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1. Palazzi MA, Ober MD, Abreu HF, Cardinalli IA, Isaac CR, Odashiro AN, Burnier Jr MN: Congenital uveal malignant melanoma: a case report. Can J Ophthalmol; 2005 Oct;40(5):611-5
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  • CASE REPORT: We present a case of congenital choroidal mass in a male infant with multiple cutaneous pigmented lesions.
  • Enucleation performed in the first weeks of life confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse uveal malignant melanoma with extraocular extension.
  • He subsequently developed cutaneous and ocular pigmented lesions, including 2 choroidal nevi located within the posterior pole and a benign conjunctival lesion in the opposite eye, in addition to malignant melanoma of the skin.

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  • (PMID = 16391626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-4182
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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2. Uhlenhake EE, Sangueza OP, Lee AD, Jorizzo JL: Spreading pigmented actinic keratosis: a review. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Sep;63(3):499-506
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  • It can mimic different pigmented lesions, which may be benign (eg, solar lentigo) or malignant (eg, lentigo maligna).
  • RESULTS: SPAK is a rarely reported lesion that can be difficult to distinguish from other benign and malignant pigmented lesions, including seborrheic keratosis, melanoma in situ (lentigo maligna type), and lentigo maligna melanoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SPAK can be associated with adjacent melanoma in situ; therefore, its diagnosis merits increased suspicion for coexisting melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Dermoscopy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment


3. Sookhan N, Boughey JC, Walsh MF, Degnim AC: Nipple-sparing mastectomy--initial experience at a tertiary center. Am J Surg; 2008 Oct;196(4):575-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) combines skin-sparing mastectomy with preservation of the nipple-areolar dermis and intraoperative pathologic assessment of the nipple core.
  • The average distance of tumor from the nipple on imaging was 4.8 cm (range 4 to 5.7).
  • Nipple cores were all benign, and 2 patients developed self-limited superficial desquamation of the nipple.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty / methods. Mastectomy / methods. Nipples / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Body Image. Esthetics. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


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4. Brailey LL, Davis T, Kolker SE, Murry TC, Thomas D, Bale AE, Ruhoy SM: Congenital linear unilateral basal cell nevus: a case report with patched gene molecular studies. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jan;34(1):65-70
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  • BACKGROUND: Linear unilateral basal cell nevus represents a linear collection of macules and papules histologically similar to basal cell carcinoma but with benign clinical behavior.
  • The differential diagnosis included the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus / genetics. Nevus / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Thigh
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant. Loss of Heterozygosity. Microsatellite Repeats. Mutation. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17214858.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / SMO protein, human; 0 / patched receptors
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5. Torrijos-Aguilar A, Alegre-de Miquel V, Pitarch-Bort G, Mercader-García P, Fortea-Baixauli JM: [Cutaneous granular cell tumor: a clinical and pathologic analysis of 34 cases]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 Mar;100(2):126-32
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  • [Title] [Cutaneous granular cell tumor: a clinical and pathologic analysis of 34 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor de células granulares cutáneo: análisis clínico-patológico de treinta y cuatro casos.
  • BACKGROUND: Granular cell tumor (GCT), also known as Abrikossoff tumor, is an uncommon benign neoplasm, probably of neural origin derived from Schwann cells.
  • OBJECTIVES: We aimed to analyze the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics associated with this tumor and to determine whether these findings correspond to those reported to date in the literature.
  • METHODS: In this retrospective study of 34 patients with histologic diagnosis of GCT, we analyzed clinical characteristics (site, age, sex, duration, and suspected diagnosis), histological findings (border, cell atypia and mitoses, involvement of adnexal structures, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, and presence of the recently described pustulo-ovoid bodies), and immunohistochemical findings (S-100 staining in 16 randomly selected cases).
  • The most common site was the oral cavity (61.76 %).
  • The most frequently suspected clinical diagnosis was fibroma (17.65 %).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our series confirms the characteristics described previously for GCT, except for certain peculiarities, and supports the presence of pustulo-ovoid bodies as an additional histologic finding for diagnosis of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / epidemiology. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytoplasmic Granules / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroma / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Staining and Labeling. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19445877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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6. Temam F, Bizuneh E, Leekassa R: Disseminated form of syringoma (eruptive syringoma) sparing the face-a rare presentation causing diagnostic challenge. Ethiop Med J; 2008 Jul;46(3):273-6
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  • Syringomas are benign neoplasms of the skin commonly appearing around the eye lids.
  • The lesions are asymptomatic, firm, discrete, translucent or skin colored flat-topped papules.
  • [MeSH-major] Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Syringoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19271392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-1755
  • [Journal-full-title] Ethiopian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ethiop. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ethiopia
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7. Borenstein M, Mirzabeigi M, Vincek V: Pityrosporum and seborrheic keratosis: an association. Dermatol Online J; 2005;11(2):3
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  • Seborrheic keratoses (SK) are one of the most common benign tumors of the skin.
  • Studies have suggested that human papillomavirus or a benign clonal proliferation of epidermal cells is involved in the pathogenesis of some SK's, however, this issue remains to be resolved.

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  • (PMID = 16150211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Grenier N, Liang C, Capaldi L, Ney A, Lapidus C, Schappell D, Katarincic J, Robinson-Bostom L: A range of histologic findings in infantile digital fibromatosis. Pediatr Dermatol; 2008 Jan-Feb;25(1):72-5
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  • Infantile digital fibromatosis is a benign proliferation of myofibroblasts with characteristic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies.
  • All three patients underwent excision for diagnosis or treatment of their tumors with two of the patients experiencing a recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


9. Tatiana K S C, Somers GR, Pope E, Zuker RM: Predisposing factors and outcomes of malignant skin tumors in children. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2010 Aug;126(2):508-14
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  • [Title] Predisposing factors and outcomes of malignant skin tumors in children.
  • BACKGROUND: Although benign and metastatic tumors occur in children, primary malignant skin tumors are uncommon in the pediatric population.
  • In this study, the authors aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors, treatment, reconstruction details, and outcome of malignant skin tumors occurring in pediatric patients at the Hospital for Sick Children.
  • METHODS: The electronic database (CoPath) of the pathology department was searched for all cases of malignant skin tumors treated surgically between January of 2000 and September of 2008.
  • RESULTS: Eighteen patients had been diagnosed and treated surgically for malignant skin tumors.
  • Diagnosis of malignant melanoma was made in 14 patients, diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma was made in four patients, and diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made in one patient.
  • All cases of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma underwent surgical resection and primary closure or skin graft.
  • Of the patients with malignant melanoma, seven underwent surgical excision and primary closure and five had excision and skin graft.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant skin tumors are rare in children.
  • In accordance with previously published data, malignant melanoma was the most frequent tumor in our study.
  • Epithelial tumors were less common and were all associated with an underlying predisposing condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Skin Transplantation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Distribution. Canada / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Causality. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Databases, Factual. Dermatology / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Sex Distribution. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20375763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Siddha M, Budrukkar A, Shet T, Deshpande M, Basu A, Patil N, Bhalavat R: Malignant pilar tumor of the scalp: a case report and review of literature. J Cancer Res Ther; 2007 Oct-Dec;3(4):240-3
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  • [Title] Malignant pilar tumor of the scalp: a case report and review of literature.
  • Pilar tumor is a rare neoplasm arising from the external root sheath of the hair follicle and is most commonly observed on the scalp.
  • These tumors are largely benign, often cystic, and are characterized by trichilemmal keratinization.
  • In this report, we present a case of malignant pilar tumor of the scalp with multiple nodal metastases at presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / secondary. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18270401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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11. Jiang W, Fujii H, Matsumoto T, Ohtsuji N, Tsurumaru M, Hino O: Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) gene mutations in human gastric cancer with high frequency microsatellite instability. Cancer Lett; 2007 Apr 8;248(1):103-11
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  • Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is a rare inherited genodermatosis characterized by benign hamartomatous skin lesions and an increased risk of pneumothorax and renal tumors.
  • This mutational hot spot is also reported to be a target of mutation in microsatellite instability (MSI) sporadic colorectal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Microsatellite Instability. Mutation. Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Base Sequence. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons / genetics. Female. Gene Frequency. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Poly C / genetics. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16870330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / FLCN protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 30811-80-4 / Poly C; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor
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12. Benbenisty KM, Andea A, Metcalf J, Cook J: Atypical cellular neurothekeoma treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Apr;32(4):582-7; discussion 587
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  • BACKGROUND: Atypical cellular neurothekeoma is a rare neoplasm generally regarded as a benign tumor with locally aggressive behavior.
  • RESULTS: The neoplasm was extirpated in a three-stage, five section Mohs surgery procedure.
  • CONCLUSION: Mohs micrographic surgery is unsurpassed in its efficacy in treating a wide variety of nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • Although most commonly used to address basal and squamous cell carcinoma, it has also been reported as a successful treatment for melanoma and a wide variety of cutaneous malignancies.
  • Debate in the literature is ongoing regarding the true histogenesis of this rare tumor.
  • Because of this tumor's local destructive behavior and propensity to recur with inadequate resection, we recommend Moths micrographic surgery for the treatment of cellular neurothekeomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Mohs Surgery. Neurothekeoma / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Dermatol Surg. 2008 Mar;34(3):428 [18248473.001]
  • (PMID = 16681671.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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13. Craig S, Bui-Mansfield LT, Lusk JD: Radiology pathology conference of Brooke Army Medical Center: trichoblastoma of breast. Clin Imaging; 2009 Jul-Aug;33(4):311-3
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  • The differential diagnosis of a superficial breast lesion detected on mammography typically includes seborrheic keratosis, dermal nevus, epidermal inclusion cyst, and basal cell carcinoma with subcutaneous invasion [Kopans DB.
  • Trichoblastoma is a benign skin neoplasm that is rarely found in the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mammography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19559355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Birman MV, McHugh JB, Hayden RJ, Jebson PJ: Pilomatrixoma of the forearm: a case report. Iowa Orthop J; 2009;29:121-3
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  • Pilomatrixoma is a benign neoplasm derived from hair follicle matrix cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19742099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-1377
  • [Journal-full-title] The Iowa orthopaedic journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Iowa Orthop J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Mühlhoff C, Krenkel B, Rübben A, Megahed M: [Pagetoid reticulosis in a patient with mycosis fungoides. Successful therapy with localized electron beam irradiation]. Hautarzt; 2010 May;61(5):378-82
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  • It is characterized by a prominent epidermotropism, localized lesions, slow progression and benign prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Foot Diseases / radiotherapy. Mycosis Fungoides / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radiotherapy. Pagetoid Reticulosis / radiotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Electrons / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Heel. Humans. Male. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20401455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Newman MD, Lertsburapa T, Mirzabeigi M, Mafee M, Guitart J, Gerami P: Fluorescence in situ hybridization as a tool for microstaging in malignant melanoma. Mod Pathol; 2009 Aug;22(8):989-95
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  • Recently, we showed that a targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay could distinguish between benign nevi and melanoma with a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 95%.
  • In the melanomas with associated benign nevi, FISH enumeration was performed separately on the histologically malignant and benign components.
  • On the basis of the criteria developed in our earlier studies, we determined the sensitivity of the assay within the malignant areas and the specificity within the benign areas of melanomas with associated nevi.
  • The benign nevus components were uniformly negative for all criteria.
  • FISH analysis with probes targeting 6p25, 6q23, 11q13 and CEP6 can effectively discriminate the malignant and benign components of melanomas with associated nevi and can be used as an adjunctive tool for microstaging.
  • The assay has high sensitivity for the malignant areas of nevus-associated melanomas and outstanding specificity for the benign areas.
  • [MeSH-major] In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19448594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Hafner C, Di Martino E, Pitt E, Stempfl T, Tomlinson D, Hartmann A, Landthaler M, Knowles M, Vogt T: FGFR3 mutation affects cell growth, apoptosis and attachment in keratinocytes. Exp Cell Res; 2010 Jul 15;316(12):2008-16
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  • FGFR3 mutations have recently been identified in several benign epidermal skin lesions such as seborrheic keratosis, epidermal nevus and solar lentigo.
  • The functional consequences of these mutations in human skin are as yet unknown.
  • In this study we analyzed the functional effects of the most common FGFR3 mutation in benign skin tumors, the R248C FGFR3 hotspot mutation, in human HaCaT keratinocytes.
  • Our results suggest that an increased cell number at confluence along with a decreased apoptosis may contribute to the development of acanthotic tumors in FGFR3 mutant skin in vivo.

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  • (PMID = 20420824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2422
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3
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18. Suwattee P, McClelland MC, Huiras EE, Warshaw EM, Lee PK, Kaye VN, McCalmont TH, Niehans GA: Plaque-type syringoma: two cases misdiagnosed as microcystic adnexal carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jun;35(6):570-4
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  • This benign neoplasm may be easily misdiagnosed as microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC), potentially resulting in unnecessary surgery with disfiguring consequences.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our cases are discussed in the context of histopathologic diagnosis.
  • Detailed histopathologic findings of syringoma, as well as other considerations in the differential diagnosis, are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Cysts / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Syringoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome


19. Scholz T, Kretsis V, Kobayashi MR, Evans GR: Long-term outcomes after primary breast reconstruction using a vertical skin pattern for skin-sparing mastectomy. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2008 Dec;122(6):1603-11
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  • [Title] Long-term outcomes after primary breast reconstruction using a vertical skin pattern for skin-sparing mastectomy.
  • BACKGROUND: Preservation of the breast skin envelope in skin-sparing mastectomy is the key component for superior aesthetic results.
  • Breast mound disproportions in primary breast reconstruction caused by a mismatch between retained skin envelope and donor-tissue volume provokes breast shape asymmetries.
  • A skin-sparing mastectomy using a vertical pattern can address these breast mound imperfections by adjusting this mismatch in a vertical direction.
  • METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted over a 10-year period for patients who underwent skin-sparing mastectomy using a vertical pattern for malignant, premalignant, benign, and deformational disease of the breast.
  • RESULTS: Seventy-two patients, aged 31 to 69 years (mean, 51.5 years), underwent 106 skin-sparing mastectomies using a vertical pattern and primary reconstruction with 38 unilateral and 34 bilateral free flaps (muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous or deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps).
  • The complication rates of 8.49 percent at the donor site and 6.60 percent at the flap site show a direct correlation to smoking but no correlation to body mass index, cancer stage, or diabetes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Skin-sparing mastectomy using a vertical pattern improves the aesthetic outcome in primary breast reconstruction without compromising oncologic safety and demonstrates low morbidity.
  • Elimination of the disharmony between skin flap and breast volume in the vertical direction while respecting the inframammary crease produces a youthful, symmetrical conical breast shape with medial fullness.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Dermatologic Surgical Procedures. Mammaplasty / methods. Mastectomy. Surgical Flaps
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies


20. Tran TA, Hayner-Buchan A, Jones DM, McRorie D, Carlson JA: Cutaneous balloon cell dermatofibroma (fibrous histiocytoma). Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Apr;29(2):197-200
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  • [Title] Cutaneous balloon cell dermatofibroma (fibrous histiocytoma).
  • Dermatofibroma (DF) or cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma is a common benign skin tumor that exhibits multiple, distinct histologic variants.
  • Excisional biopsy revealed a circumscribed fibrous tumor populated by mostly clear and spindle cells.
  • A zonal arrangement separated the varied tumor cells where the most superficial, polypoid area showed large, clear polygonal balloon cells; the mid-dermal zone demonstrated a transition between balloon cells, epithelioid cells, and spindle cells; and the deep dermal zone had storiform arrangement of spindle cells, with the fascicles separated by coarse collagen bundles.
  • Ultrastructurally, the clear tumor cells were filled with multiple, empty, nonmembrane bound vacuoles of varying size.
  • DF with balloon cell change, likely secondary to persistent irritation, should be added to the differential diagnosis of cutaneous primary and metastatic neoplasms showing balloon cell degeneration such as balloon cell melanocytic nevi and renal cell carcinoma, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Heel. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Factor XIIIa / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Neprilysin / analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Vacuoles / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 17414448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; EC 2.3.2.13 / Factor XIIIa; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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21. Abeysekara AM, Siriwardana HP, Abbas KF, Tanner P, Ojo AA: An unusually large myofibroblastoma in a male breast: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:157
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  • INTRODUCTION: Myofibroblastoma of the breast is a rare benign stromal tumour seen predominantly in men.
  • We present a case of an unusually large myofibroblastoma, which mimicked a malignant breast tumour.
  • Examination revealed a firm 15 cm hemispherical lump occupying the whole of the right breast with peau d'orange appearance of the overlying skin and distortion of the nipple.
  • However, a guided Tru-Cut biopsy was inconclusive.
  • A mastectomy was performed to remove the tumour, which weighed more than 2 kg.
  • Myofibroblastomas can mimic malignant neoplasms and the clinical significance of this entity lies primarily in its recognition as a distinctive benign neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 18479528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2396649
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22. Moretti D, Del Bello B, Cosci E, Biagioli M, Miracco C, Maellaro E: Novel variants of muscle calpain 3 identified in human melanoma cells: cisplatin-induced changes in vitro and differential expression in melanocytic lesions. Carcinogenesis; 2009 Jun;30(6):960-7
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  • Interestingly, among melanocytic lesions, the expression of these novel variants is significantly downregulated, compared with benign nevi, in the most aggressive ones, i.e. in vertical growth phase melanoma and, even more, in metastatic melanoma cells, characterized by invasiveness properties and usually highly resistant to apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Calpain / metabolism. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Melanoma / metabolism. Muscle Proteins / metabolism. Nevus / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Alternative Splicing. Apoptosis. Biopsy. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleolus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Dipeptides / pharmacology. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism


23. Joyner DE, Wade ML, Szabo A, Bastar J, Coffin CM, Albritton KH, Bernard PS, Randall RL: Discriminate gene lists derived from cDNA microarray profiles of limited samples permit distinguishing mesenchymal neoplasia ex vivo. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2005 Mar;131(3):137-46
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  • [Title] Discriminate gene lists derived from cDNA microarray profiles of limited samples permit distinguishing mesenchymal neoplasia ex vivo.
  • BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal neoplasia comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors with over 200 benign neoplasms and 100 sarcomas.
  • Currently, tumors are classified using histologic and immunocytologic characteristics, with diagnostic error rates reported as high as 40% of cases.
  • As a feasibility study, our goal was to generate a preliminary discriminatory gene list for selected mesenchymal tumors, including sarcomas.
  • This technique may enable an eventual molecular classification schema based on expression profiles that can complement current clinical and pathologic diagnostic procedures in mesenchymal tumors.
  • METHODS: cDNA microarray analyses were preformed on connective tissue tumors obtained at time of surgical resection or biopsy.
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) from four general tumor classes was competitively hybridized against a human dermal fibroblast cell line comparator and the resulting gene expression profiles processed by ANOVA and linear discriminate analysis.
  • RESULTS: The tissue classification involved 18 patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, giant cell containing tumors, benign spindle cell lesions, or Ewing's family of tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Linear discriminate analysis of cDNA gene expression profiles partitioned mesenchymal tumor classes, even when constrained by limited sample sizes.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Fingerprinting. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Mesenchymoma / diagnosis. Mesenchymoma / genetics. Neoplasms, Connective Tissue / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Connective Tissue / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / genetics. Cell Line. Feasibility Studies. Fibroblasts. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Linear Models. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / genetics. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Sarcoma, Ewing / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Ewing / genetics. Skin / cytology

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  • (PMID = 15614524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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24. Rajasekhar G, Mushtaq M, Vura NG, Shekar R, Kumar S: Condyloma acuminatum associated with odontogenic myxoma: a case report. J Maxillofac Oral Surg; 2009 Dec;8(4):384-7
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  • Condylomata acuminatum is a sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by human papiloma virus on the skin.
  • Odontogenic myxoma is a rare tumor of jaws which occurs in the tooth-bearing areas of the mandible and maxilla.
  • It is an uncommon, benign, but locally aggressive neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 23139551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-8279
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of maxillofacial and oral surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Maxillofac Oral Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3454105
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Autoinoculation / Condyloma acuminatum / HPV-6 / Odontogenic myxoma / Palate / Young adult
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25. Schmaltz R, Müller CS, Vogt T: [Sudden growth of previously indolent scalp nodule]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jun;61(6):518-21
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  • Cylindromas are benign adnexal tumors with eccrine and apocrine differentiation.
  • We present a case of scalp cylindromatosis in which a primary cutaneous adenoid-cystic carcinoma developed.
  • As our case shows, histological evaluation is mandatory, even when the clinical diagnosis seems obvious.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20490442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Wong RP, Khosravi S, Martinka M, Li G: Myeloid leukemia-1 expression in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. Oncol Rep; 2008 Apr;19(4):933-7
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  • [Title] Myeloid leukemia-1 expression in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions.
  • Myeloid leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an anti-apoptotic protein implicated in tumor progression.
  • Its expression was found to be elevated in many types of human cancers and is correlated with tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / metabolism. Melanoma / chemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Nevus / chemistry. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18357378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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27. Zembowicz A, Knoepp SM, Bei T, Stergiopoulos S, Eng C, Mihm MC, Stratakis CA: Loss of expression of protein kinase a regulatory subunit 1alpha in pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma but not in melanoma or other melanocytic lesions. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Nov;31(11):1764-75
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  • Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) is a recently described entity comprising most cases previously described as "animal-type melanoma" and epithelioid blue nevus (EBN) occurring in patients with the multiple neoplasia syndrome Carney complex (CNC).
  • Histologic analysis of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with R1alpha antibody were performed on 34 sporadic PEMs, 8 CNC-associated PEMs from patients with known PRKAR1A mutations, 297 benign and malignant melanocytic tumors (127 conventional sections of 10 compound nevi, 10 Spitz nevi, 5 deep-penetrating nevi, 5 blue nevi, 6 cellular blue nevi, 2 malignant blue nevi, 3 lentigo maligna, and 86 melanomas of various types); in addition, 170 tissue microarray sections consisting of 35 benign nevi, 60 primary melanomas, and 75 metastatic melanomas, and 5 equine dermal melanomas, were examined.
  • The results support the concept that PEM is a distinct melanocytic tumor occurring in a sporadic setting and in the context of CNC.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / analysis. Horse Diseases / enzymology. Melanocytes / enzymology. Melanoma / enzymology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / enzymology. Nevus, Blue / enzymology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Diagnosis, Differential. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Horses. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Loss of Heterozygosity. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Terminology as Topic. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18059235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human
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28. Räsänen K, Vaheri A: TGF-beta1 causes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HaCaT derivatives, but induces expression of COX-2 and migration only in benign, not in malignant keratinocytes. J Dermatol Sci; 2010 May;58(2):97-104
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  • [Title] TGF-beta1 causes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HaCaT derivatives, but induces expression of COX-2 and migration only in benign, not in malignant keratinocytes.
  • BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) acts as a tumor promoter by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which leads to a motile phenotype, enabling invasion and metastasis of cancer cells.
  • Cancer-related inflammation, mediated by prostaglandins, has been proposed as a critical mechanism in conversion of benign cells to malignant.
  • OBJECTIVE: Induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), producer of prostaglandins, is thought to be a prerequisite for TGF-beta-induced EMT in benign cells.
  • We used HaCaT derivatives, representative of skin cancer progression, to investigate TGF-beta1 mediated EMT response, and the role of COX-2 in it.
  • RESULTS: TGF-beta1 caused proliferation arrest of benign and malignant HaCaT cells, and changed the epithelial morphology of benign and low-grade malignant cells, but not metastatic cells, to mesenchymal spindle-shape.
  • COX-2 and migration were induced only in benign HaCaT derivatives.
  • Malignant derivatives did not induce COX-2 in response to TGF-beta 1 treatment, thus emphasizing the role of inflammation in EMT response of benign cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TGF-beta1 operates via distinct mechanisms in inducing EMT and metastasis, and supporting this we show that TGF-beta1 induces COX-2 and promotes the migration of benign cells, but does not further augment the migration of malignant cells, indicating their resistance to TGF-beta1 in the context of motility.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Chemotaxis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Metastasis. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Wound Healing

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20399617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-569X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dermatological science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1
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29. Fleming DM, Cross KW, Barley MA: Recent changes in the prevalence of diseases presenting for health care. Br J Gen Pract; 2005 Aug;55(517):589-95
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  • Age-standardised prevalence rates per 10,000 registered persons and 99% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the national census population for 2001 as the standard.
  • Survey differences in prevalence were identified from non-overlapping CIs.
  • The prevalence of mental disorders, skin disease and musculoskeletal disorders showed little change.
  • Particular increases were noted for other malignant and benign neoplasms of the skin, hypothyroidism and diabetes.

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  • [Cites] BMJ. 2003 Jun 28;326(7404):1439-43 [12829558.001]
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  • [CommentIn] Br J Gen Pract. 2005 Nov;55(520):884 [16282011.001]
  • (PMID = 16105366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-1643
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Gen Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1463227
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30. Montgomery E, Epstein JI: Anastomosing hemangioma of the genitourinary tract: a lesion mimicking angiosarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Sep;33(9):1364-9
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  • BACKGROUND: We describe 6 cases of a poorly recognized vascular neoplasm that can simulate angiosarcoma.
  • DESIGN: Cases of a rare vascular tumor with a proclivity for the genitourinary tract encountered in our consultation material were prospectively collected between the year 1999 and 2008.
  • RESULTS: There were 6 tumors from 4 men (66%) and 2 women, ranging in age from 49 to 75 years (median, 59.5) involving the kidney and renal hilum (4, 66%) and testis (2).
  • Tumors ranged from 1.3 to 1.7 cm (median, 1.6 cm) and were grossly well-marginated with a hemorrhagic mahogany spongy appearance.
  • Most kidney (3/4, 75%) tumors showed minor extensions into adjacent adipose tissue.
  • At higher magnification, the tumors consisted of anastomosing sinusoidal capillary-sized vessels with scattered hobnail endothelial cells within a framework of nonendothelial supporting cells.
  • Two (33%) tumors featured prominent extra-medullary hematopoiesis and 2 tumors (33%) had striking hyaline globules reminiscent of those seen in Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anastomosing hemangioma of the genitourinary tract is a rare neoplasm displaying some overlapping features of both sinusoidal hemangioma and hobnail hemangioma of soft tissue and skin.
  • However, in our opinion, it is a unique neoplasm with a proclivity for the kidney.
  • Its anastomosing appearance can lead to concern for angiosarcoma but, despite small numbers and limited follow-up in our series, evidence to date supports that the lesion is benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD31 / analysis. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Factor VIII / analysis. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / chemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Testicular Neoplasms / chemistry. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19606014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / F8 protein, human; 9001-27-8 / Factor VIII
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31. Vallbo C, Damber JE: Thrombospondins, metallo proteases and thrombospondin receptors messenger RNA and protein expression in different tumour sublines of the Dunning prostate cancer model. Acta Oncol; 2005;44(3):293-8
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  • [Title] Thrombospondins, metallo proteases and thrombospondin receptors messenger RNA and protein expression in different tumour sublines of the Dunning prostate cancer model.
  • Thrombospondin is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and might therefore be important in controlling tumour growth.
  • An earlier study showed that thrombospondin is expressed in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) but is absent in prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD36 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinases / analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Thrombospondins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, CD47. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Models, Animal. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / analysis. Neoplasm Transplantation. Prostate / cytology. Rats. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Thrombospondin 1 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16076702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD36; 0 / Antigens, CD47; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Thrombospondin 1; 0 / Thrombospondins; 0 / thrombospondin 2; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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32. Estrada-Chavez G, Vega-Memije ME, Lacy-Niebla RM, Toussaint-Caire S: Scalp metastases of a renal cell carcinoma. Skinmed; 2006 May-Jun;5(3):148-50
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  • An 80-year-old man presented with a localized tumor of the right occipital scalp.
  • The tumor was a 1-cm, bright red-purple, ulcerated, and crusted exophytic nodule on a smooth base (Figure 1).
  • It was extirpated with the clinical diagnosis of pyogenic granuloma vs. renal metastasis to the scalp.
  • The patient's medical history included a transurethral prostatic resection 3 years earlier and, 1 year later, a right nephrectomy for a 2-kg kidney tumor verbally reported as "benign."
  • The histopathologic diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma was supported by immunohistochemistry with positive epithelial membrane antigen staining (Figure 4).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis


33. Lin YC, Hsiao PF, Wu YH, Sun FJ, Scher RK: Recurrent digital glomus tumor: analysis of 75 cases. Dermatol Surg; 2010 Sep;36(9):1396-400
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  • [Title] Recurrent digital glomus tumor: analysis of 75 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Glomus tumors are rare, benign, cutaneous neoplasms that must be excised completely to prevent recurrence.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with recurrence of glomus tumors after surgery.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty-eight women and 17 men with digital glomus tumors underwent surgery between 1990 and 2008 at our hospital.
  • RESULTS Mean age at diagnosis was 41.8, with an average diagnostic delay of 3.9 years.
  • The tumor was located on a finger in 70 cases (right, 29; left, 41) and a toe in five (right, 3; left, 2).
  • The tumor recurred in 13 (17%) patients.
  • Recurrence was more likely if the tumor was skin-colored (odds ratio (OR)=31.67, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.68-373.74, p=.006) or located within the nail matrix (OR=5.79, 95% CI=1.03-32.49, p=.046).
  • CONCLUSION: Skin-colored tumors or those in the nail matrix are at higher risk of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Fingers. Glomus Tumor / epidemiology. Glomus Tumor / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20629689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Carlson JA, Ross JS, Slominski AJ: New techniques in dermatopathology that help to diagnose and prognosticate melanoma. Clin Dermatol; 2009 Jan-Feb;27(1):75-102
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  • Routine light microscopy supplemented with immunohistochemistry in cases of metastatic or spindle cell melanoma are standards of care for the diagnosis and staging of melanoma.
  • Not all melanocytic tumors can be confidently classified as melanoma or benign nevus by histology, however.
  • In addition, tumor thickness and ulceration, the current American Joint Classification on Cancer prognosticators for primary cutaneous (stages I and II) melanoma used in clinical practice, do not perfectly predict an individual's clinical course.
  • Recent advances in molecular techniques and bioinformatics mandate testing and use of novel methods for the detection, diagnosis, and classification of melanocytic tumors that can accurately predict tumor behavior and help in selecting the most optimal and individualized therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytogenetic Analysis. Dermatology / methods. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19095155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1131
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 288
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35. Hussein MR, Elsers DA, Fadel SA, Omar AE: Clinicopathological features of melanocytic skin lesions in Egypt. Eur J Cancer Prev; 2006 Feb;15(1):64-8
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological features of melanocytic skin lesions in Egypt.
  • Although melanocytic skin lesions have been recognized since antiquity, their literature was limited to Caucasians.
  • To define these features, diagnostic records of the melanocytic skin lesions received at the Pathology Department, Assuit University Hospitals (1989-2004) were reviewed.
  • The lesions examined included 12 benign naevi (BN), 10 dysplastic naevi (DN), and 21 cutaneous malignant melanomas (CMMs).
  • The mean tumour thickness (Breslow) was 6+/-0.5 mm.
  • In Egypt, CMM is the third most common cutaneous neoplasm following squamous and basal cell carcinomas.
  • This is the first study that reports the clinicopathologic features of melanocytic skin lesions in Egypt.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16374232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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36. Zmonarski SC, Boratyńska M, Puziewicz-Zmonarska A, Kazimierczak K, Klinger M: Kaposi's sarcoma in renal transplant recipients. Ann Transplant; 2005;10(2):59-65
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  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a spindle-shaped vascular cell tumor that occurs in the skin, lymphoid, respiratory and gastrointestinal tissues.
  • It may resemble aggressive malignant neoplasm in HIV-related or in post-transplant types but classic form may behave as benign, potentially controllable and reversible hyperplasia.
  • 90% of KS cases appear as dark blue or purplish macular lesions that may form nodular tumors.
  • Sirolimus seems to inhibit the growth of established vascularized tumors and this effect is best realized with relatively low immunosuppressive doses of drug.


37. Ikeda F, Dikic I: CYLD in ubiquitin signaling and tumor pathogenesis. Cell; 2006 May 19;125(4):643-5
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  • [Title] CYLD in ubiquitin signaling and tumor pathogenesis.
  • Absence of CYLD, which encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme, causes an inherited disease characterized by benign skin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism. Ubiquitin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors

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  • [CommentOn] Cell. 2006 May 19;125(4):665-77 [16713561.001]
  • (PMID = 16713556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0092-8674
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Ubiquitin; 0 / proto-oncogene protein bcl-3
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38. Ardigo M, Buffon RB, Scope A, Cota C, Buccini P, Berardesca E, Pellacani G, Marghoob AA, Gill M: Comparing in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy, dermoscopy, and histology of clear-cell acanthoma. Dermatol Surg; 2009 Jun;35(6):952-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Clear cell acanthoma (CCA) is a rare, benign neoplasm of unknown etiology, whose dermoscopic and histological features have been previously described.
  • In some cases, diagnosis remains uncertain, and histological examination is needed.
  • All lesions were surgically excised to confirm the diagnosis and compare the morphological attributes under light microscopy with in vivo imaging.
  • RCM appears to be a useful tool for in vivo diagnosis of CCA and may help avoid unnecessary biopsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthoma / pathology. Dermoscopy / methods. Histological Techniques / methods. Microscopy, Confocal / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 19397663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Roesch A, Wittschier S, Becker B, Landthaler M, Vogt T: Loss of dipeptidyl peptidase IV immunostaining discriminates malignant melanomas from deep penetrating nevi. Mod Pathol; 2006 Oct;19(10):1378-85
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  • The deep penetrating nevus is a rare variant of benign melanocytic nevus with histologic features mimicking vertical growth phase, nodular malignant melanoma.
  • Dipeptidyl peptidase IV/CD26 was analyzed as a marker affecting both proliferation and invasion of malignant melanocytic tumors.
  • These results add evidence that among the selected markers supposed to be relevant for melanoma progression the presence of dipeptidyl peptidase IV can be used to support diagnosis of deep penetrating nevi in doubtful cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosine Deaminase / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 / analysis. Glycoproteins / analysis. Melanoma / enzymology. Nevus, Pigmented / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Antinuclear / analysis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retinoblastoma Protein / analysis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16829852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MIB-1 antibody; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; EC 3.4.14.5 / DPP4 protein, human; EC 3.4.14.5 / Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases; EC 3.5.4.4 / Adenosine Deaminase
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40. Rausch MP, Irvine KR, Antony PA, Restifo NP, Cresswell P, Hastings KT: GILT accelerates autoimmunity to the melanoma antigen tyrosinase-related protein 1. J Immunol; 2010 Sep 1;185(5):2828-35
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  • Melanocyte differentiation Ags, including tyrosinase-related protein (TRP) 1, are relevant to both autoimmune skin depigmentation (vitiligo) and tumor immunity, because they are expressed by both benign melanocytes and many malignant melanomas.
  • Given that many self and tumor Ags have disulfide bonds and are presented on MHC class II, GILT is likely to be important in the pathogenesis of other CD4(+) T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases and for the development of effective cancer immunotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 20668223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-6606
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / T32-AR007016; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37-AI23081; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA078447; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI023081; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / T32 AR007016; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA09213; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25-CA078447; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / K08-AR054388; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009213; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009213-33; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / K08 AR054388; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009213-33
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class II; 0 / Ifi30 protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; EC 1.- / Oxidoreductases; EC 1.14.18.- / Tyrp1 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS274002; NLM/ PMC3060054
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41. Reguiaï Z, Cribier B, Derancourt C, Perceau G, Bernard P: Multiple spreading epidermolytic acanthomas of the genital and perigenital skin. Dermatology; 2005;211(2):152-4
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  • [Title] Multiple spreading epidermolytic acanthomas of the genital and perigenital skin.
  • Epidermolytic acanthoma is an uncommon benign tumour mainly characterized histologically by a prominent epidermolytic degeneration of the keratinocytes of the upper layers of the stratum spinosum and of the stratum granulosum.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthoma / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Cryotherapy / methods. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperkeratosis, Epidermolytic / pathology. Hyperkeratosis, Epidermolytic / physiopathology. Hyperkeratosis, Epidermolytic / therapy. Immunohistochemistry. Laser Therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Scrotum / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16088164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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42. Ma C, Quesnelle KM, Sparano A, Rao S, Park MS, Cohen MA, Wang Y, Samanta M, Kumar MS, Aziz MU, Naylor TL, Weber BL, Fakharzadeh SS, Weinstein GS, Vachani A, Feldman MD, Brose MS: Characterization CSMD1 in a large set of primary lung, head and neck, breast and skin cancer tissues. Cancer Biol Ther; 2009 May;8(10):907-16
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  • [Title] Characterization CSMD1 in a large set of primary lung, head and neck, breast and skin cancer tissues.
  • The Cub and Sushi Multiple Domains-1 (CSMD1) is a tumor suppressor gene on 8p23.2, where allelic loss is both frequent and associated with poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
  • To understand the extent of CSMD1 aberrations in vivo, we characterized 184 primary tumors from the head and neck, lung, breast and skin for gene copy number and analyzed expression in our HNSCCs and lung squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs).
  • We detected loss of CSMD1 in a large proportion of HNSCCs (50%), lung (46%) and breast cancers (55%), and to a lesser extent in cutaneous SCCs (29%) and basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, 17%) using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH).
  • CSMD1 expression was decreased in tumors compared to adjacent benign tissue (65%, 13/20) and was likely due to gene loss in 45% of cases (9/20).
  • We show loss of CSMD1 in primary HNSCC tissues, and document for the first time that CSMD1 is lost in breast, lung and cutaneous SCCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Case-Control Studies. Chromosome Deletion. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Gene Dosage. Gene Expression. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Mouth Neoplasms / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism


43. Weyers W, Hörster S, Diaz-Cascajo C: Tumor of follicular infundibulum is Basal cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Oct;31(7):634-41
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  • [Title] Tumor of follicular infundibulum is Basal cell carcinoma.
  • Tumor of follicular infundibulum (TFI) is currently thought to be a benign epithelial neoplasm with follicular differentiation.
  • Those findings prompted us to conclude that TFI may be one of many manifestations of BCC rather than a differential diagnosis of it.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19652582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Altamura D, Avramidis M, Menzies SW: Assessment of the optimal interval for and sensitivity of short-term sequential digital dermoscopy monitoring for the diagnosis of melanoma. Arch Dermatol; 2008 Apr;144(4):502-6
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  • [Title] Assessment of the optimal interval for and sensitivity of short-term sequential digital dermoscopy monitoring for the diagnosis of melanoma.
  • For lesions remaining unchanged at 3 months, 99.2% (1118 of 1127 lesions) were shown to be benign as defined by an unremarkable further follow-up.
  • Conclusion Three months remains the standard interval for ST-SDDI, where the sensitivity for the diagnosis of melanoma for changed (non-lentigo maligna) lesions is high but not 100%.
  • [MeSH-major] Artificial Intelligence. Dermoscopy. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / diagnosis. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / diagnosis. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Odds Ratio. Sensitivity and Specificity. Skin / pathology. Software Design


45. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Rütten A, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Jun;27(3):195-203
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  • [Title] Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma.
  • This report emphasizes a carcinoid-like pattern, a previously unrecognized feature in cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms.
  • We report 7 patients with sebaceous tumors in which neoplastic cells were arranged in a trabecular and ribbon-like pattern or formed rosettes/pseudorosettes.
  • The cases included 6 men and 1 woman, with their ages at the diagnosis ranging from 43 to 87 years (median age, 59).
  • Although the neoplasm appeared benign architecturally, the presence of cytologic atypia qualified 2 tumors as low-grade carcinomas.
  • We conclude that the carcinoid-like pattern is another distinctive pattern indicative of sebaceous neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrastructure. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15900121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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46. De Felice B, Garbi C, Santoriello M, Santillo A, Wilson RR: Differential apoptosis markers in human keloids and hypertrophic scars fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biochem; 2009 Jul;327(1-2):191-201
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  • Keloids are benign skin tumors and are the effect of a dysregulated wound-healing process in genetically predisposed patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cells, Cultured. Female. Humans. Male. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Wound Healing

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  • (PMID = 19224335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-4919
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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47. Nino M, Brunetti B, Delfino S, Brunetti B, Panariello L, Russo D: Spitz nevus: follow-up study of 8 cases of childhood starburst type and proposal for management. Dermatology; 2009;218(1):48-51
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  • Spitz nevus is an uncommon, benign melanocytic neoplasm that shares many clinical and histological features with melanoma.
  • It presents clinical ambiguity that makes the diagnosis and management of the patient difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


48. Grunwald MH, Gat A, Amichai B: Pseudomelanoma after Solcoderm treatment. Melanoma Res; 2006 Oct;16(5):459-60
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  • It has been used for the treatment of benign skin lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Dermatologic Agents / adverse effects. Melanoma / chemically induced. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / chemically induced. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetic Acid / adverse effects. Adult. Cell Proliferation. Copper / adverse effects. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lactates / adverse effects. Melanocytes. Nitrates / adverse effects. Recurrence

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ACETIC ACID .
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  • (PMID = 17013096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Lactates; 0 / Nitrates; 789U1901C5 / Copper; Q40Q9N063P / Acetic Acid; Solcoderm
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49. Bezdekova M, Brychtova S, Sedlakova E, Steigerova J, Hlobilkova A, Bienova M, Kucerova R, Brychta T, Krejci V, Kolar Z: Immunohistochemical assessment of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in trichofolliculomas and trichoepitheliomas. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub; 2007 Dec;151(2):251-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Trichofolliculomas and trichoepitheliomas are benign skin neoplasms originating from hair follicle cells.
  • AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate their involvement in benign hair follicle tumor development.
  • METHODS: Semiquantitative intensity of expression were examined in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 53 trichoepitheliomas, 15 trichofolliculomas and 19 normal skin samples by indirect immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: The intensity of E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression in tumor cells did not differ from controls.
  • However, normal hair follicles cells exhibited membranous E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression, whereas both types of tumors, particularly trichoepitheliomas, showed E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression with a predominantly cytoplasmic localization.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that this dystopic distribution of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex in hair follicle tumor cells may be a marker of cell-cell adhesion disruption which may contribute to the tumor formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / analysis. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry. beta Catenin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18345259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1213-8118
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / beta Catenin
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50. Izumi M, Tang X, Chiu CS, Nagai T, Matsubayashi J, Iwaya K, Umemura S, Tsuboi R, Mukai K: Ten cases of sebaceous carcinoma arising in nevus sebaceus. J Dermatol; 2008 Nov;35(11):704-11
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  • Although nevus sebaceus is known to develop various types of secondary neoplasms, it rarely causes carcinoma and only 14 cases of secondary sebaceous carcinoma have been reported.
  • In two cases there were coexisting benign-looking sebaceous lesions at the periphery of the main cancer nodule, and in these lesions p53 showed low positivity compared with the clearly malignant area.
  • There was co-occurrence of another neoplasm in three cases with trichoblastoma, sebaceoma and syringocystadenoma papilliferum, respectively.
  • These clinicopathological features of sebaceous carcinomas developing in the nevus sebaceus seem to indicate different biological entities from de novo sebaceous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Skin / pathology


51. Meller I, Weinbroum A, Bickels J, Dadia S, Nirkin A, Merimsky O, Issakov J, Flusser G, Marouani N, Cohen N, Kollender Y: Fifteen years of bone tumor cryosurgery: a single-center experience of 440 procedures and long-term follow-up. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Aug;34(8):921-7
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  • [Title] Fifteen years of bone tumor cryosurgery: a single-center experience of 440 procedures and long-term follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: This summary of a single center's extensive cumulative experience in bone tumor cryosurgery assesses the long-term outcome of bone conservation surgery in which adjuvant cryosurgery plays a pivotal role.
  • Two-thirds of the series comprised a variety of primary benign-aggressive and low-grade malignant lesions, and one-third were primary high-grade and metastatic bone tumors.
  • The overall local recurrence rate was 8%: fractures=1%, infections=2% and skin burns=1.3%.
  • The functional outcome for the 372 patients with no evidence of disease was almost 100% "good" and "excellent" (American Musculo-skeletal Tumor Society System).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Bone cryosurgery is a safe and effective limb-, joint- and even epiphysis-sparing surgical technique in suitable types of bone tumors, temporarily or permanently obviating the need for resection surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Cryosurgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 18158228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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52. Saikali S, Paumier V, Garrelon JL, Le Gall F: [Facial primary cutaneous ganglioneuroma]. Ann Pathol; 2009 Apr;29(2):138-41
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  • [Title] [Facial primary cutaneous ganglioneuroma].
  • [Transliterated title] Ganglioneurome cutané primitif de la face.
  • Ganglioneuroma is a benign neoplasm of the sympathetic nervous system most often arising in the posterior mediastinum, retroperitoneum, adrenal medulla and pelvis.
  • The occurrence of ganglioneuroma in the skin is rare with only 10 cases reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19364589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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53. Kumar R, Alavi A: Clinical applications of fluorodeoxyglucose--positron emission tomography in the management of malignant melanoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2005 Mar;17(2):154-9
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  • The prognosis is linked directly to the initial stage at the time of diagnosis.
  • Early diagnosis and accurate disease staging is important for appropriate treatment planning.
  • It is more sensitive than computed tomography (CT) for detection of metastatic lesions in skin, lymph nodes, and abdomen.
  • False-positive FDG-PET results are due to postsurgical inflammation, other inflammatory lesions, and some benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Melanoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Skin Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15725921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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54. Vereecken P, Debray C, Petein M, Awada A, Lalmand MC, Laporte M, Van Den Heule B, Verhest A, Pochet R, Heenen M: Expression of galectin-3 in primary and metastatic melanoma: immunohistochemical studies on human lesions and nude mice xenograft tumors. Arch Dermatol Res; 2005 Feb;296(8):353-8
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  • [Title] Expression of galectin-3 in primary and metastatic melanoma: immunohistochemical studies on human lesions and nude mice xenograft tumors.
  • To study the possible correlation between Gal-3 expression and malignant potential in primary melanoma lesions, we conducted an immunohistochemical study with monoclonal anti-Gal-3 antibody in a series of primary and metastatic melanoma lesions as well as benign skin pigmented lesions.
  • The expression of Gal-3 was higher in thin primary melanoma lesions than in benign pigmented skin lesions or metastases and seemed to correlate inversely with the aggressiveness as estimated by the Breslow index which is recognized as the main prognostic factor in melanoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Nevus / metabolism. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 15645276.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-3696
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dermatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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55. Postovit LM, Seftor EA, Seftor RE, Hendrix MJ: Influence of the microenvironment on melanoma cell fate determination and phenotype. Cancer Res; 2006 Aug 15;66(16):7833-6
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  • Tumor cells communicate bidirectionally with the surrounding microenvironment, sending and receiving topographical and molecular cues that direct diverse cellular phenomena, including differentiation, growth, and invasion.
  • The microenvironment has long been acknowledged as a facilitator of melanoma progression, and recent studies have illuminated tumor-associated factors, including hypoxia and the extracellular matrix, as important mediators of melanocyte transformation and transdifferentiation.
  • Indeed, our group and others have elucidated the unique ability of embryonic microenvironments to normalize aggressive melanoma cells toward a more benign melanocytic phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Cell Division. Humans. Incidence. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 16912153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 59702
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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56. Cao D, Tsangaris TN, Kouprina N, Wu LS, Balch CM, Vang R, Argani P: The superficial margin of the skin-sparing mastectomy for breast carcinoma: factors predicting involvement and efficacy of additional margin sampling. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 May;15(5):1330-40
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  • [Title] The superficial margin of the skin-sparing mastectomy for breast carcinoma: factors predicting involvement and efficacy of additional margin sampling.
  • BACKGROUND: No study has systematically evaluated the significance of involvement of the superficial specimen margin in skin-sparing mastectomies (SSMs).
  • METHODS: 168 SSMs with a small, additional superficial margin (ASM) specimen taken directly over the tumor to the dermis intraoperatively were studied.
  • ASM sampling rendered the final true margin directly over the tumor negative in 54 of 58 (93%) SSMs with a focally positive superficial specimen margin, but did not negate the nonfocally positive superficial specimen margin in six other cases.
  • Eighty-nine (53%) ASMs contained benign breast tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Superficial specimen margins in SSMs are often microscopically positive and approximately half of ASMs contain benign breast tissue, likely reflecting the difficulty in completely removing breast tissue near the skin flaps in SSMs.
  • ASM sampling effectively decreases positive superficial specimen margins directly over the tumor in SSMs, but fails to account for positive superficial specimen margins in other quadrants in patients with multicentric disease, especially extensive DCIS.

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  • (PMID = 18246402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA088843; None / None / / P50 CA088843-06A19005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA088843-06A19005
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS243747; NLM/ PMC2958107
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57. Shehan JM, Huerter CJ: Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: report of a case illustrating its natural history. Cutis; 2008 Mar;81(3):236-8
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  • First described more than 30 years ago, desmoplastic trichoepithelioma is a rare but benign adnexal neoplasm.
  • Though the tumors are benign, the possibility of malignant neoplasm may spark both clinical and histologic concern.
  • A full-thickness skin biopsy is advisable when desmoplastic trichoepithelioma is suspected.
  • A patient's clinical history may provide some clues to help guide diagnosis, as the tumors may be present for years and slow growth is commonly reported.
  • We present a patient with desmoplastic trichoepithelioma that uniquely documents and supports the typical natural history of this tumor, as demonstrated by annual school photographs.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Photomicrography. Rare Diseases

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  • (PMID = 18441846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Parreira LM, Sípoli JM, Mercante AM, Orfali RL, Levites J: Case for diagnosis: (unilateral multiple piloleiomyoma). An Bras Dermatol; 2009 Mar-Apr;84(2):197-9
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  • [Title] Case for diagnosis: (unilateral multiple piloleiomyoma).
  • Piloleiomyoma is a benign neoplasm arising from the erector pilorum muscle in the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyomatosis / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antipruritics / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Hydroxyzine / administration & dosage. Muscle, Smooth / pathology. Pain / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19503991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais brasileiros de dermatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Bras Dermatol
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipruritics; 30S50YM8OG / Hydroxyzine
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59. de Prado Prieto L, García Olmos L, Rodríguez Salvanés F, Otero Puime A: [Evaluation of referrals in primary care]. Aten Primaria; 2005 Feb 28;35(3):146-51
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  • [Transliterated title] Evaluación de la demanda derivada en atención primaria.
  • The most common conditions referred, 25.6% of all referrals, are gynecologist check, blindness, other illnesses of subcutaneous cellular tissue, arthrosis, joint pain, diabetes, benign neoplasm of skin, depression and hypoacusis.

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  • (PMID = 15737271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6567
  • [Journal-full-title] Atencion primaria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aten Primaria
  • [Language] SPA
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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60. Gatti A, di Meo N, Trevisan G: Dermoscopy of eccrine acrospiroma masquerading as nodular malignant melanoma. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat; 2010 Dec;19(4):23-5
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  • Eccrine acrospiroma, better known as eccrine poroma, is a benign adnexal neoplasm of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Dermoscopy. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male


61. Laga AC, Tajirian AL, Islam MN, Bhattacharyya I, Cohen DM, Plamondon CJ, Robinson-Bostom L: Myopericytoma: report of two cases associated with trauma. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Sep;35(9):866-70
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  • Myopericytoma is a rare, recently described tumor demonstrating a hemangiopericytoma-like vascular pattern.
  • Despite sharing morphologic features with angioleiomyoma, myofibroma and glomus tumor, myopericytoma is thought to represent a distinct perivascular myoid neoplasm of skin and soft tissues.
  • The tumor is characterized by a radial and perivascular arrangement of ovoid, spindled to round neoplastic cells that are immunoreactive to alpha-smooth muscle actin, often for h-caldesmon as well as smooth muscle myosin-heavy chain, and usually negative for desmin antibodies.
  • Most cases of myopericytoma are benign, however, local recurrence and malignancy have recently been reported, Myopericytoma can be multifocal involving a single or multiple anatomic regions, and tends to occur in dermal and superficial soft tissues of adults primarily on the extremities.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangiopericytoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Wounds and Injuries / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Microfilament Proteins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Mouth Mucosa / injuries. Myosin Heavy Chains / metabolism. Nose / injuries. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18494828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / calponin; EC 3.6.4.1 / Myosin Heavy Chains
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62. Choi CW, Park HS, Kim YK, Lee SH, Cho KH: Elastic fiber staining and cytokeratin 15 expression pattern in trichoepithelioma and basal cell carcinoma. J Dermatol; 2008 Aug;35(8):499-502
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  • Trichoepithelioma (TE) is a benign neoplasm of the skin that resembles basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in its clinical and histological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Elastic Tissue / pathology. Keratin-15 / analysis. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Staining and Labeling
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 18789069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Keratin-15
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63. Sidoroff A: [Epidemiology of cutaneous vascular neoplasms and malformations in childhood]. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir; 2009 Apr;41(2):65-9
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  • [Title] [Epidemiology of cutaneous vascular neoplasms and malformations in childhood].
  • PURPOSE: A representative compilation of data on the incidence and prevalence of benign cutaneous vascular neoplasms and malformations in childhood has been made.
  • [MeSH-major] Arteriovenous Malformations / epidemiology. Hemangioma / epidemiology. Skin / blood supply. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Austria. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Health Surveys. Hemangioma, Capillary / epidemiology. Hemangioma, Cavernous / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Infant, Premature, Diseases / epidemiology. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Port-Wine Stain / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19180424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3980
  • [Journal-full-title] Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, plastische Chirurgie : Organ der Deutschsprachigen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Handchirurgie : Organ der Deutschsprachigen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Mikrochirurgie der Peripheren Nerven und Gefässe : Organ der Vereinigung der Deutschen Plastischen Chirurgen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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64. Singh RS, Diwan AH, Zhang PS, Prieto VG: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase is not overexpressed in melanocytic lesions. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Mar;34(3):220-5
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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression pattern of PI3K in benign and dysplastic nevi, primary melanomas, and metastatic melanomas and the role of PTEN and PI3K in melanocytic tumor progression.
  • METHODS: Tissue microarrays were constructed using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue blocks from 89 melanocytic lesions: 17 benign nevi, 18 dysplastic nevi, 23 primary melanomas, and 31 metastatic melanomas.
  • RESULTS: Both benign and dysplastic nevi showed strong cytoplasmic staining with PTEN, which was subsequently less in melanomas and completely lost in the metastatic lesions.
  • Eleven of 17 (64%) benign nevi, seven of 10 (70%) dysplastic nevi, four of 23 (17%) primaries, and one of 31 (3%) visceral or lymph node metastasis showed strong positivity.
  • Loss of PTEN expression from benign and dysplastic nevi to melanoma was statistically significant (p=0.001).
  • Although few cells showed reactivity for phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3 kinase)-p85 subunit, strong positivity was not detected in the cytoplasm of benign, malignant, or metastatic lesions, except for a single visceral metastasis.
  • There was no statistical difference in PI3 kinase expression in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions (p=0.2).
  • [MeSH-major] Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / enzymology. Melanoma / enzymology. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17302605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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65. Pencavel T, Strauss DC, Thomas JM, Hayes AJ: The surgical management of soft tissue tumours arising in the abdominal wall. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2010 May;36(5):489-95
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  • BACKGROUND: Soft-tissue tumours can occur at almost any site, including the abdominal wall and represent a biologically diverse group of benign and malignant tumours.
  • The histological diagnosis, complication rates and local recurrence rates were reported.
  • Of 92 patients undergoing resection 87 required reconstruction of the abdominal wall defect with polypropelene mesh but only 2 patients required reconstruction of the overlying skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Wall / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Sarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery. Surgical Mesh. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20381991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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66. Teichman JM, Sea J, Thompson IM, Elston DM: Noninfectious penile lesions. Am Fam Physician; 2010 Jan 15;81(2):167-74
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  • Family physicians commonly diagnose and manage penile cutaneous lesions.
  • The clinical presentation and appearance of the lesions guide the diagnosis.
  • Some benign lesions, such as psoriasis and lichen planus, can mimic carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Biopsy is indicated if the diagnosis is in doubt or neoplasm cannot be excluded.
  • The management of benign penile lesions usually involves observation or topical corticosteroids; however, neoplastic lesions generally require surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Penile Diseases / classification. Penile Diseases / diagnosis. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Skin Diseases, Infectious / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Balanitis / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Penile Neoplasms / diagnosis. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Skin Diseases / diagnosis. Skin Diseases, Parasitic / diagnosis. Skin Diseases, Viral / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20082512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0650
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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67. MacKie RM, Hauschild A, Eggermont AM: Epidemiology of invasive cutaneous melanoma. Ann Oncol; 2009 Aug;20 Suppl 6:vi1-7
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  • [Title] Epidemiology of invasive cutaneous melanoma.
  • Phenotypic markers of high-risk subjects include high counts of benign melanocytic naevi.
  • Other risk factors considered include exposure to natural and artificial ultraviolet radiation, the effect of female sex hormones, socioeconomic status, occupation, exposure to pesticides and ingestion of therapeutic drugs including immunosuppressives and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • Aids to earlier diagnosis are considered, including public education, screening and use of equipment such as the dermatoscope.

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  • (PMID = 19617292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2712590
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68. Stegmeier F, Sowa ME, Nalepa G, Gygi SP, Harper JW, Elledge SJ: The tumor suppressor CYLD regulates entry into mitosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 May 22;104(21):8869-74
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  • [Title] The tumor suppressor CYLD regulates entry into mitosis.
  • Mutations in the cylindromatosis (CYLD) gene cause benign tumors of skin appendages, referred to as cylindromas.
  • The dysregulation of NF-kappaB activity has been proposed to promote cell transformation in part by increasing apoptosis resistance, but it is not clear whether this is CYLD's only or predominant tumor-suppressing function.
  • Our findings raise the possibility that, as with other genes regulating tumorigenesis, CYLD has not only tumor-suppressing (apoptosis regulation) but also tumor-promoting activities (enhancer of mitotic entry).
  • We propose that this additional function of CYLD could provide an explanation for the benign nature of most cylindroma lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Mitosis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17495026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG011085
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / ets-Domain Protein Elk-1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1867381
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69. Walsh SN, Sangüeza OP: PEComas: a review with emphasis on cutaneous lesions. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2009 Aug;26(3):123-30
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  • [Title] PEComas: a review with emphasis on cutaneous lesions.
  • The connection between angiomyolipoma (AML) of the kidney, clear cell sugar tumor (CCST) of the lung, and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyoma (LAM), was progressively discovered because of the histologic and immunophenotypic similarities between the three tumors and their frequent association with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).
  • PEC tumors (or PEComas), other than AML, CCST, and LAM, are not associated with TSC and typically occur in middle-aged adult females.
  • These neoplasms are composed of nests and fascicles of clear to granular epithelioid and/or spindled cells with a consistent arrangement around blood vessels.
  • Although the most common sites are the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, approximately 23 cases, to date, of PEComas arising in the skin have been reported.
  • Primary cutaneous PEComas also have a predilection for adult females and most often present as a painless mass on the extremities.
  • In contrast to other sites, the myogenic marker most commonly expressed in PEComas of the skin is desmin.
  • Most reported cutaneous PEComas follow a benign course, however, a malignant case has been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Desmin / metabolism. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2016 Feb;38(2):165-6 [26825164.001]
  • (PMID = 20043511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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70. Friedman RJ, Gutkowicz-Krusin D, Farber MJ, Warycha M, Schneider-Kels L, Papastathis N, Mihm MC Jr, Googe P, King R, Prieto VG, Kopf AW, Polsky D, Rabinovitz H, Oliviero M, Cognetta A, Rigel DS, Marghoob A, Rivers J, Johr R, Grant-Kels JM, Tsao H: The diagnostic performance of expert dermoscopists vs a computer-vision system on small-diameter melanomas. Arch Dermatol; 2008 Apr;144(4):476-82
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of dermoscopists in diagnosing small pigmented skin lesions (diameter </= 6 mm) compared with an automatic multispectral computer-vision system.
  • Patients From a computerized skin imaging database of 990 small (</= 6-mm) pigmented skin lesions, all 49 melanomas from 49 patients were included in this study.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ten dermoscopists independently examined dermoscopic images of 99 pigmented skin lesions and decided whether they identified the lesions as melanoma and whether they would recommend biopsy to rule out melanoma.
  • RESULTS: Dermoscopists were able to correctly identify small melanomas with an average diagnostic sensitivity of 39% and a specificity of 82% and recommended small melanomas for biopsy with a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 49%, with only fair interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.31 for diagnosis and 0.34 for biopsy).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Differentiation of small melanomas from small benign pigmented lesions challenges even expert physicians.
  • Computer-vision systems can facilitate early detection of small melanomas and may limit the number of biopsies to rule out melanoma performed on benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Artificial Intelligence. Clinical Competence. Dermoscopy / instrumentation. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity. Skin / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Dermatol. 2008 Apr;144(4):533-4 [18427049.001]
  • (PMID = 18427041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Nazarian RM, Prieto VG, Elder DE, Duncan LM: Melanoma biomarker expression in melanocytic tumor progression: a tissue microarray study. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Apr;37 Suppl 1:41-7
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  • [Title] Melanoma biomarker expression in melanocytic tumor progression: a tissue microarray study.
  • BACKGROUND: The elucidation of protein biomarkers that are differentially expressed in human melanocytic tumors during tumor progression may lead to the identification of therapeutic targets and novel diagnostic tests.
  • The specialized programs of research excellence (SPORE) in skin cancer developed a melanocytic tumor progression tissue microarray (TMA) to evaluate these candidate biomarkers.
  • METHODS: The TMA contains 480 cores of benign nevi, primary cutaneous melanoma and melanoma metastases.
  • HMB-45 was observed in 18% of nevi and most (72 and 75%) primary melanomas and metastases. c-Kit protein increased with progression from nevi to primary tumor (10 and 77% of cases, respectively) and was decreased in metastases (26% of cases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Through a collaboration of the Skin SPOREs sponsored by the Organ Systems Branch of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), we identified a list of melanoma biomarkers of interest, developed a melanocytic tumor progression TMA and completed a coordinated analysis of these biomarkers.
  • This TMA has served as a powerful validation tool for newly identified and known melanoma biomarkers by revealing trends in expression during tumor progression and by confirming the heterogeneity of biomarker expression in cutaneous melanocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Melanocytes / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. MART-1 Antigen. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Protein Array Analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20482674.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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72. Zaballos P, Llambrich A, Puig S, Malvehy J: Dermoscopy is useful for the recognition of benign-malignant compound tumours. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Sep;153(3):653-6
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  • [Title] Dermoscopy is useful for the recognition of benign-malignant compound tumours.
  • The association of two different neoplasms in the same lesion is uncommon and has been reported as collision or compound tumours in the medical literature.
  • In cases where a malignant neoplasm exists in association with a benign lesion it is important to make an accurate diagnosis in order to treat the lesions correctly.
  • Dermoscopy is an in vivo, noninvasive technique that improves the clinical accuracy in diagnosing melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions.
  • We describe the dermoscopic characteristics of various collision or compound tumours that were composed of benign and malignant neoplasms: two cases of seborrhoeic keratosis associated with basal cell carcinoma, two cases of melanocytic naevus and basal cell carcinoma and one case of dermatofibroma associated with basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Humans. Keratosis, Seborrheic / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16120160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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73. Miracco C, De Nisi MC, Arcuri F, Cosci E, Pacenti L, Toscano M, Lalinga AV, Biagioli M, Rubegni P, Vatti R, Maellaro E, Del Bello B, Massi D, Luzi P, Tosi P: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor protein and mRNA expression in cutaneous melanocytic tumours. Int J Oncol; 2006 Feb;28(2):345-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Macrophage migration inhibitory factor protein and mRNA expression in cutaneous melanocytic tumours.
  • Although MIF's functions in cancer have not been completely elucidated, its expression has usually been correlated with tumour progression and aggressiveness, and it is currently discussed as a new promising target for novel therapies.
  • We evaluated MIF protein expression in 126 skin lesions, including benign and atypical nevi, melanoma and melanoma metastases.
  • Benign nevi were subdivided into nevocytic and Spitz/blue types; and melanomas into the radial, and vertical growth phase.
  • All samples expressed MIF mRNA but it was significantly lower in benign nevi vs atypical nevi, melanomas and metastases (p=0.001; p<0.0001; p=0.002, respectively).
  • Whereas we observed a trend towards higher expression levels of mRNA in atypical and malignant tumours, MIF protein was highly expressed in all lesions, although limited to the cytoplasm in most benign nevi.
  • These observations suggest differences in MIF protein storage, subcellular location and properties in most benign nevi vs atypical and malignant tumours that should be confirmed by further investigation and correlation with clinical outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16391788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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74. Krejsgaard T, Kopp K, Ralfkiaer E, Willumsgaard AE, Eriksen KW, Labuda T, Rasmussen S, Mathiesen AM, Geisler C, Lauenborg B, Becker JC, Zhang Q, Wasik MA, Odum N, Woetmann A: A novel xenograft model of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Exp Dermatol; 2010 Dec;19(12):1096-102
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  • [Title] A novel xenograft model of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are characterized by accumulation of malignant T cells in the skin.
  • Early disease resembles benign skin disorders but during disease progression cutaneous tumors develop, and eventually the malignant T cells can spread to lymph nodes and internal organs.
  • Here, we describe a novel xenograft model of tumor stage CTCL, where malignant T cells (MyLa2059) are transplanted to NOD/SCID-B2m(-/-) (NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) B2m(tm1Unc) /J) mice.
  • Subcutaneous transplantation of the malignant T cells led to rapid tumor formation in 43 of 48 transplantations, whereas transplantation of non-malignant T cells isolated from the same donor did not result in tumor development.
  • Importantly, the tumor growth was significantly suppressed in mice treated with vorinostat when compared to mice treated with vehicle.
  • Furthermore, in most mice the tumors displayed subcutaneous and/or lymphatic dissemination.
  • Histological, immunohistochemical and flow cytometric analyses confirmed that both tumors at the inoculation site, as well as distant subcutaneous and lymphatic tumors, originated from the transplanted malignant T cells.
  • In conclusion, we describe a novel mouse model of tumor stage CTCL for future studies of disease dissemination and preclinical evaluations of new therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Disease Models, Animal. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / pathology. Transplantation, Heterologous / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Transplantation / methods. Cell Transplantation / pathology. Humans. Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology. Hydroxamic Acids / therapeutic use. Immunophenotyping. Mice. Mice, Inbred NOD. Mice, Knockout. Mice, Nude. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Receptors, Chemokine / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Skin / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 20629733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA89194
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine; 58IFB293JI / vorinostat
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75. Koljonen V, Jahkola T, Tukiainen E, Granroth G, Haglund C, Böhling T: Tenascin-C in primary Merkel cell carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Mar;58(3):297-300
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  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare malignant cutaneous neuroendocrine tumour that mostly affects the elderly.
  • It shows rapid progression of the primary tumour, together with a vertical growth pattern into the underlying subcutaneous tissue.
  • Tenascin-C (Tn-C) is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein that is expressed in various benign and malignant processes.
  • The expression of Tn-C correlated significantly with large tumour size.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tn-C expression seems to increase with tumour size and malignant behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Tenascin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Division. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15735164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tenascin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770604
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76. Tanahashi J, Kashima K, Daa T, Kondo Y, Kuratomi E, Yokoyama S: A case of cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Aug;34(8):648-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous myoepithelioma, both benign and malignant, is a rare neoplasm composed of neoplastic myoepithelial cells showing diverse histopathological features, and criteria for discriminating benign or malignant have not been fully clarified.
  • PATIENT: We present a case of cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma in a 62-year-old woman presenting a solid mass in the right back.
  • RESULTS: Resected tumor was located in the whole dermis and subcutis.
  • Tumor cells were all epithelioid, although plasmacytoid and glycogen-rich clear cells were also observed within the large nodules of the deep part.
  • CONCLUSION: The final diagnosis was cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma.
  • At present, it seems to be difficult to predict the behavior of myoepithelioma of the skin and soft tissue, although atypia and high mitotic rate are reported to be associated with local recurrence and metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Myoepithelioma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17640237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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77. Stefanaki C, Antoniou C, Stefanaki K, Stratigos A, Constantinidou VV, Argyrakos T, Karentzou O, Katsambas A: Expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip-1) in benign naevi and correlation with Ki-67 proliferative index. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Feb;152(2):373-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip-1) in benign naevi and correlation with Ki-67 proliferative index.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Nevus / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15727660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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78. Seper L, Schwab R, Kiattavorncharoen S, Büchter A, Bánkfalvi A, Joos U, Piffkó J, Kruse-Loesler B: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the face: report of a case. Head Face Med; 2007;3:36
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  • BACKGROUND: Soft tissue sarcomas in the head and neck region are rare and often present a difficult differential diagnosis.
  • The aim of our presentation is to point out the complexity of the diagnosis, treatment and follow up.
  • Four months beforehand, a benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) had been removed from the same location by excision biopsy with wide tumour-free resection margins.
  • Radical tumour resection was completed by extended parotidectomy and neck dissection; the skin defect was covered by a regional bi-lobed flap.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neck Dissection / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17945018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & face medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Face Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2211745
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79. Rizzo AG, Sanò M, Querci A, Lemma G, Lemma F: [Treatment of skin neoplasms with polidocanol infiltrations. Our experience]. Suppl Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):S197-8
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  • [Title] [Treatment of skin neoplasms with polidocanol infiltrations. Our experience].
  • They report their 5 years experience in treatment of face and neck skin neoplasms by injections of a sclerosant product as hydropolyethoxydodecan, in case of a difficult good esthetic result with surgery or other therapies because of patients general conditions, such as diabetic ones, or because of their viral nature.
  • Then they affirm to have treated 350 benign and malign tumors with this method.
  • All subjects presented a complete resolution of disease in few weeks and none between them controlled has actually complications or recruitment of neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Polyethylene Glycols / administration & dosage. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16437984.001).
  • [ISSN] 2283-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Suppl Tumori
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0AWH8BFG9A / polidocanol; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols
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80. Katona TM, Ravis SM, Perkins SM, Moores WB, Billings SD: Expression of androgen receptor by fibroepithelioma of Pinkus: evidence supporting classification as a basal cell carcinoma variant? Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Feb;29(1):7-12
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  • Tumor-associated Merkel cells, a feature of benign follicular tumors, was identified by cytokeratin 20 stains.
  • Merkel cells were identified in 85% (11/13) of fibroepitheliomas of Pinkus, 27% (3/11) of basal cell carcinoma cases, and 73% (11/15) of benign follicular tumors.
  • Cytokeratin 20 expression was significantly higher in fibroepithelioma of Pinkus and benign follicular tumors compared with basal cell carcinomas (P = 0.0111 and P = 0.025, respectively).
  • Conversely, fibroepithelioma of Pinkus demonstrates retention of Merkel cells, a feature of benign follicular tumors.
  • In small, partial biopsy specimens, coexpression of androgen receptor and cytokeratin 20 may aid in the diagnosis of fibroepithelioma of Pinkus.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / classification. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Variation / genetics. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Keratin-20 / genetics. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Merkel Cells / metabolism. Merkel Cells / pathology. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology


81. De Felice B, Wilson RR, Nacca M: Telomere shortening may be associated with human keloids. BMC Med Genet; 2009;10:110
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  • BACKGROUND: Keloids are benign skin tumors that are the effect of a dysregulated wound-healing process in genetically predisposed patients.
  • METHODS: We analyzed sample tissues were obtained from 20 patients with keloid skin lesions and normal skin was obtained from 20 healthy donors.
  • Using Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis and Real-Time PCR assay, we detected a significant telomere shortening of 30% in keloid specimens compared to normal skin.
  • Moreover, an increase in ROS generation was detected in fibroblasts cell cultures from keloid specimens as more time elapsed compared to fibroblasts from normal skin.
  • Here we found increased ROS generation in fibroblasts from keloid fibroblasts cell cultures when compared to normal skin fibroblasts.

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  • (PMID = 19863817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2350
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Med. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2774319
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82. Florell SR, Bowen AR, Hanks AN, Murphy KJ, Grossman D: Proliferation, apoptosis, and survivin expression in a spectrum of melanocytic nevi. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jan;32(1):45-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is important for maintenance of tissue homeostasis and often dysregulated in cutaneous neoplasms.
  • The apoptosis inhibitor survivin is expressed in melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers and benign keratinocytic lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: We determined the expression pattern of survivin in benign melanocytic nevi in comparison to markers of proliferation and apoptosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Survivin is consistently expressed in benign melanocytic lesions, while apoptotic cells are rarely identified, suggesting the dysregulation of apoptotic pathways with the accumulation of cells in these neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 15660660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR050102-02; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / K08 AR048618; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K23RR17525; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K23 RR017525; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR050102; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR050102-02; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / KO8AR48618
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS44268; NLM/ PMC2292117
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83. Behroozan DS, Goldberg LH, Glaich AS, Kaplan B, Kaye VN: Mohs micrographic surgery for deeply penetrating, expanding benign cutaneous neoplasms. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Jul;32(7):958-65
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  • [Title] Mohs micrographic surgery for deeply penetrating, expanding benign cutaneous neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Epidermal Cyst / surgery. Female. Forehead / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / surgery. Heel / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Nose / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / surgery. Scalp / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16875482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Karl A, Stepp H, Willmann E, Buchner A, Hocaoglu Y, Stief C, Tritschler S: Optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer -- ready as a surrogate for optical biopsy? Results of a prospective mono-centre study. Eur J Med Res; 2010 Mar 30;15(3):131-4
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  • INTRODUCTION: New modalities like Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) allow non-invasive examination of the internal structure of biological tissue in vivo.
  • RESULTS: Of 166 scanned OCT images, 102 lesions (61.4%) matched to the same site where the biopsy/TUR-BT was taken according to videoanalysis.
  • Of all analyzed lesions 88 were benign (inflammation, edema, hyperplasia etc.) and 14 were malignant (CIS, Ta, T1, T2) as shown by final histo?pathology.
  • Furthermore all invasive tumors were staged correctly by OCT regarding tumor growth beyond the lamina propria.
  • Sensitivity of OCT for detecting the presence of a malignant lesion was 100% and sensitivity for detection of tumor growth beyond the lamina propria was 100% as well.
  • CONCLUSION: As a minimally invasive technique, OCT proved to have extremely high sensitivity for detection of malignant lesions as well as estimation of whether a tumor has invaded beyond the lamina propria.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystoscopy. Tomography, Optical Coherence. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20452899.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3352220
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85. Koch M, Dimmler A, Alexiou C: [Recurrent and metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma]. HNO; 2008 Oct;56(10):1046-51
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  • Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare skin tumor that arises particularly on sun-exposed skin.
  • Although it is considered to be a benign tumor, rarely, metastases arise.
  • A complete tumor excision was performed, and the patient declined the recommended postoperative radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Neoplasms / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18210006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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86. Fernandez-Flores A, Manjon JA: Mitosis in dermatofibroma: a worrisome histopathologic sign that does not necessarily equal recurrence. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Sep;35(9):839-42
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  • BACKGROUND: High mitotic rate is a worrying histopathologic feature that pathologists occasionally face when diagnosing benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH), that otherwise seem to be benign.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that common BFH can occasionally present a high mitotic rate and still show a benign behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Mitosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Antinuclear / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18331566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MIB-1 antibody
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87. Gerber PA, Schulte KW, Ruzicka T, Bruch-Gerharz D: Eccrine porocarcinoma of the head: an important differential diagnosis in the elderly patient. Dermatology; 2008;216(3):229-33
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  • [Title] Eccrine porocarcinoma of the head: an important differential diagnosis in the elderly patient.
  • BACKGROUND: Eccrine porocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the sweat gland, characterized by a broad spectrum of clinicopathologic presentations.
  • Surprisingly, unlike its benign counterpart eccrine poroma, eccrine porocarcinoma is seldom found in areas with a high density of eccrine sweat glands, like the palms or soles.
  • Instead, eccrine porocarcinoma frequently occurs on the lower extremities, trunk and abdomen, but also on the head, resembling various other skin tumors, as illustrated in the patients described herein.
  • All patients were initially diagnosed as having epidermal or melanocytic skin tumors.
  • Only after histopathologic examination were they classified as eccrine porocarcinoma, showing features of epithelial tumors with abortive ductal differentiation.
  • Porocarcinomas are commonly overlooked, or misinterpreted as squamous or basal cell carcinomas as well as other common malignant and even benign skin tumors.
  • Knowledge of the clinical pattern and histologic findings, therefore, is crucial for an early therapeutic intervention, which can reduce the risk of tumor recurrence and serious complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18182815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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88. Deprez M, Uffer S: Clinicopathological features of eyelid skin tumors. A retrospective study of 5504 cases and review of literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 May;31(3):256-62
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological features of eyelid skin tumors. A retrospective study of 5504 cases and review of literature.
  • Eyelid tumors are the most common neoplasm in daily ophthalmology practice and encompass a wide variety of benign and malignant tumors.
  • In this retrospective study, we report the clinical and histological features of 5504 eyelid skin tumors diagnosed at the Laboratory of Ophthalmopathology of the Hôpital Ophtalmique Jules Gonin, Lausanne, Switzerland, between January 1989 and December 2007.
  • Benign tumors largely predominated over malignant ones, representing 84% of cases in this series, and the 5 most frequent subtypes were squamous cell papilloma (26%), seborrheic keratosis (21%), melanocytic nevus (20%), hidrocystoma (8%), and xanthoma/xanthelasma (6%).
  • Basal cell carcinoma was the most frequent malignant tumor (86%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (7%) and sebaceous carcinoma (3%).
  • For several tumor subtypes, there was a poor correlation between clinical and histological diagnosis, stressing the numerous pitfalls in the diagnosis of eyelid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Diseases / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hidrocystoma / pathology. Humans. Infant. Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Papilloma / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19384066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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89. Ares E: An uncommon skin condition illustrates the need for caution when prescribing for friends. J Am Acad Nurse Pract; 2008 Aug;20(8):389-95
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  • [Title] An uncommon skin condition illustrates the need for caution when prescribing for friends.
  • DATA SOURCES: A review of the prescribing practices of clinicians, the cognitive processes needed in diagnosis and treatment, the current ethical guidelines, and a review of MF, its course, and treatments.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treating acquaintances and family informally places clinicians at risk for liability and patients at risk for inaccurate diagnosis and treatment.
  • This case illustrates the potential hazard of casually treating a friend for what looks like a benign condition.
  • Resembling atopic dermatitis in its early stages, MF is the most common of a rare group of skin lymphomas.
  • Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for a better prognosis.
  • Had this clinician complied with the request of her friend, his diagnosis would have been missed and timely treatment delayed.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Drug Prescriptions / nursing. Friends. Mycosis Fungoides / diagnosis. Nurse Practitioners / organization & administration. Professional Autonomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Dermatitis, Atopic / drug therapy. Dermatitis, Atopic / nursing. Diagnosis, Differential. Early Diagnosis. Family. Humans. Liability, Legal. Male. Malpractice / legislation & jurisprudence. Neoplasm Staging. Nursing Assessment. Physical Examination. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prognosis. Rare Diseases

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  • (PMID = 18786012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-7599
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Acad Nurse Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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90. Rothberg BE, Moeder CB, Kluger H, Halaban R, Elder DE, Murphy GF, Lazar A, Prieto V, Duncan LM, Rimm DL: Nuclear to non-nuclear Pmel17/gp100 expression (HMB45 staining) as a discriminator between benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. Mod Pathol; 2008 Sep;21(9):1121-9
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  • [Title] Nuclear to non-nuclear Pmel17/gp100 expression (HMB45 staining) as a discriminator between benign and malignant melanocytic lesions.
  • HMB45 is a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Pmel17/gp100, a melanoma-specific marker, which is routinely used in the diagnosis of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • The thin (0.450+/-0.253) and thick (0.513+/-0.227) nevi had strongly positive mean ln(nuclear/non-nuclear AQUA score ratios), which are significantly higher than those from the group of malignant lesions (P<0.0001).
  • The odds ratio associated with a sample being a nevus was 2.24 (95% CI: 1.87-2.69, P<0.0001) for each 0.1 unit increase of the ln(nuclear/non-nuclear AQUA score ratio) to yield an ROC curve with 0.93 units of area and a simultaneously maximized sensitivity of 0.92 and specificity of 0.80 for distinguishing benign nevi from malignant melanomas.
  • On the basis of this preliminary study, we propose that the ratio of nuclear to non-nuclear HMB45 staining may be useful for diagnostic challenges in melanocytic lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18552823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121974-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114277; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA121974-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114277-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114277-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1 CA01142777; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA121974; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50 CA121974
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PMEL protein, human; 0 / Si protein, mouse; 0 / gp100 Melanoma Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS67484; NLM/ PMC2570478
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91. Robson A: The pathology of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Oncology (Williston Park); 2007 Feb;21(2 Suppl 1):9-12
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  • [Title] The pathology of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • The diagnosis of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) requires accurate histopathology, including immunocytochemistry, as well as careful clinical appraisal and analysis for T-cell clonality.
  • Mycosis fungoides is an epidermotropic CTCL that evolves through distinct disease stages of patch, plaque, and tumor, often leading to transformation in the final stages.
  • Disease staging is made clinically, and diagnosis may be difficult during the early stages because several common dermatologic conditions share features with MF.
  • Therefore, clinical appraisal plus the presence of characteristic histopathologic features are needed to ensure accurate diagnosis.
  • Clinical information is particularly important in the diagnosis of LyP, as the disease appears malignant histologically, but has a benign clinical course.
  • Several other T-cell lymphomas were defined in a recent classification of these cutaneous lymphomas, and some key features of these disorders are also briefly reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD30 / metabolism. Antigens, CD4 / metabolism. Antigens, CD8 / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / immunology. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Lymphomatoid Papulosis / pathology. Mycosis Fungoides / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17474353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Antigens, CD8; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte
  • [Number-of-references] 1
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92. Schad K, Baumann Conzett K, Cozzio A: [Cutaneous lymphomas]. Ther Umsch; 2010 Sep;67(9):453-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cutaneous lymphomas].
  • Cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogenous group of lymphoproliferative disorders of the T- and B-lymphocytes with a low incidence of approximately 1:100000/year.
  • They belong to the Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • The skin is the second most abundant site of extranodal lymphoma formation (after the GI tract).
  • The new WHO/EORTC classification of cutaneous T- and B-cell lymphomas provides a widely accepted nomenclature for primary cutaneous lymphomas based primarily on clinical, but also on histologic, cytologic and molecular features.
  • The clear distinction of primary cutaneous from secondary cutaneous lymphoma will also be important to prevent overtreatment of the frequently benign primary cutaneous lymphoma.
  • Treatment of primary cutaneous lymphoma is skin-directed in early disease stages, and uses as systemic approach in advanced stages.
  • Skin-directed therapies encompass UV-light treatment such as UVB311nm, or PUVA, topical steroids class III and IV, or bexaroten gel.
  • We recommend that advanced stages of cutaneous lymphoma should be treated in centers that offer clinical studies in this field, because prognosis of late stages is still dismal and there is so far no therapeutic approach that has led to an increase in overall survival.
  • Hence, inclusion of patients in prospective controlled clinical studies should always be considered in patients with primary cutaneous lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Mycosis Fungoides / diagnosis. Mycosis Fungoides / drug therapy. Mycosis Fungoides / pathology. Mycosis Fungoides / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Staging. PUVA Therapy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20806174.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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93. Richmond HM, Duvic M, Macfarlane DF: Primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the scalp: an update. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2010;11(4):233-46
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  • [Title] Primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the scalp: an update.
  • In recent years there have been a number of interesting advances in several topics relating to the diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous lesions with particular applicability to primary and metastatic malignancies of the scalp.
  • In this article we provide a general update of advances in this field, and cover the more salient points relating to a variety of malignant tumors that have been reported to appear on the scalp as primary or metastatic lesions.
  • A search and review of the literature on PubMed was made to identify and discuss relevant points relating to diagnosis and treatment of primary and metastatic tumors of the scalp.
  • We describe the anatomy of the scalp, epidemiology of scalp tumors, theories of field cancerization and field therapy, photodynamic therapy, excisional surgical techniques and reconstruction, lymphoscintigraphy, chemoprevention, as well as details relating to atypical fibroxanthoma, Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, nevus sebaceus, cutaneous lymphoma, and metastatic disease.
  • There is a very broad differential diagnosis for scalp nodules, which includes many different benign and malignant diseases, and treatment should be tailored accordingly.
  • [MeSH-major] Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemoprevention / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Photochemotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20509718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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94. Clarke LE, Zhang PJ, Crawford GH, Elenitsas R: Myxofibrosarcoma in the skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Oct;35(10):935-40
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  • [Title] Myxofibrosarcoma in the skin.
  • Myxofibrosarcoma, also known as myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma, is increasingly recognized as a distinct malignant neoplasm of fibroblastic origin with variable clinical and histopathologic features.
  • Myxofibrosarcomas are among the most common malignant mesenchymal neoplasms of older adults, and approximately two thirds develop within the dermis or subcutis.
  • Herein, we describe the clinicopathologic features of four cases of myxofibrosarcoma involving the skin.
  • Three of these cases were initially misdiagnosed as benign cutaneous neoplasms, two as myxoid neurofibroma.
  • These cases illustrate the clinicopathologic spectrum encompassed by myxofibrosarcoma in the skin and highlight the diagnostic difficulties it may present.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neurofibroma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18494817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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95. Lee TK, Claridge E: Predictive power of irregular border shapes for malignant melanomas. Skin Res Technol; 2005 Feb;11(1):1-8
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  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The Irregularity Index is a measure of border irregularity from pigmented skin lesion images.
  • This paper investigates the predictive power of these parameters on a set of data with known histological diagnosis.
  • METHODS: A set of 188 pigmented skin lesions (30 malignant melanomas and 158 benign lesions) was selected for the study.
  • RESULTS: The mean values of the four border irregularity parameters were significantly different between the melanoma group and the benign lesion group.
  • A malignant melanoma was 8.9 times more likely to have an irregular border than a benign lesion.
  • CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that border irregularity is an important clinical feature for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Melanoma / classification. Melanoma / pathology. Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Artificial Intelligence. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Models, Biological. Models, Statistical. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 15691253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0909-752X
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Res Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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96. Marzano AV, Ghislanzoni M, Gianelli U, Caputo R, Alessi E, Berti E: Fatal CD8+ epidermotropic cytotoxic primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with multiorgan involvement. Dermatology; 2005;211(3):281-5
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  • [Title] Fatal CD8+ epidermotropic cytotoxic primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with multiorgan involvement.
  • The patient's history included a similar cutaneous nodule on the glabella diagnosed as pseudolymphoma 2 years ago.
  • At that time, despite the diagnosis of a benign disease, an adequate staging was performed, ruling out any extracutaneous involvement.
  • Based on the histologic, immunophenotypic and molecular biology findings, a diagnosis of CD8+ epidermotropic cytotoxic primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma was made.
  • Secondary skin involvement by a CD8+ extracutaneous T-cell lymphoma could not be excluded with certainty, but seemed to be unlikely because of the negativity of the initial workup.
  • Among primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, the CD8+ epidermotropic cytotoxic subset comprises rare, highly aggressive forms characterized by metastatic spread to unusual sites such as the oral cavity, lungs, testis and the central nervous system but usually not to the lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD8 / immunology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Femoral Artery. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Thrombosis / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16205076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD8
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97. Khalid K, Alam MK, Al-Shakweer WA, Al-Teimi IN: Granular cell tumour of the ampulla of Vater. J Postgrad Med; 2005 Jan-Mar;51(1):36-8
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  • [Title] Granular cell tumour of the ampulla of Vater.
  • Granular cell tumour (GCT) is a rare soft tissue neoplasm commonly encountered in the head and neck region, skin and subcutaneous tissue.
  • The neoplasm constitutes less than 10% of all benign tumours of the extra-hepatic biliary tree.
  • We report a case of benign GCT involving the ampullary region in a 44-year-old Ethiopian male.
  • Preoperative diagnosis was available on ERCP and deep biopsy.
  • The patient was managed by debulking resection and biliary-enteric bypass and is symptom-free with no evidence of tumour progression after a follow-up of one year.
  • [MeSH-major] Ampulla of Vater / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Granular Cell Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15793336.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3859
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of postgraduate medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Postgrad Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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98. Miracco C, Cevenini G, Franchi A, Luzi P, Cosci E, Mourmouras V, Monciatti I, Mannucci S, Biagioli M, Toscano M, Moretti D, Lio R, Massi D: Beclin 1 and LC3 autophagic gene expression in cutaneous melanocytic lesions. Hum Pathol; 2010 Apr;41(4):503-12
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  • [Title] Beclin 1 and LC3 autophagic gene expression in cutaneous melanocytic lesions.
  • This study was designed to assess the expression of Beclin 1 and LC3 in cutaneous melanocytic lesions, in which they have not yet been investigated.
  • In 149 lesions, including benign nevi, dysplastic nevi, radial growth phase melanomas, vertical growth phase melanomas, and melanoma metastases, proteins were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and, in representative cases of benign nevi, vertical growth phase melanomas and melanoma metastases were evaluated by Western blotting.
  • Beclin 1 cytoplasmic protein and messenger RNA, as well as LC3 messenger RNA, significantly decreased with tumor progression (P < .05).
  • The percentage of cases with high cytoplasmic expression of beclin 1 from 100% in benign nevi declined to 86.4% in dysplastic nevi, 54.5% in radial growth phase melanomas, 54.3% in vertical growth phase melanomas, and 26.7% in melanoma metastases.
  • In a multivariate analysis, messenger RNAs for both genes discriminated between nonmalignant (benign and dysplastic nevi) and malignant (radial, vertical growth phase melanomas, and melanoma metastases) lesions.
  • Our results, therefore, indicate that beclin 1 and LC3 II autophagic gene expression is altered also in melanocytic neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / biosynthesis. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / biosynthesis. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Autophagy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanocytes / metabolism. Melanocytes / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20004946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BECN1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / light chain 3, human
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99. Unglaub F, Loos B, Wolf MB, Dragu A, Amann K, Horch RE: Malignant Natural-Killer cell neoplasm presenting as a mucous cyst on the distal interphalangeal joint of the finger. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2009 Dec;129(12):1613-6
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  • [Title] Malignant Natural-Killer cell neoplasm presenting as a mucous cyst on the distal interphalangeal joint of the finger.
  • The analysis revealed the presence of a Natural-Killer cell neoplasm.
  • This case illustrates and stresses the importance of a pathohistological examination when doubts arise about the initial diagnosis of a benign tumorous lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural. Lymphoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cysts / diagnosis. Fingers. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19084980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-3916
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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100. Kang TW, Shin JH, Han BK, Ko EY, Kang SS, Hahn SY, Kim JS, Oh YL: Preoperative ultrasound-guided tattooing localization of recurrences after thyroidectomy: safety and effectiveness. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Jun;16(6):1655-9
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  • RESULTS: Among 83 lesions, 72 recurrences and 11 benign lesions were confirmed by final pathology.
  • The most common site of tattooing was cervical lymph nodes at level IV.
  • With regard to complications, two patients (4%) had a dot-like marking at the skin puncture site after US-tattoo.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ACTIVATED CHARCOAL .
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  • (PMID = 19319605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Suspensions; 16291-96-6 / Charcoal
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