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1. Türköz HK, Oksüz H, Yurdakul Z, Ozcan D: Galectin-3 expression in tumor progression and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):92-6
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 expression in tumor progression and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Galectin-3 expression has been evaluated in various malignant neoplasms to determine its effectiveness in differential diagnosis from benign lesions and its effects on carcinogenesis.
  • There are few and somewhat controversial results regarding its changes through cancer progression in thyroid malignancies.
  • We studied the presence of galectin-3 expression immunohistochemically and its relation with tumor invasiveness and lymph node metastasis in 89 cases of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Galectin-3 overexpression is more profound in early stages of papillary carcinoma, and its expression intensity decreases during tumor progression.
  • This finding is consistent with roles for galectin-3 in cell adhesion to other tumor cells and the matrix.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aging / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Paraffin Embedding. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18581271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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2. Rosário PW, Tavares Júnior WC, Biscolla RP, Purisch S, Maciel RM: [Usefulness of neck ultrasonography in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Jun;51(4):593-600
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of neck ultrasonography in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Emprego da ultra-sonografia cervical no seguimento de pacientes com carcinoma diferenciado de tireóide.
  • Neck ultrasonography (US) is recommended for the assessment of all patients with thyroid carcinoma after initial therapy, since even low-risk patients with undetectable stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) may present cervical metastases.
  • In the absence of these characteristics, a round shape and the absence of an echogenic hilum are "suspicious" findings, whereas elongated lymph nodes with a visible echogenic hilum are considered benign.
  • Doppler flow analysis helps with the differential diagnosis, usually revealing peripheral or mixed hypervascularization in malignant cases.
  • US is also useful before thyroidectomy, even contributing in some cases to modify the surgical planning, and before ablation for the measurement of thyroid remnants and detection of persistent lymph node metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Neck / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17684621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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3. Mitra S, Jha M, Gandhi K: Does thyroxine suppression therapy help to rationalize surgery in benign euthyroid nodules? Indian J Nucl Med; 2010 Apr;25(2):57-61
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  • [Title] Does thyroxine suppression therapy help to rationalize surgery in benign euthyroid nodules?
  • BACKGROUND: Nodular thyroid disease is a common endocrine problem.
  • Most thyroid nodules are benign hyperplastic lesions, but 5-20% may be a true neoplasm.
  • It is important to differentiate a benign from a malignant nodule early as the approach to treatment in the two is radically different.
  • Early institution of medical management in a benign nodule may obviate the need for surgery.
  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The present work aims to study the efficacy of thyroxine suppression in the management of benign thyroid nodules.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study on patients presenting with thyroid nodule was undertaken.
  • The diagnostic work-up included a clinical evaluation, thyroid function tests, thyroid scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • Based on the investigations, patients were segregated in Group A (toxic nodular goiter), Group B (benign euthyroid nodule) and Group C (malignant nodule).
  • CONCLUSION: The response rate of benign euthyroid nodule to thyroxine suppression was 76% in the present study.

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  • (PMID = 21188065.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of nuclear medicine : IJNM : the official journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3003285
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Benign / diagnosis / thyroid nodule / thyroxine suppression
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4. Kameyama K, Ito K, Takami H: [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1973-8
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  • [Title] [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor].
  • True benign neoplasm of the thyroid gland is only follicular adenoma, which is a tumor derived from follicular cells.
  • The architectural pattern of follicular adenoma varies from trabecular to macrofollicular, and in most instances more than one architectural pattern is observed in one tumor.
  • Adenomatous goiter, a hyperplastic lesion of follicles, is the most common tumorous lesion of thyroid gland.
  • The gland is distorted with a nodular surface.
  • Mature or immature teratoma is also observed in the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18018557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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5. de Melo Martins PC, Parise Junior O, Pereira Hors C, Villela Miguel RE, da Costa Andrade VC, Garicochea B: C8orf4/TC-1 (thyroid cancer-1) gene expression in thyroid cancer and goiter. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2007;69(2):127-30
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  • [Title] C8orf4/TC-1 (thyroid cancer-1) gene expression in thyroid cancer and goiter.
  • BACKGROUND: The expression of the thyroid cancer-1(TC-1) gene seems to be related with malignant transformation in the thyroid tissue.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the potential use of TC-1 gene expression as a marker of malignancy in thyroid nodules.
  • METHODS: A total of 92 frozen thyroid samples were studied, including 46 samples from thyroid nodules (19 papillary carcinomas, 1 follicular carcinoma, 24 adenomatous goiters, and 2 follicular adenomas) and 46 samples from normal surrounding thyroid tissue.
  • There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) between TC-1 gene expression in benign thyroid lesions (1.07 +/- 0.10) and carcinomas (2.73 +/- 0.51).
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that TC-1 gene expression may be useful in the differential diagnosis of goiters and thyroid papillary carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17167272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / C8orf4 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Antisense; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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6. Gonçalves AJ, Carvalho LH, Serdeira K, Nakai MY, Malavasi TR: Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):289-91
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells.
  • In the thyroid, the appearance of cancer has been correlated with deletion of these genes.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the frequencies of these genes in patients with benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional clinical trial carried out in the Head and Neck Surgery Division, Faculdade de Medicina da Santa Casa de São Paulo.
  • METHODS: Samples of thyroid tissue were collected from 32 patients and divided into two groups: benign tumor (A) and malignant tumor (B).
  • CONCLUSION: In this study, there was no relationship between the presence of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and the benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18094897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1516-3180
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.5.1.- / glutathione S-transferase T1; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; EC 2.5.1.18 / glutathione S-transferase M1
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7. Liu Z, Liu D, Bojdani E, El-Naggar AK, Vasko V, Xing M: IQGAP1 plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Dec 15;16(24):6009-18
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  • [Title] IQGAP1 plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to explore the role of IQGAP1 in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer and its potential as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target in this cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined IQGAP1 copy gain and its relationship with clinicopathologic outcomes of thyroid cancer and investigated its role in cell invasion and molecules involved in the process.
  • RESULTS: We found IQGAP1 copy number (CN) gain ≥ 3 in 1 of 30 (3%), 24 of 74 (32%), 44 of 107 (41%), 8 of 16 (50%), and 27 of 41 (66%) of benign thyroid tumor, follicular variant papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC), follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), tall cell papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and anaplastic thyroid cancer, respectively, in the increasing order of invasiveness of these tumors.
  • A similar tumor distribution trend of CN ≥ 4 was also seen.
  • The siRNA knockdown of IQGAP1 dramatically inhibited thyroid cancer cell invasion and colony formation.
  • This provided a mechanism for the invasive role of IQGAP1 in thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IQGAP1, through genetic copy gain, plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer and may represent a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this cancer.

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20959410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113507-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / ras GTPase-Activating Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS242709; NLM/ PMC3005072
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8. Ugolini C, Giannini R, Lupi C, Salvatore G, Miccoli P, Proietti A, Elisei R, Santoro M, Basolo F: Presence of BRAF V600E in very early stages of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2007 May;17(5):381-8
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  • [Title] Presence of BRAF V600E in very early stages of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Extremely small (often 0.5-4 mm) incidental thyroid malignancies (incidental microcarcinomas, IM) might be discovered at histological examination after surgery in patients who were operated on for benign thyroid conditions.
  • Morphologically, these malignancies have virtually always features of differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • DESIGN: The incidence of BRAF(V600E) was studied in 85 microdissected cases of IM detected in two series of 334 and 398 patients operated on for benign thyroid disease in 2005 and in 2006, respectively.
  • IM ranged in size from 0.5 to 4 mm and all featured cytology consistent with the diagnosis of PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17542667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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9. Ko MS, Lee JH, Shong YK, Gong GY, Baek JH: Normal and abnormal sonographic findings at the thyroidectomy sites in postoperative patients with thyroid malignancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jun;194(6):1596-609
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  • [Title] Normal and abnormal sonographic findings at the thyroidectomy sites in postoperative patients with thyroid malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: We describe typical sonography characteristics of locally recurrent tumors after thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer and the benign conditions mimicking tumor recurrence, with an emphasis on the differential diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Ultrasound is an effective imaging technique not only for the detection of locally recurrent tumors but also for the differential diagnosis of locally recurrent tumors and other abnormalities mimicking tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20489102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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10. Choi YJ, Yun JS, Kim DH: Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm. Endocr J; 2009;56(3):383-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and ultrasound (US) features of malignancy in patients using cytological results of follicular neoplasm (FN) in the thyroid.
  • Patient histopathology, age, sex, tumor size, and US characteristics and the color flow pattern of the lesions were analyzed and compared between benign and carcinomas.
  • Benign included 78 FA, 8 atypical FA, and 3 Hurthle cell adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 19164864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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11. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):767-74
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with thyroid nodules have indeterminate or suspicious fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy results.
  • We hypothesized that genes that regulate cell-cycle progression would be differentially expressed in malignant versus benign thyroid nodules and could serve as diagnostic markers and markers of disease aggressiveness.
  • METHODS: We used a cDNA array with 96 cell-cycle regulatory genes to identify differentially expressed genes in pooled benign versus malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Genes up- or down-regulated by more than 2-fold in malignant thyroid neoplasms were further evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 95 patients with hyperplastic nodules (n = 19), follicular adenoma (n = 19), follicular thyroid cancer (n = 19), the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19), and papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19).
  • RESULTS: cDNA array analysis showed that cyclin B1, MCM5, MCM7, RAD9, ubiquitin C, CDK6, SKP2, and APAF1 were up-regulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative PCR showed that MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 mRNA expression were significantly higher in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms (< or = 0.0012).
  • The level of MCM7 mRNA expression was higher in T4 than in T1, T2, and T3 differentiated thyroid cancers (P < 0.0127).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 are overexpressed in malignant thyroid neoplasms of follicular cell origin.
  • These genes may be useful markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms as an adjunct to FNA biopsy.
  • MCM7 mRNA expression is higher in locally invasive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression. Humans. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16547620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MCM5 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 139691-42-2 / rad9 protein; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM7 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7
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12. Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kobatake S, Satomura S, Maruyama M, Tajiri J, Kato R: Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody. Rinsho Byori; 2007 May;55(5):428-33
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  • [Title] Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody.
  • Thyroglobulin is produced only by thyroid follicular cells, and has a molecular weight of 660,000 and carbohydrate content of approximately 10%.
  • The composition of carbohydrate chains on thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma has been reported to differ from that in normal thyroid tissue.
  • In this study, heterogeneities of carbohydrate chains on thyroglobulin obtained from thyroid tissues were investigated by competitive reaction between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin monoclonal antibody.
  • The ratio of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin to thyroglobulin was significantly lower in thyroid carcinoma than in normal thyroid tissue, Graves' disease and benign thyroid tumor.
  • However, no differences between malignant and benign tissues were observed with the other lectins tested.
  • Differences in carbohydrate chain on thyroglobulin were observed between malignant and benign thyroid tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Lectins / immunology. Thyroglobulin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Humans. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17593687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Lectins; 0 / anti-thyroglobulin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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13. Ezon I, Zilbert N, Pinkney L, Wei JJ, Malik R, Nadler EP: A large struma ovarii tumor removed via laparoscopy in a 16-year-old adolescent. J Pediatr Surg; 2007 Aug;42(8):E19-22
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  • [Title] A large struma ovarii tumor removed via laparoscopy in a 16-year-old adolescent.
  • Struma ovarii is rare ovarian tumor that is characterized by the presence of at least 50% thyroid tissue on histologic examination.
  • This usually benign neoplasm is predominantly found in women between the ages of 40 and 60 years and infrequently in the pediatric age group.
  • We conclude that the diagnosis of struma ovarii should be considered in adolescent girls presenting with large cystic ovarian masses and that a laparoscopic approach to management is the treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovariectomy / methods. Struma Ovarii / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17706482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Tysome JR, Chandra A, Chang F, Puwanarajah P, Elliott M, Caroll P, Powrie J, Hubbard JG, Clarke SE, Jeannon JP, Simo R: Improving prediction of malignancy of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Br J Surg; 2009 Dec;96(12):1400-5
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  • [Title] Improving prediction of malignancy of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is essential in the investigation of thyroid nodules.
  • The British Thyroid Association guidelines recommend clarification of whether follicular nodules are probable follicular neoplasms that require surgical excision.
  • This study assessed the value of the subclassification of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules into either follicular neoplasms or other pathology.
  • METHODS: The cytology reports of all thyroid FNAs performed between November 2005 and December 2007 at a single institution reported as Thy 3 (follicular lesions) were reviewed.
  • They were reclassified as Thy 3A (probable follicular neoplasm) or Thy 3B (probable non-neoplastic lesion), and subsequently correlated with final clinical outcome to determine the predictive value of this subclassification.
  • If Thy 3A were to predict malignancy and Thy 3B benign disease, the sensitivity of the classification was 88 per cent, with a specificity of 55 per cent and negative predictive value of 91 per cent.
  • CONCLUSION: Subclassification of Thy 3 nodules into Thy 3A and Thy 3B improves the assessment of risk for thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19918854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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15. Boi F, Maurelli I, Pinna G, Atzeni F, Piga M, Lai ML, Mariotti S: Calcitonin measurement in wash-out fluid from fine needle aspiration of neck masses in patients with primary and metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Jun;92(6):2115-8
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  • [Title] Calcitonin measurement in wash-out fluid from fine needle aspiration of neck masses in patients with primary and metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of calcitonin (CT) assay in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) wash-out fluid alone or combined with cytology in the presurgical study of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) patients with thyroid nodules (TNs) and of suspicious neck MTC recurrences/metastases.
  • Of the 15 negative CT-FNAB suspicious masses (eight TNs, six LNs, and one LR), five displayed a benign lesion at histology.
  • The remaining 10 cases, all with benign cytology, were not operated on, and no evidence of MTC was detected at follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Calcitonin / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Body Fluids / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17405835.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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16. Mathur SR, Kapila K, Verma K: Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of goiter. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Apr;48(2):166-9
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  • [Title] Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of goiter.
  • Enlargement of the thyroid gland is a common occurrence in most parts of the world especially in the iodine-deficient goiter belt areas.
  • Vast majority of these lesions are benign but they invariably lead to a series of investigations among which FNAC plays a pivotal role.
  • Although many studies have reported diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in detecting neoplasms, there have been few studies where the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of goiter along with their diagnostic pitfalls has been evaluated.
  • The present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of FNAC in diagnosis of goiter and to highlight its limitations and diagnostic pitfalls.
  • They included 733 cases where the cytological diagnosis was goiter or suggestive of goiter along with 38 cases in which the histological diagnosis was goiter while the cytological diagnosis was cystic change or neoplasm.
  • In 34 cases (20.23%) no diagnosis could be offered because of cystic change.
  • A false positive cytologic diagnosis of neoplasm was made in 4 cases.
  • In 24 cases neoplasms were initially missed on FNAC of which 10 cases could be detected on review while 5 cases were considered unsatisfactory.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Humans. India

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  • (PMID = 16758655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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17. Nosé V, Volante M, Papotti M: Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: an update. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(1):1-8
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: an update.
  • Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT) is a rare thyroid tumor of follicular cell origin with a trabecular pattern of growth and marked intratrabecular hyalinization.
  • This tumor is known to share morphological and architectural similarities with paraganglioma and medullary thyroid carcinoma, as well as the nuclear features and RET/PTC1 translocations of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Whether the presence of RET alterations in HTT are sufficient molecular proof of its relationship with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is still to be defined.
  • Of great interest is the characteristic strong peripheral cytoplasmic and membranous staining of the tumor cells with MIB1 immunostain, not seen in any other thyroid neoplasm.
  • Although cases of malignant HTT have been recorded, HTT should be considered a benign neoplasm or, at most, a neoplasm of extremely low malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calcitonin / analysis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Chromogranin A / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Paraganglioma / pathology. Sex Characteristics

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  • (PMID = 17960500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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18. Kim TY, Kim WB, Ryu JS, Gong G, Hong SJ, Shong YK: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in thyroid from positron emission tomogram (PET) for evaluation in cancer patients: high prevalence of malignancy in thyroid PET incidentaloma. Laryngoscope; 2005 Jun;115(6):1074-8
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  • [Title] 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in thyroid from positron emission tomogram (PET) for evaluation in cancer patients: high prevalence of malignancy in thyroid PET incidentaloma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of incidental thyroid F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomogram (PET) scan for evaluation in cancer patients and the role of standard uptake value (SUV) measurement in differentiation of thyroid malignancy from benign disease.
  • METHODS: Four thousand one hundred thirty-six subjects had been given FDG-PET scan for evaluation of known malignancies not associated with thyroid.
  • The maximum SUVs of the thyroid lesions were recorded and reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-four (2.2%) were identified to have focal (n = 45, 1.1%) or diffuse (n = 45, 1.1%) thyroid FDG uptake.
  • The incidence of focal or diffuse thyroid FDG uptake was higher in women (2.7% or 1.9%) than in men (0.4% or 0.7%).
  • Cytologic diagnosis was available in 32 of 45 focal thyroid FDG uptakes.
  • In 16 (50%) patients, the tumor was found to be malignant; 14 were papillary thyroid carcinoma (surgically confirmed in 7 cases), 2 were metastatic tumor from breast and esophagus.
  • Sixteen were cytologically diagnosed as follicular cell lesions: follicular neoplasm (n = 2), nodular hyperplasia (n = 7), indeterminate follicular lesion (n = 7).
  • There was no significant difference in maximum SUV between benign and malignant nodules.
  • From 45 patients with diffuse thyroid FDG uptake, presumptive diagnosis of chronic thyroiditis was possible in 34 patients by clinical and laboratory findings.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that a cytologic diagnosis of focal thyroid FDG-PET incidentaloma regardless of SUV is mandatory considering the very high prevalence of thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Thyroiditis

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  • (PMID = 15933524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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19. Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kobatake S, Satomura S, Maruyama M, Kameko F, Tajiri J, Kato R: The clinical utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum for distinguishing benign from malignant conditions of the thyroid. Clin Chim Acta; 2007 Apr;379(1-2):101-4
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  • [Title] The clinical utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum for distinguishing benign from malignant conditions of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Traditionally, the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma consists of periodic withdrawal from L-T4-suppressive therapy to allow performance of a highly sensitive serum Tg measurement to detect recurrences.
  • We investigated Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratios in serum to evaluate in usefulness for detection of thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The study was conducted on 93 serum sample from 23 healthy volunteers, 32 patients with benign thyroid tumor, 28 patients with thyroid carcinoma without metastasis, and 10 patients with thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis.
  • RESULTS: The Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratio in patients with thyroid carcinoma was significantly lower than in patients with benign thyroid tumor with serum thyroglobulin concentration >200 ng/ml.
  • Among cases of thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis, Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratios were significantly lower than in patient with thyroid carcinoma without metastasis and those with benign tumor regardless of serum thyroglobulin concentration.
  • CONCLUSION: Measurement of Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum may be useful for distinguishing between thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / pathology. Plant Lectins / immunology. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Binding, Competitive. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoassay. Male

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  • (PMID = 17270168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-8981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Plant Lectins; 0 / lentil lectin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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20. Braunschweig T, Kaserer K, Chung JY, Bilke S, Krizman D, Knezevic V, Hewitt SM: Proteomic expression profiling of thyroid neoplasms. Proteomics Clin Appl; 2007 Mar;1(3):264-71
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  • [Title] Proteomic expression profiling of thyroid neoplasms.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm with multiple histologic subtypes, each associated with different treatments and outcomes.
  • Differentiating benign neoplasms such as follicular adenomas from malignant entities such as follicular carcinomas and papillary carcinoma can be challenging.
  • To define the proteomic profile of different thyroid tumors, we screened an antibody array of 330 features against five thyroid neoplasms: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and medullary carcinoma as well as normal thyroid epithelium.
  • Eight candidate biomarkers; c-erbB-2, Stat5a, Annexin IV, IL-11, RARα, FGF7, Caspase 9, and phospho-c-myc were identified as differentially expressed on the antibody array, and validated with immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, with a total of 144 samples of the same variety of thyroid neoplasms.
  • By using an antibody array as a discovery platform and a tissue microarray as a first step in validation on a large number of specimens, we have identified new markers that have potential utility in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
  • (PMID = 21136677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1862-8346
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteomics. Clinical applications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteomics Clin Appl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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21. Mathur A, Weng J, Moses W, Steinberg SM, Rahbari R, Kitano M, Khanafshar E, Ljung BM, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: A prospective study evaluating the accuracy of using combined clinical factors and candidate diagnostic markers to refine the accuracy of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. Surgery; 2010 Dec;148(6):1170-6; discussion 1176-7
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  • [Title] A prospective study evaluating the accuracy of using combined clinical factors and candidate diagnostic markers to refine the accuracy of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of fine needle aspiration biopsies of the thyroid have inconclusive results.
  • We conducted a prospective trial to determine whether clinical and molecular markers could be used in combination to improve the accuracy of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • METHODS: Clinical, tumor genotyping for common somatic mutations (BRAF V600E, NRAS, KRAS, RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and NTRK1), and the gene expression levels of 6 candidate diagnostic markers were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods in 341 patients to determine whether they could distinguish reliably benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms, and a scoring model was derived.
  • The overall accuracy of the scoring model, including these 3 variables, to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid tumors was 91%, including 67% for the indeterminate and 77% for the suspicious FNA subgroups.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Ethnic Groups. Female. Genes, ras / genetics. Humans. Male. Medical History Taking. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Mutation. Prospective Studies. RNA / genetics. RNA / isolation & purification. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Reproducibility of Results. Thyroidectomy / statistics & numerical data

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  • [Copyright] Published by Mosby, Inc.
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  • [ErratumIn] Surgery. 2012 Feb;151(2):343. Rahabari, Reza [corrected to Rahbari, Reza]
  • (PMID = 21134548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 63231-63-0 / RNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS240002; NLM/ PMC3052943
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22. Chin C, Franklin J, Sowerby L, Fung K, Yoo J: Stratification of intermediate-risk fine-needle aspiration biopsies. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Aug;39(4):393-6
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  • METHODS: A database of 665 patients who had received thyroid surgery between 2001 and 2007 was created.
  • RESULTS: Intermediate-risk patients were significantly more likely to have a benign nodule if the width to length (W/L) ratio of their nodule was < 0.6.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Risk Assessment / methods. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20643004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1916-0216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of otolaryngology - head & neck surgery = Le Journal d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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23. Ito Y, Higashiyama T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Prognosis of patients with benign thyroid diseases accompanied by incidental papillary carcinoma undetectable on preoperative imaging tests. World J Surg; 2007 Aug;31(8):1672-6
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  • [Title] Prognosis of patients with benign thyroid diseases accompanied by incidental papillary carcinoma undetectable on preoperative imaging tests.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite the recent wide availability of ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy, endocrine surgeons often encounter incidental papillary carcinoma (IPC), that is a papillary carcinoma that had gone undetected by preoperative imaging studies but was identified by pathological examination of surgical specimens resected for benign thyroid diseases.
  • METHODS: The present study was developed to investigate the prognoses of 317 patients who underwent surgery for benign diseases involving IPC in comparison with the prognoses of 1,674 patients with clinically apparent papillary carcinoma detected preoperatively and diagnosed.
  • RESULTS: None of the patients underwent further surgery such as completion total thyroidectomy and node dissection immediately after the diagnosis of IPC.
  • None of the patients have died of thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because IPC is associated with good prognosis, further surgery, such as completion total thyroidectomy or lymph node dissection immediately after the diagnosis of IPC is not necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome. Unnecessary Procedures

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24. Mihai R, Parker AJ, Roskell D, Sadler GP: One in four patients with follicular thyroid cytology (THY3) has a thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2009 Jan;19(1):33-7
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  • [Title] One in four patients with follicular thyroid cytology (THY3) has a thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is the cornerstone of assessment of thyroid nodules.
  • Cytological criteria for benign (THY2) and malignant (THY5) aspirates are well established and reliable.
  • When cytology suggests a follicular neoplasm (THY3), only formal histological assessment can differentiate between benign and malignant lesions.
  • The objective of this study was to determine the factors predictive of malignancy in thyroid nodules when cytological assessment is restricted to euthyroid patients living in an area without endemic goiter who undergo routine diagnostic lobectomy once the FNA raises the suspicion of a follicular neoplasm.
  • METHOD: Retrospective review of histological and clinical data in a cohort of patients with a palpable thyroid nodule and THY3 cytology.
  • RESULTS: Between January 2000 and December 2007, 1981 patients (346 males and 1635 females) underwent 2809 thyroid FNAs.
  • Histology demonstrated thyroid carcinomas in 57 patients (31 follicular carcinomas, 11 Hurthle cell carcinomas, 11 papillary carcinomas, 1 medullary thyroid carcinoma, 1 poorly differentiated thyroid cancer, 1 lymphoma, and 1 metastatic renal carcinoma).
  • Benign tumors were found in 144 patients with follicular adenomas (n = 76), Hurthle cell adenomas (n = 33), multinodular goiter (n = 13), adenomatoid nodules (n = 15), colloid nodules (n = 4), and thyroiditis (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSION: One in four patients with cytological features of a follicular neoplasm has a thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Thyroidectomy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18976164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Zou M, Al-Baradie RS, Al-Hindi H, Farid NR, Shi Y: S100A4 (Mts1) gene overexpression is associated with invasion and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Br J Cancer; 2005 Nov 28;93(11):1277-84
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  • [Title] S100A4 (Mts1) gene overexpression is associated with invasion and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Tumour cell invasion and metastasis are the hallmark of malignant neoplasm.
  • We previously identified S100A4 as a candidate gene involved in anaplastic thyroid cancer metastasis by microarray analysis.
  • To further determine whether S100A4 overexpression is associated with thyroid tumour invasion and metastasis, in the present study, we examined S100A4 gene expression in six benign multinodular goitres (MNG) and 28 matched samples of adjacent normal thyroid tissue (N), primary (T) and metastatic (M) papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis.
  • No S100A4 staining was observed in normal thyroid tissues and simple MNG.
  • These data suggest that overexpression of S100A4 is associated with thyroid tumour invasion and metastasis and it may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
  • [MeSH-minor] Case-Control Studies. Gene Expression Profiling. Goiter / genetics. Goiter / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16265347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361511
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26. Jesneck JL, Mukherjee S, Yurkovetsky Z, Clyde M, Marks JR, Lokshin AE, Lo JY: Do serum biomarkers really measure breast cancer? BMC Cancer; 2009 May 28;9:164
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  • The classifiers distinguished normal tissue from benign lesions similarly at AUC = 0.80 +/- 0.05.
  • However, the serum proteins of benign and malignant lesions were indistinguishable (AUC = 0.55 +/- 0.06).
  • The classification tasks of normal vs. cancer and normal vs. benign selected the same top feature: MIF, which suggests that the biomarkers indicated inflammatory response rather than cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19476629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 84955; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA-112437-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2696469
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27. Butros R, Boyvat F, Ozyer U, Bilezikci B, Arat Z, Aytekin C, Güvener N, Demirhan B: Management of infracentimetric thyroid nodules with respect to ultrasonographic features. Eur Radiol; 2007 May;17(5):1358-64
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  • [Title] Management of infracentimetric thyroid nodules with respect to ultrasonographic features.
  • An assumed indolent course of thyroid microcarcinomas and concerns about the cost-effectiveness of treatment raise management issues.
  • Of these, 473 (94%) were benign, 13 (2.6%) were suspicious for malignancy, 13 (2.6%) were malignant, and 4 (0.8%) were follicular neoplasms.
  • When the postoperative histological results of ten patients with a final diagnosis of papillary carcinoma were evaluated for extent of disease, seven (70%) had one or more of the findings of multifocality, metastatic lymph nodes, or extracapsular involvement, thus proving their clinical significance.
  • Our results indicate that thyroid microcarcinomas should be taken seriously if there are possible signs of malignancy on US.
  • With respect to the high benign nature of the micronodules (94%), the number of interventional procedures should be lowered by making assessments based on a combination of US features including lymphadenopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 17021705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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28. Mills SC, Haq M, Smellie WJ, Harmer C: Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid: Retrospective review of 62 patients treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1946 and 2003. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Mar;35(3):230-4
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  • [Title] Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid: Retrospective review of 62 patients treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1946 and 2003.
  • INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have included Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) as a variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma in analysis of clinical outcome and others have failed to adequately distinguish between benign and malignant Hürthle cell neoplasms.
  • The aim of this study was to report our experience of histologically confirmed malignant HCC, identifying patient, tumour and treatment factors that predict outcome.
  • Lymph node status (p=0.008), presence of metastases at diagnosis (p=0.005) and tumour stage (p=0.009) were independent predictors of DFS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HCC appears to be a separate entity from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), with a more aggressive disease profile.
  • Lymph node status, tumour stage, and the presence of metastases are independent predictors of DFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18722077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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29. Kurli M, Reddy S, Tena LB, Pavlick AC, Finger PT: Whole body positron emission tomography/computed tomography staging of metastatic choroidal melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol; 2005 Aug;140(2):193-9
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  • Two were imaged before treatment of their primary tumor.
  • The mean time from initial diagnosis to metastasis was 47 months (range 0 to 154).
  • Cardiac, brain, thyroid, and posterior abdominal wall lesions (12.5%) were also noted.
  • PET/computed tomography imaging also detected benign lesions of the bone and lymph nodes in three patients (15%).
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / pathology. Choroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Melanoma / radionuclide imaging. Melanoma / secondary. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Whole-Body Counting / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15992753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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30. Faquin WC: Diagnosis and reporting of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions by fine needle aspiration. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Mar;3(1):82-5
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and reporting of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions by fine needle aspiration.
  • Over the past 3 decades, fine needle aspiration (FNA) has developed as the most accurate and cost-effective initial method for guiding the clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules.
  • Thyroid FNA specimens containing follicular-patterned lesions are the most commonly encountered and include various forms of benign thyroid nodules, follicular carcinomas, and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Based primarily upon the cytoarchitectural pattern, FNA is used as a screening test for follicular-patterned lesions to identify the majority of patients with benign nodules who can be managed without surgical intervention.
  • The terminology and reporting of thyroid FNA results have been problematic due to significant variation between laboratories, but the recent multidisciplinary NCI Thyroid FNA State of the Science Conference has provided a seven-tiered diagnostic solution.
  • A key element of this approach is the category "atypical cells of undetermined significance" (ACUS) which is used for those aspirates which cannot be easily classified as benign, suspicious, or malignant.
  • Lesions in this category represent approximately 3-6% of thyroid FNAs and have a risk of malignancy intermediate between the "benign" category and the "suspicious for a follicular neoplasm" category.
  • The recommended follow-up for an ACUS diagnosis is clinical correlation and in most cases, repeat FNA sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20596996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807535
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Bethesda / FNA / Follicular / Thyroid
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31. Sippel RS, Elaraj DM, Khanafshar E, Zarnegar R, Kebebew E, Duh QY, Clark OH: Tumor size predicts malignant potential in Hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):702-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor size predicts malignant potential in Hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: A fine needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of a Hürthle cell neoplasm is associated with a 20% risk of malignancy.
  • We sought to determine if the primary tumor size correlated with the risk of malignancy in patients with a preoperative FNA diagnosis of a Hürthle cell neoplasm.
  • METHODS: Between January 2000 and November 2006, 57 patients underwent a thyroidectomy with a preoperative FNA diagnosis of a Hürthle cell neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: The overall rate of malignancy in patients with Hürthle cell neoplasms was 21%.
  • The average tumor size was 3.2 cm, with malignant tumors being significantly larger than benign tumors (5.0 vs. 2.7 cm, p<0.01).
  • The risk of malignancy directly correlated with tumor size.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor size correlates directly with malignant potential in patients with Hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • Because the risk of malignancy is greater than 50% in patients with a tumor larger than 4 cm, consideration should be given for an initial total thyroidectomy in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 18224463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Doganay M, Gungor T, Cavkaytar S, Sirvan L, Mollamahmutoglu L: Malignant struma ovarii with a focus of papillary thyroid cancer: a case report. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Apr;277(4):371-3
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  • [Title] Malignant struma ovarii with a focus of papillary thyroid cancer: a case report.
  • Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm and its malignant transformation is even rarer.
  • Because of its rarity, there is no consensus about its diagnosis and management in the literature.
  • Postoperative thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 0.5-cm solid nodule in the thyroid gland and total thyroidectomy was done.
  • Pathology report was nodular hyperplasia of benign character.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography


33. Giuliani C, Cotellese R, Cino M, Angelucci D, Monari F, Napolitano G, Monaco F, Francomano F: Metastasis as presenting feature of thyroid follicular carcinoma; report of a patient thyroidectomized for benign multinodular nontoxic goiter. Thyroid; 2005 Jun;15(6):624-6
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  • [Title] Metastasis as presenting feature of thyroid follicular carcinoma; report of a patient thyroidectomized for benign multinodular nontoxic goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16029132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Gulcelik NE, Gulcelik MA, Kuru B: Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Dec;134(12):1312-5
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  • [Title] Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and ultrasonographic features that may help in predicting malignant tumors in patients with a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on findings from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) because FNAC diagnosis of follicular neoplasm does not differentiate a benign tumor from a malignant tumor.
  • DESIGN: Prospective study of 98 patients having a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on FNAC.
  • PATIENTS: Ninety-eight patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed by FNAC as being a follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 26 patients (27%).
  • Ultrasonographic features (eg, a solid echo structure, microcalcifications, and a hypoechoic pattern) were predictive for malignant neoplasms.
  • Older age, male sex, solitary nodule, and larger nodule size were not predictive for malignant neoplasms in patients with follicular neoplasm cytologic findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19075128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Bernier MO, Moisan C, Mansour G, Aurengo A, Ménégaux F, Leenhardt L: Usefulness of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of loco-regional recurrence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2005 Apr;31(3):288-93
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  • [Title] Usefulness of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of loco-regional recurrence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • AIM: The aim of our study was to define the usefulness of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the assessment of loco-regional recurrence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • RESULTS: Among the 44 recurrences, FNAC results were malignant, benign and unsatisfactory in 33, two and nine cases, respectively.
  • For the diagnosis of malignancy, FNAC sensitivity was 94%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 87%.
  • In the 35 cases where divergent results between diagnostic WBS (37-111MBq (131)I) and Tg level were observed, FNAC assessed the final status in 22 cases (malignant and benign in 17 and five cases, respectively).
  • Of the 12 non-functioning and non-secreting lesions, FNAC diagnosed malignancy in four of the five malignant cases and ruled out malignancy in all seven benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15780565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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36. Camera A, Magri F, Fonte R, Villani L, Della Porta MG, Fregoni V, Manna LL, Chiovato L: Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):1033-6
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  • [Title] Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule.
  • BACKGROUND: Most solitary hyperfunctiong regions on thyroid scan consist of benign tissue.
  • SUMMARY: A 56-year-old man was referred to our Endocrine Unit in May 2009 due to the incidental discovery of a large left thyroid lobe nodule by a computed tomography study.
  • This had been performed to search for a primitive tumor in a patient with bone metastasis.
  • He was clinically and biochemically thyrotoxic with no evidence of humoral thyroid autoimmunity.
  • The nodule had a dyshomogenous appearance at neck ultrasonography, with multiple hypoechogenic areas and calcifications. (99m)-Technetium thyroid scintiscan revealed a hot nodule with suppression of the contralateral lobe.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated the presence of neoplastic cells not of thyroid origin.
  • Histological analysis of the surgical specimen led to a diagnosis of Burkitt-like large B-cell lymphoma harbored within a thyroid adenoma.
  • After further staging, the final diagnosis was stage IV E Burkitt-like lymphoma with the involvement of the bone and the thyroid.
  • This is the first description of an aggressive Burkitt-like lymphoma that infiltrated an hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma, thus presenting as a hot nodule at thyroid scintiscan.
  • In our patient there was no humoral or histological evidence of thyroid autoimmunity, thus suggesting a metastatic seeding of the lymphoma within the hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Involvement of the thyroid gland by Burkitt-like lymphoma is extremely rare as is close localization of malignancy and a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / drug therapy. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Male. Methimazole / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Technetium. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20825299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7440-26-8 / Technetium; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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37. Melck A, Bugis S, Baliski C, Irvine R, Anderson DW, Wilkins G, Zhang H, Wiseman SM: Hemithyroidectomy: the preferred initial surgical approach for management of Hurthle cell neoplasm. Am J Surg; 2006 May;191(5):593-7
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  • [Title] Hemithyroidectomy: the preferred initial surgical approach for management of Hurthle cell neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cancer risk of patient clinicopathologic characteristics to determine the optimal approach for the surgical management of individuals with Hurthle cell neoplasm (HN) diagnosed by cytology.
  • METHODS: Patient clinicopathologic characteristics evaluated included age, sex, tumor size, and ipsilateral thyroid lobe nodularity.
  • The association of these characteristics with a pathologic cancer diagnosis was evaluated using Fisher's exact test and Student t test.
  • RESULTS: Of the 422 patients undergoing thyroidectomy, 27 presented with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of HN, and by pathologic assessment 7 HN patients (25.9%) had a cancer diagnosis.
  • Although none of the clinicopathologic characteristics evaluated were able to reliably differentiate benign from malignant tumors, large tumor size and male sex were significantly associated with a pathologic diagnosis of Hurthle cell carcinoma (P < .05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hemithyroidectomy represents the preferred initial surgical approach for the management of individuals presenting with nodular thyroid disease and a cytologic diagnosis of HN.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16647343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. de Geus-Oei LF, Pieters GF, Bonenkamp JJ, Mudde AH, Bleeker-Rovers CP, Corstens FH, Oyen WJ: 18F-FDG PET reduces unnecessary hemithyroidectomies for thyroid nodules with inconclusive cytologic results. J Nucl Med; 2006 May;47(5):770-5
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET reduces unnecessary hemithyroidectomies for thyroid nodules with inconclusive cytologic results.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is inconclusive in up to 20% of patients with solitary thyroid nodules.
  • In these cases, hemithyroidectomy is necessary, but only 20% of the nodules prove to be thyroid carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to explore the potential of (18)F-FDG PET to reduce the number of unnecessary hemithyroidectomies in the preoperative assessment of thyroid nodules with inconclusive FNAB results.
  • METHODS: Forty-four consecutive patients, scheduled for hemithyroidectomy because of inconclusive FNAB findings, participated in this prospective study. (18)F-FDG PET of the thyroid region was performed before hemithyroidectomy, and standardized uptake values were calculated.
  • The final histopathologic diagnosis served as a standard of reference.
  • RESULTS: Histopathologic examination of the surgical specimens revealed 7 well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas in 6 patients, all accumulating (18)F-FDG (negative predictive value, 100%). (18)F-FDG accumulated in 13 of 38 benign nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: In addition to data in the literature demonstrating accurate detection of thyroid cancer by (18)F-FDG PET, this study showed that (18)F-FDG PET should play an important role in the management of patients with inconclusive cytologic diagnosis of a thyroid nodule. (18)F-FDG PET reduced the number of futile hemithyroidectomies by 66%.
  • Although PET is a relatively costly procedure, this cost outweighs the costs and risks associated with unnecessary thyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] J Nucl Med. 2006 Sep;47(9):1555; author reply 1555-6 [16954566.001]
  • (PMID = 16644746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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39. Cavaco BM, Batista PF, Sobrinho LG, Leite V: Mapping a new familial thyroid epithelial neoplasia susceptibility locus to chromosome 8p23.1-p22 by high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism genome-wide linkage analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Nov;93(11):4426-30
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  • [Title] Mapping a new familial thyroid epithelial neoplasia susceptibility locus to chromosome 8p23.1-p22 by high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism genome-wide linkage analysis.
  • CONTEXT: Familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) accounts for approximately 5% of all thyroid tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to map the gene predisposing to familial thyroid epithelial neoplasia in a large Portuguese family.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The clinical screening of a Portuguese family identified 11 members affected with benign thyroid lesions and five affected with thyroid carcinomas.
  • To map the gene predisposing to thyroid epithelial neoplasia in this family, a genome-wide linkage analysis was conducted, using DNA samples from 17 family members and high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays.
  • Allelic losses in the 8p23.1-p22 region were absent in seven thyroid tumors from family members, suggesting that the inactivation of a putative tumor suppressor gene may have occurred through other mechanisms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results present evidence for the existence of a novel familial thyroid epithelial neoplasia susceptibility locus on chromosome 8p23.1-p22, providing the basis for the identification of a gene for this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Genetic Linkage. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Family. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genome, Human. Humans. Male. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Pedigree. Portugal. Thyroid Diseases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18765515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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40. Wong KK, Zarzhevsky N, Cahill JM, Frey KA, Avram AM: Hybrid SPECT-CT and PET-CT imaging of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Br J Radiol; 2009 Oct;82(982):860-76
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  • [Title] Hybrid SPECT-CT and PET-CT imaging of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Hybrid imaging modalities such as radioiodine single photon emission CT with integrated CT ((131)I SPECT-CT) and 2-(fluorine-18)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography with integrated CT (FDG PET-CT) allow the rapid and efficient fusion of functional and anatomic images, and provide diagnostic information that may influence management decisions in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • Diagnostic localisation and therapy of these tumours are dependent upon their capacity to concentrate radioiodine ((131)I) via uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter and retention within the tumour.
  • Accurate identification of functional thyroid tissue (benign or malignant) using diagnostic (131)I planar scintigraphy complemented by SPECT-CT imaging enables the completion of post-operative staging and patient risk stratification prior to (131)I therapy administration.
  • [MeSH-major] Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiography. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Symporters. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19433487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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41. Baloch ZW: Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up. Cytojournal; 2006 Apr 07;3:9
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up.
  • The differential diagnosis of a follicular lesion/neoplasm in thyroid FNA specimens includes hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule, follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In our laboratory we separate follicular lesions of thyroid into hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule (HN), follicular neoplasm (FON) and follicular derived neoplasm with focal nuclear features suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (FDN).
  • All cases were evaluated for histologic diagnosis, age, sex and size of the nodule.
  • No statistically significant relationship was noted between the sizes of the nodules and benign vs. malignant diagnosis.
  • According to this study it is important to divide follicular patterned lesions of thyroid into FON and FDN in the cytology specimens due to significantly different risk of malignancy (22% vs. 72%).

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  • (PMID = 16603062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1458352
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42. Haymart MR, Glinberg SL, Liu J, Sippel RS, Jaume JC, Chen H: Higher serum TSH in thyroid cancer patients occurs independent of age and correlates with extrathyroidal extension. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Sep;71(3):434-9
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  • [Title] Higher serum TSH in thyroid cancer patients occurs independent of age and correlates with extrathyroidal extension.
  • BACKGROUND: It has previously been shown that higher serum TSH is associated with increased thyroid cancer incidence and advanced-stage disease.
  • As age over 45 years is a known prognostic indicator for thyroid cancer, it is important to know whether higher TSH in patients with thyroid cancer occurs independent of age.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1361 patients underwent thyroid surgery between May 1994 and December 2007 at a single institution.
  • Despite the rise in the benign subgroups, mean TSH was consistently higher in those with cancer vs. those without.
  • On multivariate analysis of high-risk features associated with poor prognosis, there was a significant association between higher TSH and extrathyroidal extension (P = 0.002), whereas there was no clear relationship with age, tumour size > 4 cm, and distant metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: Independent of age, thyroid cancer incidence correlates with higher TSH.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Cohort Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19067720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T35 DK062709
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS778777; NLM/ PMC4852738
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43. Lieu D: Cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 May;38(5):327-32
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  • As most cases are caused by parathyroid adenoma, there is a movement toward preoperative localization of the abnormal gland by ultrasound and/or Tc(99)-sestamibi scan and minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • Nonpalpable thyroid nodules are common and cannot be differentiated from parathyroid lesions by imaging alone.
  • This study examines cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (UG-FNA) in diagnosis of parathyroid lesions.
  • Between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008, seven patients with PHPT or other parathyroid lesions with one or more sonographically-visible thyroid masses underwent cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA with immediate cytological evaluation (ICE).
  • Three parathyroid adenomas, two benign colloid nodules, one papillary carcinoma, three parathyroid cysts, and one thyroid cyst were diagnosed.
  • The nodules in three patients with parathyroid adenomas were identified as follicular lesion/neoplasm on ICE.
  • Two of these patients had a separate benign colloid nodule and one had a thyroid cyst diagnosed by UG-FNA.
  • The three patients with thyroid cysts identified by radiology were suspected of being parathyroid cysts on the basis of real-time sonographic features at the biopsy table.
  • Cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA can distinguish between parathyroid and thyroid nodules in patients with suspected parathyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19845029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Kumar PV, Monabati A, Tabei SZ, Ramzy M, Husseini SV, Khajeh F: Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases. Acta Cytol; 2005 Mar-Apr;49(2):177-80
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  • [Title] Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) usually have a benign clinical course, with an excellent long-term prognosis and a propensity for vascular invasion.
  • CASES: A 68-year-old man presented with a thyroid mass and skin nodule on the scalp.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytologic diagnosis of metastatic FTC has been reported rarely.
  • Marginal (fire-flare) vacuoles aid in making the diagnosis of metastatic FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anemia / etiology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone and Bones / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15839624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Okagawa T, Uchida T, Suyama M: Thymoma with spontaneous regression and disappearance of pleural effusion. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2007 Dec;55(12):515-7
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  • Chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) on admission showed an anterior mediastinal tumor with left pleural effusion, which was diagnosed as an inoperable malignant mediastinal tumor.
  • However, 3 weeks after admission CT showed that the tumor was diminishing and the pleural effusion had disappeared without any treatment.
  • CT-guided needle biopsy was performed, but diagnosis was impossible because most of the specimen was necrotic.
  • The intraoperative finding showed that the tumor was round, well mobilized, and did not invade adjacent structures.
  • It was then assumed to be a benign teratoma that had been ruptured into the thoracic cavity.
  • Two months later, total thymectomy was performed through a median sternotomy because the tumor was pathologically diagnosed as a thymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology. Thymoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Cautery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Necrosis. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted. Thoracotomy. Thymectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18066646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-6705
  • [Journal-full-title] General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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46. Nayar R, Ivanovic M: The indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspiration: experience from an academic center using terminology similar to that proposed in the 2007 National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference. Cancer; 2009 Jun 25;117(3):195-202
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspiration: experience from an academic center using terminology similar to that proposed in the 2007 National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference.
  • BACKGROUND: To date, thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has been used by clinicians as the screening test of choice to determine whether surgery is required and this is what the pathology report should communicate.
  • Standard terminology for reporting thyroid FNA has not been implemented yet, and pathologists have used various reporting systems to communicate results.
  • On the basis of an analysis of 1150 thyroid FNAs in 2000, this institution modified the reporting of thyroid biopsy results into 6 categories, including unsatisfactory.
  • 1) indeterminate for neoplasia (IND), 2) follicular neoplasm (FN), and 3) suspicious for malignancy (SUSP).
  • The IND category was used for 2 subsets of cases: (a) those that morphologically fall into the gray zone between adenomatoid nodule (AN) and FN, for Hurthle cell nodule (hyperplasia vs neoplasm), and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis with concern for neoplasia; and (b) for suboptimal specimens due to low epithelial cellularity or collection artifacts.
  • RESULTS: Among 5194 thyroid nodules, the IND category comprised 18%.
  • FNA follow-up was done in 21% of IND cases: 58% were benign/negative and did not require surgery based on cytology alone.
  • Surgical follow-up in 46% of IND showed 52% were benign/negative, and 42% were follicular/Hurthle cell adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A 6-tier reporting system for thyroid FNA was effective for determining which patients needed surgery versus follow-up FNA and also guided the clinician on the extent of surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 19382174.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Akhtar S, Awan MS: Role of fine needle aspiration and frozen section in determining the extent of thyroidectomy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2007 Sep;264(9):1075-9
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  • The routine use of fine needle aspiration (FNA) and frozen section (FS) in the management of a thyroid nodule is controversial and needs to be evaluated on an institution to institution basis.
  • We performed a comparative study of FNA and FS examination of all patients presenting with nodular thyroid disease between September 2002 and December 2005.
  • FNA reported 8 benign, 7 papillary carcinoma, 22 follicular neoplasm, 1 medullary and 6 suspicious lesions.
  • On final pathology there were 16 benign and 28 malignant cases.
  • Both FNA and FS have high specificity for diagnosis of thyroid cancer but lacked sensitivity at our institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17431657.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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48. Murata S, Herman P, Iwashina M, Mochizuki K, Nakazawa T, Kondo T, Nakamura N, Lakowicz JR, Katoh R: Application of microscopic Forster resonance energy transfer to cytological diagnosis of the thyroid tumors. J Biomed Opt; 2005 May-Jun;10(3):034008
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  • [Title] Application of microscopic Forster resonance energy transfer to cytological diagnosis of the thyroid tumors.
  • We propose a novel application of microscopic Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to clinical cytological diagnosis based on sensitive measurements of distance changes between fluorescently labeled deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) molecules.
  • We have employed the microscopic FRET imaging for investigation of six papillary carcinomas and eight benign cases.
  • We have not found significant difference of the mean FRET efficiency between the benign and malignant groups.
  • On the other hand, the texture analysis revealed a significant difference of the intranuclear spatial distribution of FRET efficiencies between the benign and malignant groups.
  • The results indicate that despite the similar average distance between the AT- and the GC-rich DNA segments in the papillary carcinomas and the benign cases, the former has more heterogeneous distribution of the AT- and the GC-rich DNA segments in nuclei compared to the benign groups.
  • We have demonstrated that the FRET imaging is a helpful tool for the medical cytological diagnosis of human tumors by giving information on the chromatin topology on the scale below the resolution of conventional optical microscopes. (c) 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Neoplasm / ultrastructure. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
  • (PMID = 16229652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-3668
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical optics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Opt
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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49. Eszlinger M, Krohn K, Hauptmann S, Dralle H, Giordano TJ, Paschke R: Perspectives for improved and more accurate classification of thyroid epithelial tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Sep;93(9):3286-94
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  • [Title] Perspectives for improved and more accurate classification of thyroid epithelial tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Histologic examination of thyroid nodules is the current standard to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid epithelial tumors and to classify histologic subtypes.
  • This review analyzes the problems in histological differential diagnosis as well as contradictions between histology and molecular data and describes possibilities to combine histology with molecular data in an effort to more accurately classify thyroid epithelial tumors.
  • EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Published literature, addressing the current recommendations for thyroid tumor classification, as well as literature on the application of histology and molecular studies on the etiology of thyroid tumors is analyzed.
  • EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The current histologic criteria to classify thyroid tumors, especially follicular-patterned tumors, are hampered by considerable interobserver variability.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is very likely that molecular definitions of thyroid tumors mentioned in the current World Health Organization classification will be further developed, leading to future progress in defining thyroid tumor types by an integrated histologic and molecular approach.
  • These integrated classifications need to be evaluated for their specific impact on thyroid tumor diagnosis and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / classification. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18593772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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50. Raparia K, Min SK, Mody DR, Anton R, Amrikachi M: Clinical outcomes for "suspicious" category in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Patient's sex and nodule size are possible predictors of malignancy. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 May;133(5):787-90
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  • [Title] Clinical outcomes for "suspicious" category in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Patient's sex and nodule size are possible predictors of malignancy.
  • CONTEXT: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is recommended as an initial screening tool for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
  • Approximately 10% of thyroid FNA diagnoses are "suspicious for neoplasm," warranting surgical resection.
  • OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of a patient's age, sex, size of nodule, and morphologic features as possible predictors of malignancy in patients with cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious for neoplasm."
  • DESIGN: Cytopathology slides and reports of 402 consecutive thyroid FNAs from 2000-2005 interpreted as "suspicious" were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Of the 108 cases suspicious for follicular neoplasm on cytologic evaluation, histologic follow-up showed malignancy in 26 (24%).
  • Of the 37 cases suspicious for Hürthle cell neoplasm, 15 (41%) had malignancy.
  • Among cases with cytologic diagnoses of "suspicious for follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm," the rate of malignancy in female patients was 22% as compared to 43% in male patients (P = .02).
  • No statistically significant difference was noted between the age of the patient and the rate of benign versus malignant diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant tumors were more frequent in male patients with a cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious for follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm" than in female patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19415954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Xu W, Wang HB, Cao HY, Fan ZM, Yue ZY, Lü ZH: [Recurrent laryngeal nerve decompression]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jun;41(6):408-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the result of recurrent laryngeal nerve decompression in the treatment of functional disturbance of recurrent laryngeal nerve caused by thyroid surgery or thyroid benign tumors.
  • Seven cases of the nerve paralysis were caused by the surgery of benign thyroid tumors resection which were done by general surgeons.
  • One case of thyroid adenoma and 1 case of nodular goiter with unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis were treated with tumor resection and nerve decompression respectively.
  • Four cases of glottic insufficiency, 3 cases of nodular goiter were treated with tumor resection and nerve decompression, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the other case was treated with partial lobe resection and nerve decompression.
  • RESULTS: For the 7 cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after thyroid surgery, the motion of the paralysed vocal cord restored within 3 months in 6 cases with the interval of 1 week to 3 months between the two operations, no restoration was found in the other patient with an interval above 4 months between the two operations after 1 year follow-up.
  • For the thyroid adenoma and nodular goiter with unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, the motion of paralysed vocal cord restored within 3 months respectively after decompression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Exploration and decompression as soon as possible to the paralysed recurrent laryngeal nerve because of thyroid surgery are very important for the restoration of the function of the nerve.
  • For the functional disturbance of recurrent laryngeal nerve with thyroid neoplasm patient, early exploration and decompression of the nerve is imperative.

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  • (PMID = 16927793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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52. Levenson JN, Santaella I, Wachtel MS, Levenson DI: Discordance between cytologic results in multiple thyroid nodules within the same patient. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5):673-8
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  • [Title] Discordance between cytologic results in multiple thyroid nodules within the same patient.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency of discordant cytologic results between multiple thyroid nodules biopsied in the same patient.
  • STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective chart review of 441 consecutive patients, 326 (73.9%) had 2 or more nodules with colloid and/or thyroid cells recovered.
  • Cytology was classified as (A) colloid only, (B) benign colloid nodule with or without degeneration, (C) Hashimoto's, or (D) follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm, hyperplasia or suspicious for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroiditis, Subacute / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cytodiagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20968154.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Jo VY, Stelow EB, Dustin SM, Hanley KZ: Malignancy risk for fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions according to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. Am J Clin Pathol; 2010 Sep;134(3):450-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignancy risk for fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions according to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology.
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is an important test for triaging patients with thyroid nodules.
  • The 2007 National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration State-of-the-Science Conference helped instigate the recent publication of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology.
  • We reviewed 3,080 thyroid FNA samples and recorded interpretations according to the proposed standardized 6-tier nomenclature, and pursued follow-up cytology and histology.
  • Of the 3,080 FNAs, 18.6% were nondiagnostic, 59.0% were benign, 3.4% were atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AFLUS), 9.7% were "suspicious" for follicular neoplasm (SFN), 2.3% were suspicious for malignancy (SM), and 7.0% were malignant.
  • Rates of malignancy were as follows: nondiagnostic, 8.9%; benign, 1.1%; AFLUS, 17% (9/53); SFN, 25.4%; SM, 70% (39/56), and malignant, 98.1%.
  • Thus, classification of thyroid FNA samples at the University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, according to The Bethesda System yields similar results for risk of malignancy as reported by others.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis


54. Liu FH, Hsueh C, Chao TC, Lin JD: Neck nodule and thyroid cancer in young without radiation exposure history. Pediatr Surg Int; 2009 Sep;25(9):785-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neck nodule and thyroid cancer in young without radiation exposure history.
  • RESULTS: Of the 234 cases, 187 (79.9%) were surgically confirmed to be benign lesions, including four cases that were diagnosed as atypical adenoma.
  • Malignant thyroid masses were identified in 47 patients.
  • Surgery confirmed 22 cases to be lesions that were non-thyroid in origin, including those developing from a cyst, soft tissue, and with a lymphatic origin.
  • Except in cases of follicular thyroid neoplasm, neck ultrasonography with FNAC could effectively identify the thyroid or non-thyroid origin of these masses with high-diagnostic accuracy.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19629501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-9813
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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55. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1102-9; discussion 1109-10
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • We postulated that expression analysis of genes that modulate angiogenesis would identify differentially expressed genes that would help to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms and serve as markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: A complementary DNA (cDNA) array with 96 genes that modulate angiogenesis was used to identify differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm cDNA array expression data in 123 patients (4 normal thyroid, 26 hyperplastic nodules, 27 follicular adenomas, 23 follicular cancers, 18 follicular variant of papillary cancers, 25 papillary cancers).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two genes were upregulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms by cDNA array analysis, but only 13 genes had higher messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (P < or = .04).
  • Of the 13 differentially expressed genes, the combined use of angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) mRNA expression levels was best for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid neoplasms, with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 75%, and negative predictive value of 94%.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 mRNA expression was elevated in higher TNM stage neoplasms and in patients with high-risk AMES (Age, distant Metastasis, Extrathyroidal invasion, and tumor Size) differentiated thyroid cancers (P < or = .005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Angiopoietin 2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and could improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 are markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Angiogenic Proteins / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics


56. van Roosmalen J, van Hemel B, Suurmeijer A, Groen H, Ruitenbeek T, Links TP, Plukker JT: Diagnostic value and cost considerations of routine fine-needle aspirations in the follow-up of thyroid nodules with benign readings. Thyroid; 2010 Dec;20(12):1359-65
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value and cost considerations of routine fine-needle aspirations in the follow-up of thyroid nodules with benign readings.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is the most accurate tool to identify malignancy in solitary thyroid nodules.
  • Although some recommend routinely repeating FNA for nodules that are initially read as benign, there is no consensus.
  • We evaluated clinical relevancy and considered costs of routine follow-up FNA in nodules initially read as benign.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the records of all 739 patients who underwent FNA of solitary thyroid nodules at our institution from 1988 to 2004.
  • According to their physicians practice, some patients had a "follow-up biopsy" after an initially benign FNA reading as a matter of routine (Group I approach) or if their clinical status changed (Group II approach).
  • RESULTS: The initial FNA was benign in 576 (78%), suspicious for follicular neoplasms in 106 (14.4%), and malignant in 57 patients (7.7%).
  • Follow-up FNA was performed in 292 patients with initially benign lesions, 235 in Group I approach and 57 in Group II approach.
  • The FNA diagnosis according to Group I approach remained benign on follow-up biopsy in 96.2% (226/235), was altered to follicular neoplasm in 3% (7/235), and was suspicious for malignancy in 0.8% (2/235).
  • When following Group II approach, the follow-up FNA was benign in 93% (53/57), undetermined in 1.7% (1/57), and showed follicular neoplasm in 5.3% (3/57).
  • Combining Groups I and II methods, 5 of 292 patients had a malignant nodule on histological examination, a false-negative rate of 1.7% for the initial FNA, but without a difference in prevalence of thyroid malignancy between the groups.
  • Cost-consequence analysis showed no benefit in routine follow-up FNA after initially benign FNA readings.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Routine follow-up FNA in patients whose initial FNA is benign has a low diagnostic upgrading value and is relatively costly.
  • In patients whose initial FNA is benign, we recommend the FNA be repeated only if clinically suspicious signs or complaints develop.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / economics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cost-Benefit Analysis. False Negative Reactions. Humans. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20954810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Lumachi F, Fabbro M, Tregnaghi A, Antunovic L, Bui F, Cecchin D, Zucchetta P, Fassina A: Fine-needle aspiration cytology and (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy together in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jul;30(7):3083-6
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology and (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy together in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy (TS) together in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Data from a series of 357 patients (284 women and 73 men, median age 43 years, range 19-73) with solitary thyroid nodule and no signs of hyperfunction, who had undergone both FNAC and TS prior to surgery, were retrospectively reviewed.
  • FNAC distinguished 3 groups of TN (benign, follicular neoplasm, cancer), while patients with 'cold' TN were considered at risk of having a thyroid tumor.
  • In conclusion, patients with 'cold' TN and FNAC suggesting follicular neoplasm should be considered at risk of having cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Radiopharmaceuticals. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20683059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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58. McHenry CR, Huh ES, Machekano RN: Is nodule size an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy? Surgery; 2008 Dec;144(6):1062-8; discussion 1068-9
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  • [Title] Is nodule size an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy?
  • METHODS: Data was obtained from a prospectively maintained database for patients with nodular thyroid disease evaluated from 1990 to 2007.
  • RESULTS: 1023 patients were evaluated for nodular thyroid disease and 676 underwent thyroidectomy.
  • Mean size was 4.4 +/- 2.4 cm for benign and 3.3 +/- 2.2 cm for malignant nodules (P < .05).
  • The size of benign and malignant nodules, as a function of FNAB, was not significantly different.
  • CONCLUSION: Increasing nodule size was not predictive of thyroid malignancy suggesting that it should not be used in lieu of FNAB for therapeutic decision making.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Decision Making. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 19041019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. He X, Wei Q, Zhang X, Xiao J, Jin X, Zhu Y, Cui B, Ning G: Immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Oct 15;206(10):712-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions.
  • In different tumor entities, expression of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been linked to tumor dissemination and poor prognosis.
  • The aim of this study was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions.
  • In our study, the CXCR4 expression of the thyroid carcinoma group (including 16 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 9 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas, and 7 medullary thyroid carcinomas) was found to be higher than in the benign lesion group (including 19 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 15 nodular goiters, and 50 follicular adenomas) (p<0.0001).
  • Within the carcinoma group, the more malignant thyroid carcinoma group (including 9 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 7 medullary thyroid carcinomas) showed a higher ratio of CXCR4 positivity compared to the less malignant thyroid carcinoma group (including 16 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas) (p<0.0001).
  • Our study suggests that CXCR4 expression might be a frequent and cancer-specific event in thyroid carcinoma, and it might be involved in malignancy transformation during the progression of thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Receptors, CXCR4 / analysis. Thyroid Diseases / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Cell Differentiation. Child. Female. Goiter, Nodular / immunology. Hashimoto Disease / immunology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thyroid Neoplasms / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20646838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; Thyroid cancer, medullary; Thyroid cancer, papillary
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60. Ersoz S, Sert H, Yandi M, Erem C, Mungan S, Ersoz HO, Cobanoglu U, Hacihasanoglu A: The significance of Galectin-3 expression in the immunocytochemical evaluation of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Dec;14(4):457-60
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  • [Title] The significance of Galectin-3 expression in the immunocytochemical evaluation of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of immunohistochemical expression of Galectin-3 in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
  • We studied the fine needle aspiration specimens of 38 patients who had evaluated for nodular goiter and undergone a thyroid surgery between 2004-2005.
  • None of the cases with a benign thyroid pathology had positive staining for Galectin-3.
  • Galectin-3 immunocytochemical staining, had a sensitivity of 61.5%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 83.3% for thyroid malignancies.
  • For the evaluation of follicular neoplasm, Galectin-3 immunocytochemical staining had a sensitivity of 60%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 50%.
  • Galectin-3 expression in thyrocytes is a strong indicator of a malignant proliferative lesion especially for papillary and to an extent in follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • Galectin-3 could be used as a supplementary marker for cytological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Cites] Diagn Cytopathol. 1993;9(3):345-50 [8519202.001]
  • [Cites] Thyroid. 1998 May;8(5):377-83 [9623727.001]
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  • (PMID = 18415710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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61. Evenson A, Mowschenson P, Wang H, Connolly J, Mendrinos S, Parangi S, Hasselgren PO: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg; 2007 Jun;193(6):707-12
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma (HTA) is an uncommon benign thyroid tumor that can present as a solitary thyroid nodule, a prominent nodule in a multinodular goiter, or as an incidental finding in a thyroidectomy specimen.
  • METHODS: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 7 patients presenting with a solitary thyroid nodule (n = 4) or a multinodular goiter (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although HTA is a rare condition of the thyroid, the surgeon needs to be aware of this entity to be able to better discuss the pathological findings with the patient, particularly since some pathologists and endocrinologists believe that HTA may represent a malignant neoplasm of low metastatic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17512281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Karam M, Feustel PJ, Postal ES, Cheema A, Goldfarb CR: Successful thyroid tissue ablation as defined by a negative whole-body scan or an undetectable thyroglobulin: a comparative study. Nucl Med Commun; 2005 Apr;26(4):331-6
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  • [Title] Successful thyroid tissue ablation as defined by a negative whole-body scan or an undetectable thyroglobulin: a comparative study.
  • BACKGROUND: Successful thyroid tissue ablation of patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer can be defined by a negative whole-body scan (WBS) and/or an undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg).
  • Until it is firmly established that such patients have a benign course both monitoring methods should be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15753792.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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63. Krause K, Karger S, Sheu SY, Aigner T, Kursawe R, Gimm O, Schmid KW, Dralle H, Fuhrer D: Evidence for a role of the amyloid precursor protein in thyroid carcinogenesis. J Endocrinol; 2008 Aug;198(2):291-9
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  • [Title] Evidence for a role of the amyloid precursor protein in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • We have recently found an increased expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cold thyroid nodules that are difficult to classify as a truly benign thyroid neoplasm or a lesion with the potential for further dedifferentiation.
  • Since differences in APP activity have been found in other human cancers, we asked whether thyroid carcinogenesis might be associated with an altered APP expression and function.
  • APP regulation was studied in vitro in differentiated (FRTL-5) and dedifferentiated follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC-133) thyroid cells after specific inhibition or activation of the cAMP-PKA, the PI3K/AKT or the protein kinase c (PKC) cascades.
  • In vivo analysis of APP expression and downstream signalling was performed in benign and malignant thyroid tissues.
  • We found that upregulation of APP expression and sAPP secretion is induced by TSH in differentiated thyroid cells and by insulin in thyroid cancer cells.
  • Thyroid cancers are characterized by APP upregulation, increased membrane targeting of the APP ectodomain and significantly increased mRNA levels of the APP scaffold proteins JIP1, ShcA and Fe65.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Insulin / pharmacology. Microscopy, Confocal. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Protein Transport / drug effects. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyrotropin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18480379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APBB1 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor; 0 / Insulin; 0 / MAPK8IP1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SHC1 protein, human; 0 / Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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64. Pisanu A, Di Chiara B, Reccia I, Uccheddu A: Oncocytic cell tumors of the thyroid: factors predicting malignancy and influencing prognosis, treatment decisions, and outcomes. World J Surg; 2010 Apr;34(4):836-43
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  • [Title] Oncocytic cell tumors of the thyroid: factors predicting malignancy and influencing prognosis, treatment decisions, and outcomes.
  • BACKGROUND: The distinction between malignant and benign thyroid oncocytic cell tumors (OCTs) before and during surgery still represents a diagnostic challenge.
  • A cross-sectional study of 28 patients with carcinoma and 29 patients with adenoma was performed: demographic data, tumor characteristics, diagnostic results, patient management, postoperative, and follow-up results were evaluated.
  • The mean tumor size was significantly greater for carcinomas than for adenomas (3.0 cm vs. 1.8 cm; p = 0.003).
  • Tumor multifocality, microfollicular features, and severe cytological atypia also were significantly related to malignancy (p = 0.012 and p = 0.025, respectively).
  • Older age, tumor size, thyroid capsular invasion, higher TNM stage, and AMES high risk were factors significantly related to tumor recurrence.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that larger tumor size was the only factor predictive of malignancy and influencing recurrence.
  • In the case of OCTs with larger tumor size and microfollicular features with severe cytological atypia, total thyroidectomy is strongly recommended as initial treatment also in relation with the more likely aggressive biological behavior of greater tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Cross-Sectional Studies. Decision Making. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Italy / epidemiology. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prevalence. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20041243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Haymart MR, Repplinger DJ, Leverson GE, Elson DF, Sippel RS, Jaume JC, Chen H: Higher serum thyroid stimulating hormone level in thyroid nodule patients is associated with greater risks of differentiated thyroid cancer and advanced tumor stage. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Mar;93(3):809-14
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  • [Title] Higher serum thyroid stimulating hormone level in thyroid nodule patients is associated with greater risks of differentiated thyroid cancer and advanced tumor stage.
  • CONTEXT: TSH is a known thyroid growth factor, but the pathogenic role of TSH in thyroid oncogenesis is unclear.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the relationship between preoperative TSH and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Between May 1994 and January 2007, 1198 patients underwent thyroid surgery at a single hospital.
  • Diagnoses of DTC vs. benign thyroid disease were based on surgical pathology reports.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of thyroid cancer increases with higher serum TSH concentration.
  • Even within normal TSH ranges, a TSH level above the population mean is associated with significantly greater likelihood of thyroid cancer than a TSH below the mean.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Thyroid Nodule / blood. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Neoplasm Staging. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Retrospective Studies. Risk

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  • (PMID = 18160464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T35 DK062709
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2266959
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66. Hu S, Ewertz M, Tufano RP, Brait M, Carvalho AL, Liu D, Tufaro AP, Basaria S, Cooper DS, Sidransky D, Ladenson PW, Xing M: Detection of serum deoxyribonucleic acid methylation markers: a novel diagnostic tool for thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jan;91(1):98-104
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  • [Title] Detection of serum deoxyribonucleic acid methylation markers: a novel diagnostic tool for thyroid cancer.
  • CONTEXT: Serum DNA methylation markers may potentially be useful in diagnosing thyroid cancer and monitoring its recurrence.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the utility of serum DNA methylation as a diagnostic test for patients with thyroid nodules and a monitoring test to detect thyroid cancer recurrence in previously treated patients.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS: Using real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR, we analyzed the methylation status of five genes (CALCA, CDH1, TIMP3, DAPK, and RARbeta2) on 96 bisulfite-treated serum DNA samples isolated preoperatively from either solid thyroid nodule patients or patients in follow-up for history of treated thyroid cancer.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of serum DNA methylation marker for thyroid cancer were measured.
  • RESULTS: For the patients with thyroid nodules, when a positive result was defined by a serum methylation level above the appropriately chosen cutoff value for any one of the five genes, the preoperative diagnostic sensitivity for thyroid cancer was 68% (26 of 38), the specificity was 95% (18 of 19), and the overall preoperative diagnostic accuracy was 77%, with positive and negative predictive values of 96 and 60%, respectively.
  • In a subset of patients with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules, serum DNA methylation testing could correctly diagnose eight of 11 (73%) cancers and four of four (100%) benign tumors, with a diagnostic accuracy of 80%.
  • We also analyzed these serum DNA methylation markers in 39 previously treated thyroid cancer patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated the potential usefulness of serum DNA methylation markers as a novel tool for differential diagnosis of solid thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer recurrence monitoring.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Methylation. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers. DNA / chemistry. DNA / isolation & purification. DNA Primers. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sulfites / chemistry. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16263813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Sulfites; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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67. Naing S, Collins BJ, Schneider AB: Clinical behavior of radiation-induced thyroid cancer: factors related to recurrence. Thyroid; 2009 May;19(5):479-85
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  • [Title] Clinical behavior of radiation-induced thyroid cancer: factors related to recurrence.
  • BACKGROUND: Whether thyroid cancer is more aggressive in radiation-exposed patients is not resolved.
  • Our aim was to address this question by re-examining the pattern of risk factors for recurrence of thyroid cancers found in a cohort exposed to external radiation.
  • METHODS: The study population was drawn from a cohort of 4296 people, followed since 1974, who were treated before the age of 16 with conventional external radiation for benign conditions of the head and neck between 1939 and the early 1960s.
  • The study group consisted of 390 patients who had surgically verified thyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: Fifty patients had recurrences an average of 8.7 years after diagnosis while the other 340 patients were followed for an average of 19.7 years.
  • Taking into account the effect of the onset of screening in 1974, the features predictive of recurrence were younger age at the initial diagnosis (hazard ratio, 0.95/year; 95% CI, 0.91-0.99) and the size of the thyroid cancer (hazard ratio, 1.2/cm; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6).
  • CONCLUSION: Although not based on a direct comparison, we conclude that thyroid cancers following external radiation exposure are not, on average, more aggressive than other thyroid cancers.
  • The similarity of risk factors for recurrence suggests that they should be treated and followed in the same way as non-radiation-induced thyroid cancers.

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  • (PMID = 19226197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21518
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2857446
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68. Sillery JC, Reading CC, Charboneau JW, Henrichsen TL, Hay ID, Mandrekar JN: Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jan;194(1):44-54
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate sonography of thyroid follicular neoplasms for features that would aid in distinguishing follicular carcinoma from follicular adenoma and for any imaging features that distinguish the Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma from classic follicular carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort consisted of patients with the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma and patients with the diagnosis of follicular adenoma.
  • Fifty patients (25 men and 25 women; median age, 59.5 years) with a diagnosis of follicular carcinoma (27 with classic follicular carcinoma, 22 with Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma, and one insular variant) in a 6-year period were included.
  • All study patients and control patients underwent surgical resection and pathologic analysis of their thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Hypoechoic appearance (82% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 50% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; odds ratio [OR]), 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7), absence of halo (64% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 42% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9), absence of cystic change (90% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 69% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), greater patient age (median age of 59.5 years for follicular carcinoma patients vs 46.5 years for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), size of the tumor (median size of 11.75 mL for follicular carcinoma patients vs 5.95 mL for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), and male sex (50% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 19.2% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.9) were more frequently associated with follicular thyroid cancer than with benign adenoma.
  • There was no association between tumor volume, sex, sonographic halo, refractive shadowing, echogenicity, visible invasion, lymph node enlargement, adjacent nonfollicular suspicious lesions, vascularity subtype, and cystic change between the subgroups of follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The sonographic features of follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are very similar, but larger lesion size, lack of a sonographic halo, hypoechoic appearance, and absence of cystic change favored a follicular carcinoma diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 20028904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Foukakis T, Gusnanto A, Au AY, Höög A, Lui WO, Larsson C, Wallin G, Zedenius J: A PCR-based expression signature of malignancy in follicular thyroid tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Jun;14(2):381-91
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  • [Title] A PCR-based expression signature of malignancy in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • The diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) in the absence of metastasis can only be established postoperatively.
  • Moreover, high-risk FTCs are often not identifiable at the time of diagnosis.
  • In this study, we aimed to identify transcriptional markers of malignancy and high-risk disease in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • The expression levels of 26 potential markers of malignancy were determined in a panel of 75 follicular thyroid tumors by a TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR approach.
  • The metastatic potential could be predicted in all four cases with apparently benign or minimally invasive (MI) disease at the time of diagnosis, but poor long-term outcome.
  • In addition, a second model was produced by implementing two genes (TERT and TFF3), which was able to distinguish adenomas from de facto carcinomas.
  • When this model was tested in an independent series of atypical adenomas (AFTA) and MI-FTCs, 16 out of 17 AFTAs were classified as 'benign', while MI-FTCs with vascular invasion (sometimes referred to as 'moderately invasive') and/or large tumor size tended to classify in the 'malignant' group.
  • The reported models can be the foundation for the development of reliable preoperative diagnostic and prognostic tests that can guide the therapeutic approach of follicular thyroid neoplasms with indeterminate cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Gene Expression. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17639052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
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70. Rosario PW, Salles DS, Bessa B, Purisch S: Low false-negative rate of cytology in thyroid nodules &gt;or= 4 cm. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2009 Dec;53(9):1143-5
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  • [Title] Low false-negative rate of cytology in thyroid nodules >or= 4 cm.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the results of cytology and histology obtained for a series of systematically resected thyroid nodules >or= 4 cm.
  • METHODS: A group of 151 patients with thyroid nodules >or= 4 cm was submitted to surgery despite the cytology result.
  • Excluding cases of insufficient material, cytology was benign in only 3/31 carcinomas (90.3% sensitivity).
  • The frequency of malignancy was 35% among nodules with indeterminate cytology (follicular neoplasm), and there was a predominance (77%) of papillary carcinoma.
  • The negative predictive value of benign cytology was 96.4%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The false-negative rate of cytology in thyroid nodules >or= 4 cm does not justify systematic resection of these nodules in asymptomatic patients with benign cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20126872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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71. Pinchot SN, Al-Wagih H, Schaefer S, Sippel R, Chen H: Accuracy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy for predicting neoplasm or carcinoma in thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger. Arch Surg; 2009 Jul;144(7):649-55
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  • [Title] Accuracy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy for predicting neoplasm or carcinoma in thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger.
  • HYPOTHESIS: All thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger should be surgically removed regardless of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results because of an unacceptably high rate of false-negative preoperative biopsy results in these large nodules.
  • PATIENTS: A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent surgery for a thyroid nodule 4 cm or larger from May 1, 1994, through January 31, 2007.
  • The FNAB results were reported as nondiagnostic, benign, inconclusive (follicular neoplasm), or malignant, whereas the final surgical pathologic data were reported as benign or malignant.
  • RESULTS: Of 155 patients who underwent a thyroidectomy for a nodule 4 cm or larger, 21 patients (13.5%) had a clinically significant thyroid carcinoma within the nodule on final pathologic analysis.
  • Preoperative cytologic testing of the mass was performed on 97 patients, and the results read as benign for 52, inconclusive for 23, nondiagnostic for 11, and malignant for 11.
  • In lesions 4 cm or larger, 26 of 52 FNAB results reported as benign (50.0%) turned out to be either neoplastic (22) or malignant (4) on final pathologic analysis.
  • Among patients with nondiagnostic FNAB results, the risk of malignant neoplasms was 27.3%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger, the FNAB results are highly inaccurate, misclassifying half of all patients with reportedly benign lesions.
  • Furthermore, those patients with a nondiagnostic FNAB result display a high risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Therefore, we recommend that diagnostic lobectomy be strongly considered in patients with thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger regardless of FNAB cytologic test results.

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  • (PMID = 19620545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS215984; NLM/ PMC2910711
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72. Bocciolini C, Dall'olio D, Cavazza S, Laudadio P: Schwannoma of cervical sympathetic chain: assessment and management. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2005 Jun;25(3):191-4
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  • Schwannoma arising from the cervical sympathetic chain is an uncommon benign nerve tumour.
  • This tumour most often presents as an asymptomatic solitary neck mass, with slow-growing and rare malignant degeneration.
  • Definitive pre-operative diagnosis may be difficult and investigations are not usually helpful.
  • Diagnosis relies on clinical suspicion and confirmation is often obtained by means of surgical pathology.
  • Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for this tumour, with recurrence being rare.
  • Diagnostic studies included computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound which confirmed a circumscribed mass in the upper left portion of the neck next to the thyroid gland.
  • The pathologic and radiological evaluations, treatment and postoperative complications of this neoplasm are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglia, Sympathetic / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16450776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-100X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2639869
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73. Jung CK, Lee A, Jung ES, Choi YJ, Jung SL, Lee KY: Split sample comparison of a liquid-based method and conventional smears in thyroid fine needle aspiration. Acta Cytol; 2008 May-Jun;52(3):313-9
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  • [Title] Split sample comparison of a liquid-based method and conventional smears in thyroid fine needle aspiration.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of the SurePath (SP) vs. conventional smears (CS) in fine needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid gland lesions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A total of 193 FNA cases with thyroid nodules were studied.
  • The diagnostic categories of unsatisfactory, benign, atypical and malignant were compared.
  • On SP slides, nuclear detail and nucleoli were more easily detected and nuclear irregularity was very useful for the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma.
  • The overall sensitivity of FNA in diagnosing thyroid neoplasm was 90.9% for CS and 93.9% for SP.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Specimen Handling / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Staining and Labeling. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18540296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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74. Gerhard R, Nonogaki S, Fregnani JH, Soares FA, Nagai MA: NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010 Jun;65(8):757-62
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  • [Title] NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry.
  • Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined.
  • METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant), follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody.
  • RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P < 0.001).
  • A combined analysis showed higher immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 in malignant lesions (classical pattern and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas, follicular carcinomas, and metastases of thyroid carcinomas) compared to benign thyroid lesions (goiter and follicular adenomas) (P = 0.043).
  • In thyroid carcinomas, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression was significantly correlated with a more advanced TNM stage (P = 0.007) and age, metastasis, tumor extent, and size (AMES) high-risk group (P = 0.012).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid carcinomas showed increased immunohistochemical N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression compared to normal and benign thyroid lesions and is correlated with more advanced tumor stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20835551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; Thyroid cancer, papillary
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2933120
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Immunohistochemistry / NDRG1 / Thyroid Carcinoma / Thyroid Gland / Tissue Microarray
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75. Liu W, Wei W, Winer D, Bamberger AM, Bamberger C, Wagener C, Ezzat S, Asa SL: CEACAM1 impedes thyroid cancer growth but promotes invasiveness: a putative mechanism for early metastases. Oncogene; 2007 Apr 26;26(19):2747-58
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  • [Title] CEACAM1 impedes thyroid cancer growth but promotes invasiveness: a putative mechanism for early metastases.
  • CEACAM1 is a putative tumor suppressor based on diminished expression in some solid neoplasms such as colorectal carcinoma.
  • To clarify the mechanism of action of this cell adhesion molecule, we studied thyroid carcinoma that has a spectrum of morphologies and variable behavior allowing separation of proliferation from invasion and metastasis.
  • CEACAM1 is expressed in thyroid carcinoma cell lines derived from tumors that exhibit aggressive behavior.
  • Forced CEACAM1 expression enhanced cell-matrix adhesion and migration and promoted tumor invasiveness.
  • Conversely, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated downregulation of CEACAM1 expression in MRO cells accelerated cell cycle progression and significantly enhanced tumor size in xenografted mice.
  • CEACAM1 is not appreciably expressed in normal thyroid tissue or benign thyroid tumors.
  • In a human thyroid tissue array, CEACAM1 reactivity was associated with metastatic spread but not with increased tumor size.
  • These findings identify CEACAM1 as a unique mediator that restricts tumor growth whereas increasing metastatic potential.
  • Our data highlight a complex repertoire of actions providing a putative mechanism underlying the spectrum of biologic behaviors associated with thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / physiology. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / physiology. Cell Proliferation. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Animals. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Silencing. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, SCID. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17057731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD66 antigens; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Ceacam1 protein, mouse; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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76. Troncone G, Iaccarino A, Russo M, Palmieri EA, Volante M, Papotti M, Viglietto G, Palombini L: Accumulation of p27(kip1) is associated with cyclin D3 overexpression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Apr;60(4):377-81
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  • [Title] Accumulation of p27(kip1) is associated with cyclin D3 overexpression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The down regulation of protein p27(kip1) (p27) in most cases of thyroid cancer has relevant diagnostic and prognostic implications.
  • However, the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma expresses more p27 than benign oxyphilic lesions do.
  • METHODS: Because high levels of cyclin D3 lead to p27 accumulation in cell lines and clinical samples of thyroid cancer, the immunocytochemical pattern of cyclin D3 in oxyphilic (n = 47) and non-oxyphilic (n = 70) thyroid neoplasms was investigated.
  • In co-immunoprecipitation experiments, the level of p27-bound cyclin D3 was much higher in oxyphilic neoplasias than in normal thyroids and other thyroid tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: These results show that increased p27 expression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma results from cyclin D3 overexpression.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Cyclins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cyclin D3. Humans. Immunoprecipitation. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16798934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCND3 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D3; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2001124
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77. Lyshchik A, Drozd V, Demidchik Y, Reiners C: Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US. Radiology; 2005 May;235(2):604-13
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively analyze the accuracy of various diagnostic criteria for cancer in solid thyroid nodules in children on the basis of gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasonographic (US) findings.
  • One hundred three consecutive pediatric patients with solid thyroid nodules were included in the study.
  • Thirty-five patients had thyroid cancer (mean age, 14.6 years +/- 2.6 [standard deviation]; range, 10-18 years), and 68 patients had benign thyroid nodules (mean age, 14.2 years +/- 2.9; range 9-18 years).
  • Three-dimensional US was used to determine the volume of thyroid gland and thyroid nodules.
  • Results of nodule cytologic and histologic examination and long-term clinical and US follow-up were used as a proof of final diagnosis.
  • Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of US criteria for thyroid cancer in lesions with diameter of 15 mm and smaller and lesions with diameter larger than 15 mm.
  • RESULTS: In thyroid nodules with diameter of 15 mm and smaller, the most reliable diagnostic criteria for malignancy were an irregular outline (sensitivity, 69.6%; specificity, 86.4%; P < .001), subcapsular location (sensitivity, 65.2%; specificity, 86.4%; P < .001), and increased intranodular vascularization (sensitivity, 69.6%; specificity, 87.9%; P < .01).
  • For thyroid nodules larger than 15 mm in diameter, the accuracy of US diagnosis was much lower than that for smaller nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: Study findings indicate that US is most helpful in diagnosis of thyroid malignancy in thyroid nodules with diameter of 15 mm and smaller, with detection of irregular tumor outline, subcapsular location, and increased intranodular vascularization.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Enhancement. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenoma / blood supply. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood supply. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15770036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Robboy SJ, Shaco-Levy R, Peng RY, Snyder MJ, Donahue J, Bentley RC, Bean S, Krigman HR, Roth LM, Young RH: Malignant struma ovarii: an analysis of 88 cases, including 27 with extraovarian spread. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Sep;28(5):405-22
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  • Adhesions (graded 2 to 4+), peritoneal fluid (> or =1 L) or ovarian serosal rent were worrisome features, occurring in 74% of 27 biologically malignant tumors but only 10% of 61 clinically benign tumors.
  • Except for a papillary pattern or poorly differentiated cancer, no microscopic feature reliably predicted the clinical outcome, including those typically associated with malignancy in primary thyroid tumors.
  • Papillary carcinomas recurred earlier (average 4 y) than follicular adenomatous neoplasms (average 11 y, range: 1-29 y).
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19696610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Drieschner N, Belge G, Rippe V, Meiboom M, Loeschke S, Bullerdiek J: Evidence for a 3p25 breakpoint hot spot region in thyroid tumors of follicular origin. Thyroid; 2006 Nov;16(11):1091-6
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  • [Title] Evidence for a 3p25 breakpoint hot spot region in thyroid tumors of follicular origin.
  • Epithelial tumors of the thyroid are cytogenetically well-investigated tumors.
  • Recently, we have been able to describe the involvement of a novel gene called THADA in benign thyroid lesions with 2p21 rearrangements.
  • Other fusion genes found in thyroid lesions are RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR(gamma).
  • The latter occurs in follicular thyroid carcinomas with a t(2;3)(q13;p25).
  • Here we present molecular-cytogenetic and cytogenetic investigations on a follicular thyroid adenoma with a t(2;20;3)(p21;q11.2; p25).
  • Our findings suggest that the close surrounding of PPAR(gamma) is a breakpoint hot spot region, leading to recurrent alterations of this gene in thyroid tumors of follicular origin including carcinomas as well as adenomas with or without involvement of PAX8.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Chromosome Breakage. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. PPAR gamma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17123335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / THADA protein, human
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80. Marhefka GD, McDivitt JD, Shakir KM, Drake AJ 3rd: Diagnosis of follicular neoplasm in thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration cytology: does the result, benign vs. suspicious for a malignant process, in these nodules make a difference? Acta Cytol; 2009 Sep-Oct;53(5):517-23
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of follicular neoplasm in thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration cytology: does the result, benign vs. suspicious for a malignant process, in these nodules make a difference?
  • OBJECTIVE: To address the likelihood of thyroid malignancy for each cytologic interpretation, highly cellular and benign vs. follicular carcinoma, with particular attention to the indeterminate cytologic result, follicular neoplasm.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed thyroid nodule cytologic and histologic interpretations from 1994 to 2002 in a tertiary medical center setting.
  • Patients were referred for evaluation of thyroid nodules found incidentally or on physical examination.
  • RESULTS: A total of 886 thyroid nodules were aspirated in 802 patients (500 benign, 195 indeterminate, 129 inadequate, 62 malignant).
  • Of 195 indeterminate lesions, 180 were classified as follicular neoplasm or "cannot rule out/possible" follicular neoplasm, with 144 of these ultimately removed and with malignant histologic findings in 28.
  • Any mention of follicular neoplasm in the cytology report conferred a 19.4% risk of malignancy in patients who went on to surgery (including an unexpected 18.2% rate of malignancy in the subcategory in which a possible follicular neoplasm was a secondary listing in an otherwise-benign cytologic differential diagnosis).
  • CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the likelihood of histologic malignancy between the cytologic subcategories of "definite "follicular neoplasm and "cannot rule out/possible" follicular neoplasm.
  • We recommend that cytologic reports on fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules with a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm reflect this fact.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19798878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Morari EC, Silva JR, Guilhen AC, Cunha LL, Marcello MA, Soares FA, Vassallo J, Ward LS: Muc-1 expression may help characterize thyroid nodules but does not predict patients' outcome. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Dec;21(4):242-9
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  • [Title] Muc-1 expression may help characterize thyroid nodules but does not predict patients' outcome.
  • Our purpose was to evaluate MUC1 clinical utility in the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid cancer patients.
  • We studied the protein expression of MUC1 in 289 thyroid carcinomas and 121 noncancerous thyroid nodules.
  • There were 41 follicular carcinomas (FC) and 248 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) including 149 classic (CPTC), 20 tall cell (TCPTC) and 79 follicular variants (FVPTC).
  • MUC1 protein was identified in 80.2% PTC; 48.8% FC; 68.3% FVPTC; 70% TCPTC; 21.8% FA; 30% hyperplasias and 6% normal thyroid tissues.
  • MUC1 distinguished benign from malignant thyroid tissues (sensitivity = 89%; specificity = 53%).
  • q-PCR mRNA expression of MUC1 also distinguished malignant from benign nodules (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.0001).
  • We suggest that MUC1 expression may help differentiate follicular patterned thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Mucin-1 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21057891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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82. Guerriero E, Ferraro A, Desiderio D, Pallante P, Berlingieri MT, Iaccarino A, Palmieri E, Palombini L, Fusco A, Troncone G: UbcH10 expression on thyroid fine-needle aspirates. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Jun 25;118(3):157-65
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  • [Title] UbcH10 expression on thyroid fine-needle aspirates.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples belonging to the follicular neoplasm/suspicious for malignancy classes are controversial.
  • The authors identified UbcH10 as a marker useful in the diagnosis of several neoplasms, including thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: A series of 84 follicular neoplasm/suspicious for malignancy FNAs with histological follow-up (30 malignant) was prospectively collected.
  • RESULTS: UbcH10 and Ki-67 shared a similar pattern; although UbcH10 expression was higher in malignant than in benign lesions (P < .001), staining was sporadic, and the cutoff value derived by the ROC analysis was too low (1.25%) for routine application.
  • UbcH10 mRNA levels associated with malignant histology were significantly higher than those associated with benign histology (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: UbcH10 quantitative RT-PCR analysis, rather than immunohistochemistry, is useful to increase the detection of malignancy in thyroid FNAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes / analysis. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20544706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 6.3.2.19 / UBE2C protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes
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83. Mui MP, Tam KF, Tam FK, Ngan HY: Coexistence of struma ovarii with marked ascites and elevated CA-125 levels: case report and literature review. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 May;279(5):753-7
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  • INTRODUCTION: Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm and consists mainly of thyroid tissue.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We described a case of benign struma ovarii, presenting with the clinical features of ovarian cancer: large complex pelvic mass, gross ascites and markedly elevated serum CA-125 levels.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18807056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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84. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Yasuoka H, Kakudo K, Inohara H, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Galectin-3 expression in follicular tumours: an immunohistochemical study of its use as a marker of follicular carcinoma. Pathology; 2005 Aug;37(4):296-8
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  • AIMS: Galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside binding family of lectins, has been regarded as a useful tool for discriminating malignant tumours from benign nodules of the thyroid, including the distinction between follicular carcinoma and adenoma.
  • However, there are follicular tumours with unclear vascular or capsular invasion, which makes diagnosis more difficult.
  • METHODS: We immunohistochemically investigated galectin-3 expression in 260 cases of follicular tumour with various degrees of vascular or capsular invasion classified into four categories.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that galectin-3 plays a role in the transformation of follicular tumours from benign to malignant; however, when diagnosing follicular tumours, the presence of this protein should not be required for diagnosing malignant transformation in all cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16194828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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85. Radestock Y, Willing C, Kehlen A, Hoang-Vu C, Hombach-Klonisch S: Relaxin enhances S100A4 and promotes growth of human thyroid carcinoma cell xenografts. Mol Cancer Res; 2010 Apr;8(4):494-506
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  • [Title] Relaxin enhances S100A4 and promotes growth of human thyroid carcinoma cell xenografts.
  • Relaxin increases cell motility and in vitro invasiveness in human thyroid carcinoma cells but the underlying molecular mechanisms of this action are largely unknown.
  • In the present study, we show that relaxin transcriptionally upregulates the calcium-binding protein S100A4 (metastasin) and increases the cytosolic 10-kDa monomer and the 20-kDa dimer form of S100A4 in human thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • We have shown previously the expression of the insulin-like family member relaxin in human thyroid carcinoma tissues but not in benign thyroid tissues.
  • Human thyroid carcinoma tissues expressing relaxin also stained positive for S100A4.
  • In nude mouse experiments, human thyroid carcinoma cell transfectants with constitutive expression of relaxin generated large and fast-growing tumors with significantly increased numbers of proliferating cells.
  • We provide evidence in our cell model that the relaxin target protein S100A4 secreted by the thyroid carcinoma transfectants may not only enhance tumor cell motility but also promote xenograft angiogenesis as determined by the higher density of tumor microvessels and the angiogenic potential of S100A4 in in vitro tube formation assays.
  • In conclusion, we have identified S100A4 as a major mediator of the actions of relaxin in thyroid carcinoma cell motility and in vivo thyroid tumor angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Relaxin / metabolism. S100 Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Movement / physiology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Graft Survival / physiology. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Microcirculation / drug effects. Microcirculation / physiology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / genetics. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / physiopathology. RNA Interference. RNA, Messenger / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Transplantation, Heterologous. Up-Regulation / drug effects. Up-Regulation / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 20332215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-3125
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / S100 Proteins; 142662-27-9 / S100A4 protein, human; 9002-69-1 / Relaxin
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86. De Falco M, Oliva G, Ragusa M, Misso C Jr, Parmeggiani D, Sperlongano P, Calzolari F, Puxeddu E, Misso C, Marzano LA, Barbarisi A, Parmeggiani U, Avenia N: Surgical treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a retrospective study. G Chir; 2008 Apr;29(4):152-8
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a retrospective study.
  • INTRODUCTION: We carried out a retrospective analysis of our experience in the management of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (DTC), in order to better define prognostic factors (age, gender, histological type, stage) and outline a standard procedure, where it's possible, for surgical treatment.
  • The multivariate analysis evidences the most important variables, i.e. age > 45 ys, tumor of intermediate malignancy, with size 1.5 cm, operative M+, significantly condition the prognosis, noticeably getting worse it, independently by the kind of carried out operation.
  • CONCLUSION: Our present therapeutic choices are: 1. total thyroidectomy in the treatment of the apparently benign pathology when bilaterally with spread; the checking at the final histological exam of a cancer makes however think adequate the carried out operation; 2. lobo-isthmectomy in the treatment of unilateral benign pathology or with suspect FNAB for follicular neoplasm; the histological checking of a cancer makes think the operation adequate only in presence of favourable prognostic parameters, but in presence even of just one unfavourable variable, we consider necessary the totalization; 3. total thyroidectomy in presence of a certain or strongly suspected preoperative diagnosis of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18419979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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87. Lardinois D, Weder W, Roudas M, von Schulthess GK, Tutic M, Moch H, Stahel RA, Steinert HC: Etiology of solitary extrapulmonary positron emission tomography and computed tomography findings in patients with lung cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Oct 1;23(28):6846-53
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  • A diagnosis was obtained in 69 of these patients, including 37 (54%) with solitary metastases and 32 (46%) with lesions unrelated to the lung primary.
  • Histopathologic examinations of these 32 lesions revealed a second clinically unsuspected malignancy or a recurrence of a previous diagnosed carcinoma in six patients (19%) and a benign tumor or inflammatory lesion in 26 patients (81%).
  • Benign tumors and inflammatory lesions included eight colon adenomas, four Warthin's tumors, one granuloma of the lower jaw, one adenoma of the thyroid gland, one compensatory muscle activity due to vocal chord palsy, two occurrences of arthritis, three occurrences of reflux esophagitis, two occurrences of pancreatitis, two occurrences of diverticulitis, one hemorrhoidal inflammation, and one rib fracture.
  • CONCLUSION: Solitary extrapulmonary FDG accumulations in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer should be analyzed critically for correct staging and optimal therapy, given that up to half of the lesions may represent unrelated malignancies or benign disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Inflammation. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16192576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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88. Mofid AR, Yazdani T, Shahrzad M, Seyedalinaghi S, Zandieh S: Role of fine-needle aspiration in the management of thyroid nodules. Saudi Med J; 2009 Apr;30(4):515-8
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  • [Title] Role of fine-needle aspiration in the management of thyroid nodules.
  • OBJECTIVE: To show the benefits of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in managing thyroid nodules.
  • METHODS: As a retrospective study, reports of 888 FNABs of the thyroid performed during a period of 11 years (1996-2007) at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Sina Hospital and Endocrine Clinic, Tehran, Iran were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The cytology diagnoses by FNAB were: papillary 6 (3.2%); follicular neoplasm 51 (28%); follicular adenoma 10 (5.4%); Hurthle cell neoplasm 8 (4.3%); suspicious 20 (10.9%); inconclusive 2 (1%); and benign 85 (46.4%).
  • Due to surgery pathologic reports, malignant cytologies were: 6 (100%) for papillary, 1 (1.96%) for follicular neoplasm, 4 (50%) for Hurthle cell neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSION: Fine needle aspiration is a useful technique for selecting patients with nodular thyroid disease for surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19370278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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89. Wang EL, Qian ZR, Rahman MM, Yoshimoto K, Yamada S, Kudo E, Sano T: Increased expression of HMGA1 correlates with tumour invasiveness and proliferation in human pituitary adenomas. Histopathology; 2010 Mar;56(4):501-9
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  • [Title] Increased expression of HMGA1 correlates with tumour invasiveness and proliferation in human pituitary adenomas.
  • AIMS: High-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) is highly expressed in various benign and malignant tumours.
  • Although HMGA1 expression was frequently detected in clinically non-functioning adenomas - 90% of silent adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 76.2% of follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone and 100% of null cell adenomas - it was also detected in 48.1% of growth hormone (GH), 60% of mixed GH/prolactin (PRL), 62.5% of PRL, 66.6% of thyroid-stimulating hormone and 37.5% of ACTH adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that HMGA1 up-regulation has an important oncogenic role in pituitary tumorigenesis, as well as being a novel molecular marker of tumour proliferation and invasiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. HMGA Proteins / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Case-Control Studies. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tumor Burden. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 20459557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA Proteins
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90. Fukushima M, Ito Y, Hirokawa M, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Akasu H, Shimizu K, Miyauchi A: Excellent prognosis of patients with nonhereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma with ultrasonographic findings of follicular tumor or benign nodule. World J Surg; 2009 May;33(5):963-8
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  • [Title] Excellent prognosis of patients with nonhereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma with ultrasonographic findings of follicular tumor or benign nodule.
  • BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) accounts for only 1.4% of all thyroid malignancies in Japan.
  • Generally, MTC shows ultrasonographic findings typical of thyroid carcinoma.
  • However, in our experience, some MTC may be diagnosed as a follicular tumor or a benign nodule on ultrasonography because ultrasonographic findings of malignancy are lacking.
  • Of these patients, 54 were diagnosed as having thyroid carcinoma (malignant, or M-type) but the remaining 23 were diagnosed as having follicular tumor or benign nodule (benign, or B-type) on ultrasonography.
  • RESULTS: Clinically apparent lateral node metastasis, extrathyroid extension, and extranodal tumor extension were observed in 37%, 17%, and 11% of M-type patients, respectively, but none of the B-type patients showed any of these features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19198929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Paramo JC, Mesko T: Age, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid. Endocr Pract; 2008 May-Jun;14(4):447-51
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  • [Title] Age, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical predictors of malignancy in patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of 71 patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm who underwent thyroidectomy between January 1992 and December 2000.
  • Age, sex, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography characteristics of the lesions were assessed.
  • These clinical factors were compared between cases that had benign definitive pathologic findings and those that were found to be carcinomas on permanent sections.
  • RESULTS: Nine (13%) of the 71 follicular neoplasms were found to be carcinomas after definitive pathologic evaluation.
  • When the in-office ultrasonography findings were interpreted as benign, only 7% (3/46) of cases were malignant compared with 40% (4/10) when the ultrasonography findings were suspicious (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age and tumor size are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • Total thyroidectomy is reasonable in patients with follicular neoplasm on frozen section if they are young (<45 years old), with large (>4 cm) tumors or if there are suspicious findings on in-office ultrasonography.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18558598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Strazisar B, Petric R, Sesek M, Zgajnar J, Hocevar M, Besic N: Predictive factors of carcinoma in 279 patients with Hürthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Jun 1;101(7):582-6
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  • [Title] Predictive factors of carcinoma in 279 patients with Hürthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Estimation of the risk of malignancy in a Hürthle cell (HC) neoplasm is important for optimum extent of thyroid surgical treatment.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to find predictive factors of carcinoma in patients with HC neoplasm.
  • METHODS: A total of 279 patients (241 females, 38 males; median age 55 years, range 15-86 years) with HC neoplasm in whom carcinoma was only suspected and who were surgically treated at our Institute in the period 1990-2007, were included in this study.
  • RESULTS: The histopatological diagnoses were carcinoma, benign goiter and adenoma in 71 (25%), 68 (25%) and 140 (50%) patients, respectively.
  • Predictive factors for carcinoma, shown by chi-square test, were: age of patients, tumor diameter, thyroid volume and T(g) concentration.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The independent predictors of malignancy in HC neoplasm were age of patients and pre-operative T(g) concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20461764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Schmidt D, Szikszai A, Linke R, Bautz W, Kuwert T: Impact of 131I SPECT/spiral CT on nodal staging of differentiated thyroid carcinoma at the first radioablation. J Nucl Med; 2009 Jan;50(1):18-23
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  • [Title] Impact of 131I SPECT/spiral CT on nodal staging of differentiated thyroid carcinoma at the first radioablation.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of 131I SPECT/spiral CT (SPECT/CT) on nodal staging of patients with thyroid carcinoma at the first ablative radioiodine therapy.
  • METHODS: Fifty-seven patients were studied using SPECT/CT 3-4 d after receiving 3.96+/-0.5 GBq of 131I for radioablation of thyroid remnants after a thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: SPECT/CT led to a revision of the original diagnosis in 28 of 143 cervical foci of radioiodine uptake seen on planar imaging.
  • In particular, SPECT/CT reclassified as benign 6 of 11 lesions considered to be lymph node metastases and 11 of 15 lesions considered to be indeterminate.
  • Furthermore, SPECT/CT allowed the identification of 11 lymph node metastases classified as thyroid remnant or as indeterminate on planar imaging.
  • CONCLUSION: SPECT/CT determines lymph node involvement at radioablation performed for thyroid cancer more accurately than does planar imaging.
  • SPECT/CT may alter management in roughly one quarter of patients with thyroid carcinoma by upstaging or downstaging their disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Ablation Techniques. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiography. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radiography. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, Spiral Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • [CommentIn] J Nucl Med. 2009 Aug;50(8):1386; author reply 1386 [19617337.001]
  • (PMID = 19091884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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94. Kumagai A, Namba H, Akanov Z, Saenko VA, Meirmanov S, Ohtsuru A, Yano H, Maeda S, Anami M, Hayashi T, Ito M, Sagandikova S, Eleubaeva Z, Mussinov D, Espenbetova M, Yamashita S: Clinical implications of pre-operative rapid BRAF analysis for papillary thyroid cancer. Endocr J; 2007 Jun;54(3):399-405
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  • [Title] Clinical implications of pre-operative rapid BRAF analysis for papillary thyroid cancer.
  • The activating point mutation of the BRAF gene, BRAF(T1799A), is the most common and specific genetic alteration in adult papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and a possible marker of malignant potential of PTC.
  • Of these cases, we found mutations in one cytologically "suspicious" case and even in two pathologically "benign" cases (after surgery in Kazakhstan).
  • In summary, our PCR-RFLP method for BRAF(T1799A) detection using FNAB samples is useful not only for preoperative diagnosis of PTC but also as a complementary diagnostic tool for accurate pathological diagnosis, even after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. DNA Mutational Analysis. Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine. Preoperative Care. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Japan. Kazakhstan. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length


95. Miyakoshi A, Dalley RW, Anzai Y: Magnetic resonance imaging of thyroid cancer. Top Magn Reson Imaging; 2007 Aug;18(4):293-302
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of thyroid cancer.
  • Thyroid cancer is a unique malignancy arising from the endocrine system, and its nature is different from more common squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region.
  • Multiple imaging modalities are used for imaging work up for thyroid cancer, including nuclear medicine imaging, ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Imaging findings of benign and malignant thyroid lesions overlap substantially, and differentiation may be difficult.
  • In this chapter, we will discuss the role of MRI in thyroid cancer staging and key imaging appearance that affect staging of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17893594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-3459
  • [Journal-full-title] Topics in magnetic resonance imaging : TMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Top Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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96. Saggiorato E, De Pompa R, Volante M, Cappia S, Arecco F, Dei Tos AP, Orlandi F, Papotti M: Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):305-17
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  • [Title] Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application.
  • The distinction of benign from malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms remains a difficult task in diagnostic fine-needle aspiration cytology, and some discrepant results have been reported for the individual immunocytochemical markers of malignancy proposed so far.
  • The aim of this study was to test if the combined use of a panel of markers could improve the diagnostic accuracy in the preoperative cytological evaluation of 'follicular neoplasms' in an attempt to reduce the number of thyroidectomies performed for benign lesions.
  • The immunocytochemical expression of galectin-3, HBME-1, thyroperoxidase, cytokeratin-19 and keratan-sulfate was retrospectively analyzed in 125 consecutive fine-needle aspiration samples (cell blocks) of indeterminate diagnoses of 'follicular thyroid neoplasm', and compared with their corresponding surgical specimens, including 33 follicular carcinomas, 42 papillary carcinomas and 50 follicular adenomas.
  • Our data showed that, as compared with the use of single markers, the sequential combination of two markers represents the most accurate immunohistochemical panel in managing patients with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of 'follicular neoplasms', especially in otherwise controversial categories such as oncocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15947105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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97. Layfield LJ, Abrams J, Cochand-Priollet B, Evans D, Gharib H, Greenspan F, Henry M, LiVolsi V, Merino M, Michael CW, Wang H, Wells SA: Post-thyroid FNA testing and treatment options: a synopsis of the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Jun;36(6):442-8
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  • [Title] Post-thyroid FNA testing and treatment options: a synopsis of the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference.
  • The National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored the NCI Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) State of the Science Conference on October 22-23, 2007 in Bethesda, MD.
  • Follow-up options for "nondiagnostic" and "benign" thyroid aspirates are given.
  • The value of ultrasound examination in the follow-up of "nondiagnostic" and "benign" thyroid aspirates is discussed.
  • Ultrasound findings requiring reaspiration or surgical resection are described as are the timing and length of clinical and ultrasonographic surveillance for cytologically "benign" nodules.
  • Options for surgical intervention are given for the diagnostic categories of "atypical/borderline," "follicular neoplasm," "suspicious for malignancy" and "malignant" (http://thyroidfna.cancer.gov/pages/info/agenda/).
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Protocols. Humans. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18478610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Vorburger SA, Ubersax L, Schmid SW, Balli M, Candinas D, Seiler CA: Long-term follow-up after complete resection of well-differentiated cancer confined to the thyroid gland. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Oct;16(10):2862-74
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  • [Title] Long-term follow-up after complete resection of well-differentiated cancer confined to the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas exhibit a relatively benign course.
  • METHODS: Patients who underwent complete resection of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) confined to the thyroid gland between 1972 and 1990 identified from a prospective database were assessed.
  • Review of histology was performed and extent of thyroid resection, postoperative therapy, and recognized prognostic factors but not lymphadenectomy were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Of 2,867 patients, 213 had complete resection of WDTC confined to the thyroid gland.
  • DSS at 10 and 20 years was 81 and 69%, respectively, and correlated with age, histology, tumor size, radio-iodide ablation (RIA), and external beam irradiation (EBR) treatment.
  • Age, histology and postoperative therapy but not extent of thyroid resection determined DSS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Cell Differentiation. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2011 Feb;18(2):600 [20607419.001]
  • (PMID = 19655202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Stojadinovic A, Peoples GE, Libutti SK, Henry LR, Eberhardt J, Howard RS, Gur D, Elster EA, Nissan A: Development of a clinical decision model for thyroid nodules. BMC Surg; 2009;9:12
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  • [Title] Development of a clinical decision model for thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules represent a common problem brought to medical attention.
  • Four to seven percent of the United States adult population (10-18 million people) has a palpable thyroid nodule, however the majority (>95%) of thyroid nodules are benign.
  • While, fine needle aspiration remains the most cost effective and accurate diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules in current practice, over 20% of patients undergoing FNA of a thyroid nodule have indeterminate cytology (follicular neoplasm) with associated malignancy risk prevalence of 20-30%.
  • These patients require thyroid lobectomy/isthmusectomy purely for the purpose of attaining a definitive diagnosis.
  • Given that the majority (70-80%) of these patients have benign surgical pathology, thyroidectomy in these patients is conducted principally with diagnostic intent.
  • Clinical models predictive of malignancy risk are needed to support treatment decisions in patients with thyroid nodules in order to reduce morbidity associated with unnecessary diagnostic surgery.
  • METHODS: Data were analyzed from a completed prospective cohort trial conducted over a 4-year period involving 216 patients with thyroid nodules undergoing ultrasound (US), electrical impedance scanning (EIS) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) prior to thyroidectomy.
  • A Bayesian model was designed to predict malignancy in thyroid nodules based on multivariate dependence relationships between independent covariates.
  • A receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC) curve of these predictions and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated to determine model robustness for predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid nodule size, FNA cytology, US and EIS characteristics were highly predictive of malignancy.
  • Cross validation of the model created with Bayesian Network Analysis effectively predicted malignancy [AUC = 0.88 (95%CI: 0.82-0.94)] in thyroid nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: An integrated predictive decision model using Bayesian inference incorporating readily obtainable thyroid nodule measures is clinically relevant, as it effectively predicts malignancy in thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Bayes Theorem. Decision Support Techniques. Models, Statistical. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Area Under Curve. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. ROC Curve. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19664278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2482
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2731077
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100. Pietarinen-Runtti P, Apajalahti S, Robinson S, Passador-Santos F, Leivo I, Mäkitie AA: Cystic neck lesions: clinical, radiological and differential diagnostic considerations. Acta Otolaryngol; 2010 Feb;130(2):300-4
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  • CONCLUSIONS: Metastatic disease should always be considered as a potential differential diagnosis in the adult patient with a cystic neck lesion.
  • This study aimed to investigate the incidence of unsuspected carcinoma in routinely excised cervical cysts at a tertiary care teaching hospital and to determine the characteristics of benign BCC and cystic malignancy in preoperative imaging.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 196 consecutive adult patients operated on with the initial diagnosis of benign lateral cervical cyst were identified and the hospital charts and imaging studies were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma was demonstrated histologically postoperatively in six (3.1%) patients and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in one (0.5%) patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Branchioma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neck. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19593684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-2251
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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