):593-7
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  • [Title] Hemithyroidectomy: the preferred initial surgical approach for management of Hurthle cell neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cancer risk of patient clinicopathologic characteristics to determine the optimal approach for the surgical management of individuals with Hurthle cell neoplasm (HN) diagnosed by cytology.
  • METHODS: Patient clinicopathologic characteristics evaluated included age, sex, tumor size, and ipsilateral thyroid lobe nodularity.
  • The association of these characteristics with a pathologic cancer diagnosis was evaluated using Fisher's exact test and Student t test.
  • RESULTS: Of the 422 patients undergoing thyroidectomy, 27 presented with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of HN, and by pathologic assessment 7 HN patients (25.9%) had a cancer diagnosis.
  • Although none of the clinicopathologic characteristics evaluated were able to reliably differentiate benign from malignant tumors, large tumor size and male sex were significantly associated with a pathologic diagnosis of Hurthle cell carcinoma (P < .05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hemithyroidectomy represents the preferred initial surgical approach for the management of individuals presenting with nodular thyroid disease and a cytologic diagnosis of HN.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16647343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Rossi ED, Morassi F, Santeusanio G, Zannoni GF, Fadda G: Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology processed by ThinPrep: an additional slide decreased the number of inadequate results. Cytopathology; 2010 Apr;21(2):97-102
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  • [Title] Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology processed by ThinPrep: an additional slide decreased the number of inadequate results.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration cytology is the most accurate tool for diagnosing thyroid nodules.
  • The introduction of liquid-based cytology (LBC) in the thyroid does not allow checking on the adequacy of the cellularity.
  • The cases were classified in a five-tiered category system (Thy1 to 5 according to the British Thyroid Association guidelines) and all but two (with cystic degeneration) were processed by LBC and stained with Papanicolaou stain.
  • The above-mentioned categories are defined as follows: Thy1 inadequate or haemorrhagic, Thy2 non-neoplastic lesion; Thy3 follicular lesion/suspected follicular neoplasm; Thy4 suspicious for malignancy; Thy5 diagnostic of malignancy.
  • For each case the cytological diagnosis was made on the LBC slide and the adequacy of the cellularity for a conclusive diagnosis was assessed.
  • RESULTS: Of the 166 cases, 39 were non-diagnostic (Thy1-inadequate), ten presented features of cystic degeneration (Thy1-haemorrhagic), 90 were benign (Thy2), 22 were diagnosed as a follicular lesion (Thy3), one as suspicious of malignancy (Thy4) and four as papillary carcinoma (Thy5).
  • Thirty-nine cases had a second LBC for achieving a definitive diagnosis with eventual re-classification.
  • Of these cases, 23 (61.5%) led to a conclusive diagnosis (18 Thy2, five Thy3) with a 18.5% decrease of the inadequacy rate.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The making of an additional LBC slide helps in achieving a diagnosis in cases classified as non-diagnostic on the first standard slide (52.1% recovery rate).
  • This procedure is particularly helpful for meeting the adequacy criteria in benign and indeterminate lesions and could also be used for refining the diagnosis of suspicious for a malignant thyroid neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Specimen Handling / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


57. Tang L, Dai DL, Su M, Martinka M, Li G, Zhou Y: Aberrant expression of collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 in human solid cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 15;12(12):3716-22
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  • RESULTS: In benign nevi and noninvasive melanoma biopsies, there was little CTHRC1 protein expression.
  • Finally, transcription survey in 19 types of human solid cancers revealed aberrant CTHRC1 expression in 16 cancer types, especially cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, lung, breast, thyroid, ovarian, cervix, liver, and the pancreas.
  • [MeSH-major] Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA Interference. Rabbits. Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid

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  • (PMID = 16778098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTHRC1 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins
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58. Haymart MR, Glinberg SL, Liu J, Sippel RS, Jaume JC, Chen H: Higher serum TSH in thyroid cancer patients occurs independent of age and correlates with extrathyroidal extension. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Sep;71(3):434-9
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  • [Title] Higher serum TSH in thyroid cancer patients occurs independent of age and correlates with extrathyroidal extension.
  • BACKGROUND: It has previously been shown that higher serum TSH is associated with increased thyroid cancer incidence and advanced-stage disease.
  • As age over 45 years is a known prognostic indicator for thyroid cancer, it is important to know whether higher TSH in patients with thyroid cancer occurs independent of age.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1361 patients underwent thyroid surgery between May 1994 and December 2007 at a single institution.
  • Despite the rise in the benign subgroups, mean TSH was consistently higher in those with cancer vs. those without.
  • On multivariate analysis of high-risk features associated with poor prognosis, there was a significant association between higher TSH and extrathyroidal extension (P = 0.002), whereas there was no clear relationship with age, tumour size > 4 cm, and distant metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: Independent of age, thyroid cancer incidence correlates with higher TSH.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Cohort Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19067720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T35 DK062709
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS778777; NLM/ PMC4852738
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59. Lieu D: Cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 May;38(5):327-32
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  • As most cases are caused by parathyroid adenoma, there is a movement toward preoperative localization of the abnormal gland by ultrasound and/or Tc(99)-sestamibi scan and minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • Nonpalpable thyroid nodules are common and cannot be differentiated from parathyroid lesions by imaging alone.
  • This study examines cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (UG-FNA) in diagnosis of parathyroid lesions.
  • Between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008, seven patients with PHPT or other parathyroid lesions with one or more sonographically-visible thyroid masses underwent cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA with immediate cytological evaluation (ICE).
  • Three parathyroid adenomas, two benign colloid nodules, one papillary carcinoma, three parathyroid cysts, and one thyroid cyst were diagnosed.
  • The nodules in three patients with parathyroid adenomas were identified as follicular lesion/neoplasm on ICE.
  • Two of these patients had a separate benign colloid nodule and one had a thyroid cyst diagnosed by UG-FNA.
  • The three patients with thyroid cysts identified by radiology were suspected of being parathyroid cysts on the basis of real-time sonographic features at the biopsy table.
  • Cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA can distinguish between parathyroid and thyroid nodules in patients with suspected parathyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19845029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Kumar PV, Monabati A, Tabei SZ, Ramzy M, Husseini SV, Khajeh F: Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases. Acta Cytol; 2005 Mar-Apr;49(2):177-80
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  • [Title] Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) usually have a benign clinical course, with an excellent long-term prognosis and a propensity for vascular invasion.
  • CASES: A 68-year-old man presented with a thyroid mass and skin nodule on the scalp.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytologic diagnosis of metastatic FTC has been reported rarely.
  • Marginal (fire-flare) vacuoles aid in making the diagnosis of metastatic FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anemia / etiology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone and Bones / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15839624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Okagawa T, Uchida T, Suyama M: Thymoma with spontaneous regression and disappearance of pleural effusion. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2007 Dec;55(12):515-7
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  • Chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) on admission showed an anterior mediastinal tumor with left pleural effusion, which was diagnosed as an inoperable malignant mediastinal tumor.
  • However, 3 weeks after admission CT showed that the tumor was diminishing and the pleural effusion had disappeared without any treatment.
  • CT-guided needle biopsy was performed, but diagnosis was impossible because most of the specimen was necrotic.
  • The intraoperative finding showed that the tumor was round, well mobilized, and did not invade adjacent structures.
  • It was then assumed to be a benign teratoma that had been ruptured into the thoracic cavity.
  • Two months later, total thymectomy was performed through a median sternotomy because the tumor was pathologically diagnosed as a thymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology. Thymoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Cautery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Necrosis. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted. Thoracotomy. Thymectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2001 Aug;25(8):1086-90 [11474295.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Clin Pathol. 2004 Jun;121(6):867-71 [15198359.001]
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  • (PMID = 18066646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-6705
  • [Journal-full-title] General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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62. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1102-9; discussion 1109-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • We postulated that expression analysis of genes that modulate angiogenesis would identify differentially expressed genes that would help to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms and serve as markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: A complementary DNA (cDNA) array with 96 genes that modulate angiogenesis was used to identify differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm cDNA array expression data in 123 patients (4 normal thyroid, 26 hyperplastic nodules, 27 follicular adenomas, 23 follicular cancers, 18 follicular variant of papillary cancers, 25 papillary cancers).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two genes were upregulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms by cDNA array analysis, but only 13 genes had higher messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (P < or = .04).
  • Of the 13 differentially expressed genes, the combined use of angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) mRNA expression levels was best for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid neoplasms, with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 75%, and negative predictive value of 94%.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 mRNA expression was elevated in higher TNM stage neoplasms and in patients with high-risk AMES (Age, distant Metastasis, Extrathyroidal invasion, and tumor Size) differentiated thyroid cancers (P < or = .005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Angiopoietin 2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and could improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 are markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Angiogenic Proteins / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics


63. Drieschner N, Kerschling S, Soller JT, Rippe V, Belge G, Bullerdiek J, Nimzyk R: A domain of the thyroid adenoma associated gene (THADA) conserved in vertebrates becomes destroyed by chromosomal rearrangements observed in thyroid adenomas. Gene; 2007 Nov 15;403(1-2):110-7
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  • [Title] A domain of the thyroid adenoma associated gene (THADA) conserved in vertebrates becomes destroyed by chromosomal rearrangements observed in thyroid adenomas.
  • THADA, mapping to chromosomal band 2p21 is target gene of specific chromosomal rearrangements observed in thyroid benign tumors.
  • Thus, it is one of the most common gene targets in chromosomal rearrangements in benign epithelial tumors.
  • The truncations observed in human thyroid adenomas disrupt this conserved domain of the protein indicating a loss of function of THADA contributing to the development of the follicular neoplasias of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Gene Rearrangement. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17889454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-1119
  • [Journal-full-title] Gene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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64. Ruchala M, Skiba A, Gurgul E, Uruski P, Wasko R, Sowinski J: The occurrence of thyroid focal lesions and a need for fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with acromegaly due to an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2009;30(3):382-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The occurrence of thyroid focal lesions and a need for fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with acromegaly due to an increased risk of thyroid cancer.
  • Several studies revealed increased frequency of thyroid carcinoma in these patients.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of thyroid lesions, including thyroid cancer in acromegalic patients and to estimate possible factors influencing their occurrence, especially high IGF-1 level.
  • Thyroid gland was evaluated in ultrasound examination.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was performed in every solid or mixed thyroid nodule.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid morphology abnormalities were found in 75 patients (87.2%).
  • There were 5 cases of thyroid carcinoma (5.8%): 3 papillary carcinomas and two follicular variants of papillary cancer.
  • Out of five cancers three were multifocal, one infiltrated thyroid capsule and one was diagnosed at the stage of metastases to four lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed common co-existence of acromegaly and thyroid lesions.
  • Furthermore, it revealed considerably high occurrence of thyroid carcinoma in these patients.
  • In view of this correlation, the potential role of IGF-1 in pathogenesis of benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms should be considered.
  • Due to high frequency of thyroid cancer in acromegalic patients, we suggest to perform fine needle aspiration biopsy in each case of thyroid nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / epidemiology. Acromegaly / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chi-Square Distribution. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / blood. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Incidence. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Thyrotropin / blood. Thyroxine / blood

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  • (PMID = 19855364.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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65. Cai Q, Huang XM, Sun W, Zheng YQ, Lu X, Guo MM, Chen B, Liang FY, Han P: [Comparison of endoscopic monolateral anterior chest approach and conventional approach on thyroid bilateral gland lobe disease.]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Nov;44(11):926-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Comparison of endoscopic monolateral anterior chest approach and conventional approach on thyroid bilateral gland lobe disease.].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study on thyroid bilateral gland lobe disease with endoscopic monolateral anterior chest approach.
  • METHODS: Twenty patients experienced thyroid bilateral gland lobe surgery with endoscopic monolateral anterior chest approach; 24 experienced conventional surgery simultaneously and were enrolled in control group.
  • Criteria of patients selected for thyroid bilateral gland lobe surgery with endoscopic monolateralanterior chest approach:with no surgical history of thyroid or other neck-related diseases and no chemotherapy; diagnosed with benign tumor according to presurgery CT result and thyroid functional examination.
  • Diameter of tumor on both sides should be smaller than 4 cm, one side smaller than 2 cm, located at lower middle part of gland lobe and near to gland surface.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gasless endoscopic monolateral anterior chest approach can well treat selected thyroid bilateral gland lobe disease and with a better cosmetic result than conventional surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Thyroid Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20079075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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66. Xu W, Wang HB, Cao HY, Fan ZM, Yue ZY, Lü ZH: [Recurrent laryngeal nerve decompression]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jun;41(6):408-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the result of recurrent laryngeal nerve decompression in the treatment of functional disturbance of recurrent laryngeal nerve caused by thyroid surgery or thyroid benign tumors.
  • Seven cases of the nerve paralysis were caused by the surgery of benign thyroid tumors resection which were done by general surgeons.
  • One case of thyroid adenoma and 1 case of nodular goiter with unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis were treated with tumor resection and nerve decompression respectively.
  • Four cases of glottic insufficiency, 3 cases of nodular goiter were treated with tumor resection and nerve decompression, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the other case was treated with partial lobe resection and nerve decompression.
  • RESULTS: For the 7 cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after thyroid surgery, the motion of the paralysed vocal cord restored within 3 months in 6 cases with the interval of 1 week to 3 months between the two operations, no restoration was found in the other patient with an interval above 4 months between the two operations after 1 year follow-up.
  • For the thyroid adenoma and nodular goiter with unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, the motion of paralysed vocal cord restored within 3 months respectively after decompression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Exploration and decompression as soon as possible to the paralysed recurrent laryngeal nerve because of thyroid surgery are very important for the restoration of the function of the nerve.
  • For the functional disturbance of recurrent laryngeal nerve with thyroid neoplasm patient, early exploration and decompression of the nerve is imperative.

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  • (PMID = 16927793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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67. Bishop JA, Owens CL, Shum CH, Ali SZ: Thyroid bed fine-needle aspiration: experience at a large tertiary care center. Am J Clin Pathol; 2010 Aug;134(2):335-9
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  • [Title] Thyroid bed fine-needle aspiration: experience at a large tertiary care center.
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid bed (TB) lesions is a common diagnostic modality in monitoring patients for recurrent cancer after a thyroidectomy.
  • Of the patients, 36 were being followed up for papillary carcinoma, 7 for medullary carcinoma, 4 for follicular carcinoma (1 also had papillary carcinoma), and 1 for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma; 3 had previous benign diagnoses.
  • The FNA result was benign in 12 of 57, including 6 cases of benign thyroid and 1 case of parathyroid tissue.
  • TB FNA is a highly reliable tool for diagnosing recurrent thyroid carcinoma.
  • Residual benign thyroid and parathyroid tissue are potential pitfalls; awareness of these and judicious use of immunohistochemical staining can prevent misdiagnoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20660340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Liu FH, Hsueh C, Chao TC, Lin JD: Neck nodule and thyroid cancer in young without radiation exposure history. Pediatr Surg Int; 2009 Sep;25(9):785-8
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  • [Title] Neck nodule and thyroid cancer in young without radiation exposure history.
  • RESULTS: Of the 234 cases, 187 (79.9%) were surgically confirmed to be benign lesions, including four cases that were diagnosed as atypical adenoma.
  • Malignant thyroid masses were identified in 47 patients.
  • Surgery confirmed 22 cases to be lesions that were non-thyroid in origin, including those developing from a cyst, soft tissue, and with a lymphatic origin.
  • Except in cases of follicular thyroid neoplasm, neck ultrasonography with FNAC could effectively identify the thyroid or non-thyroid origin of these masses with high-diagnostic accuracy.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1986 Nov 15;58(10):2329-32 [3756778.001]
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  • (PMID = 19629501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-9813
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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69. McHenry CR, Huh ES, Machekano RN: Is nodule size an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy? Surgery; 2008 Dec;144(6):1062-8; discussion 1068-9
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  • [Title] Is nodule size an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy?
  • METHODS: Data was obtained from a prospectively maintained database for patients with nodular thyroid disease evaluated from 1990 to 2007.
  • RESULTS: 1023 patients were evaluated for nodular thyroid disease and 676 underwent thyroidectomy.
  • Mean size was 4.4 +/- 2.4 cm for benign and 3.3 +/- 2.2 cm for malignant nodules (P < .05).
  • The size of benign and malignant nodules, as a function of FNAB, was not significantly different.
  • CONCLUSION: Increasing nodule size was not predictive of thyroid malignancy suggesting that it should not be used in lieu of FNAB for therapeutic decision making.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Decision Making. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 19041019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Lumachi F, Fabbro M, Tregnaghi A, Antunovic L, Bui F, Cecchin D, Zucchetta P, Fassina A: Fine-needle aspiration cytology and (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy together in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jul;30(7):3083-6
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology and (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy together in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy (TS) together in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Data from a series of 357 patients (284 women and 73 men, median age 43 years, range 19-73) with solitary thyroid nodule and no signs of hyperfunction, who had undergone both FNAC and TS prior to surgery, were retrospectively reviewed.
  • FNAC distinguished 3 groups of TN (benign, follicular neoplasm, cancer), while patients with 'cold' TN were considered at risk of having a thyroid tumor.
  • In conclusion, patients with 'cold' TN and FNAC suggesting follicular neoplasm should be considered at risk of having cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Radiopharmaceuticals. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20683059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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71. Salvatore G, Chiappetta G, Nikiforov YE, Decaussin-Petrucci M, Fusco A, Carney JA, Santoro M: Molecular profile of hyalinizing trabecular tumours of the thyroid: high prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements and absence of B-raf and N-ras point mutations. Eur J Cancer; 2005 Mar;41(5):816-21
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  • [Title] Molecular profile of hyalinizing trabecular tumours of the thyroid: high prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements and absence of B-raf and N-ras point mutations.
  • Hyalinizing trabecular tumour (HTT) of the thyroid is a neoplasm of follicular derivation that shares several morphological similarities with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • Twenty benign thyroid lesions and 10 PTC served as control cases.
  • Thus, in clinical practice, the detection of B-raf mutations in a thyroid follicular tumour may prove to be a valuable tool, supplementing histological examination, and allowing a differential diagnosis between PTC and HTT.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Genes, ras. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Point Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Gene Rearrangement / genetics. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret

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  • (PMID = 15763659.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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72. He X, Wei Q, Zhang X, Xiao J, Jin X, Zhu Y, Cui B, Ning G: Immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Oct 15;206(10):712-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions.
  • In different tumor entities, expression of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been linked to tumor dissemination and poor prognosis.
  • The aim of this study was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions.
  • In our study, the CXCR4 expression of the thyroid carcinoma group (including 16 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 9 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas, and 7 medullary thyroid carcinomas) was found to be higher than in the benign lesion group (including 19 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 15 nodular goiters, and 50 follicular adenomas) (p<0.0001).
  • Within the carcinoma group, the more malignant thyroid carcinoma group (including 9 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 7 medullary thyroid carcinomas) showed a higher ratio of CXCR4 positivity compared to the less malignant thyroid carcinoma group (including 16 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas) (p<0.0001).
  • Our study suggests that CXCR4 expression might be a frequent and cancer-specific event in thyroid carcinoma, and it might be involved in malignancy transformation during the progression of thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Receptors, CXCR4 / analysis. Thyroid Diseases / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Cell Differentiation. Child. Female. Goiter, Nodular / immunology. Hashimoto Disease / immunology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thyroid Neoplasms / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20646838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; Thyroid cancer, medullary; Thyroid cancer, papillary
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73. Zervoudis S, Peitsidis P, Iatrakis G, Panourgias E, Koureas A, Navrozoglou I, Dubois JB: Increased levels of tumor markers in the follow-up of 400 patients with breast cancer without recurrence or metastasis: interpretation of false-positive results. J BUON; 2007 Oct-Dec;12(4):487-92
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  • [Title] Increased levels of tumor markers in the follow-up of 400 patients with breast cancer without recurrence or metastasis: interpretation of false-positive results.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze, study and interpret the increased levels of tumor markers in breast cancer patients without recurrence or metastasis.
  • Follow-up included frequent serum estimation of CEA, CA 15.3, CA 125, CA 27-29, TPA and TPS tumor markers.
  • RESULTS: Of 358 patients being continuously disease-free, 18 (5%) cases showed false-positive levels of tumor markers, associated with benign conditions and not to cancer recurrence or metastasis.
  • These conditions included ovarian cysts, thyroid disorders, hepatitis, renal stone and sarcoidosis.
  • CONCLUSION: The value of increased tumor markers should be interpreted cautiously because it doesn't always imply disease recurrence.
  • Tumor markers may increase in many benign conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] False Positive Reactions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18067207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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74. Yang SW, Lin CY: A peculiar site of chondroma: the epiglottis. Acta Otolaryngol; 2005 Aug;125(8):906-9
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  • Chondroma of the laryngeal cartilage is an uncommon benign cartilaginous neoplasm.
  • The commonest location is the posterior lamina of the cricoid cartilage, followed by the thyroid cartilage.
  • We present this case to highlight the occurrence of this rare benign lesion in the epiglottis, and stress that it should not be neglected in the differential diagnosis of an epiglottic mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Chondroma / diagnosis. Epiglottis / surgery. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16158541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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75. Evenson A, Mowschenson P, Wang H, Connolly J, Mendrinos S, Parangi S, Hasselgren PO: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg; 2007 Jun;193(6):707-12
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma (HTA) is an uncommon benign thyroid tumor that can present as a solitary thyroid nodule, a prominent nodule in a multinodular goiter, or as an incidental finding in a thyroidectomy specimen.
  • METHODS: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 7 patients presenting with a solitary thyroid nodule (n = 4) or a multinodular goiter (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although HTA is a rare condition of the thyroid, the surgeon needs to be aware of this entity to be able to better discuss the pathological findings with the patient, particularly since some pathologists and endocrinologists believe that HTA may represent a malignant neoplasm of low metastatic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17512281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Karam M, Feustel PJ, Postal ES, Cheema A, Goldfarb CR: Successful thyroid tissue ablation as defined by a negative whole-body scan or an undetectable thyroglobulin: a comparative study. Nucl Med Commun; 2005 Apr;26(4):331-6
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  • [Title] Successful thyroid tissue ablation as defined by a negative whole-body scan or an undetectable thyroglobulin: a comparative study.
  • BACKGROUND: Successful thyroid tissue ablation of patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer can be defined by a negative whole-body scan (WBS) and/or an undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg).
  • Until it is firmly established that such patients have a benign course both monitoring methods should be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15753792.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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77. Rachinsky I, Driedger A: Iodine-131 uptake in a menstruating uterus: value of SPECT/CT in distinguishing benign and metastatic iodine-positive lesions. Thyroid; 2007 Sep;17(9):901-2
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  • [Title] Iodine-131 uptake in a menstruating uterus: value of SPECT/CT in distinguishing benign and metastatic iodine-positive lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 17956166.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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78. Mathur SR, Kapila K, Verma K: Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of goiter. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Apr;48(2):166-9
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  • [Title] Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of goiter.
  • Enlargement of the thyroid gland is a common occurrence in most parts of the world especially in the iodine-deficient goiter belt areas.
  • Vast majority of these lesions are benign but they invariably lead to a series of investigations among which FNAC plays a pivotal role.
  • Although many studies have reported diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in detecting neoplasms, there have been few studies where the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of goiter along with their diagnostic pitfalls has been evaluated.
  • The present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of FNAC in diagnosis of goiter and to highlight its limitations and diagnostic pitfalls.
  • They included 733 cases where the cytological diagnosis was goiter or suggestive of goiter along with 38 cases in which the histological diagnosis was goiter while the cytological diagnosis was cystic change or neoplasm.
  • In 34 cases (20.23%) no diagnosis could be offered because of cystic change.
  • A false positive cytologic diagnosis of neoplasm was made in 4 cases.
  • In 24 cases neoplasms were initially missed on FNAC of which 10 cases could be detected on review while 5 cases were considered unsatisfactory.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Humans. India

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  • (PMID = 16758655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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79. Sillery JC, Reading CC, Charboneau JW, Henrichsen TL, Hay ID, Mandrekar JN: Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jan;194(1):44-54
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate sonography of thyroid follicular neoplasms for features that would aid in distinguishing follicular carcinoma from follicular adenoma and for any imaging features that distinguish the Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma from classic follicular carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort consisted of patients with the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma and patients with the diagnosis of follicular adenoma.
  • Fifty patients (25 men and 25 women; median age, 59.5 years) with a diagnosis of follicular carcinoma (27 with classic follicular carcinoma, 22 with Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma, and one insular variant) in a 6-year period were included.
  • All study patients and control patients underwent surgical resection and pathologic analysis of their thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Hypoechoic appearance (82% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 50% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; odds ratio [OR]), 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7), absence of halo (64% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 42% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9), absence of cystic change (90% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 69% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), greater patient age (median age of 59.5 years for follicular carcinoma patients vs 46.5 years for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), size of the tumor (median size of 11.75 mL for follicular carcinoma patients vs 5.95 mL for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), and male sex (50% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 19.2% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.9) were more frequently associated with follicular thyroid cancer than with benign adenoma.
  • There was no association between tumor volume, sex, sonographic halo, refractive shadowing, echogenicity, visible invasion, lymph node enlargement, adjacent nonfollicular suspicious lesions, vascularity subtype, and cystic change between the subgroups of follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The sonographic features of follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are very similar, but larger lesion size, lack of a sonographic halo, hypoechoic appearance, and absence of cystic change favored a follicular carcinoma diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 20028904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Foukakis T, Gusnanto A, Au AY, Höög A, Lui WO, Larsson C, Wallin G, Zedenius J: A PCR-based expression signature of malignancy in follicular thyroid tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Jun;14(2):381-91
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  • [Title] A PCR-based expression signature of malignancy in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • The diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) in the absence of metastasis can only be established postoperatively.
  • Moreover, high-risk FTCs are often not identifiable at the time of diagnosis.
  • In this study, we aimed to identify transcriptional markers of malignancy and high-risk disease in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • The expression levels of 26 potential markers of malignancy were determined in a panel of 75 follicular thyroid tumors by a TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR approach.
  • The metastatic potential could be predicted in all four cases with apparently benign or minimally invasive (MI) disease at the time of diagnosis, but poor long-term outcome.
  • In addition, a second model was produced by implementing two genes (TERT and TFF3), which was able to distinguish adenomas from de facto carcinomas.
  • When this model was tested in an independent series of atypical adenomas (AFTA) and MI-FTCs, 16 out of 17 AFTAs were classified as 'benign', while MI-FTCs with vascular invasion (sometimes referred to as 'moderately invasive') and/or large tumor size tended to classify in the 'malignant' group.
  • The reported models can be the foundation for the development of reliable preoperative diagnostic and prognostic tests that can guide the therapeutic approach of follicular thyroid neoplasms with indeterminate cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Gene Expression. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17639052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
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81. Levenson JN, Santaella I, Wachtel MS, Levenson DI: Discordance between cytologic results in multiple thyroid nodules within the same patient. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5):673-8
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  • [Title] Discordance between cytologic results in multiple thyroid nodules within the same patient.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency of discordant cytologic results between multiple thyroid nodules biopsied in the same patient.
  • STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective chart review of 441 consecutive patients, 326 (73.9%) had 2 or more nodules with colloid and/or thyroid cells recovered.
  • Cytology was classified as (A) colloid only, (B) benign colloid nodule with or without degeneration, (C) Hashimoto's, or (D) follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm, hyperplasia or suspicious for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroiditis, Subacute / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cytodiagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20968154.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Rosario PW, Salles DS, Bessa B, Purisch S: Low false-negative rate of cytology in thyroid nodules &gt;or= 4 cm. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2009 Dec;53(9):1143-5
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  • [Title] Low false-negative rate of cytology in thyroid nodules >or= 4 cm.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the results of cytology and histology obtained for a series of systematically resected thyroid nodules >or= 4 cm.
  • METHODS: A group of 151 patients with thyroid nodules >or= 4 cm was submitted to surgery despite the cytology result.
  • Excluding cases of insufficient material, cytology was benign in only 3/31 carcinomas (90.3% sensitivity).
  • The frequency of malignancy was 35% among nodules with indeterminate cytology (follicular neoplasm), and there was a predominance (77%) of papillary carcinoma.
  • The negative predictive value of benign cytology was 96.4%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The false-negative rate of cytology in thyroid nodules >or= 4 cm does not justify systematic resection of these nodules in asymptomatic patients with benign cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20126872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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83. Pinchot SN, Al-Wagih H, Schaefer S, Sippel R, Chen H: Accuracy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy for predicting neoplasm or carcinoma in thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger. Arch Surg; 2009 Jul;144(7):649-55
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  • [Title] Accuracy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy for predicting neoplasm or carcinoma in thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger.
  • HYPOTHESIS: All thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger should be surgically removed regardless of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results because of an unacceptably high rate of false-negative preoperative biopsy results in these large nodules.
  • PATIENTS: A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent surgery for a thyroid nodule 4 cm or larger from May 1, 1994, through January 31, 2007.
  • The FNAB results were reported as nondiagnostic, benign, inconclusive (follicular neoplasm), or malignant, whereas the final surgical pathologic data were reported as benign or malignant.
  • RESULTS: Of 155 patients who underwent a thyroidectomy for a nodule 4 cm or larger, 21 patients (13.5%) had a clinically significant thyroid carcinoma within the nodule on final pathologic analysis.
  • Preoperative cytologic testing of the mass was performed on 97 patients, and the results read as benign for 52, inconclusive for 23, nondiagnostic for 11, and malignant for 11.
  • In lesions 4 cm or larger, 26 of 52 FNAB results reported as benign (50.0%) turned out to be either neoplastic (22) or malignant (4) on final pathologic analysis.
  • Among patients with nondiagnostic FNAB results, the risk of malignant neoplasms was 27.3%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger, the FNAB results are highly inaccurate, misclassifying half of all patients with reportedly benign lesions.
  • Furthermore, those patients with a nondiagnostic FNAB result display a high risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Therefore, we recommend that diagnostic lobectomy be strongly considered in patients with thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger regardless of FNAB cytologic test results.

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  • (PMID = 19620545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS215984; NLM/ PMC2910711
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84. Liu W, Wei W, Winer D, Bamberger AM, Bamberger C, Wagener C, Ezzat S, Asa SL: CEACAM1 impedes thyroid cancer growth but promotes invasiveness: a putative mechanism for early metastases. Oncogene; 2007 Apr 26;26(19):2747-58
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  • [Title] CEACAM1 impedes thyroid cancer growth but promotes invasiveness: a putative mechanism for early metastases.
  • CEACAM1 is a putative tumor suppressor based on diminished expression in some solid neoplasms such as colorectal carcinoma.
  • To clarify the mechanism of action of this cell adhesion molecule, we studied thyroid carcinoma that has a spectrum of morphologies and variable behavior allowing separation of proliferation from invasion and metastasis.
  • CEACAM1 is expressed in thyroid carcinoma cell lines derived from tumors that exhibit aggressive behavior.
  • Forced CEACAM1 expression enhanced cell-matrix adhesion and migration and promoted tumor invasiveness.
  • Conversely, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated downregulation of CEACAM1 expression in MRO cells accelerated cell cycle progression and significantly enhanced tumor size in xenografted mice.
  • CEACAM1 is not appreciably expressed in normal thyroid tissue or benign thyroid tumors.
  • In a human thyroid tissue array, CEACAM1 reactivity was associated with metastatic spread but not with increased tumor size.
  • These findings identify CEACAM1 as a unique mediator that restricts tumor growth whereas increasing metastatic potential.
  • Our data highlight a complex repertoire of actions providing a putative mechanism underlying the spectrum of biologic behaviors associated with thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / physiology. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / physiology. Cell Proliferation. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Animals. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Silencing. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, SCID. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17057731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD66 antigens; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Ceacam1 protein, mouse; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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85. Barber LG: Thyroid tumors in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract; 2007 Jul;37(4):755-73, vii
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  • [Title] Thyroid tumors in dogs and cats.
  • The clinical presentation and biologic behavior of thyroid tumors vary widely among dogs, cats, and human beings.
  • Although thyroid tumors in dogs are rare, they are most likely to be malignant.
  • In contrast, hyperthyroidism resulting from benign thyroid proliferation is relatively common among older cats.
  • Irrespective of the tumor's ability to produce functional thyroid hormone, scintigraphy is often helpful in the diagnosis and staging of thyroid tumors in all three species.
  • Iodine 131 is a well-established treatment for thyroid nodules in cats, but its effectiveness in dogs is controversial.
  • In dogs, external beam radiation therapy has produced more consistent results in affording local tumor control when surgery is not possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Cat Diseases / therapy. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Dog Diseases / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Dogs. Neoplasm Staging / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17619010.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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86. Bocciolini C, Dall'olio D, Cavazza S, Laudadio P: Schwannoma of cervical sympathetic chain: assessment and management. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2005 Jun;25(3):191-4
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  • Schwannoma arising from the cervical sympathetic chain is an uncommon benign nerve tumour.
  • This tumour most often presents as an asymptomatic solitary neck mass, with slow-growing and rare malignant degeneration.
  • Definitive pre-operative diagnosis may be difficult and investigations are not usually helpful.
  • Diagnosis relies on clinical suspicion and confirmation is often obtained by means of surgical pathology.
  • Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for this tumour, with recurrence being rare.
  • Diagnostic studies included computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound which confirmed a circumscribed mass in the upper left portion of the neck next to the thyroid gland.
  • The pathologic and radiological evaluations, treatment and postoperative complications of this neoplasm are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglia, Sympathetic / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16450776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-100X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2639869
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87. Gerhard R, Nonogaki S, Fregnani JH, Soares FA, Nagai MA: NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010 Jun;65(8):757-62
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  • [Title] NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry.
  • Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined.
  • METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant), follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody.
  • RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P < 0.001).
  • A combined analysis showed higher immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 in malignant lesions (classical pattern and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas, follicular carcinomas, and metastases of thyroid carcinomas) compared to benign thyroid lesions (goiter and follicular adenomas) (P = 0.043).
  • In thyroid carcinomas, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression was significantly correlated with a more advanced TNM stage (P = 0.007) and age, metastasis, tumor extent, and size (AMES) high-risk group (P = 0.012).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid carcinomas showed increased immunohistochemical N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression compared to normal and benign thyroid lesions and is correlated with more advanced tumor stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20835551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; Thyroid cancer, papillary
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2933120
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Immunohistochemistry / NDRG1 / Thyroid Carcinoma / Thyroid Gland / Tissue Microarray
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88. Lyshchik A, Drozd V, Demidchik Y, Reiners C: Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US. Radiology; 2005 May;235(2):604-13
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively analyze the accuracy of various diagnostic criteria for cancer in solid thyroid nodules in children on the basis of gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasonographic (US) findings.
  • One hundred three consecutive pediatric patients with solid thyroid nodules were included in the study.
  • Thirty-five patients had thyroid cancer (mean age, 14.6 years +/- 2.6 [standard deviation]; range, 10-18 years), and 68 patients had benign thyroid nodules (mean age, 14.2 years +/- 2.9; range 9-18 years).
  • Three-dimensional US was used to determine the volume of thyroid gland and thyroid nodules.
  • Results of nodule cytologic and histologic examination and long-term clinical and US follow-up were used as a proof of final diagnosis.
  • Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of US criteria for thyroid cancer in lesions with diameter of 15 mm and smaller and lesions with diameter larger than 15 mm.
  • RESULTS: In thyroid nodules with diameter of 15 mm and smaller, the most reliable diagnostic criteria for malignancy were an irregular outline (sensitivity, 69.6%; specificity, 86.4%; P < .001), subcapsular location (sensitivity, 65.2%; specificity, 86.4%; P < .001), and increased intranodular vascularization (sensitivity, 69.6%; specificity, 87.9%; P < .01).
  • For thyroid nodules larger than 15 mm in diameter, the accuracy of US diagnosis was much lower than that for smaller nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: Study findings indicate that US is most helpful in diagnosis of thyroid malignancy in thyroid nodules with diameter of 15 mm and smaller, with detection of irregular tumor outline, subcapsular location, and increased intranodular vascularization.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Enhancement. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenoma / blood supply. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood supply. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15770036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Ishikawa T, Miwa M, Uchida K: Quantitation of thyroid peroxidase mRNA in peripheral blood for early detection of thyroid papillary carcinoma. Thyroid; 2006 May;16(5):435-42
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  • [Title] Quantitation of thyroid peroxidase mRNA in peripheral blood for early detection of thyroid papillary carcinoma.
  • We applied quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect tissue-specific mRNAs in circulating cancer cells for the diagnosis of early-stage cancer.
  • By Northern blotting, the thyroid peroxidase gene (TPO) was strictly expressed in the thyroid.
  • We also used RT-PCR to examine TPO and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) mRNAs in peripheral blood in 33 thyroid papillary carcinoma patients at stages I (23 cases), II (8 cases) and III (3 cases), 49 noncancer patients with benign thyroid diseases, and 20 healthy volunteers.
  • TPO mRNA was detected in 14 of 23 (61%) cases of stage I carcinoma but only 2 of 49 cases with benign thyroid disease.
  • By real-time quantitative RT-PCR, the estimated number of thyrocytes in the circulation ranged from 0.24 and 2700 cells per milliliter of whole blood in 7 of 9 patients at stages I and II, and thyrocyte number did not correlate with tumor size or serum thyroglobulin level.
  • Our results might suggest that detection and quantification of tissue-specific mRNAs (e.g., TPO) in peripheral blood could serve as a means to identify potential tumor markers at early stages of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Iodide Peroxidase / blood. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Blotting, Northern. Blotting, Southern. Child. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16756464.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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90. Pallante P, Federico A, Berlingieri MT, Bianco M, Ferraro A, Forzati F, Iaccarino A, Russo M, Pierantoni GM, Leone V, Sacchetti S, Troncone G, Santoro M, Fusco A: Loss of the CBX7 gene expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer. Cancer Res; 2008 Aug 15;68(16):6770-8
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  • [Title] Loss of the CBX7 gene expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer.
  • Using gene expression profiling, we found that the CBX7 gene was drastically down-regulated in six thyroid carcinoma cell lines versus control cells.
  • The aims of this study were to determine whether CBX7 is related to the thyroid cancer phenotype and to try to identify new tools for the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid cancer.
  • We thus evaluated CBX7 expression in various snap-frozen and paraffin-embedded thyroid carcinoma tissues of different degrees of malignancy by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
  • CBX7 expression progressively decreased with malignancy grade and neoplasia stage.
  • Indeed, it decreased in an increasing percentage of cases going from benign adenomas to papillary (PTC), follicular, and anaplastic (ATC) thyroid carcinomas.
  • This finding coincides with results obtained in rat and mouse models of thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • Restoration of CBX7 expression in thyroid cancer cells reduced growth rate, with a retention in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, suggesting that CBX7 can contribute to the proliferation of the transformed thyroid cells.
  • In conclusion, loss of CBX7 expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Repressor Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. Colony-Forming Units Assay. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Mice. Mice, Nude. Polycomb Repressive Complex 1. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18701502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CBX7 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 6.3.2.19 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
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91. Lee SM, Kwak KH: Risk factors and a predictive model for thyroid cancer in Korean women. Cancer Nurs; 2010 Jul-Aug;33(4):310-9
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  • [Title] Risk factors and a predictive model for thyroid cancer in Korean women.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence in Korean women has increased radically and is the highest in all cancer types.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer and to develop a predictive model based on these risk factors.
  • To construct a predictive model, the participants selected were 260 female outpatients diagnosed with malignant neoplasm of thyroid gland who had undergone thyroid removal surgery.
  • Nine variables, including occupation, live(d) in coastal region, family history of thyroid cancer, history of benign thyroid tumor, menopause status and weight gain, number of full-term deliveries, abortion, exercise intensity, and stress, remained as statistically significant risk factors in the stepwise regression model.
  • CONCLUSION: The predictive power of the model was relatively good, so it can be used to identify individuals at high risk for thyroid cancer.
  • Thus, it will be possible to detect thyroid cancer in its earliest stage, diminish mortality, and improve quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Logistic Models. Risk Assessment / organization & administration. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 20495449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-9804
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Morari EC, Silva JR, Guilhen AC, Cunha LL, Marcello MA, Soares FA, Vassallo J, Ward LS: Muc-1 expression may help characterize thyroid nodules but does not predict patients' outcome. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Dec;21(4):242-9
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  • [Title] Muc-1 expression may help characterize thyroid nodules but does not predict patients' outcome.
  • Our purpose was to evaluate MUC1 clinical utility in the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid cancer patients.
  • We studied the protein expression of MUC1 in 289 thyroid carcinomas and 121 noncancerous thyroid nodules.
  • There were 41 follicular carcinomas (FC) and 248 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) including 149 classic (CPTC), 20 tall cell (TCPTC) and 79 follicular variants (FVPTC).
  • MUC1 protein was identified in 80.2% PTC; 48.8% FC; 68.3% FVPTC; 70% TCPTC; 21.8% FA; 30% hyperplasias and 6% normal thyroid tissues.
  • MUC1 distinguished benign from malignant thyroid tissues (sensitivity = 89%; specificity = 53%).
  • q-PCR mRNA expression of MUC1 also distinguished malignant from benign nodules (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.0001).
  • We suggest that MUC1 expression may help differentiate follicular patterned thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Mucin-1 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21057891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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93. Guerriero E, Ferraro A, Desiderio D, Pallante P, Berlingieri MT, Iaccarino A, Palmieri E, Palombini L, Fusco A, Troncone G: UbcH10 expression on thyroid fine-needle aspirates. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Jun 25;118(3):157-65
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  • [Title] UbcH10 expression on thyroid fine-needle aspirates.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples belonging to the follicular neoplasm/suspicious for malignancy classes are controversial.
  • The authors identified UbcH10 as a marker useful in the diagnosis of several neoplasms, including thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: A series of 84 follicular neoplasm/suspicious for malignancy FNAs with histological follow-up (30 malignant) was prospectively collected.
  • RESULTS: UbcH10 and Ki-67 shared a similar pattern; although UbcH10 expression was higher in malignant than in benign lesions (P < .001), staining was sporadic, and the cutoff value derived by the ROC analysis was too low (1.25%) for routine application.
  • UbcH10 mRNA levels associated with malignant histology were significantly higher than those associated with benign histology (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: UbcH10 quantitative RT-PCR analysis, rather than immunohistochemistry, is useful to increase the detection of malignancy in thyroid FNAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes / analysis. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20544706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 6.3.2.19 / UBE2C protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes
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94. Mui MP, Tam KF, Tam FK, Ngan HY: Coexistence of struma ovarii with marked ascites and elevated CA-125 levels: case report and literature review. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 May;279(5):753-7
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  • INTRODUCTION: Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm and consists mainly of thyroid tissue.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We described a case of benign struma ovarii, presenting with the clinical features of ovarian cancer: large complex pelvic mass, gross ascites and markedly elevated serum CA-125 levels.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18807056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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95. Radestock Y, Willing C, Kehlen A, Hoang-Vu C, Hombach-Klonisch S: Relaxin enhances S100A4 and promotes growth of human thyroid carcinoma cell xenografts. Mol Cancer Res; 2010 Apr;8(4):494-506
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  • [Title] Relaxin enhances S100A4 and promotes growth of human thyroid carcinoma cell xenografts.
  • Relaxin increases cell motility and in vitro invasiveness in human thyroid carcinoma cells but the underlying molecular mechanisms of this action are largely unknown.
  • In the present study, we show that relaxin transcriptionally upregulates the calcium-binding protein S100A4 (metastasin) and increases the cytosolic 10-kDa monomer and the 20-kDa dimer form of S100A4 in human thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • We have shown previously the expression of the insulin-like family member relaxin in human thyroid carcinoma tissues but not in benign thyroid tissues.
  • Human thyroid carcinoma tissues expressing relaxin also stained positive for S100A4.
  • In nude mouse experiments, human thyroid carcinoma cell transfectants with constitutive expression of relaxin generated large and fast-growing tumors with significantly increased numbers of proliferating cells.
  • We provide evidence in our cell model that the relaxin target protein S100A4 secreted by the thyroid carcinoma transfectants may not only enhance tumor cell motility but also promote xenograft angiogenesis as determined by the higher density of tumor microvessels and the angiogenic potential of S100A4 in in vitro tube formation assays.
  • In conclusion, we have identified S100A4 as a major mediator of the actions of relaxin in thyroid carcinoma cell motility and in vivo thyroid tumor angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Relaxin / metabolism. S100 Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Movement / physiology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Graft Survival / physiology. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Microcirculation / drug effects. Microcirculation / physiology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / genetics. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / physiopathology. RNA Interference. RNA, Messenger / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Transplantation, Heterologous. Up-Regulation / drug effects. Up-Regulation / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 20332215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-3125
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / S100 Proteins; 142662-27-9 / S100A4 protein, human; 9002-69-1 / Relaxin
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96. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Yasuoka H, Kakudo K, Inohara H, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Galectin-3 expression in follicular tumours: an immunohistochemical study of its use as a marker of follicular carcinoma. Pathology; 2005 Aug;37(4):296-8
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  • AIMS: Galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside binding family of lectins, has been regarded as a useful tool for discriminating malignant tumours from benign nodules of the thyroid, including the distinction between follicular carcinoma and adenoma.
  • However, there are follicular tumours with unclear vascular or capsular invasion, which makes diagnosis more difficult.
  • METHODS: We immunohistochemically investigated galectin-3 expression in 260 cases of follicular tumour with various degrees of vascular or capsular invasion classified into four categories.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that galectin-3 plays a role in the transformation of follicular tumours from benign to malignant; however, when diagnosing follicular tumours, the presence of this protein should not be required for diagnosing malignant transformation in all cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16194828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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97. De Falco M, Oliva G, Ragusa M, Misso C Jr, Parmeggiani D, Sperlongano P, Calzolari F, Puxeddu E, Misso C, Marzano LA, Barbarisi A, Parmeggiani U, Avenia N: Surgical treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a retrospective study. G Chir; 2008 Apr;29(4):152-8
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a retrospective study.
  • INTRODUCTION: We carried out a retrospective analysis of our experience in the management of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (DTC), in order to better define prognostic factors (age, gender, histological type, stage) and outline a standard procedure, where it's possible, for surgical treatment.
  • The multivariate analysis evidences the most important variables, i.e. age > 45 ys, tumor of intermediate malignancy, with size 1.5 cm, operative M+, significantly condition the prognosis, noticeably getting worse it, independently by the kind of carried out operation.
  • CONCLUSION: Our present therapeutic choices are: 1. total thyroidectomy in the treatment of the apparently benign pathology when bilaterally with spread; the checking at the final histological exam of a cancer makes however think adequate the carried out operation; 2. lobo-isthmectomy in the treatment of unilateral benign pathology or with suspect FNAB for follicular neoplasm; the histological checking of a cancer makes think the operation adequate only in presence of favourable prognostic parameters, but in presence even of just one unfavourable variable, we consider necessary the totalization; 3. total thyroidectomy in presence of a certain or strongly suspected preoperative diagnosis of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18419979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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98. Papi G, Rossi G, Corsello SM, Corrado S, Fadda G, Di Donato C, Pontecorvi A: Nodular disease and parafollicular C-cell distribution: results from a prospective and retrospective clinico-pathological study on the thyroid isthmus. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jan;162(1):137-43
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  • [Title] Nodular disease and parafollicular C-cell distribution: results from a prospective and retrospective clinico-pathological study on the thyroid isthmus.
  • OBJECTIVE: The isthmus represents a peculiar, as yet partially unexplored, thyroid gland area.
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess i) the prevalence and clinico-pathological features of solitary thyroid isthmic nodules (STIN);.
  • ii) the frequency of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) arising from the isthmus; and iii) the C-cell distribution in the isthmus of patients with MTC and benign nodular thyroid disease (NTD).
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-C(t) antibodies on lateral lobes and isthmi of 50 benign NTD and 50 MTC cases.
  • All patients had the neoplasm located in lateral thyroid lobes, none in the isthmus.
  • C cells were disclosed in lateral thyroid lobes of 100% MTC and 77% benign NTD patients; isthmi were free of C cells in either group.

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  • (PMID = 19793761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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99. Karger S, Berger K, Eszlinger M, Tannapfel A, Dralle H, Paschke R, Führer D: Evaluation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in benign and malignant thyroid pathologies. Thyroid; 2005 Sep;15(9):997-1003
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  • [Title] Evaluation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in benign and malignant thyroid pathologies.
  • Impairment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) function through a dominant negative PAX-8/PPAR-gamma fusion gene or other events resulting in wild-type PPAR-gamma downregulation has been implicated in malignant thyroid cell transformation.
  • The aim of our study was to perform a systematic evaluation of PPAR-gamma mRNA and protein expression in normal thyroid tissue as opposed to benign thyroid pathologies of different functional status and thyroid malignancy, to gain further insights into a putative physiological role of PPAR-gamma in the thyroid and to define whether PPAR-gamma could serve as a marker of thyroid cell differentiation.
  • Ten cold benign (CTN) and 10 toxic (TTN) thyroid nodules and corresponding normal thyroid tissues, 10 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), 10 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) and 8 Graves' disease (GD) thyroids were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR (PAX-8/PPAR-gamma fusion gene).
  • When comparing benign nodular and normal thyroid tissue of the same patient no significant difference in PPAR-gamma mRNA expression was observed.
  • In contrast, PPAR-gamma mRNA expression was downregulated in 9 of 10 PTC and all GD samples, whereby at least 4 fold downregulation (compared with normal and benign nodular thyroid tissues) was observed in the latter.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed an increased, patchy PPAR-gamma nuclear staining in CTNs and TTNs and only faint staining in the corresponding normal thyroid tissues.
  • No PAX-8/PPAR-gamma rearrangements were detected in any of the 68 thyroid tissue samples.
  • In conclusion PPAR-gamma mRNA and protein expression levels are not concordant in benign thyroid nodular disease.
  • Furthermore there is no clear-cut association of PPAR-gamma mRNA expression with follicular thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Absence of a PAX-8/PPAR-gamma fusion gene in the series of 68 thyroid samples is in agreement with the suggestion of PAX-8/PPAR-gamma rearrangement being restricted to a subset of follicular thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] PPAR gamma / biosynthesis. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Apoptosis / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Graves Disease / genetics. Graves Disease / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Diseases.
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  • (PMID = 16187907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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100. Fukushima M, Ito Y, Hirokawa M, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Akasu H, Shimizu K, Miyauchi A: Excellent prognosis of patients with nonhereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma with ultrasonographic findings of follicular tumor or benign nodule. World J Surg; 2009 May;33(5):963-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Excellent prognosis of patients with nonhereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma with ultrasonographic findings of follicular tumor or benign nodule.
  • BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) accounts for only 1.4% of all thyroid malignancies in Japan.
  • Generally, MTC shows ultrasonographic findings typical of thyroid carcinoma.
  • However, in our experience, some MTC may be diagnosed as a follicular tumor or a benign nodule on ultrasonography because ultrasonographic findings of malignancy are lacking.
  • Of these patients, 54 were diagnosed as having thyroid carcinoma (malignant, or M-type) but the remaining 23 were diagnosed as having follicular tumor or benign nodule (benign, or B-type) on ultrasonography.
  • RESULTS: Clinically apparent lateral node metastasis, extrathyroid extension, and extranodal tumor extension were observed in 37%, 17%, and 11% of M-type patients, respectively, but none of the B-type patients showed any of these features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19198929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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