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1. Coco DP, Hirsch MS, Hornick JL: Smoothelin is a specific marker for smooth muscle neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Dec;33(12):1795-801
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Smoothelin is a specific marker for smooth muscle neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Smoothelin is a smooth muscle-specific cytoskeletal protein exclusively found in differentiated smooth muscle cells.
  • This contrasts with other smooth muscle proteins (eg, h-caldesmon, alpha-smooth muscle actin, desmin, smooth muscle myosin), which are expressed in proliferative (early) stages of smooth muscle development and occasionally in other cell types (striated muscle, myofibroblasts, myoepithelial cells, pericytes).
  • Smoothelin has been shown to be expressed predominantly in visceral smooth muscle and to a lesser extent in vascular smooth muscle.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether immunostaining for smoothelin could help distinguish smooth muscle neoplasms from their morphologic mimics, particularly KIT-negative gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), desmin-positive GISTs, and desmoid fibromatosis.
  • Cytoplasmic expression of smoothelin was present in all 24 (100%) benign smooth muscle tumors (mural leiomyomas and leiomyomas of the muscularis mucosae).
  • Nuclear expression of smoothelin was not detected in any of the other tumor types examined.
  • In summary, diffuse cytoplasmic staining for smoothelin is highly sensitive and specific for benign leiomyomas of the GI tract.
  • These findings suggest that the extent and pattern of smoothelin expression may help differentiate between benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract, and may be useful in distinguishing leiomyomas from KIT-negative and/or desmin-positive GISTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cytoskeletal Proteins / analysis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / chemistry. Muscle Proteins / analysis. Smooth Muscle Tumor / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Desmin / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19950405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / SMTN protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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2. Kourda J, Ismail O, Smati BH, Ayadi A, Kilani T, El Mezni F: Benign myoepithelioma of the lung - a case report and review of the literature. Cases J; 2010;3(1):25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign myoepithelioma of the lung - a case report and review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Benign myoepithelioma is extremely rare in the lung, to the best of our knowledge; only five cases have been reported in the literature.
  • No mitotic activity or necrosis was seen in the tumor.
  • Immuhistochemically, the tumor cells positive for smooth muscle actin, vimentine, and S100 protein.
  • The diagnosis of benign myoepithelioma of the lung is so confirmed.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign myoepithelioma is a rare pulmonary neoplasm distinct from pleomorphic adenoma, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lung nodules.

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  • (PMID = 20180958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2828429
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3. O'Neill CJ, McBride HA, Connolly LE, McCluggage WG: Uterine leiomyosarcomas are characterized by high p16, p53 and MIB1 expression in comparison with usual leiomyomas, leiomyoma variants and smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential. Histopathology; 2007 Jun;50(7):851-8
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  • [Title] Uterine leiomyosarcomas are characterized by high p16, p53 and MIB1 expression in comparison with usual leiomyomas, leiomyoma variants and smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential.
  • In this study, p16 immunohistochemical expression was assessed in a variety of uterine smooth muscle tumours, including usual leiomyomas, leiomyoma variants, smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential (STUMPs) and leiomyosarcomas.
  • The aim was to ascertain whether there are differences in p16 expression between these groups and whether p16 is of potential value in the assessment of problematic uterine smooth muscle neoplasms. p16 expression was also compared with that of p53 and MIB1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: p16 is overexpressed in uterine leiomyosarcomas compared with leiomyomas, benign leiomyoma variants and STUMPs, suggesting that p16 may be implicated in the pathogenesis of malignant uterine smooth muscle neoplasms. p16, in combination with p53 and MIB1, may be of value as an adjunct to morphological examination in the assessment of problematic uterine smooth muscle tumours, although further large-scale studies with follow-up are necessary to confirm this.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Leiomyoma / metabolism. Leiomyosarcoma / metabolism. Smooth Muscle Tumor / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Count. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17543074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 6.3.2.19 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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4. Lin YC, Wei LH, Shun CT, Cheng AL, Hsu CH: Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis responds to systemic chemotherapy. Oncology; 2009;76(1):55-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD) is a rare disease entity characterized by multiple peritoneal tumors composed of benign but proliferative smooth muscle cells.
  • Objective tumor response was achieved and sustained for 1 year.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19039249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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5. Brown L: Pathology of uterine malignancies. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2008 Aug;20(6):433-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Some types of mixed epithelial and stromal neoplasm are described and contrasted with carcinosarcoma.
  • The concept of stromal sarcoma and high-grade uterine sarcoma is described and an outline of malignant smooth muscle tumours of the uterus includes a description of smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential and worrying benign smooth muscle lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18499412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 233
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6. Tzanakis NE, Giannopoulos GA, Efstathiou SP, Rallis GE, Nikiteas NI: Angiomyofibroblastoma of the spermatic cord: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:79
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Angiomyofibroblastoma is a benign soft tissue tumor with tendency to arise in the vulva.
  • At operation, a 4.5 cm well-circumscribed solid tumor was found adherent to the spermatic cord.
  • The tumor consisted of spindle-shaped cells proliferating in short fascicles between numerous medium-sized blood vessels with thin and hyalinized walls.
  • Immunostaining showed positivity for vimentin, CD34, desmin and smooth muscle actin.
  • CONCLUSION: This unusual neoplasm should be distinguished from aggressive angiomyxoma and other myxoid malignant tumors with widespread metastatic potential.

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  • (PMID = 20202207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2838917
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7. Holland KE, Galbraith SS: Generalized congenital smooth muscle hamartoma presenting with hypertrichosis, excess skin folds, and follicular dimpling. Pediatr Dermatol; 2008 Mar-Apr;25(2):236-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Generalized congenital smooth muscle hamartoma presenting with hypertrichosis, excess skin folds, and follicular dimpling.
  • We describe an interesting patient with a diffuse smooth muscle hamartoma who presented with hypertrichosis, increased skin folds, and follicular dimpling.
  • While smooth muscle hamartoma classically presents as a small hairy, skin-colored to hyperpigmented patch or plaque, rare presentations with diffuse involvement or follicular papules have been described.
  • We present our patient and review the literature to highlight the diverse and under recognized manifestations of this benign neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma / congenital. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Muscle, Smooth / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18429788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Koletsa T, Karayannopoulou G, Dereklis D, Vasileiadis I, Papadimitriou CS, Hytiroglou P: Mesectodermal leiomyoma of the ciliary body: report of a case and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(2):125-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mesectodermal leiomyoma of the ciliary body is a rare benign tumor with double (muscular and neural) differentiation.
  • This neoplasm is considered to originate from the ciliary body smooth muscle, a neural crest derivative.
  • The tumor measured 1.2cm in greatest dimension, and consisted of spindle and ovoid cells with abundant fibrillary cytoplasmic processes.
  • Immunohistochemical stains revealed positivity for smooth muscle actin, caldesmon, neuron-specific enolase, and CD56 antigen.
  • A review of the 23 cases thus far reported in the literature shows a striking predilection for women, as well as significant difficulties in differentiating this tumor from malignant melanoma on clinical grounds.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18930601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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9. Mentzel T, Dei Tos AP, Sapi Z, Kutzner H: Myopericytoma of skin and soft tissues: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 54 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jan;30(1):104-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Perivascular neoplasms comprise traditionally glomus tumor and hemangiopericytoma (HPC).
  • Whereas glomus tumor represents a well-defined entity, the existence of HPC as a separate entity has been questioned because a number of neoplasms of different lines of differentiation are characterized by a HPC-like vascular growth pattern.
  • Immunohistochemical stainings using alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA), desmin, and h-caldesmon antibodies were performed, and clinical data and follow-up information were obtained from referring pathologists.
  • Histologically, in all cases, numerous thin-walled vessels and a concentric, perivascular arrangement of ovoid, plump spindled to round myoid tumor cells was seen.
  • Despite overlapping morphologic features to angioleiomyoma and myofibroma, myopericytoma represents a distinct perivascular, myoid neoplasm of skin and soft tissues, characterized by a broad morphologic spectrum of concentrically, perivascularly growing myoid tumor cells that stain positively for ASMA and often for h-caldesmon, whereas desmin is usually negative.
  • Most cases of myopericytoma behave in a benign fashion, but local recurrences and rarely metastases may occur in atypical and malignant neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiomyoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Glomus Tumor / pathology. Hemangiopericytoma / metabolism. Hemangiopericytoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Myofibroma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16330949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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10. Ghazali N, Cascarini L, Norris P, Barrett AW, Lavery KM: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the cheek. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2010 Jul;110(1):e26-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the cheek.
  • We present the unusual case of a perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) occurring within the cheek of a 32-year-old woman.
  • PEComa is a rare, recently described, family of tumors with diverse clinicopathologic expression and which express melanocytic and muscle markers.
  • Other possible diagnoses considered included benign mesenchymal tumors of smooth muscle or neural origin.
  • The tumor was completely excised, but in view of uncertainty as to how this entity would behave in an unusual location, lifelong follow up is recommended.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Arterioles / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. MART-1 Antigen. Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20610292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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11. Suh I, Shibru D, Eisenhofer G, Pacak K, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Candidate genes associated with malignant pheochromocytomas by genome-wide expression profiling. Ann Surg; 2009 Dec;250(6):983-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in malignant pheochromocytoma by examining differences in the gene expression profile between benign and malignant tumors.
  • There are also no reliable and uniformly accepted histopathologic criteria to distinguish benign from malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • METHODS: We performed genome-wide expression profiling of 58 pheochromocytomas (29 benign and sporadic, 16 benign and hereditary, 13 malignant) with technical and biologic replication.
  • Supervised cluster analysis showed almost completely separate clustering between benign and malignant tumors.
  • The differentially expressed genes with known function belonged to 8 biologic process categories; signal transduction, transcription, protein transport, protein synthesis, smooth muscle contraction, ion transport, chemotaxis, and electron transport.
  • Ten differentially expressed genes had high diagnostic accuracy, and 5 of these genes (CFC1, FAM62B, HOMER1, LRRN3, TBX3, ADAMTS) in combination had an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.96 for distinguishing benign versus malignant tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Differentially expressed genes between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas distinguish between these tumors with high diagnostic accuracy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Genetic Association Studies / methods. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19661783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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12. Koyuncu BO, Zeytinoğlu M, Unal T, Zeytinoğlu B: Myofibroma of the gingiva: report of a case. J Clin Pediatr Dent; 2010;34(3):253-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Myofibroma is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm composed of myofibroblasts which has been described with different synonyms since the first report in 1951.
  • Awareness and recognition of this benign tumor is important to establish the correct diagnosis and avoid morbidity of unnecessary aggressive therapy.
  • The tumor showed rapid increase in size and clinical features suggestive of malignancy.
  • However on histopathologic evaluation it was diagnosed as a benign neoplasm, and this diagnosis was supported by immunohistochemical markers.
  • The spindle cells were immunopositive for smooth muscle actin, and vimentin but were negative for desmin and S-100 protein.

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  • (PMID = 20578664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-4628
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical pediatric dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Pediatr Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Desmin; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Vimentin
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13. Metta H, Corti M, Redini L, Dure R, Campitelli AM, Narbaitz M: Endobronchial leiomyoma: an unusual non-defining neoplasm in a patient with AIDS. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo; 2009 Jan-Feb;51(1):53-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endobronchial leiomyoma: an unusual non-defining neoplasm in a patient with AIDS.
  • Smooth muscle neoplasms are more frequent in human immunodeficiency infected children than in HIV seropositive adults.
  • Endobronchial leiomyoma is a rare benign tumor in HIV infected adult patients.
  • Our report suggests that smooth muscle tumors as leiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of endobronchial masses in AIDS patients.

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  • (PMID = 19229392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-9946
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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14. Pitukkijronnakorn S, Leelachaikul P, Chittacharoen A: Labial leiomyoma: a case report. J Med Assoc Thai; 2005 Jan;88(1):118-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Leiomyoma is normally a benign smooth muscle tumor and behaves as a hormone sensitive tumor Leiomyomas develop during the reproductive age and regress after menopause.

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  • (PMID = 15960230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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15. Hakverdi S, Dolapçioğlu K, Güngören A, Yaldiz M, Hakverdi AU: Multiple uterine angioleiomyomas mimicking an ovarian neoplasm: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(5):592-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiple uterine angioleiomyomas mimicking an ovarian neoplasm: a case report.
  • Angioleiomyoma is a rare benign neoplasm that originates from smooth muscle cells and contains thick-walled blood vessels.
  • On pathologic examination of the specimen, the tumor was diagnosed as an angioleiomyoma.
  • Here, we present a case of giant-multiple uterine angioleiomyomas mimicking an ovarian neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 19899426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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16. Bello IO, Alanen K, Slootweg PJ, Salo T: Alpha-smooth muscle actin within epithelial islands is predictive of ameloblastic carcinoma. Oral Oncol; 2009 Sep;45(9):760-5
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  • [Title] Alpha-smooth muscle actin within epithelial islands is predictive of ameloblastic carcinoma.
  • Ameloblastoma is the most common clinically significant odontogenic tumor.
  • It is considered benign but locally invasive and associated with variable clinico-pathological behavior.
  • Ameloblastic carcinoma is a malignant tumor having features of ameloblastoma in addition to cytologic atypia with or without metastasis.
  • We examined immunohistochemically Ki-67, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), calponin, p63 and DNA content using image (ICM) and flow cytometry (FCM) in three ameloblastic carcinomas and up to 18 SAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Ameloblastoma / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Mandibular Neoplasms / pathology. Maxillary Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Female. Finland. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Image Cytometry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Microfilament Proteins / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Muscle, Smooth / metabolism. Muscle, Smooth / pathology. Netherlands. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19150605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / calponin
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17. Sulentić P, Abdović S, Filipović J, Tomas D: Pedunculated myolipoma incidentally found in hernial sac: a case report. Acta Clin Croat; 2009 Jun;48(2):171-4
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  • A case of a very rare adipocytic tumor found during corrective surgery for incisional abdominal hernia is presented.
  • During surgery of incisional hernia, a part of small intestine along with a pedunculated tumor was found in hernial sac.
  • The tumor was attached to the medial intra-abdominal peritoneum.
  • On examination, the tumor presented as a totally encapsulated dimorphic benign neoplasm composed of mature adipocytes and well-differentiated smooth muscle cells.
  • Tumor cells were negative for HMB45, estrogen and progesterone.
  • This tumor commonly presents as a large quiescent mass in retroperitoneum in adult females and to our knowledge this is the first report of myolipoma in hernial sac.
  • Characteristic findings, differential diagnosis, prognosis and the possible origin of such a neoplasm are discussed.

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  • (PMID = 19928417.001).
  • [ISSN] 0353-9466
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta clinica Croatica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Clin Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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18. Brasileiro BF, Martins-Filho PR, Piva MR, da Silva LC, Nonaka CF, Miguel MC: Myofibroma of the oral cavity. A rare spindle cell neoplasm. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2010 Jul;15(4):e596-600
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  • [Title] Myofibroma of the oral cavity. A rare spindle cell neoplasm.
  • Myofibroma is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm rarely found in oral cavity.
  • Misdiagnosis included benign and malignant spindle cell lesions of nerve tissue or smooth muscle origin, such as neurofibroma, leiomyoma and sarcomas.

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  • (PMID = 20038894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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19. Vujevich JJ, Goldberg LH, Kimyai-Asadi A, Law R: Recurrent nodule on the nasal columella: a good reason to re-biopsy. Int J Dermatol; 2008 Jul;47(7):728-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Frozen sections revealed a spindle cell neoplasm.
  • Permanent section immunohistochemistry sections stained positive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin and negative for S100 and CD34, confirming the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma.
  • RESULTS: The tumor was removed using Mohs micrographic surgery.
  • Re-biopsy of a "benign" growth may be necessary if clinicopathological correlation does not match with the clinical behavior of the tumor in question.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neurofibroma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18613884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Schmack I, Patel RM, Folpe AL, Wojno T, Zaldivar RA, Balzer B, Kang SJ, Weiss SW, Grossniklaus HE: Subconjunctival herniated orbital fat: A benign adipocytic lesion that may mimic pleomorphic lipoma and atypical lipomatous tumor. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Feb;31(2):193-8
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  • [Title] Subconjunctival herniated orbital fat: A benign adipocytic lesion that may mimic pleomorphic lipoma and atypical lipomatous tumor.
  • Over the past several years, we have seen a number of cases in which this prolapsed fat was confused pathologically with a neoplasm of adipocytic lineage, specifically pleomorphic lipoma and atypical lipomatous neoplasm (well-differentiated liposarcoma).
  • Immunohistochemistry for CD34, CD68, S100 protein, vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and Ki-67, and Giemsa, Masson trichrome, and alcian blue histochemical stains were performed.
  • Subconjunctival prolapsed orbital fat was localized in the superotemporal quadrant or lateral canthus around the rectus muscle below the lacrimal gland.

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  • (PMID = 17255763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30-EY06360
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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21. Piura B, Rabinovich A, Sinelnikov I, Delgado B: Tailgut cyst initially misdiagnosed as ovarian tumor. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2005 Oct;272(4):301-3
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  • [Title] Tailgut cyst initially misdiagnosed as ovarian tumor.
  • It is usually benign and located in the retrorectal/presacral space.
  • The initial diagnosis was neoplasm of the right ovary.
  • Microscopic examination revealed that the wall of the cystic mass consists of a lining epithelium composed of columnar and squamous epithelium and a stroma composed of fibrous tissue containing scattered discontinuous bundles of smooth muscle fibers.

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  • (PMID = 16041543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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22. Tse GM, Tan PH, Lui PC, Gilks CB, Poon CS, Ma TK, Law BK, Lam WW: The role of immunohistochemistry for smooth-muscle actin, p63, CD10 and cytokeratin 14 in the differential diagnosis of papillary lesions of the breast. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Mar;60(3):315-20
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry for smooth-muscle actin, p63, CD10 and cytokeratin 14 in the differential diagnosis of papillary lesions of the breast.
  • The evaluation of myoepithelial cells can be helpful, with benign papilloma showing a continuous myoepithelial cell layer, which becomes attenuated or absent in malignant papillary lesions.
  • METHODS: A large series of 100 papillomas (28 papillomas with florid epithelial hyperplasia) and 68 papillary carcinomas (9 invasive, 44 in situ, and 15 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) involving papillomas) of the breast were stained for myoepithelial cells by immunohistochemistry using antibodies to smooth-muscle actin (SMA), p63, CD10 and cytokeratin (CK) 14.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratin-14 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neprilysin / metabolism. Papilloma / metabolism. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / metabolism. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16698948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860581
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23. Perko Z, Durdov MG, Druzijanić N, Kraljević D, Juricić J: Giant perianal angiomyofibroblastoma--a case report. Coll Antropol; 2006 Mar;30(1):243-6
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  • A 45-year old female had a long history of slow growing perianal tumor at the right side of her anus.
  • Immunohistochemically, expression of smooth-muscle actin and desmin, as well as estrogen and progesterone receptor were found in the tumour cells.
  • This rare benign tumour typically involves vulvovaginal, pelvic and perinal region.
  • It is important to separate this neoplasm from locally invasive aggressive angiomyxoma and low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, which can arise in the the same localisation.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyoma / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16617606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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24. Sicaja M, Namiq A, Forster J, Damjanov I: Myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the liver. Pathol Res Pract; 2006;202(1):43-6
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  • The tumor was resected from a 64-year-old man.
  • The tumor was composed of deceptively benign-looking smooth muscle cells with clear cytoplasm suspended in a myxoid stroma with foci of hemorrhage.
  • Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy confirmed that this was a smooth muscle cell neoplasm.
  • The abundance of glycogen and ultrastructural signs of smooth muscle differentiation were considered consistent with an immature smooth muscle cell phenotype consistent with the diagnosis of myxoid leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16316722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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25. Salem F, Rosenblum MK, Jhanwar SC, Kancherla P, Ghossein RA, Carlson DL: Teratocarcinosarcoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: report of 3 cases with assessment for chromosome 12p status. Hum Pathol; 2008 Apr;39(4):605-9
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  • Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS) is a rare malignant neoplasm with 63 reported cases to date.
  • Microscopic examination revealed admixed epithelial and mesenchymal elements in all 3 cases; benign squamous and glandular epithelium and neuroepithelial tissue were identified, the squamous epithelium demonstrating "fetal-like" cytoplasmic clearing.
  • Mesenchymal proliferations were recognized ranging from well-differentiated smooth muscle to high-grade sarcoma.
  • Our findings suggest that 12p amplification, if it occurs at all in this setting, is exceptional and that SNTCS is a somatic-type neoplasm exhibiting divergent differentiation rather than a germ cell tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18284932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Gupta C, Malani AK, Gupta V, Singh J, Ammar H: Metastatic retroperitoneal epithelioid angiomyolipoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Apr;60(4):428-31
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  • Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a rare benign neoplasm that usually arises in the kidneys, but may rarely originate in sites such as the retroperitoneum, liver and bone.
  • It is characterised by an intimate admixture of blood vessels, smooth muscle and fat.

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  • (PMID = 17405979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2001107
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27. Gupta A, Chandra N, Sharma A, Husain N, Kureel SN: Renal leiomyoma in a child: a rare renal tumor. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Sep;45(9):1900-3
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  • [Title] Renal leiomyoma in a child: a rare renal tumor.
  • Renal leiomyoma is a rare benign smooth muscle tumor of the kidney.
  • We report a case of right renal leiomyoma in a 6-year-old boy which was suspected of being a Wilms tumor.
  • Contrast-enhanced computed tomography could not differentiate leiomyoma in the kidney, and the mass was diagnosed as a Wilms tumor.
  • There may be a role for nephron sparing surgery, provided the tumor is small, and one has a strong suspicion for the lesion being benign.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20850642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Senay S, Kaya U, Cagil H, Demirkiran F, Alhan C: Surgical management of intravenous leiomyoma with cardiac extension. Do we need total circulatory arrest? Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2007 Aug;55(5):322-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Intravenous leiomyoma of the uterus is a histologically benign, smooth-muscle tumor and may extend through the inferior vena cava into the right atrium.
  • Surgical treatment is mandatory and single-stage resection of the tumor has gained wide acceptance as a safe and easy procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyoma / pathology. Angiomyoma / surgery. Heart Arrest, Induced. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterus / blood supply. Uterus / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17629864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-6425
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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29. Folpe AL, Mentzel T, Lehr HA, Fisher C, Balzer BL, Weiss SW: Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms of soft tissue and gynecologic origin: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Dec;29(12):1558-75
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  • PEComas, occasionally associated with the tuberous sclerosis complex, are defined by the presence of perivascular epithelioid cells that coexpress muscle and melanocytic markers.
  • This family of tumors includes angiomyolipoma (AML), clear cell sugar tumor of the lung (CCST), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), and very rare tumors in other locations.
  • Immunohistochemistry for pan-cytokeratin (CK), S-100 protein, smooth muscle actins (SMA), desmin, vimentin, HMB45, Melan-A, microphthalmia transcription factor (MiTF), TFE3, CD117, and CD34 was performed.
  • Recurrence and/or metastasis was strongly associated tumor size > median size (8 cm), mitotic activity greater than 1/50 HPF, and necrosis.
  • We conclude that PEComas of soft tissue and gynecologic origin may be classified as "benign," "of uncertain malignant potential," or "malignant."
  • Small PEComas without any worrisome histologic features are most likely benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 16327428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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30. Bodner-Adler B, Bartl M, Wagner G: Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus with pulmonary metastases or a case with benign metastasizing leiomyoma? Anticancer Res; 2009 Feb;29(2):495-6
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  • [Title] Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus with pulmonary metastases or a case with benign metastasizing leiomyoma?
  • BACKGROUND: Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) is defined as an intraluminal growth of benign smooth muscle cells in either venous or lymphatic vessels outside the confines or even in the absence of leiomyomas.
  • Benign metastasizing uterine leiomyoma is defined as a histologically benign uterine smooth muscle tumor that acts in a somewhat malignant fashion and produces benign metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: Though intravenous leiomyomatosis imitates a malignant neoplasm concerning the pattern of growth and extension, and benign metastasizing leiomyoma produces benign metastases, they must be differentiated histologically from malignant tumors to prevent overtreatment.


31. Kinkor Z, Skálová A, Michal M, Janousek M, Kheck M: [Metastasing and relapsing "low grade" adenosquamous metaplastic breast cancer--is there a really indolent lesion? A description of three cases and review of literature]. Ceska Gynekol; 2005 May;70(3):211-6
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  • RESULTS: Partial mastectomy and segmentectomy were performed in three women 46, 72 and 74 years-old resp. for tumor, which size ranged from 20-35 mm in maximum diameter (mean 28 mm).
  • The stromal component expressed smooth muscle actin in two cases, one of which contained areas of heterologous chondrosseal differentiation.
  • There were recognized metastases by one woman in two ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes mimicking benign breast heterotopia in one of them.
  • In two women with aggressive course the original biopsy was falsely interpreted, once as phyllodes tumor and secondly as benign sclerosing pseudotumor.
  • Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, however, has nothing to do with syringomatous adenoma of the nipple, which is a benign tumor of the skin adnexa.
  • Differential diagnosis includes spectrum of non-neoplastic slerosing lesions and above-mentioned phylloid tumor.
  • The rarity of this neoplasm does not exclude deep knowledge.


32. Ptacek T, Song C, Walker CL, Sell SM: Physical mapping of distinct 7q22 deletions in uterine leiomyoma and analysis of a recently annotated 7q22 candidate gene. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2007 Apr 15;174(2):116-20
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  • Uterine leiomyoma (UL) is a benign, smooth muscle tumor of the uterus affecting a significant proportion of women of reproductive age.

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  • (PMID = 17452252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R25CA076023-07; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30DK056336
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Myelin Proteins; 0 / PMP22 protein, human
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33. Kratz KG, Santillan A, Gu M, Bristow RE: Radical surgical cytoreduction of progressive leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata: a case report. J Reprod Med; 2009 Jul;54(7):447-50
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  • BACKGROUND: Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD) is an uncommon, benign smooth muscle condition of the peritoneal cavity that appears clinically as a metastatic malignant neoplasm.
  • Tumor response to megestrol acetate in vitro was evaluated and noted to be heterogeneous; therefore it was not given as adjuvant therapy.

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  • (PMID = 19691262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
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34. Azevedo Rde S, Pires FR, Della Coletta R, de Almeida OP, Kowalski LP, Lopes MA: Oral myofibromas: report of two cases and review of clinical and histopathologic differential diagnosis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2008 Jun;105(6):e35-40
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  • Myofibroma is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm composed of myofibroblasts which has been described with different synonyms since the first report in 1951.
  • Differential diagnosis included benign and malignant mesenchymal neoplasms, salivary gland tumors, and reactive processes.
  • Microscopic analysis of both lesions revealed a spindle cell tumor with immunoreactivity for vimentin, muscle-specific actin, and specific smooth muscle isoform alpha-actin, rendering the diagnoses of myofibroma.
  • Myofibroma presents a wide range of differential diagnosis, including benign and malignant neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 18417385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Vimentin
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35. Lanza A, Moscariello A, Villani R, Colella G: Glomus tumor of the lower lip. A case report. Minerva Stomatol; 2005 Nov-Dec;54(11-12):687-90
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  • [Title] Glomus tumor of the lower lip. A case report.
  • A glomus tumor is a benign neoplasm originating from the modified smooth muscle cells of the vascular glomus.
  • This neoplasm was firstly considered by Masson in 1924, and generally it has a solitary lesions but in some cases multiple lesions were described.
  • The clinical case of a 65-year-old man with a glomus tumor of the lower lip is described.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor / pathology. Lip Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16456522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4970
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva stomatologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Stomatol
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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36. Meng GZ, Zhang HY, Bu H, Zhang XL, Pang ZG, Ke Q, Liu X, Yang G: Myofibroblastic sarcomas: a clinicopathological study of 20 cases. Chin Med J (Engl); 2007 Mar 5;120(5):363-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Myofibroblastic sarcoma was used to be a controversial neoplasm.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed smooth muscle actin (18/20), muscle specific actin (16/20), fibronectin (20/20) and desmin (2/20).
  • Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells revealed abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum and longitudinally arranged fine filaments with focal densities in the cytoplasm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Myofibroblastic sarcomas, which exhibit diverse histological appearance, can easily be misdiagnosed as benign tumors.

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  • (PMID = 17376304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Desmin
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37. González Sánchez MA, Colorado Bonnin M, Berini Aytés L, Gay Escoda C: Leiomyoma of the hard palate: a case report. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2007 May;12(3):E221-4
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  • Leiomyoma is a benign smooth muscle tumor that is very rarely located in the oral cavity.
  • It is accepted that the smooth muscle giving rise to this tumor corresponds to the tunica media of the arteries.
  • The tumor can develop at any age, with no clear gender predilection, and typically manifests as a slow-growing, asymptomatic lesion.
  • We present the case of a 57-year-old male with a tumor located for the previous four months in the region of the hard palate, adjacent to the left upper premolars.

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  • (PMID = 17468719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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38. Driemel O, Berndt A, Hartmann A, Mueller-Richter UD, Bauer R, Reichert TE, Kosmehl H: [Clinical and immunohistochemical findings of intra- and extraoral angiosarcomas]. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir; 2006 Jul;10(4):239-47
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  • For standardized immunohistochemistry following primary antibodies were applied: monoclonal antibodies to pancytoceratin clones AE1/AE3, alpha-smooth-muscle-actin clone 1A4, CD31 clone JC/70A, factor-VIII-related antigen clone F/86, Fli-1 (polyclonal, Zymed, USA), tenascin-C: BC4 (Prof. L.
  • RESULTS: While the benign appearance of the lesions resulted primarily in wrong diagnoses the histopathologic examination of the biopsies revealed the characteristic pattern of angiosarcomas.
  • The tumour associated structural defect of vascular lamina with partial loss of pericytes/vascular smooth muscle cells was identified immunohistochemically by alpha-smooth-muscle-actin and for the first time by tenascin-C.
  • ) The variable presentation and the benign appearance of oral and perioral angiosarcomas may often delay diagnosis.
  • Factor-VIII-related antigen, CD31 as well as Fli-1 identify angiosarcoma. (3.) alpha-smooth-muscle-actin and the loss of the tenascin-C-matrix indicate immunohistochemically the characteristic sarcomatous defect of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Alveolar Process. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cheek. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Mandibular Neoplasms / pathology. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16788797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-9417
  • [Journal-full-title] Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie : MKG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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39. Mikami Y, Kiyokawa T, Moriya T, Sasano H: Immunophenotypic alteration of the stromal component in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') and endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a study using oestrogen receptor and alpha-smooth muscle actin double immunostaining. Histopathology; 2005 Feb;46(2):130-6
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  • [Title] Immunophenotypic alteration of the stromal component in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') and endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a study using oestrogen receptor and alpha-smooth muscle actin double immunostaining.
  • AIMS: To define the phenotypic alteration of the stromal component in association with destructive invasion which is a crucial feature in distinguishing minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) from benign endocervical glandular lesions.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied endocervical glandular hyperplasias including non-specific-type (NEGH) (n = 3) and lobular-type (LEGH) (n = 8), and minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) (n = 11), well-differentiated endocervical adenocarcinoma of usual-type (WDA) (n = 11), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) (n = 6) of the cervix, by double immunostaining for oestrogen receptor (ER) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) using peroxidase- and alkaline phosphatase-polymer methods, respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Metaplasia. Muscle, Smooth / chemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness


40. Knight CS, Cerfolio RJ, Winokur TS: Angiomyolipoma of the anterior mediastinum. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Aug;12(4):293-5
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  • Angiomyolipoma is a benign tumor composed of varying proportions of smooth muscle cells, blood vessels, and adipose tissue that most commonly occurs in the kidney.
  • Immunohistochemical stains revealed positivity for smooth muscle actin and HMB-45, revealing the expression of smooth muscle and melanocytic markers characteristic of angiomyolipoma and other lesions in the PEComa family.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Muscle, Smooth / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18620999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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41. Anurova OA, Snigur PV, Filippova NA, Sel'chuk VIu: [Morphological characteristics of stromal gastrointestinal tumors]. Arkh Patol; 2006 Jan-Feb;68(1):10-3
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  • Stromal tumors are singled out from smooth muscle and neurogenic neoplasms into a special group due to differences in CD117 expression caused by mutation of c-kit gene.
  • Smooth muscle actin was found in 82% tumors, S-100 protein in 75%, neuron-specific enolase in 66% cases.
  • Malignant tumors were in 93% cases, and in 7% benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16544528.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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42. Schöniger S, Tivers MS, Baines SJ, Summers BA: Arteriovenous haemangioma in two dogs and a cat. J Comp Pathol; 2008 Aug-Oct;139(2-3):130-6
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  • Haemangiomas are benign vascular tumours and several types can be distinguished based on microscopical features.
  • Surgically excised masses comprised non-encapsulated proliferations of variably sized arterial- and venous-like vessels, accompanied by clusters of capillaries and immature vascular structures in the feline cutaneous tumour and the canine lingual neoplasm.
  • All vasoformative elements had von Willebrand factor-positive endothelia enclosed by a smooth muscle actin-positive tunica media or by pericytes.

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  • (PMID = 18620702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9975
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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43. Gajanayake I, Priestnall SL, Benigni L, English K, Summers BA, Garden OA: Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a dog with benign renal angiomyxoma. J Vet Diagn Invest; 2010 Sep;22(5):775-80
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  • [Title] Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a dog with benign renal angiomyxoma.
  • Immunohistochemical examination with vimentin, von Willebrand Factor, and alpha-smooth muscle actin confirmed the mass to be a renal angiomyxoma.
  • The present report describes a previously unreported renal neoplasm causing paraneoplastic hypercalcemia and highlights the possibility of paraneoplastic hypercalcemia being caused by a benign neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 20807942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-6387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Bierer S, Wülfing C, Bode ME, Pühse G, Brinkmann OA, Hertle L: [Bilateral renal angiomyolipomas with a thrombus in the inferior caval vein. Rare growth pattern of a benign tumor]. Urologe A; 2005 Dec;44(12):1469-72
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  • [Title] [Bilateral renal angiomyolipomas with a thrombus in the inferior caval vein. Rare growth pattern of a benign tumor].
  • Renal angiomyolipomas are mesenchymal tumors that are composed of fat tissue, smooth muscle cells and vessels.
  • These are benign tumors, but in rare cases they show a more aggressive growth pattern with invasion into the venous system but without revealing any signs of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16133230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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45. Gaitan Cepeda LA, Quezada Rivera D, Tenorio Rocha F, Leyva Huerta ER, Mendez Sánchez ER: Vascular leiomyoma of the oral cavity. Clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Presentation of five cases and review of the literature. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2008 Aug;13(8):E483-8
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  • Leiomyoma, a benign neoplasia arising from smooth muscle is an uncommon neoplasia of the oral cavity.
  • The immunocharacteristics of VLOC neoplastic cells were: alpha smooth muscle (+); vimentin (+), desmin (+), CD34 (-) and S-100 protein (-).
  • Differential diagnosis of VLOC with fusocellular neoplasm is discussed.

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  • (PMID = 18667980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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46. Pauli J, Gundelach R, Vanelli-Rees A, Rees G, Campbell C, Dubey S, Perry C: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: an immunohistochemical characterisation of the stromal cell. Pathology; 2008 Jun;40(4):396-400
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  • Although histologically benign, it can be locally aggressive with a significant recurrence rate.
  • Of 54 cases, 22 contained a microvascular component (usually peripherally located and indicating the active growth front of the tumour) in which the stromal cells demonstrated a hybrid immunophenotype with both smooth muscle and endothelial differentiation. c-kit was negative in all cases.
  • In the microvascular component the stromal cells appear able to show smooth muscle or endothelial differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiofibroma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18446631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Vimentin
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47. Angiero F, Sozzi D, Seramondi R, Valente MG: Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the minor salivary glands: immunohistochemical and morphological features. Anticancer Res; 2009 Nov;29(11):4703-9
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  • AIMS: Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare malignant salivary gland neoplasm that most commonly occurs in the parotid gland, but can also arise in the minor salivary glands.
  • All parts of each tumor were surrounded by a myoepithelial cell rim and there was evidence of invasion.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis showed the tumor cells to be weakly positive for S100, cytokeratin (CK) CK5/6, CK7, CKAE-1/AE-3 and strongly positive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and p63; they were focally positive for calponin and acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CD10).
  • The tumor cells were negative for vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) (except one case), glial fibrillar acid protein (GFAP) and MIB1.
  • CONCLUSION: Three cases of minor salivary gland tumors are described and the differential diagnosis underlined in relation to benign myoepithelioma.


48. Chaudhry IH, Calonje E: Dermal non-neural granular cell tumour (so-called primitive polypoid granular cell tumour): a distinctive entity further delineated in a clinicopathological study of 11 cases. Histopathology; 2005 Aug;47(2):179-85
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  • AIMS: Cutaneous and soft tissue granular cell tumour is a well-characterized benign neoplasm of neural origin.
  • There was negative staining for S100 protein, smooth muscle actin, Melan-A, CD34, desmin and cytokeratin.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Factor XIIIa / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lysosomes / immunology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16045779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; EC 2.3.2.13 / Factor XIIIa
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49. Akbulut M, Soysal ME, Duzcan SE: Giant lipoleiomyoma of the uterine corpus. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Sep;278(3):291-3
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  • OBJECTIVE: Lipoleiomyoma is a rare and easily recognized, benign uterine fatty tumor, composed of an admixture of mature adipocytes and smooth-muscle cells.
  • Also the peculiar features of this giant neoplasm, histogenesis, concomitant metabolic disorders and the diagnostic methods are discussed.

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  • (PMID = 18283478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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50. Nucci MR, Drapkin R, Dal Cin P, Fletcher CD, Fletcher JA: Distinctive cytogenetic profile in benign metastasizing leiomyoma: pathogenetic implications. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):737-43
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  • [Title] Distinctive cytogenetic profile in benign metastasizing leiomyoma: pathogenetic implications.
  • "Benign metastasizing leiomyoma" is the terminology used to describe a controversial entity characterized by a proliferation of bland-appearing smooth muscle in lung or abdominopelvic lymph nodes.
  • In this report, we describe 5 cases of pulmonary-based smooth muscle tumors that are clinically and histologically consistent with this entity, and in which we identified consistent chromosomal aberrations (19q and 22q terminal deletion in all cases).
  • This cytogenetic profile is found in approximately 3% of uterine leiomyoma, but has not been described in other types of benign or malignant neoplasia.
  • These findings suggest that the nodular pulmonary smooth muscle proliferations termed "benign metastasizing leiomyoma," are a genetically distinct entity, which likely originate from a biologically distinctive subset of uterine leiomyoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22. Desmin / analysis. Female. Humans. Karyotyping. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17460458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Desmin
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51. Bajaj MS, Pushker N, Kashyap S, Sen S, Vengayil S, Chaturvedi A: Fibrous histiocytoma of the lacrimal gland. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2007 Mar-Apr;23(2):145-7
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  • Fibrous histiocytoma, a primary mesenchymal tumor of the orbit, is known to arise from various ocular and adnexal tissues.
  • We are unable to find a published report of this tumor originating from the lacrimal gland.
  • We report a case of a benign fibrous histiocytoma of the lacrimal gland in an 11 year old girl who presented with painless, progressive eyelid swelling and mild proptosis.
  • The tumor was completely excised by anterolateral orbitotomy.
  • Light microscopy showed a spindle cell tumor arising from the lacrimal gland.
  • The tumor cells were arranged in a characteristic storiform (cartwheel) pattern with no pleomorphism or mitotic figures.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were focally positive for CD-68 and negative for S-100, smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and CD-34, which ruled out neurofibroma, leiomyoma, solitary fibrous tumor, and hemangiopericytoma.
  • Based on these features, a diagnosis of benign fibrous histiocytoma was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17413632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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52. Huang KH, Liu JH, Wang LY, Wang LY, Li CQ, Zhu ZH, Li HG: [Endoscopic, clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of gastric stromal tumor]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Nov;26(11):1252-6
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  • [Title] [Endoscopic, clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of gastric stromal tumor].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: For gastric stromal tumor (GST), the low incidence and high diversity in endoscopic and pathologic manifestations lead to misdiagnosis.
  • The expression of CD117, CD34, smooth muscle actin (SMA), Desmin and S-100 were detected by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Of the 42 cases of GST, 21 (50.0%) were at the fundus, 14 (33.3%) at the body, and 7 (16.7%) at the antrum; 17 (40.5%) were benign, 14 (33.3%) borderline, 11 (26.2%) malignant.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17991328.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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53. Hannah CD, Oliver DH, Liu J: Fine needle aspiration biopsy and immunostaining findings in an aggressive inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lung: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2007 Mar-Apr;51(2):239-43
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration biopsy and immunostaining findings in an aggressive inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lung: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) can vary from benign pseudosarcomatous tumors to low grade sarcomas.
  • The spindle cells in both specimens were immunoreactive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin and were negative for pancytokeratin, desmin, CD34 and c-kit.
  • Thirty percent of the tumor cells were positive for p53.
  • [MeSH-major] Inflammation / pathology. Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Actins / metabolism. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Shape / physiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphocytes / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / physiopathology. Plasma Cells / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Reoperation. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Vimentin / analysis. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17425213.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Vimentin
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54. Gleason BC, Fletcher CD: Deep "benign" fibrous histiocytoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 69 cases of a rare tumor indicating occasional metastatic potential. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Mar;32(3):354-62
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  • [Title] Deep "benign" fibrous histiocytoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 69 cases of a rare tumor indicating occasional metastatic potential.
  • Benign fibrous histiocytoma (FH) is one of the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the skin.
  • Deep benign FH is an uncommon and poorly recognized clinical subtype that arises in subcutaneous or deep soft tissue.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of CD34 in 20/50 cases (40%), smooth muscle actin in 15/40 (38%), and focal desmin in 1/12 (8%).
  • Of the 37 patients for whom clinical follow-up was available (median, 40 mo), 8 (22%) had a local recurrence; in all 8 cases, the tumor had been marginally or incompletely excised.
  • The metastasizing tumors were large (6 and 9 cm) and 1 had tumor necrosis but they were otherwise histologically identical to the nonmetastasizing lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Child. Desmin / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 18300816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Desmin
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55. Kim K, Velez I, Kaltman SI, Lopez E, Stern D: Odontogenic carcinoma differentiation into rhabdomyosarcoma: report of a rare case. Quintessence Int; 2009 Nov-Dec;40(10):837-42
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  • To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of an odontogenic carcinoma with documented skeletal muscle differentiation (rhabdomyosarcoma).
  • The histology and clinical features of this aggressive odontogenic neoplasm are described.
  • Within the English-language literature, only 2 cases are reported of an odontogenic tumor with muscle differentiation: a benign odontogenic tumor (ameloblastoma) with differentiation into a rhabdomyosarcoma and an odontogenic sarcoma with smooth-muscle differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 19898715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany : 1985)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Quintessence Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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56. Zhang P, Zhang C, Hao J, Sung CJ, Quddus MR, Steinhoff MM, Lawrence WD: Use of X-chromosome inactivation pattern to determine the clonal origins of uterine leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. Hum Pathol; 2006 Oct;37(10):1350-6
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  • Uterine leiomyomas (LMs) and leiomyosarcomas (LMSs), both of smooth muscle origin, sometimes coexist in the same uterus.
  • In 2 of the 3 patients, the tumor also exhibited a morphological transition between benign cells in LM and malignant cells in LMS, supporting the possibility of transformation from LM to LMS.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Clone Cells. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Receptors, Androgen / genetics


57. Tamas EF, Epstein JI: Detection of residual tumor cells in bladder biopsy specimens: pitfalls in the interpretation of cytokeratin stains. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Mar;31(3):390-7
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  • [Title] Detection of residual tumor cells in bladder biopsy specimens: pitfalls in the interpretation of cytokeratin stains.
  • The detection of a few residual tumor cells in bladder specimens with prior biopsy site changes can be challenging based on histology alone.
  • We have noted several cases in which keratin stains were performed and positive cells were noted, raising the issue as to whether the cytokeratin positive cells were residual tumor cells or stromal cells.
  • Immunohistochemistry for a panel of antibodies [AE1/AE3, CAM 5.2, high molecular weight cytokeratin, smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)] was performed on 29 cases of bladder biopsies with prior biopsy site changes.
  • Of 29 patients, 25 had a prior history of bladder tumor: 17 had invasive high-grade urothelial carcinoma (T1, 5 cases; T2, 11 cases; T3,1 case); 7 had noninvasive high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma; 1 had noninvasive low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma).
  • Four patients had prior benign bladder diagnoses: cystitis cystica et glandularis; polypoid cystitis; follicular cystitis; and neurogenic bladder with benign prostate hyperplasia.
  • Another 3 cases with concurrent staining for at least 1 of the keratins, SMA and desmin were consistent with smooth muscle cells on the basis of their cellular morphology.
  • When interpreting CK stains for the detection of residual tumor cells, one should pay attention to the nature of the cells and not assume all CK staining cells are residual tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Keratins / analysis. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Urinary Bladder / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Urothelium / chemistry. Urothelium / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17325480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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58. Gupta R, Singh S, Khurana N: Leiomyoma of the prostate--a rare mesenchymal tumor: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Apr;50(2):403-5
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  • [Title] Leiomyoma of the prostate--a rare mesenchymal tumor: a case report.
  • Prostatic enlargement due to benign adenomatous hyperplasia is very common in elderly males.
  • However, benign mesenchymal tumors, especially true leiomyoma, are rare in prostate.
  • True prostatic leiomyoma has been defined by Kaufman and Berneike as a smooth muscle tumor within the prostate or juxta-prostatic in position, devoid of glandular elements.
  • A suprapubic prostatectomy was performed, and histopathological examination revealed a benign smooth muscle tumor (confirmed by immunohistochemistry), in absence of glandular hyperplasia.
  • True leiomyoma is a rare tumor in prostate, which can be diagnosed only on histopathological examination.

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  • (PMID = 17883092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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59. Li T, Wang L, Yu HH, Sun HC, Qin LX, Ye QH, Fan J, Tang ZY: Hepatic angiomyolipoma: a retrospective study of 25 cases. Surg Today; 2008;38(6):529-35
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  • PURPOSE: We report our experience of diagnosing and treating hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML), a rare benign mesenchymal tumor.
  • All tumors were composed of varying proportions of smooth muscle, adipose tissue, and blood vessels, and showed positive immunohistochemical staining for HMB-45.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18516533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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60. Arora R, Abou-Bakr AA, Ahmad MS: Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus. Gulf J Oncolog; 2010 Jan;(7):57-9
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  • Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) is a rare neoplasm characterized by nodular masses of histologically benign looking smooth muscle cells growing within uterine or extrauterine venous system.The exact etiology is unclear and benign histological appearance of neoplastic smooth muscles can be deceptive since IVL might behave in a malignant fashion.
  • Total abdominal hysterectomy and excision of any extrauterine tumor if technically feasible is the cornerstone of treatment.

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  • (PMID = 20164011.001).
  • [ISSN] 2078-2101
  • [Journal-full-title] The Gulf journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gulf J Oncolog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kuwait
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61. Hua W, Xu F, Mao Y, Zhang J, Wang Y, Mao R, Zhou L: Primary intracranial leiomyomas: Report of two cases and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2009 Dec;111(10):907-12
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  • A leiomyoma is a benign neoplasm composed of smooth muscle cells that commonly occurs in the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts.
  • Pathological analysis with immunohistochemistry revealed that tumors had characteristics of benign smooth muscles.

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  • (PMID = 19740596.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6968
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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62. Gomez-Moyano E, Vera-Casaño A, Martinez-Garcia S, Sanz-Trelles A, Crespo-Erchiga V: Two cases of dermatomyofibroma (plaque-like dermal fibromatosis). Int J Dermatol; 2010 Aug;49(8):914-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Dermatomyofibroma is a rare but distinct benign cutaneous mesenchymal neoplasm of fibroblastic/myofibroblastic differentiation.
  • In both cases the spindle cells stained positive for smooth muscle actin and the elastic fibers were increased and fragmented.
  • CONCLUSION: Dermatologists and pediatricians should be aware of this benign entity in order to avoid unnecessary treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermis / pathology. Fibroblasts / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Muscle, Smooth / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The International Society of Dermatology.
  • (PMID = 21174375.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Kubo M, Ihn H, Yamane K, Tamaki K: The expression levels and the differential expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptors in dermatofibroma and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Br J Dermatol; 2006 May;154(5):919-25
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  • BACKGROUND: Dermatofibroma (DF) and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) are benign and intermediate malignant fibrotic dermal tumours, respectively.
  • RESULTS: We detected strong expression of TGFbeta-RI and TGFbeta-RII on epidermis and epidermal appendages, moderate expression in vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and neural tissues, and weak expression in fibroblasts in normal skin sections.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatofibrosarcoma / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Activin Receptors, Type I / genetics. Activin Receptors, Type I / metabolism. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Collagen Type I / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Skin / metabolism. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16634896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.1.11 / TGF-beta type I receptor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type I; EC 2.7.11.30 / transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor
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64. Khalifeh IM, Albarracin C, Diaz LK, Symmans FW, Edgerton ME, Hwang RF, Sneige N: Clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features of microglandular adenosis and transition into in situ and invasive carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):544-52
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  • Microglandular adenosis (MGA) of the breast is widely known as a benign lesion that can mimic invasive carcinoma.
  • Inclusion criteria were glands of MGA expressing S-100 protein and lacking myoepithelial layer (smooth muscle actin negative).
  • Staining indices for the cell cycle markers p53 and Ki-67 were used to compare the 3 tumor categories.
  • Additional staining for other tumor markers [estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), c-kit, CK5/6, and CK18] were performed.
  • Patient demographics, tumor radiologic features, and clinical follow-up data were collected for all cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Keratins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Retrospective Studies. S100 Proteins / analysis. Texas. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18300793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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65. Zhen B, Shen Y, Zhang YM, Zhu CH, Liu ZL: [Analysis of the differences in the expression of HSP27 and c-kit between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer tissues]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2006 May;12(5):416-20
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  • [Title] [Analysis of the differences in the expression of HSP27 and c-kit between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer tissues].
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the differences in the expression of HSP27 and c-kit between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic cancer (PCa) tissues and to analyse the relationship between their expression and BPH and PCa, especially the relationship with the occurrence, development, prognosis and treatment of PCa.
  • The staining for c-kit in BPH tissues was located in the cytoplasm of smooth muscle cells, and in PCa tissues was located in epithelial cells.
  • CONCLUSION: The expression level of HSP27 and c-kit was highly correlated with the process of the development from BPH to PCa, and also correlated with tumor grades and stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Heat-Shock Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Prostatic Hyperplasia / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis


66. Suzuki T, Ueda Y, Shincho M, Mitsui Y, Higuchi Y, Maruyama T, Kondoh N, Nojima M, Yamamoto S, Hirota S, Shima H: [Myolipoma arising from the renal capsule: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 May;54(5):349-52
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  • Computed tomorraphy and magnetic resonance imaging showed that the tumor was mixed with muscle and fat tissue, faintly enhanced, and located at the lower portion of the left kidney.
  • Although renal angiomyolipoma (AML) was suspected from these findings, we could not rule out a malignant tumor.
  • Histopathological examination revealed the tumor composed of smooth muscle and mature adipose tissue without cytological atypia arising from the renal capsule.
  • The tumor contained no AML-like blood vessels, and was negative for HMB-45 staining.
  • Myolipoma is a rare benign neoplasm in the soft tissue of retroperitoneum and abdominal cavity.
  • Since it is difficult to distinguish myolipoma from other benign and malignant tumors with fat tissue only by imaging studies, a surgical approach should be considered.

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  • (PMID = 18546859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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67. Behzatoğlu K, Durak H, Canberk S, Aydin O, Huq GE, Oznur M, Ozyalvaçli G, Yildiz P: Giant cell tumor-like lesion of the urinary bladder: a report of two cases and literature review; giant cell tumor or undifferentiated carcinoma? Diagn Pathol; 2009;4:48
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor-like lesion of the urinary bladder: a report of two cases and literature review; giant cell tumor or undifferentiated carcinoma?
  • Giant cell tumor, excluding its prototype in bone, is usually a benign but local aggressive neoplasm originating from tendon sheath or soft tissue.
  • Giant cell tumors in visceral organs usually accompany epithelial tumors and the clinical behavior of giant cell tumor in urinary bladder is similar to its bone counterpart.
  • Here, we report two cases of giant cell tumor located in urinary bladder in comparison with nine reported cases in the English literature.
  • One of the two cases we present had no concurrent urothelial tumor at the time of diagnosis but had a history of a low grade noninvasive urothelial carcinoma with three recurrences.
  • The histology of these two cases was similar to the giant cell tumor of bone and composed of oval to spindle mononuclear cells with evenly spaced osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • Immunohistochemical expression of vimentin, CD68, LCA, and smooth muscle actin in mononuclear cells supported a mesenchymal origin with histiocytic lineage.
  • The histologic and immunohistochemical properties in our cases as well as their clinical courses were consistent with a giant cell tumor.
  • Consequently, tumors in urinary bladder showing features of giant cell tumor of bone may also be considered and termed "giant cell tumor".

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  • (PMID = 20043822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2811699
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68. Lincoln DT, Singal PK, Al-Banaw A: Growth hormone in vascular pathology: neovascularization and expression of receptors is associated with cellular proliferation. Anticancer Res; 2007 Nov-Dec;27(6B):4201-18
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  • Growth hormone (GH) is mitogenic for a variety of vascular tissue cells, including smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells and exerts its regulatory functions in controlling metabolism, balanced growth and differentiated cell expression by acting on specific membrane-bound receptors, which trigger a phosphorylation cascade resulting in the modulation of numerous signalling pathways and of gene expression.
  • A total of 64 benign and malignant vascular tumours were obtained from different human organ sites, including the chest wall, skin, axillary contents, duodenum, female breast, abdomen, stomach, colon, lymph node, bladder, body flank and neck regions.
  • The presence of GHR in endothelial cells of vascular neoplasm indicates that they are target cells and GH is of importance in the proliferation of vascular tumour angiogenesis.

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  • [ErratumIn] Anticancer Res. 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2b):1439
  • (PMID = 18225592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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69. Zimmermann A, von der Brelie C, Berger B, Kappeler A, Candinas D: Primary perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the liver not related to hepatic ligaments: hepatic PEComa as an emerging entity. Histol Histopathol; 2008 10;23(10):1185-93
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  • [Title] Primary perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the liver not related to hepatic ligaments: hepatic PEComa as an emerging entity.
  • Primary perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the liver is a very rare example of an emerging family of hepatic PEC tumors.
  • We report the case of a large but benign hepatic PEComa in a 53-year-old man without signs of tuberous sclerosis.
  • In contrast to recently described PEC-derived liver tumors in children and young adults, this neoplasm was not related to the hepatic ligaments but had developed deeply within the liver substance.
  • The neoplastic cells displayed the complete phenotype typical for PEComas, i.e. reactivity for several melanoma markers and for smooth muscle actin.
  • The unique relationship of myoid tumor cells to the adventitia of blood vessels prompted us, in comparison with published findings obtained with angiomyolipomas, to comment on the possible origin of the still enigmatic perivascular epithelioid cells.

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  • (PMID = 18712670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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70. Zhang YX, Chen HL, Ye B, Yang F, Yu LY: [Study on expression and methylation of caveolin 1 gene in non-small cell lung cancers]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 May;37(5):300-4
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  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and quanta Qd600 staining were used to detect the expression of Cav-1 in tissues from benign lung lesions (n = 17) and NSCLC (n = 123).
  • RESULTS: Cav-1 protein was highly expressed in cytoplasm and cell membrane of normal bronchial epithelium, alveolar epithelium, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells.
  • Amongst the NSCLC group, there was no statistically significant difference in Cav-1 protein expression in different histologic types (P = 0.552) and tumor grades (P = 0.160).
  • On the other hand, Cav-1 protein immunoreactivity was remarkably higher in advanced tumor stage: 72.7% in stage III A + III B, compared with 9.4% in stage I A + I B and 38.3% in stage II A + II B (P = 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: High expression of Cav-1 protein is respected of the aggressive clinical behavior and advanced tumor stage.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. DNA Methylation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Somatoform Disorders

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  • (PMID = 18956646.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caveolin 1
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71. Ma L, Kowalski D, Javed K, Hui P: Atypical angiomyolipoma of kidney in a patient with tuberous sclerosis: a case report with p53 gene mutation analysis. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 May;129(5):676-9
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  • Angiomyolipoma (AML) is the most common benign mesenchymal tumor of the kidney.
  • It belongs to the family of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors and is typically composed of blood vessels, adipose tissue, and smooth muscle- like cells, which are characteristically positive for HMB-45.
  • The tumor consisted of mostly epithelioid cells with marked nuclear pleomorphism and frequent mitoses and was positive for HMB-45.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intercellular Junctions / ultrastructure. Nephrectomy. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Treatment Outcome


72. Petrolla AA, Xin W: Hepatic angiomyolipoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Oct;132(10):1679-82
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  • Hepatic angiomyolipoma is a rare, benign, hepatic mesenchymal neoplasm found in both males and females, and most commonly in adult females.
  • Hepatic angiomyolipomas are composed of varying amounts of smooth muscle cells, adipose tissue, and vessels.
  • The smooth muscle cell component is the most specific to the diagnosis.
  • The smooth muscle cells can have varying morphologies and are positive for homatropine methylbromide-45 but are negative for hepatocyte paraffin 1 and S100 protein.
  • The differential diagnosis includes hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic adenoma, leiomyoma, hepatoblastoma, melanoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
  • The immunohistochemical staining pattern differentiates this lesion from other malignant and benign liver lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Female. Humans. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18834230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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73. Meenakshi M, McCluggage WG: Myoepithelial neoplasms involving the vulva and vagina: report of 4 cases. Hum Pathol; 2009 Dec;40(12):1747-53
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  • In all cases, the tumor cells were positive for epithelial markers (cytokeratins and/or epithelial membrane antigen) and the myoid markers alpha smooth muscle actin and calponin.
  • On the basis of the nuclear features and degree of mitotic activity, 2 neoplasms were classified as benign myoepitheliomas and 2 as myoepithelial carcinomas.
  • As far as we are aware, this is the first description of a primary vaginal myoepithelial neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19716162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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74. Pedemonte JG, Degiovanni D, Pusterla D, Reibel C, Di Nucci J, Boccio C, Degiovanni R, Dotta A: [Angiomyolipoma and Lenk syndrome: case report]. Actas Urol Esp; 2008 Sep;32(8):850-4
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  • Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign clonal neoplasm that consists of varying amounts of mature adipose tissue, smooth muscle, and thick-walled vessels.

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  • (PMID = 19013986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas espanolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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75. Wachter DL, Büttner MJ, Grimm K, Hartmann A, Agaimy A: Leiomyoma of the gallbladder: a case report with review of the literature and discussion of the differential diagnosis. J Clin Pathol; 2010 Feb;63(2):177-9
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  • To our knowledge, only a few patients with multiple Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated smooth muscle tumours of the gallbladder in the setting of immunodeficiency have been reported in the English literature, but no single case of conventional leiomyoma has been well documented to date.
  • Histology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with a benign smooth muscle neoplasm that is very similar to conventional uterine leiomyoma.

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  • (PMID = 20154041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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76. Kiss S, Gragoudas ES, Dryja TP, Jakobiec FA: Response of choroidal leiomyoma to treatment with proton beam radiation. Retin Cases Brief Rep; 2010;4(2):168-73
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  • PURPOSE: Uveal leiomyoma is a rare, benign smooth muscle neoplasm usually diagnosed only after local resection or enucleation.
  • The neoplasm was treated with a total of 70 cobalt gray equivalents of external proton beam radiation in 5 fractions over 7 days.
  • Biannual follow-up examinations over 3 years showed a funduscopically and ultrasonographically regressing tumor.
  • Microscopic and immunohistochemical examination of the mass revealed a choroidal neoplasm expressing smooth muscle antigens consistent with a uveal leiomyoma.

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  • (PMID = 25390394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-1089
  • [Journal-full-title] Retinal cases & brief reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retin Cases Brief Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Kusumi T, Minakawa M, Fukui K, Saito S, Ohashi M, Sato F, Fukuda I, Kijima H: Cardiac tumor comprising two components including typical myxoma and atypical hypercellularity suggesting a malignant change. Cardiovasc Pathol; 2009 Nov-Dec;18(6):369-74
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  • [Title] Cardiac tumor comprising two components including typical myxoma and atypical hypercellularity suggesting a malignant change.
  • BACKGROUND: Cardiac myxoma is a benign neoplasm and is not considered to carry a risk of malignant transformation.
  • We describe a case of a cardiac tumor comprising typical myxoma and atypical cellular parts.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: A 72-year-old woman was found to have a tumor in the left atrial chamber after undergoing echocardiographic investigation and so she underwent tumor excision surgery.
  • The excised tumor was composed of two components with different features with a smooth transition from one type to the other.
  • The apex of the tumor showed a gelatinous and villous appearance on gross examination, and histological examination revealed that the tumor cells had small oval nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm and were arranged in cords and vasoformative structures in the myxoid matrix.
  • The base of the tumor appeared as a solid mass on gross examination with hypercellular proliferation of spindle-shaped tumor cells and intersecting fascicles observed histologically.
  • On immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were found to be positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin, calretinin, and CD34, and this immunoreactivity was decreased at the tip.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We diagnosed this tumor as cardiac myxoma with an atypical hypercellular component suggesting a malignant change.

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  • (PMID = 18619858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1336
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular pathology : the official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Kamboj S, Sharma RK, Kumar A, Chaudhary SS, Jain VK: Crusted Piloleiomyoma with mental retardation: a rare association. Indian J Dermatol; 2009;54(1):75-6
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  • Piloleiomyoma is an uncommon benign smooth muscle neoplasm arising from arrector pili muscle.
  • It is clinically defined by the presence of solitary or multiple reddish brown, dome-shaped, smooth papules or nodules, ranging in size from a few millimeters to a centimeter.
  • In this case report, a mentally retarded patient with Piloleiomyoma is described, who, besides the characteristic smooth and dome-shaped lesions on the anterolateral aspect of the dorsum of the right foot, had developed crusting on one of the largest lesions.

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  • [Cites] J Dermatol. 1996 Jan;23(1):56-7 [8720260.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Hum Genet. 2001 May;68(5):1264-9 [11283798.001]
  • [Cites] J Reprod Med. 2006 Sep;51(9):747-50 [17039711.001]
  • (PMID = 20049278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3611
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2800880
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Crusting / mental retardation / piloleiomyoma
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79. Samimi M, Maître F, Estève E: [Hyperkeratotic lesion of the nipple revealing cutaneous leiomyoma]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2008 Aug-Sep;135(8-9):571-4
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  • BACKGROUND: Leiomyoma of the nipple and areola is a rare benign neoplasm.
  • Surgical excision revealed a proliferation of smooth muscle fibres, leading to diagnosis of leiomyoma.
  • A hyperkeratotic lesion of the nipple may be associated with benign or malignant neoplasms, hamartoma or chronic dermatoses, or it may be idiopathic.

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  • (PMID = 18789291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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80. Hornick JL, Fletcher CD: Cellular neurothekeoma: detailed characterization in a series of 133 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Mar;31(3):329-40
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  • Cellular neurothekeomas are distinctive benign cutaneous tumors of uncertain histogenesis.
  • Mean tumor size was 1.1 cm (range: 0.3 to 6 cm; 90% <2 cm).
  • In 30% of cases, neurothekeoma was suggested by the referring pathologist; the most common other diagnoses offered were plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor, benign fibrous histiocytoma, and a low-grade sarcoma.
  • Histologically, most cases were poorly marginated; 33 (25%) infiltrated fat, and 10 (8%) entrapped skeletal muscle (all but 1 situated on the face).
  • All tumors were reactive for NKI-C3, 110/123 (89%) expressed neuron-specific enolase, 73/127 (57%) showed at least focal staining for smooth muscle actin, and only 1 was focally desmin positive.
  • Ten tumors recurred locally (7 situated on the face), after a mean of 18 months; tumor had been marginally excised or had involved excision margins in all cases with available information.
  • There is no good evidence that these lesions show nerve sheath differentiation and the nomenclature will likely change when the tumor cell lineage is better defined.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Sarcoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17325474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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81. Chang T, Husain AN, Colby T, Taxy JB, Welch WR, Cheung OY, Early A, Travis W, Krausz T: Pneumocytic adenomyoepithelioma: a distinctive lung tumor with epithelial, myoepithelial, and pneumocytic differentiation. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):562-8
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  • [Title] Pneumocytic adenomyoepithelioma: a distinctive lung tumor with epithelial, myoepithelial, and pneumocytic differentiation.
  • Some glands were filled with colloidlike secretion and had an inner, cuboidal epithelial cell layer (pankeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and thyroid transcription factor-1 positive), surrounded by an outer layer of myoepithelial cells merging with foci of spindled myoepithelial cells (high molecular weight keratin, S100, smooth muscle actin, calponin, caldesmon, and p63 positive).
  • The biologic behavior to date has been benign.
  • This is the first reported series of a distinctive lung tumor with epithelial, myoepithelial, and pneumocytic differentiation that differs histologically from all previously recognized pulmonary salivary gland-type and pneumocytic tumors.
  • It is a unique benign appearing neoplasm for which the designation pneumocytic adenomyoepithelioma is suggested.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17414103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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82. Xiang H, Ding W, Liu F, Ren GP, Wang ZM, Zhu XZ: [Clinicopathologic analysis of mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of kidney and adult cystic nephroma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Jul;38(7):436-40
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic analysis of mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of kidney and adult cystic nephroma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features, immunophenotype and differential diagnosis of mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of kidney (MEST) and adult cystic nephroma (CN).
  • The spindle cells in MEST expressed vimentin (5/5), smooth muscle actin (3/5), desmin (4/5), CD10 (5/5), estrogen receptor (4/5) and progesterone receptor (4/5).
  • On the other hand, the spindle cells in CN were variably positive for vimentin (4/4), smooth muscle actin (4/4), desmin (1/4), estrogen receptor (3/4) and progesterone receptor (1/4).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both MEST and CN are uncommon renal neoplasm.
  • Most of them run a benign clinical course.
  • The stromal cells in MEST show smooth muscle or myofibroblastic differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 19781188.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ACTA2 protein, human; 0 / Actins; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Vimentin
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83. Esmaeilzadeh M, Tavakolli A, Safaei A: Recurrent intracardiac leiomyomatosis. Can J Cardiol; 2007 Nov;23(13):1085-6
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  • An intravenous leiomyoma, a histologically benign smooth muscle tumour, arises from either a uterine myoma or the walls of a uterine vessel, with extension into veins.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Leiomyomatosis / diagnostic imaging. Smooth Muscle Tumor / diagnostic imaging. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ultrasonography

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  • [Cites] Am J Med. 1980 Sep;69(3):471-5 [7416191.001]
  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 1980 Oct 30;303(18):1043-4 [7421892.001]
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  • (PMID = 17985013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0828-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Cardiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2651934
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84. Veit AC, Painter JT, Miller RA, Hardisty JF, Dixon D: Characterization of uterine granular cell tumors in B6C3F1 mice: a histomorphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study. Vet Pathol; 2008 Sep;45(5):654-62
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  • The granular cell tumor is most often a benign neoplasm of uncertain origin.
  • Tissue sections were evaluated histologically and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff with diastase resistance, Masson's trichrome, toluidine blue, phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin, and stained immunohistochemically with a panel of antibodies to muscle (desmin, alpha smooth muscle actin), neural (S-100, neuron specific enolase), epithelial (wide-spectrum cytokeratin), and macrophage (F4/80) markers.
  • The main histomorphologic feature of tumor cells was the presence of abundant cytoplasmic eosinophilic granules that stained positive for periodic acid-Schiff with diastase resistance.
  • Three tumors had positive to weakly positive immunoreactivity for desmin, and 1 was positive for alpha smooth muscle actin.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / veterinary. Uterine Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18725470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 ES999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS103826; NLM/ PMC2691646
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85. Laga AC, Tajirian AL, Islam MN, Bhattacharyya I, Cohen DM, Plamondon CJ, Robinson-Bostom L: Myopericytoma: report of two cases associated with trauma. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Sep;35(9):866-70
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  • Myopericytoma is a rare, recently described tumor demonstrating a hemangiopericytoma-like vascular pattern.
  • Despite sharing morphologic features with angioleiomyoma, myofibroma and glomus tumor, myopericytoma is thought to represent a distinct perivascular myoid neoplasm of skin and soft tissues.
  • The tumor is characterized by a radial and perivascular arrangement of ovoid, spindled to round neoplastic cells that are immunoreactive to alpha-smooth muscle actin, often for h-caldesmon as well as smooth muscle myosin-heavy chain, and usually negative for desmin antibodies.
  • Most cases of myopericytoma are benign, however, local recurrence and malignancy have recently been reported, Myopericytoma can be multifocal involving a single or multiple anatomic regions, and tends to occur in dermal and superficial soft tissues of adults primarily on the extremities.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Microfilament Proteins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Mouth Mucosa / injuries. Myosin Heavy Chains / metabolism. Nose / injuries. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18494828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / calponin; EC 3.6.4.1 / Myosin Heavy Chains
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86. Bugalho A, Oliveira A, Semedo J, Lourenço I, Carreiro L: Argon-plasma treatment in benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the lung: a case report. Rev Port Pneumol; 2010 Nov-Dec;16(6):921-3; discussion 925
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  • [Title] Argon-plasma treatment in benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the lung: a case report.
  • Benign metastasizing leiomyomas of the lung are rare smooth muscle cells tumours.
  • Bronchial biopsy histological features were consistent with benign metastasizing leiomyoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 21067700.001).
  • [ISSN] 2172-6825
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de pneumologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Pneumol
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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87. Angiero F: Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumour of the tongue. A review of histological and immunohistochemical features. Anticancer Res; 2010 Nov;30(11):4685-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumour (ECT) is a rare, benign neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis, which appears to exclusively involve the oral cavity, particularly the tongue.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity of the neoplastic cells for antibodies directed against S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, plus negativity for CD-57(leu-7), epithelial membrane antigen, smooth muscle actin, desmin and cytokeratin AE1-AE3.

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  • (PMID = 21115924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Desmin; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Vimentin
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88. Liegl B, Hornick JL, Fletcher CD: Primary cutaneous PEComa: distinctive clear cell lesions of skin. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):608-14
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  • Tumor size ranged from 0.7 to 2 cm (median size, 1.5 cm).
  • Tumor cells had clear, palely eosinophilic or granular cytoplasm.
  • Multinucleate tumor giant cells were observed in 3 cases.
  • In cases where HMB-45 was positive in fewer than 5% of tumor cells (5/10), microphthalmia transcription factor was positive in the majority of the tumor cell nuclei.
  • Desmin positivity was observed in 5 and smooth muscle actin in 1 case, respectively.
  • The other muscle markers (caldesmon, calponin) and also pan-keratin and epithelial membrane antigen were negative.
  • Primary cutaneous PEComas are rare and thus far apparently benign cutaneous tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Calcium-Binding Proteins / analysis. Calmodulin-Binding Proteins / analysis. Dermis / pathology. Desmin / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Giant Cells / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Microfilament Proteins / analysis. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / analysis. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Mucin-1 / analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Subcutaneous Fat / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2016 Feb;38(2):165-6 [26825164.001]
  • (PMID = 18277881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Calmodulin-Binding Proteins; 0 / Desmin; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / calponin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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89. Kim HJ, Kim CH, Choi YJ, Ayala AG, Amirikachi M, Ro JY: Juxtaglomerular cell tumor of kidney with CD34 and CD117 immunoreactivity: report of 5 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 May;130(5):707-11
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  • [Title] Juxtaglomerular cell tumor of kidney with CD34 and CD117 immunoreactivity: report of 5 cases.
  • CONTEXT: Juxtaglomerular cell tumor is a rare renal neoplasm.
  • Renin immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic documentation of rhomboid crystals are the primary methods of diagnosing this benign tumor.
  • OBJECTIVES: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of 5 cases of juxtaglomerular cell tumor to determine the effectiveness of CD34 and CD117 immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of this tumor.
  • On light microscopic examination, we found solid sheets and nests of tumor cells with oval-to-round nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm.
  • Immunohistochemistry results were as follows: vimentin (positive), renin (weakly positive), smooth muscle actin (focal immunoreactivity), and cytokeratin (negative).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that immunohistochemistry for CD34 and CD117 are effective at diagnosing juxtaglomerular cell tumor.
  • Juxtaglomerular cell tumor should be considered in the diagnosis of any renal tumors with epithelioid cells and negative initial cytokeratin immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Hypertension / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16683889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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90. Romeo S, Eyden B, Prins FA, Briaire-de Bruijn IH, Taminiau AH, Hogendoorn PC: TGF-beta1 drives partial myofibroblastic differentiation in chondromyxoid fibroma of bone. J Pathol; 2006 Jan;208(1):26-34
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  • Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare benign cartilaginous bone tumour with a lobular architecture containing stellate and myofibroblast-like spindle cells.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the presence, spatial distribution, and extent of myoid differentiation in CMF and to evaluate a possible causative role for TGF-beta1 signalling, which is known to promote smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression.
  • Twenty cases were studied for immunoreactivity for muscle-specific actin (MSA), SMA, desmin, h-caldesmon, calponin, TGF-beta1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1).
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / immunology. Adolescent. Adult. Calcium-Binding Proteins / immunology. Calmodulin-Binding Proteins / immunology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Child. Chondrocytes / pathology. Chondrocytes / ultrastructure. Desmin / immunology. Female. Fibroblasts / pathology. Fibroblasts / ultrastructure. Fibronectins / genetics. Fibronectins / immunology. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Microfilament Proteins. Microscopy, Electron / methods. Microscopy, Immunoelectron / methods. Middle Aged. Muscle Proteins / immunology. Muscle, Smooth / immunology. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / genetics. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / immunology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Signal Transduction / physiology. Transforming Growth Factor beta1

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • (PMID = 16278817.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Calmodulin-Binding Proteins; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1; 0 / TGFB1 protein, human; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 0 / calponin
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91. Man YG, Nieburgs HE: A subset of cell clusters with malignant features in morphologically normal-appearing and hyperplastic tissues. Cancer Detect Prev; 2006;30(3):239-47
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  • (1) a significantly increased frequency of focal disruptions in surrounding myoepithelial cell layers and the loss of estrogen receptor expression, (2) signs of stromal and vascular invasion, (3) distinct alterations in the cytoplasmic-nuclear ratio and nuclear shape, size, and polarity, (4) the expression of multiple malignancy-associated biomarkers, and (5) malignancy-associated nuclear changes in benign-appearing cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These changes are likely to reflect DNA structural abnormalities resulting from the disposition of DNA and RNA structural defects or cancer susceptibility genes that facilitate progression and invasion, or to suggest that breast tumor progression and invasion may not always follow the hypothesized sequences.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. DNA / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Muscle, Smooth / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16872754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-090X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer detection and prevention
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Detect. Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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92. Rodriguez FJ, Aubry MC, Tazelaar HD, Slezak J, Carney JA: Pulmonary chondroma: a tumor associated with Carney triad and different from pulmonary hamartoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Dec;31(12):1844-53
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  • [Title] Pulmonary chondroma: a tumor associated with Carney triad and different from pulmonary hamartoma.
  • Their pulmonary neoplasm(s) were usually asymptomatic, often multiple, well circumscribed, medium-sized (mean diameter=2.8 cm), and composed almost exclusively of cartilage and bone surrounded by a fibrous pseudocapsule.
  • They showed no fat, smooth muscle or entrapped respiratory epithelium, tissues that were common in pulmonary hamartoma (P<0.0001).
  • The pulmonary neoplasms in the Carney triad are well-differentiated benign cartilaginous tumors that are best designated as chondromas.

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  • (PMID = 18043038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Svec A, Velenská Z: Renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma--a close mimic of renal cell carcinoma. Report of a case and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract; 2005;200(11-12):851-6
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  • The epithelioid variant of angiomyolipoma (EAML) is a rare tumor of unpredictable behavior that is composed of epithelioid, spindle, and giant cells and contains no or only a minimal amount of lipomatous tissue.
  • Grossly, a well-demarcated, spheroid, largely hemorrhagic tumor measuring 4.2 cm in diameter occupied the central third of the kidney.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed positive reactions with antibodies against HMB-45, melan A, CD-68, muscle-specific actin, and, rarely, smooth muscle actin.
  • As a sporadic renal tumor it followed a benign course in most of the reported cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Giant Cells / pathology. Humans. MART-1 Antigen. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15792132.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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94. Rammeh-Rommani S, Mokni M, Stita W, Trabelsi A, Hamissa S, Sriha B, Tahar-Yacoubi M, Korbi S: [Uterine smooth muscle tumors: retrospective epidemiological and pathological study of 2760 cases]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2005 Oct;34(6):568-71
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  • [Title] [Uterine smooth muscle tumors: retrospective epidemiological and pathological study of 2760 cases].
  • INTRODUCTION: Smooth muscle tumors of the uterus are frequent.
  • Most of them are benign.
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our work is to study cases of leiomyosarcomas, cellular leiomyoma, atypical leiomyoma and mitotically active leiomyoma among a large series of uterine smooth muscle tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively 2760 uterine smooth muscle tumors.
  • RESULTS: Review of the slides demonstrated: 12 mitotically active leiomyomas, 18 cellular leiomyomas, 20 atypical leiomyomas, 16 leiomysarcomas, only one case of smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Leiomyoma / epidemiology. Leiomyoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16208199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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95. Saeed AS, Hanaa B, Faisal AS, Najla AM: Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma of the uterus: a case report of a benign uterine tumor with sarcomalike gross appearance and review of literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Jul;25(3):262-7
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  • [Title] Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma of the uterus: a case report of a benign uterine tumor with sarcomalike gross appearance and review of literature.
  • Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma (Sternberg tumor) is a very rare variant of uterine smooth muscle tumor with an unusual and alarming gross appearance.
  • An intraoperative frozen section was requested, and a diagnosis of a benign smooth muscle tumor was given.
  • Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed with removal of the pelvic tumor extension.
  • Thorough tumor sampling was performed and showed nodules of interlacing bundles of bland-looking smooth muscle cells, separated by expanded, edematous, and highly vascularized stroma.
  • Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the smooth muscle nature of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adult. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Sarcoma / chemistry. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / pathology. Smooth Muscle Tumor / chemistry. Smooth Muscle Tumor / diagnosis. Smooth Muscle Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16810065.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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96. Buza N, Zekry N, Charpin C, Tavassoli FA: Myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 15 diagnostically challenging cases. Virchows Arch; 2010 Sep;457(3):337-45
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  • Most often it presents with a spindle cell morphology that can mimic several benign and malignant lesions and may be misdiagnosed by the pathologist.
  • We report 15 cases of MEC, which were sent to our consultation practice: Five of them were initially diagnosed as benign.
  • The tumor size measured between 1 and 4.8 cm (mean 2.6 cm).
  • Microscopically, the tumors had infiltrative growth pattern most frequently with thin anastomosing cords of tumor cells associated with an intimately admixed reactive spindle cell stroma.
  • Immunohistochemical stains for p63, CD10, CK903, and CK5/6 reacted strongly and diffusely with the tumor cells, and mainly the reactive stroma had weak positivity for calponin, S-100, and smooth muscle actin.
  • MEC is a potentially aggressive malignant neoplasm sharing many features with metaplastic carcinomas.
  • Morphologically, it is often difficult to distinguish it from benign spindle cell proliferations.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology


97. Fatima S, Ahmed Z, Azam M: Benign metastasizing leiomyoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Oct-Dec;53(4):802-4
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  • [Title] Benign metastasizing leiomyoma.
  • Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare condition, affecting predominantly reproductive-age females with uterine leiomyomata and is most often associated with multiple benign-appearing smooth muscle tumors in lungs.
  • Histopathology of one of the pleura-based nodules revealed a neoplasm composed of interlacing fascicles of spindle cells with uniform nuclei.
  • The tumor cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and negative for CD34 immunohistochemical stain.

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  • (PMID = 21045423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ACTA2 protein, human; 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD34
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98. Agaimy A, Wünsch PH, Schroeder J, Gaumann A, Dietmaier W, Hartmann A, Hofstaedter F, Mentzel T: Low-grade abdominopelvic sarcoma with myofibroblastic features (low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma): clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, molecular genetic and ultrastructural study of two cases with literature review. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Mar;61(3):301-6
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  • AIMS: Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma (LGMS) represents a rare soft tissue neoplasm with a predilection for the head and neck.
  • The tumour cells strongly expressed vimentin, variably alpha-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin, but were negative for CD117, S-100, desmin, h-caldesmon, beta-catenin, ALK-1, MDM2, PDGFRalpha and PDGFRbeta.
  • LGMS may mimic a variety of benign and low-grade malignant neoplasms and might be under-recognised.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrastructure. Peritoneal Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Sarcoma / ultrastructure. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Fibronectins / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mesentery. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Pelvis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / genetics. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17513510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Vimentin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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99. Mentzel T, Kutzner H: Dermatomyofibroma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 56 cases and reappraisal of a rare and distinct cutaneous neoplasm. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Feb;31(1):44-9
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  • [Title] Dermatomyofibroma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 56 cases and reappraisal of a rare and distinct cutaneous neoplasm.
  • Dermatomyofibroma represents a rare and distinct benign cutaneous mesenchymal neoplasm of fibroblastic/myofibroblastic differentiation.
  • Histologically, an ill-defined, plaque-like dermal neoplasm of varying cellularity was seen in all cases, composed of bland spindle-shaped tumor cells often oriented parallel to the overlying epidermis.
  • Immunohistochemically, tumor cells in 11 of 48 cases tested stained positively for alpha-smooth muscle actin, and a focal expression of this marker was noted in 20 cases.
  • Dermatomyofibroma represents a benign fibroblastic/myofibroblastic dermal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19155724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Miettinen M, Makhlouf HR, Sobin LH, Lasota J: Plexiform fibromyxoma: a distinctive benign gastric antral neoplasm not to be confused with a myxoid GIST. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Nov;33(11):1624-32
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  • [Title] Plexiform fibromyxoma: a distinctive benign gastric antral neoplasm not to be confused with a myxoid GIST.
  • A great majority of gastric mesenchymal tumors are gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST).
  • In this report, we describe 12 cases of a distinctive gastric tumor, named here as plexiform fibromyxoma.
  • The tumor cells varied from oval to spindled and had limited atypia and mitotic activity < 5/50 high-power fields.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for alpha smooth muscle actin, and variably for CD10, and were consistently negative for KIT, DOG1, CD34, desmin, and S100 protein.
  • Additional 3 patients survived 14 to 25 years with unknown tumor status.
  • Plexiform fibromyxoma is a distinctive benign gastric antral neoplasm that should be separated from GIST, nerve sheath tumors, and other fibromyxoid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19675452.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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